Science.gov

Sample records for biological materials final

  1. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  2. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  3. Development of a Core-Course for College Science Majors Combining Material from Introductory Courses in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics-Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickar, Arnold D.

    Reported is the second phase of the development of a two-year college core science course for science majors. Materials were combined from introductory college courses in biology, chemistry, and physics. A revised lecture and laboratory syllabus was prepared incorporating improvements suggested after a pilot study of the first year course.…

  4. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Freshwater <span class=Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  5. Final Report of “Collaborative research: Fundamental science of low temperature plasma-biological material interactions” (Award# DE-SC0005105)

    SciTech Connect

    Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Seog, Joonil; Graves, David; Chu, J. -W.

    2014-09-24

    temperature plasma sources with modified geometry where radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. In these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions of plasma species when APP sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complex reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determine the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes in biomolecules. Overall, this work elucidated a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular, for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules in a systemic and rigorous manner. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled us to correlate atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will lay a fundamental foundation to enhance our understanding of the effect of plasma on biological systems. be helpful in many future studies.

  6. Thermoelectric materials development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1998-09-01

    A systematic search for advanced thermoelectric materials was initiated at JPL several years ago to evaluate candidate materials which includes consideration of the following property attributes: (1) semiconducting properties; (2) large Seebeck coefficient; (3) high carrier mobility and high electrical conductivity; (4) low lattice thermal conductivity; and (5) chemical stability and low vapor pressure. Through this candidate screening process, JPL identified several families of materials as promising candidates for improved thermoelectric materials including the skutterudite family. There are several programs supporting various phases of the effort on these materials. As part of an ongoing effort to develop skutterudite materials with lower thermal conductivity values, several solid solutions and filled skutterudite materials were investigated under the effort sponsored by DOE. The efforts have primarily focused on: (1) study of existence and properties of solid solutions between the binary compounds CoSb{sub 3} and IrSb{sub 3}, and RuSb{sub 2}Te, and (2) CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} filled compositions, the reduction would be caused by the rattling of Ce atoms located in the empty voids of the skutterudite structure and the substitution of Fe for Ru. The details of the sample preparation and characterization of their thermoelectric properties are reported in this report.

  7. Hazardous material replacement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guttridge, A.H.

    1993-09-01

    Methyl dianiline (MDA) is one of the components used in potting of electronic assemblies at Allied Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). MDA is a liver toxin and a suspected carcinogen. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of hazardous materials as much as technically feasible. This project was initiated to find alternatives to the MDA foam system. The project plan was to verify that the new materials developed by expert groups within the DOE nuclear weapons complex, such as the Organic Materials Group, would meet the unique requirements of the assemblies fabricated in the Electronic Products Manufacturing Building (EPMB) at KCD. The work was discontinued when associates assigned to the project were transferred to higher priority projects.

  8. 78 FR 16472 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part of a patent application is... use the invention as specified by 35 U.S.C. 112. The term ``biological material'' is defined by 37...

  9. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Deposit of Biological Materials ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request....Fawcett@uspto.gov . Include ``0651-0022 Deposit of Biological Materials comment'' in the subject line of....Hanlon@uspto.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The deposit of biological materials as part...

  10. Thermoelectric material development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersande, J.W.; Allevato, C.; Caillat, T.

    1994-10-01

    A search was made for improved TE materials that could have higher efficiency than state-of-the-art SiGe alloys used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. A new family of materials having the skutterudite structure was identified (cubic space group Im3, formula (Fe, Co, Ni)As{sub 3}). Properties of n-type IrSb{sub 3}, CoSb{sub 3}, and their solid solutions were investigated. Pt, Te, Tl, and In were used as dopants. The thermal conductivity was reduced by about 70% for the solid solutions vs the binary compounds. A maximum ZT of about 0.36 was measured on Co-rich solid solutions which is 160% improved over that of the binary compounds.

  11. New laser materials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In the Interim Report No. 1, it was reported that the fluorescence lifetime (greater than or equal to 750..mu..s) in Nd doped Y(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ was longer by a factor of three as compared to YAG. This means potentially three times as much energy storage and consequently more efficient for flashlamp pumping. It also makes diode pumping easier. In addition, since the Y site is octahedrally coordinated, there is a possibility of energy transfer using Cr as the sensitizing element. As suggested by W. Krupke, we decided to explore the trivalent cation metaphosphates systematically. The compounds investigated can be represented by the general formula A(PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ where A = Y, Lu, In, Sc, GA and Al. The object is to study the fluorescence characteristics of Nd and Cr as well as the effectiveness of energy transfer from Cr to Nd. In addition, we also investigated other possible laser host crystals, notably CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (diopside), LaBO/sub 3/ and La(BO/sub 2/)/sub 3/. Results on these materials will also be discussed.

  12. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  13. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-04-01

    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  14. Biomineralization: From Material Tactics to Biological Strategy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shasha; Jin, Biao; Liu, Zhaoming; Shao, Changyu; Zhao, Ruibo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Ruikang

    2017-04-01

    Biomineralization is an important tactic by which biological organisms produce hierarchically structured minerals with marvellous functions. Biomineralization studies typically focus on the mediation function of organic matrices on inorganic minerals, which helps scientists to design and synthesize bioinspired functional materials. However, the presence of inorganic minerals may also alter the native behaviours of organic matrices and even biological organisms. This progress report discusses the latest achievements relating to biomineralization mechanisms, the manufacturing of biomimetic materials and relevant applications in biological and biomedical fields. In particular, biomineralized vaccines and algae with improved thermostability and photosynthesis, respectively, demonstrate that biomineralization is a strategy for organism evolution via the rational design of organism-material complexes. The successful modification of biological systems using materials is based on the regulatory effect of inorganic materials on organic organisms, which is another aspect of biomineralization control. Unlike previous studies, this study integrates materials and biological science to achieve a more comprehensive view of the mechanisms and applications of biomineralization.

  15. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  16. Liquid Crystalline Materials for Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aaron M; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2012-03-13

    Liquid crystals have a long history of use as materials that respond to external stimuli (e.g., electrical and optical fields). More recently, a series of investigations have reported the design of liquid crystalline materials that undergo ordering transitions in response to a range of biological interactions, including interactions involving proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria and mammalian cells. A central challenge underlying the design of liquid crystalline materials for such applications is the tailoring of the interface of the materials so as to couple targeted biological interactions to ordering transitions. This review describes recent progress toward design of interfaces of liquid crystalline materials that are suitable for biological applications. Approaches addressed in this review include the use of lipid assemblies, polymeric membranes containing oligopeptides, cationic surfactant-DNA complexes, peptide-amphiphiles, interfacial protein assemblies and multi-layer polymeric films.

  17. Verbal Final Exam in Introductory Biology Yields Gains in Student Content Knowledge and Longitudinal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckie, Douglas B.; Rivkin, Aaron M.; Aubry, Jacob R.; Marengo, Benjamin J.; Creech, Leah R.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge,…

  18. Improved ceramic heat exchanger materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, H.W. Sr.; McCreight, L.R.

    1980-12-01

    Numerous compositions were developed and evaluated for potential application as heat exchanger structures in automotive gas turbine engines. Test specimens were evaluated for thermal expansion and dimensional stability before and after exposure to sea salt and sulfuric acid, followed by thermal cycling up to 1200/sup 0/C. Materials which survived the screening tests were considered for fabrication into honeycomb form. The material finally selected, GE-7808, consists of the oxides, ZrO/sub 2/-MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/, and is described generically as ZrMAS. The original version on which the primary work was done was based on a commercially available cordierite (MAS) frit. Late in the program, however a clay/talc mixture was demonstrated to be a satisfactory very low cost source of the cordierite (MAS) phase. Several full size honeycomb regenerator cores, about 10.2 cm thick and 55 cm dia were fabricated from both the frit and mineral versions of GE-7808. The honeycomb cells in these cores had rectangular dimensions of about 0.5 mm x 2.5 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 0.2 mm (0.008''). Test specimens cut from the cores were evaluated. The multi-phase materials developed in this program demonstrated that their refractoriness and rheological behavior enabled them to retain shape and orientation of the gas passages parallel to the axis much better than some single phase (glass ceramic) materials. The test data show that GE-7808 is significantly more stable at 1100/sup 0/C in the presence of sodium than the Corning 9460 aluminosilicate reference materials.Overall assessment of GE-7808 properties, ease of material preparation, noncritical materials utilized and ready adaptability to honeycomb fabrication qualify this new material as a candidate for heat exchanger applications in automotive gas turbine engines.

  19. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities.

  20. Biological Potential of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.; Conner, Anthony J.; Killham, Kenneth; Deamer, David W.

    1997-09-01

    Meteoritic materials are investigated as potential early planetary nutrients. Aqueous extracts of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous meteorite are utilized as a sole carbon source by microorganisms, as demonstrated by the genetically modifiedPseudomonas fluorescenceequipped with theluxgene. Nutrient effects are observed also with the soil microorganismsNocardia asteroidesandArthrobacter pascensthat reach populations up to 5 × 107CFU/ml in meteorite extracts, similar to populations in terrestrial soil extracts. Plant tissue cultures ofAsparagus officinalisandSolanum tuberosum(potato) exhibit enhanced pigmentation and some enhanced growth when meteorite extracts are added to partial nutrient media, but inhibited growth when added to full nutrient solution. The meteorite extracts lead to large increases in S, Ca, Mg, and Fe plant tissue contents as shown by X-ray fluorescence, while P, K, and Cl contents show mixed effects. In both microbiological and plant tissue experiments, the nutrient and inhibitory effects appear to be best balanced for growth at about 1:20 (extracted solid:H2O) ratios. The results suggest that solutions in cavities in meteorites can provide efficient concentrated biogenic and early nutrient environments, including high phosphate levels, which may be the limiting nutrient. The results also suggest that carbonaceous asteroid resources can sustain soil microbial activity and provide essential macronutrients for future space-based eco- systems.

  1. Biological and environmental reference materials: Update 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelandts, Iwan

    1997-07-01

    The present column lists additional biological and environmental reference samples. Organs, tissues, body fluids, plant materials, foods, fuels, ashes, dusts, particulate matter, gas mixtures, oils, soils, sediments, sludges and waters have been considered. Three tables are included that provide an easy-to-use survey. The following information is covered: the name of the material, the sample code, the producer, the reference to certification, the names and addresses of the suppliers from whom the reference material may be obtained, and specific remarks.

  2. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  3. New materials for microfluidics in biology.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kangning; Chen, Yin; Wu, Hongkai

    2014-02-01

    With its continuous progress, microfluidics has become a key enabling technology in biological research. During the past few years, the major growth of microfluidics shifted to the introduction of new materials in making microfluidic chips, primarily driven by the demand of versatile strategies to interface microfluidics with biological cell studies. Although polydimethylsiloxane is still used as primary frame material, hydrogels have been increasingly employed in cell-culture related applications. Moreover, plastics and paper are attracting more attention in commercial device fabrication. Aiming to reflect this trend, current review focuses on the progress of microfluidic chip materials over the time span of January 2011 through June 2013, and provides critical discussion of the resulting major new tools in biological research.

  4. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  5. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  6. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  7. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  8. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801 Section 1.801 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  9. Using Raman spectroscopy to characterize biological materials.

    PubMed

    Butler, Holly J; Ashton, Lorna; Bird, Benjamin; Cinque, Gianfelice; Curtis, Kelly; Dorney, Jennifer; Esmonde-White, Karen; Fullwood, Nigel J; Gardner, Benjamin; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Walsh, Michael J; McAinsh, Martin R; Stone, Nicholas; Martin, Francis L

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure the chemical composition of a sample, which can in turn be used to extract biological information. Many materials have characteristic Raman spectra, which means that Raman spectroscopy has proven to be an effective analytical approach in geology, semiconductor, materials and polymer science fields. The application of Raman spectroscopy and microscopy within biology is rapidly increasing because it can provide chemical and compositional information, but it does not typically suffer from interference from water molecules. Analysis does not conventionally require extensive sample preparation; biochemical and structural information can usually be obtained without labeling. In this protocol, we aim to standardize and bring together multiple experimental approaches from key leaders in the field for obtaining Raman spectra using a microspectrometer. As examples of the range of biological samples that can be analyzed, we provide instructions for acquiring Raman spectra, maps and images for fresh plant tissue, formalin-fixed and fresh frozen mammalian tissue, fixed cells and biofluids. We explore a robust approach for sample preparation, instrumentation, acquisition parameters and data processing. By using this approach, we expect that a typical Raman experiment can be performed by a nonspecialist user to generate high-quality data for biological materials analysis.

  10. Structure and mechanics of interfaces in biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelat, Francois; Yin, Zhen; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-04-01

    Hard biological materials — for example, seashells, bone or wood — fulfil critical structural functions and display unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness, owing to their intricate architectures, which are organized over several length scales. The size, shape and arrangement of the ‘building blocks’ of which these materials are made are essential for defining their properties and their exceptional performance, but there is growing evidence that their deformation and toughness are also largely governed by the interfaces that join these building blocks. These interfaces channel nonlinear deformations and deflect cracks into configurations in which propagation is more difficult. In this Review, we discuss comparatively the composition, structure and mechanics of a set of representative biological interfaces in nacre, bone and wood, and show that these interfaces possess unusual mechanical characteristics, which can encourage the development of advanced bioinspired composites. Finally, we highlight recent examples of synthetic materials inspired from the mechanics and architecture of natural interfaces.

  11. Biological reference materials for extracellular vesicle studies.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, S; van der Pol, E; Böing, A; Yuana, Y; Yliperttula, M; Nieuwland, R; Laitinen, S; Siljander, P R M

    2017-02-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate normal physiological homeostasis and pathological processes by facilitating intercellular communication. Research of EVs in basic science and clinical settings requires both methodological standardization and development of reference materials (RM). Here, we show insights and results of biological RM development for EV studies. We used a three-step approach to find and develop a biological RM. First, a literature search was done to find candidates for biological RMs. Second, a questionnaire was sent to EV researchers querying the preferences for RM and their use. Third, a biological RM was selected, developed, characterized, and evaluated. The responses to the survey demonstrated a clear and recognized need for RM optimized for the calibration of EV measurements. Based on the literature, naturally occurring and produced biological RM, such as virus particles and liposomes, were proposed as RM. However, none of these candidate RMs have properties completely matching those of EVs, such as size and refractive index distribution. Therefore, we evaluated the use of nanoerythrosomes (NanoE), vesicles produced from erythrocytes, as a potential biological RM. The strength of NanoE is their resemblance to EVs. Compared to the erythrocyte-derived EVs (eryEVs), NanoE have similar morphology, a similar refractive index (1.37), larger diameter (70% of the NanoE are over 200nm), and increased positive staining for CD235a and lipids (Di-8-ANEPPS) (58% and 67% in NanoE vs. 21% and 45% in eryEVs, respectively). Altogether, our results highlight the general need to develop and validate new RM with similar physical and biochemical properties as EVs to standardize EV measurements between instruments and laboratories.

  12. Nanobiotechnology: synthetic biology meets materials science.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Michael C; Patolsky, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology, the area of science focused on the control of matter in the nanometer scale, allows ground-breaking changes of the fundamental properties of matter that are often radically different compared to those exhibited by the bulk counterparts. In view of the fact that dimensionality plays a key role in determining the qualities of matter, the realization of the great potential of nanotechnology has opened the door to other disciplines such as life sciences and medicine, where the merging between them offers exciting new applications, along with basic science research. The application of nanotechnology in life sciences, nanobiotechnology, is now having a profound impact on biological circuit design, bioproduction systems, synthetic biology, medical diagnostics, disease therapy and drug delivery. This special issue is dedicated to the overview of how we are learning to control biopolymers and biological machines at the molecular- and nanoscale. In addition, it covers far-reaching progress in the design and synthesis of nanoscale materials, thus enabling the construction of integrated systems in which the component blocks are comparable in size to the chemical and biological entities under investigation.

  13. Regulatory considerations for raw materials used in biological products.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S

    2010-01-01

    Raw materials are critical components of product manufacture; these include source materials such as cell substrates, tissues, and biological fluids required for product manufacture, as well as biological materials required for cell growth, propagation, differentiation, and selection. Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological raw materials. This paper discusses the specific concerns related to different types of biological materials and presents the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research's perspective on the qualification and management of raw materials for purposes of developing a safety program for the manufacture of biological products.

  14. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

    2004-09-01

    Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

  15. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  16. High Resolution Characterization of Biological Matrices: Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schabacker, Daniel S.

    2016-10-27

    In the three-year period of performance, we used our methodology to analyze biological threat agents supplied by the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), University of Chicago, Northwestern University and Loyola University. Using our methodology and newly developed software at Argonne we were able to discern the institution where the material was cultured along with the growth conditions.

  17. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  18. Producing Dissemination Materials. Final Draft Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degener, David, Comp.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help projects approved by the Joint Dissemination Review Panel produce materials that will support their dissemination activities. Specifically directed toward career education projects, it should be equally useful for other projects. Section 1 discusses diffusion/adoption and these topics regarding materials: purpose,…

  19. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  20. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  1. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  2. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  3. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  4. 28 CFR 22.25 - Final disposition of identifiable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.25 Final disposition of identifiable materials. Upon completion of a research or statistical project the security of identifiable research or statistical...

  5. Low gravity on earth by magnetic levitation of biological material.

    PubMed

    Valles, James M; Guevorkian, Karine

    2002-07-01

    The use of a magnetic field gradient levitation apparatus as a tool for investigating gravisensing mechanisms in biological systems and as a low gravity simulator for biological systems is described. The basic principles are described. Differences between its application to pure materials and the heterogeneous materials of biological materials are emphasized.

  6. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Abruña, Héctor; Mutolo, Paul F

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  7. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  8. Cryocycling of energetic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, S.; Nilson, R.; Handrock, J.; Revelli, V.; Weingarten, L.

    1997-08-01

    The Cryocycling of Energetic Materials Project was executed in the period FY`94-96 as a Life Cycle Engineering activity in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on advanced conventional munitions. This MOU is an agreement between the Departments of Energy and Defense (Office of Munitions) that facilitates the development of technologies of mutual interest to the two Departments. The cryocycling process is a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost effective means of rubblizing bulk energetic materials so that they can be easily reused in a variety of new products. For this reason, cryocycling of excess solid energetic materials is one of the recycle/reuse strategies under study for demilitarized munitions in the Departments of Energy and Defense. These strategies seek to minimize the environmental damage associated with disposal of decommissioned energetic materials. In addition, they encourage technologies that can be used to derive economic benefit from reuse/reapplication of materials that would otherwise be treated as hazardous wastes. 45 refs., 38 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Diffusion theory in biology: a relic of mechanistic materialism.

    PubMed

    Agutter, P S; Malone, P C; Wheatley, D N

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion theory explains in physical terms how materials move through a medium, e.g. water or a biological fluid. There are strong and widely acknowledged grounds for doubting the applicability of this theory in biology, although it continues to be accepted almost uncritically and taught as a basis of both biology and medicine. Our principal aim is to explore how this situation arose and has been allowed to continue seemingly unchallenged for more than 150 years. The main shortcomings of diffusion theory will be briefly reviewed to show that the entrenchment of this theory in the corpus of biological knowledge needs to be explained, especially as there are equally valid historical grounds for presuming that bulk fluid movement powered by the energy of cell metabolism plays a prominent note in the transport of molecules in the living body. First, the theory's evolution, notably from its origins in connection with the mechanistic materialist philosophy of mid nineteenth century physiology, is discussed. Following this, the entrenchment of the theory in twentieth century biology is analyzed in relation to three situations: the mechanism of oxygen transport between air and mammalian tissues; the structure and function of cell membranes; and the nature of the intermediary metalbolism, with its implicit presumptions about the intracellular organization and the movement of molecules within it. In our final section, we consider several historically based alternatives to diffusion theory, all of which have their precursors in nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy of science.

  10. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. A.

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  11. Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Stephen Lance

    2016-01-11

    The central aim of the Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale (QMN) cluster was to understand and control collective behavior involving the interplay of spins, orbitals, and charges, which governs many scientifically interesting and technologically important phenomena in numerous complex materials. Because these phenomena involve various competing interactions, and influence properties on many different length and energy scales in complex materials, tackling this important area of study motivated a collaborative effort that combined the diverse capabilities of QMN cluster experimentalists, the essential theoretical analysis provided by QMN cluster theorists, and the outstanding facilities and staff of the FSMRL. During the funding period 2007-2014, the DOE cluster grant for the Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale (QMN) cluster supported, at various times, 15 different faculty members (14 in Physics and 1 in Materials Science and Engineering), 7 postdoctoral research associates, and 57 physics and materials science PhD students. 41 of these PhD students have since graduated and have gone on to a variety of advanced technical positions at universities, industries, and national labs: 25 obtained postdoctoral positions at universities (14), industrial labs (2 at IBM), DOE national facilities (3 at Argonne National Laboratory, 1 at Brookhaven National Lab, 1 at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, and 1 at Sandia National Lab), and other federal facilities (2 at NIST); 13 took various industrial positions, including positions at Intel (5), Quantum Design (1), Lasque Industries (1), Amazon (1), Bloomberg (1), and J.P. Morgan (1). Thus, the QMN grant provided the essential support for training a large number of technically advanced personnel who have now entered key national facilities, industries, and institutions. Additionally, during the period 2007-2015, the QMN cluster produced 159 publications (see pages 14-23), including 23 papers published in Physical Review Letters; 16

  12. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  13. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  14. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  15. Inorganic polymers and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2001-01-01

    This DOE-sponsored project was focused on the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of new types of boron and silicon polymers with a goal of attaining processable precursors to advanced ceramic materials of technological importance. This work demonstrated a viable design strategy for the systematic formation of polymeric precursors to ceramics based on the controlled functionalization of preformed polymers with pendant groups of suitable compositions and crosslinking properties. Both the new dipentylamine-polyborazylene and pinacolborane-hydridopolysilazane polymers, unlike the parent polyborazylene and other polyborosilazanes, are stable as melts and can be easily spun into polymer fibers. Subsequent pyrolyses of these polymer fibers then provide excellent routes to BN and SiNCB ceramic fibers. The ease of synthesis of both polymer systems suggests new hybrid polymers with a range of substituents appended to polyborazylene or polysilazane backbones, as well as other types of preceramic polymers, should now be readily achieved, thereby allowing even greater control over polymer and ceramic properties. This control should now enable the systematic tailoring of the polymers and derived ceramics for use in different technological applications. Other major recent achievements include the development of new types of metal-catalyzed methods needed for the polymerization and modification of inorganic monomers and polymers, and the modification studies of polyvinylsiloxane and related polymers with substituents that enable the formation of single source precursors to high-strength, sintered SiC ceramics.

  16. Method and apparatus for biological material separation

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Donna L.

    2005-05-10

    There has been invented an apparatus comprising a separation barrier for excluding denser cell materials from less dense cell materials after centrifuging of the cells so that selected materials can be withdrawn from the less dense cell materials without inclusion of the denser cell materials or clogging of sampling equipment with denser cell materials. Cells from which selected material is to be withdrawn are centrifuged, either as cells or cells in media. Once the denser cell materials are isolated in a layer by centrifugal force, an invention screen or seive is submerged in the less dense cell material to a level above the layer of denser cell materials to isolate the denser cell materials from the less dense cell materials, preventing mixing of the denser cell materials back into the less dense cell materials when the cells or the cells in media are no longer being centrifuged and to prevent clogging of sampling equipment with denser cell materials. In a particularly useful application of the invention method and apparatus, plasmid DNA can be withdrawn from less dense cell materials without contamination or interference with denser cell materials.

  17. Multifunctional integration: from biological to bio-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2011-09-27

    Nature is a school for human beings. Learning from nature has long been a source of bioinspiration for scientists and engineers. Multiscale structures are characteristic for biological materials, exhibiting inherent multifunctional integration. Optimized biological solutions provide inspiration for scientists and engineers to design and to fabricate multiscale structured materials for multifunctional integration.

  18. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  19. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  20. Mesoporous silicates: Materials science and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggers, Robert Anthony

    concentrations of particles. The lipid bilayer allowed the particle to interface with particle without resulting in haemolysis. It was observed however, that spiculation (damage) of the RBCs still occurred despite the lack of cell lysis. During the course of the study, the composition of the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer was altered to more closely match that of the outer leaflet of RBCs. This alteration proved to make the LB-l-MSN particle extremely compatible with RBCs in that spiculation of the cells was reduced by more than 50 % according to observations by scanning electron microscopy. A new synthetic route to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was developed using water in oil (W/O) emulsions was developed. This method relies on the presence of an amphiphilic stabilizer molecule to control the size and quality of the spherical morphology of the particles. Partitioning of the oil phase into cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant molecules is implicated in expanding the size of the mesopores from the standard 3 nm pore to 7 nm. This material is extensively characterized using X-ray diffraction techniques and TEM microscopy. Chapter 3 also outlines the synthesis of a new periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) in which the bridging organic group is a benzobisoxazole molecule synthesized in the research group of Dr. Malika Jeffries-EL. While no immediate application of this new particle was proven, we propose this structure as the basis for a new class of light harvesting or light emitting diode material based on the performance of the polymers containing these benzobisoxazole moieties and functionalized dyes. The final project was the initial development of an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand based on an imidazole framework. This project represents significant synthetic challenges in that the pattern of substitution on the imidazole framework has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Despite the synthetic challenges, significant progress has

  1. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  2. Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

  3. Materiomics: biological protein materials, from nano to macro

    PubMed Central

    Cranford, Steven; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Materiomics is an emerging field of science that provides a basis for multiscale material system characterization, inspired in part by natural, for example, protein-based materials. Here we outline the scope and explain the motivation of the field of materiomics, as well as demonstrate the benefits of a materiomic approach in the understanding of biological and natural materials as well as in the design of de novo materials. We discuss recent studies that exemplify the impact of materiomics – discovering Nature’s complexity through a materials science approach that merges concepts of material and structure throughout all scales and incorporates feedback loops that facilitate sensing and resulting structural changes at multiple scales. The development and application of materiomics is illustrated for the specific case of protein-based materials, which constitute the building blocks of a variety of biological systems such as tendon, bone, skin, spider silk, cells, and tissue, as well as natural composite material systems (a combination of protein-based and inorganic constituents) such as nacre and mollusk shells, and other natural multiscale systems such as cellulose-based plant and wood materials. An important trait of these materials is that they display distinctive hierarchical structures across multiple scales, where molecular details are exhibited in macroscale mechanical responses. Protein materials are intriguing examples of materials that balance multiple tasks, representing some of the most sustainable material solutions that integrate structure and function despite severe limitations in the quality and quantity of material building blocks. However, up until now, our attempts to analyze and replicate Nature’s materials have been hindered by our lack of fundamental understanding of these materials’ intricate hierarchical structures, scale-bridging mechanisms, and complex material components that bestow protein-based materials their unique properties

  4. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  5. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  6. FY05 LDRD Final Report, A Revolution in Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Balhorn, R; Barty, A; Barsky, D; Bogan, M; Chung, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; Ishii, H; London, R; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Segelke, B; Szoke, A; Szoke, H; Trebes, J; Wootton, A; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Lejon, S; der Spoel, D v; Howells, M; He, H; Spence, J; Nugent, K; Ingerman, E

    2006-01-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are currently under development and will provide a peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than modern synchrotrons. The goal of this project was to perform the fundamental research to evaluate the possibility of harnessing these unique x-ray sources to image single biological particles and molecules at atomic resolution. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental verification where possible, they showed that it should indeed be possible to record coherent scattering patterns from single molecules with pulses that are shorter than the timescales for the degradation of the structure due to the interaction with those pulses. They used these models to determine the effectiveness of strategies to allow imaging using longer XFEL pulses and to design validation experiments to be carried out at interim ultrafast sources. They also developed and demonstrated methods to recover three-dimensional (3D) images from coherent diffraction patterns, similar to those expected from XFELs. The images of micron-sized test objects are the highest-resolution 3D images of any noncrystalline material ever formed with x-rays. The project resulted in 14 publications in peer-reviewed journals and four records of invention.

  7. Mathematical and numerical challenges in living biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, M. Gregory; Vasquez, Paula A.

    2013-10-01

    The proclaimed Century of Biology is rapidly leading to the realization of how starkly different and more complex biological materials are than the materials that underpinned the industrial and technological revolution. These differences arise, in part, because biological matter exhibits both viscous and elastic behavior. Moreover, this behavior varies across the frequency, wavelength and amplitude spectrum of forcing. This broadclass of responsesin biological matter requires multiple frequency-dependent functions to specify material behavior, instead of a discrete set of parameters that relate to either viscosity or elasticity. This complexity prevails even if the biological matter is assumed to be spatially homogeneous, which is rarely true. However, very little progress has been made on the characterization of heterogeneity and how to build that information into constitutive laws and predictive models. In addition, most biological matter is non-stationary, which motivates the term "living". Biomaterials typically are in an active state in order to perform certain functions, and they often are modified or replenished on the basis of external stimuli. It has become popular in materials engineering to try to duplicate some of the functionality of biomaterials, e.g., a lot of effort has gone into the design of self-assembling, self-healing and shape shifting materials. These distinguishing features of biomaterials require significantly more degrees of freedom than traditional composites and many of the molecular species and their roles in functionality have yet to be determined. A typical biological material includes small molecule biochemical species that react and diffuse within larger species. These large molecular weightspecies provide the primary structural and biophysical properties of the material. The small molecule binding and unbinding kinetics serves to modulate material properties, and typical small molecule production and release are governed by

  8. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murr, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  9. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  10. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Janese C.

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  11. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  12. Mechanisms of Microwave Induced Damage in Biologic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Activities and Microwave Exposures Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), an enzyme involved in the production of the polyamines putrescine and spermidine, has...f 0 0 Mechanisms of Microwave Induced N Damage in Biologic Materials I ,<DTIC .. E LECTEI I Annual Report S FEB08 1990 U January, 1989 m D EFFECTS OF...Clasufication) (U) Mechanisms of Microwave Induced Damage in Biologic Materials I 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) .3a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14

  13. Statistical Mechanics of Confined Biological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kinani, R.; Benhamou, M.; Kaïdi, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we propose a model to study the Statistical Mechanics of a confined bilayer-membrane that fluctuates between two interactive flat substrates. From the scaling laws point of view, the bilayer-membranes and strings are very similar. Therefore, it is sufficient to consider only the problem of a string. We assume that the bilayer-membrane (or string) interact with the substrate via a Double Morse potential that reproduces well the characteristics of the real interaction. We show that the Statistical Mechanic of the string can be adequately described by the Schrödinger equation approach that we solve exactly using the Bethe method. Finally, from the exact value of the energy of the ground state, we extract the expression of the free energy density as well as the specific heat.

  14. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  15. Packaging biological cargoes in mesoporous materials: opportunities for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, Justin; Karande, Pankaj; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Confinement of biomolecules in structured nanoporous materials offers several desirable features ranging from chemical and thermal stability, to resistance to degradation from the external environment. A new generation of mesoporous materials presents exciting new possibilities for the formulation and controlled release of biological agents. Such materials address niche applications in enteral and parenteral delivery of biologics, such as peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and proteins for use as therapeutics, imaging agents, biosensors, and adjuvants. Areas covered: Mesoporous silica Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), with its unique, tunable pore diameter, and easily functionalized surface, provides a representative example of this new generation of materials. Here, we review recent advances in the design and synthesis of nanostructured mesoporous materials, focusing on SBA-15, and highlight opportunities for the delivery of biological agents to various organ and tissue compartments. Expert opinion: The SBA-15 platform provides a delivery carrier that is inherently separated from the active biologic due to distinct intra and extra-particle environments. This permits the SBA-15 platform to not require direct modification of the active biological therapeutic. Additionally, this makes the platform universal and allows for its application independent of the desired methods of discovery and development. The SBA-15 platform also directly addresses issues of targeted delivery and controlled release, although future challenges in the implementation of this platform reside in particle design, biocompatibility, and the tunability of the internal and external material properties. Examples illustrating the flexibility in the application of the SBA-15 platform are also discussed. PMID:25016923

  16. Materials and methods for delivery of biological drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelikin, Alexander N.; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Healy, Anne Marie

    2016-11-01

    Biological drugs generated via recombinant techniques are uniquely positioned due to their high potency and high selectivity of action. The major drawback of this class of therapeutics, however, is their poor stability upon oral administration and during subsequent circulation. As a result, biological drugs have very low bioavailability and short therapeutic half-lives. Fortunately, tools of chemistry and biotechnology have been developed into an elaborate arsenal, which can be applied to improve the pharmacokinetics of biological drugs. Depot-type release systems are available to achieve sustained release of drugs over time. Conjugation to synthetic or biological polymers affords long circulating formulations. Administration of biological drugs through non-parenteral routes shows excellent performance and the first products have reached the market. This Review presents the main accomplishments in this field and illustrates the materials and methods behind existing and upcoming successful formulations and delivery strategies for biological drugs.

  17. Benefit evaluation of space processing of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A rational analytical basis for the evaluation of potential benefits of space processing of biological materials is described. A preliminary evaluation of three candidate space processed biological materials was accomplished. Materials investigated were human lymphocytes, urokinase, and Beta cells. Separation of lymphocyte groups was considered in order to improve the matching of donors and recipients for kidney transplantation, while urokinase was examined in regard to treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Separation of Beta cells was studied since it could provide a highly effective means for the treatment of juvenile-onset diabetes.

  18. Structural Design Elements in Biological Materials: Application to Bioinspiration.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Steven E; Porter, Michael M; McKittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A

    2015-10-07

    Eight structural elements in biological materials are identified as the most common amongst a variety of animal taxa. These are proposed as a new paradigm in the field of biological materials science as they can serve as a toolbox for rationalizing the complex mechanical behavior of structural biological materials and for systematizing the development of bioinspired designs for structural applications. They are employed to improve the mechanical properties, namely strength, wear resistance, stiffness, flexibility, fracture toughness, and energy absorption of different biological materials for a variety of functions (e.g., body support, joint movement, impact protection, weight reduction). The structural elements identified are: fibrous, helical, gradient, layered, tubular, cellular, suture, and overlapping. For each of the structural design elements, critical design parameters are presented along with constitutive equations with a focus on mechanical properties. Additionally, example organisms from varying biological classes are presented for each case to display the wide variety of environments where each of these elements is present. Examples of current bioinspired materials are also introduced for each element.

  19. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1996-09-01

    Although theoretical models have been the traditional tool for assessment of doses delivered by nuclear accidents, their use is now accompanied by increasing political and scientific demand for physical measurements which provide site specific dose information related directly to the original events, can be used to verify and augment the theoretical models, and can be performed and reflicated by independent laboratories. This report details a four year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research, and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities.

  20. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base.

  1. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  2. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    PubMed

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area.

  3. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  4. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  5. Overview of light interaction with food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the basic phenomena occurring during the interaction of light with biological and food materials, which form the foundation for different light scattering techniques that have been developed for property, quality and safety assessment of food and agricultural products. We first...

  6. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  7. Quantitation and detection of vanadium in biologic and pollution materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of special considerations and methodology for determining vanadium in biological and air pollution materials. In addition to descriptions of specific analysis procedures, general sections are included on quantitation of analysis procedures, sample preparation, blanks, and methods of detection of vanadium. Most of the information presented is applicable to the determination of other trace elements in addition to vanadium.

  8. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1991-04-08

    A method is provided for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The method comprises treating (e.g., derivatizing) the electrode surface with an electrochemically active material; connecting the electrode to an electrical potential; and exposing the fluid medium to the electrode surface in a manner such that the charged particles become adsorbed on the electrode surface.

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  11. Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments. This technical paper provides defensible approximations fo...

  12. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  13. Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

    1986-11-01

    Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

  14. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N.; Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H.

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  15. Controlling biological deterioration of wood with volatile chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.; Corden, M.E.

    1980-08-01

    Volatile fungicides placed in holes in pressure-treated Douglas-fir transmission poles with internal decay diffuse as vapors for about 2.4 m above and below the groundline to control decay for at least 10 y. The presence of fungitoxic vapors of chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) in these poles suggests added years of control. Vapam (sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) was less effective, but both of these chemicals are used nationwide. Methylisotiocyanate (MS), which appears especially promising in both laboratory wood-block screening tests and in poles 2 years after treatment, may prove outstanding as a control for internal decay of poles. Successfully formulated as a solid, MS could increase the safety and versatility of fumigant use. A comparison of devices for inspecting Douglas-fir poles for decay emphasized the importance of having well-trained inspectors who know the limitations of the tools and methods they use. A manual for the maintenance of Douglas-fir and western redcedar poles was published to aid inspectors and managers of wood pole systems. Fumigants varied in their residual protection against invasion by decay fungi with chloropicrin having the highest residual fungitoxicity. Fumigants had no adverse effect on vegetation around poles, nor on the strength properties of wood. Of the 8 decay fungi isolated from over 15,600 pressure-treated Douglas-fir poles, Poria carbonica and Poria placenta were by far the most prevalent. Of the five most prevalent nondecay fungi isolated from these poles, a Scytalidium species can produce an environment unsuitable for reinvasion of the wood by decay fungi. The resistance of the Scytalidium species to chloropicrin raises the possibility of a combined chemical-biological control of internal decay.

  16. Biologically-Derived Photonic Materials for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.; Squire, Thomas H.; Lawson, John W.; Gusman, Michael; Lau, K.-H.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Space vehicles entering a planetary atmosphere at high velocity can be subject to substantial radiative heating from the shock layer in addition to the convective heating caused by the flow of hot gas past the vehicle surface. The radiative component can be very high but of a short duration. Approaches to combat this effect include investigation of various materials to reflect the radiation. Photonic materials can be used to reflect radiation. The wavelengths reflected depend on the length scale of the ordered microstructure. Fabricating photonic structures, such as layers, can be time consuming and expensive. We have used a biologically-derived material as the template for forming a high temperature photonic material that could be incorporated into a heatshield thermal protection material.

  17. Verbal final exam in introductory biology yields gains in student content knowledge and longitudinal performance.

    PubMed

    Luckie, Douglas B; Rivkin, Aaron M; Aubry, Jacob R; Marengo, Benjamin J; Creech, Leah R; Sweeder, Ryan D

    2013-01-01

    We studied gains in student learning over eight semesters in which an introductory biology course curriculum was changed to include optional verbal final exams (VFs). Students could opt to demonstrate their mastery of course material via structured oral exams with the professor. In a quantitative assessment of cell biology content knowledge, students who passed the VF outscored their peers on the medical assessment test (MAT), an exam built with 40 Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) questions (66.4% [n = 160] and 62% [n = 285], respectively; p < 0.001);. The higher-achieving students performed better on MCAT questions in all topic categories tested; the greatest gain occurred on the topic of cellular respiration. Because the VF focused on a conceptually parallel topic, photosynthesis, there may have been authentic knowledge transfer. In longitudinal tracking studies, passing the VF also correlated with higher performance in a range of upper-level science courses, with greatest significance in physiology, biochemistry, and organic chemistry. Participation had a wide range but not equal representation in academic standing, gender, and ethnicity. Yet students nearly unanimously (92%) valued the option. Our findings suggest oral exams at the introductory level may allow instructors to assess and aid students striving to achieve higher-level learning.

  18. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. David

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy density

  19. [Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human biological materials and their significance in toxicological studies].

    PubMed

    Wiergowski, Marek; Nowak-Banasik, Livia; Morkowska, Anna; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Korolkiewicz, Roman; Anand, Jacek Sein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation of reliable procedure of the determination of nicotine and cotinine both in classic (serum, urine) and alternative biological materials (hair, saliva) and evaluation of their significance for clinical and forensic toxicology. Biological material samples (blood, urine, saliva) were taken from patients after Percutaneous Trans-luminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). The determination of cotinine and nicotine concentration in the biological material should be optimized depending on the aim of analysis. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC/UV-DAD are reliable, specific and relatively cheap. Serum and saliva are valuable biological materials which allow to determine temporary nicotine and cotinine content on the similar level of concentrations. In the near future it will be able to replace blood with saliva sample because of an easy and non-invasive way of sampling. Evaluation of cotinine concentration in urine allows to distinguish the passive from the active tobacco smokers. Hair analysis allows to control a nicotine abstinence as well as a long-term evaluation of the history of smoking. However usage of hair is limited because of difficulty with sampling. Interpretation of results in analysis of alternative materials (hair, saliva) pose a problem because of lack of sampling standardization and lack of standardization of final analysis method.

  20. Curriculum and course materials for a forensic DNA biology course.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2014-01-01

    The Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) requires accredited programs offer a "coherent curriculum" to ensure each student gains a "thorough grounding of the natural…sciences." Part of this curriculum includes completion of a minimum of 15 semester-hours forensic science coursework, nine of which can involve a class in forensic DNA biology. Departments that have obtained or are pursuing FEPAC accreditation can meet this requirement by offering a stand-alone forensic DNA biology course; however, materials necessary to instruct students are often homegrown and not standardized; in addition, until recently, the community lacked commercially available books, lab manuals, and teaching materials, and many of the best pedagogical resources were scattered across various peer-reviewed journals. The curriculum discussed below is an attempt to synthesize this disparate information, and although certainly not the only acceptable methodology, the below discussion represents "a way" for synthesizing and aggregating this information into a cohesive, comprehensive whole.

  1. Differential Multiscale Modeling of Chemically Complex Materials under Heavy Deformation: Biological, Bioinspired and Synthetic Hierarchical Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    biological materials such as nacre, bone and their hierarchical organization leads to: a) not following the usual banana -curve for synthetic materials of...hierarchies, a significant performance increase can be achieved. The “ Banana curve” (seen in conventional synthetic materials) is indicated in the...plot as well. 9 For more than 10,000 elements (also reported in the IJAM paper), a very interesting result is obtained. First, the banana curve

  2. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return

  3. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sumption, Mike D.; Collings, Edward W.

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  4. Biologic properties of surgical scaffold materials derived from dermal ECM.

    PubMed

    Kulig, Katherine M; Luo, Xiao; Finkelstein, Eric B; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Goldman, Scott M; Sundback, Cathryn A; Vacanti, Joseph P; Neville, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Surgical scaffold materials manufactured from donor human or animal tissue are increasingly being used to promote soft tissue repair and regeneration. The clinical product consists of the residual extracellular matrix remaining after a rigorous decellularization process. Optimally, the material provides both structural support during the repair period and cell guidance cues for effective incorporation into the regenerating tissue. Surgical scaffold materials are available from several companies and are unique products manufactured by proprietary methodology. A significant need exists for a more thorough understanding of scaffold properties that impact the early steps of host cell recruitment and infiltration. In this study, a panel of in vitro assays was used to make direct comparisons of several similar, commercially-available materials: Alloderm, Medeor Matrix, Permacol, and Strattice. Differences in the materials were detected for both cell signaling and scaffold architecture-dependent cell invasion. Material-conditioned media studies found Medeor Matrix to have the greatest positive effect upon cell proliferation and induction of migration. Strattice provided the greatest chemotaxis signaling and best suppressed apoptotic induction. Among assays measuring structure-dependent properties, Medeor Matrix was superior for cell attachment, followed by Permacol. Only Alloderm and Medeor Matrix supported chemotaxis-driven cell invasion beyond the most superficial zone. Medeor Matrix was the only material in the chorioallantoic membrane assay to support substantial cell invasion. These results indicate that both biologic and structural properties need to be carefully assessed in the considerable ongoing efforts to develop new uses and products in this important class of biomaterials.

  5. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    PubMed

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  6. Developmental biology meets materials science: Morphogenesis of biomineralized structures.

    PubMed

    Wilt, Fred H

    2005-04-01

    Biomineralization is the process by which metazoa form hard minerals for support, defense, and feeding. The minerals so formed, e.g., teeth, bones, shells, carapaces, and spicules, are of considerable interest to chemists and materials scientists. The cell biology underlying biomineralization is not well understood. The study of the formation of mineralized structures in developing organisms offers opportunities for understanding some intriguing aspects of cell and developmental biology. Five examples of biomineralization are presented: (1) the formation of siliceous spicules and frustules in sponges and diatoms, respectively; (2) the structure of skeletal spicules composed of amorphous calcium carbonate in some tunicates; (3) the secretion of the prism and nacre of some molluscan shells; (4) the development of skeletal spicules of sea urchin embryos; and (5) the formation of enamel of vertebrate teeth. Some speculations on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support biomineralization, and their evolutionary origins, are discussed.

  7. Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    King, Wayne E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Frank, Alan; Reed, Bryan; Schmerge, John F.; Siwick, Bradley J.; Stuart, Brent C.; Weber, Peter M.

    2005-06-01

    The use of pump-probe experiments to study complex transient events has been an area of significant interest in materials science, biology, and chemistry. While the emphasis has been on laser pump with laser probe and laser pump with x-ray probe experiments, there is a significant and growing interest in using electrons as probes. Early experiments used electrons for gas-phase diffraction of photostimulated chemical reactions. More recently, scientists are beginning to explore phenomena in the solid state such as phase transformations, twinning, solid-state chemical reactions, radiation damage, and shock propagation. This review focuses on the emerging area of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), which comprises ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). The topics that are treated include the following: (1) The physics of electrons as an ultrafast probe. This encompasses the propagation dynamics of the electrons (space-charge effect, Child's law, Boersch effect) and extends to relativistic effects. (2) The anatomy of UED and DTEM instruments. This includes discussions of the photoactivated electron gun (also known as photogun or photoelectron gun) at conventional energies (60-200 keV) and extends to MeV beams generated by rf guns. Another critical aspect of the systems is the electron detector. Charge-coupled device cameras and microchannel-plate-based cameras are compared and contrasted. The effect of various physical phenomena on detective quantum efficiency is discussed. (3) Practical aspects of operation. This includes determination of time zero, measurement of pulse-length, and strategies for pulse compression. (4) Current and potential applications in materials science, biology, and chemistry. UEM has the potential to make a significant impact in future science and technology. Understanding of reaction pathways of complex transient phenomena in materials science, biology, and chemistry will provide fundamental

  8. [Practical knowledge in fungal diagnosis in some biological materials].

    PubMed

    Mencl, Karel

    2012-08-01

    The article deals with certain problematic issues associated with routine laboratory diagnosis of mycoses from secretions and samples taken from the respiratory tract and maxillary sinuses as well as samples of skin and skin appendages. The text is based on both the author's own long-term experience and experience gained from cooperation with other laboratories. To improve the detection of filamentous fungi in lower respiratory tract secretions, it is recommended to use 0.5 mL of the material for individual culture media. In both secretions and other biological material, the role of microscopic examination is stressed. In many cases, this may also be the only reliable laboratory procedure. Detection of filamentous fungi should be interpreted in close cooperation with clinicians, especially in order to obtain history data. These are particularly important in the diagnosis of endemic mycoses. Equivocal or unusual findings should be verified by repeated laboratory tests.

  9. Peptide Self-Assembly for Crafting Functional Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Matson, John B.; Zha, R. Helen; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembling, peptide-based scaffolds are frontrunners in the search for biomaterials with widespread impact in regenerative medicine. The inherent biocompatibility and cell signaling capabilities of peptides, in combination with control of secondary structure, has led to the development of a broad range of functional materials with potential for many novel therapies. More recently, membranes formed through complexation of peptide nanostructures with natural biopolymers have led to the development of hierarchically-structured constructs with potentially far-reaching applications in biology and medicine. In this review, we highlight recent advances in peptide-based gels and membranes, including work from our group and others. Specifically, we discuss the application of peptide-based materials in the regeneration of bone and enamel, cartilage, and the central nervous system, as well as the transplantation of islets, wound-healing, cardiovascular therapies, and treatment of erectile dysfunction after prostatectomy PMID:22125413

  10. DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Catherine Y; Park, Jin G; Sharma, Amit; Hunter, Preston; Surapaneni, Padmini; Sedillo, Casey; Field, James; Algar, Rhys; Price, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Throop, Andrea; Fiacco, Michael; LaBaer, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743-D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease.

  11. Versatile and inexpensive Hall-Effect force sensor for mechanical characterization of soft biological materials.

    PubMed

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-01-25

    Mismatch of hierarchical structure and mechanical properties between tissue-engineered implants and native tissue may result in signal cues that negatively impact repair and remodeling. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. However, characterizing microscale mechanical properties is challenging, and current methods do not provide the versatility and sensitivity required to measure these fragile, soft biological materials. Here, we developed a novel, highly sensitive Hall-Effect based force sensor that is capable of measuring mechanical properties of biological materials over wide force ranges (μN to N), allowing its use at all steps in layer-by-layer fabrication of engineered tissues. The force sensor design can be easily customized to measure specific force ranges, while remaining easy to fabricate using inexpensive, commercial materials. Although we used the force sensor to characterize mechanics of single-layer cell sheets and silk fibers, the design can be easily adapted for different applications spanning larger force ranges (>N). This platform is thus a novel, versatile, and practical tool for mechanically characterizing biological and biomimetic materials.

  12. Inverse Algorithm Optimization for Determining Optical Properties of Biological Materials from Spatially-Resolved Diffuse Reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical characterization of biological materials is useful in many scientific and industrial applications like biomedical diagnosis and nondestructive quality evaluation of food and agricultural products. However, accurate determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials base...

  13. Results of UV laser application on biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifano, P.; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Pompa, Pier P.; Candido, A.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we report on the biological effects of XeCL laser irradiation on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. UV interaction with cellular systems is responsible for photochemical, photothermal or photodecomposition processes. When short-wavelength UV radiation strikes biological material, the DNA is damaged causing cell killing, mutagenesis or carcinogenesis. We report on different effects of XeCl laser irradiation on two microbial systems; collection strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (in suspension) and collection strains of Eschericha coli proficient or deficient in DNA recombination/repair pathways (irradiated on solid surfaces). In S epidermidis the 308 nm radiation can significantly enhanced the proliferation rates. In wild type E. coli cells the radiation did not stimulate the growth rates. Surprisingly, the 308 nm radiation elicited a very strong lethal effect on DNA recombination/repair-defective strains (harbouring the recA56 null mutation), even more pronounced than irradiation with a UV 254 nm germicidal lamp. The unknown mechanism responsible for this biological response is currently under investigation.

  14. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  15. Inferring Causes of Biological Impairment in the Clear Fork Watershed, West Virginia (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Inferring Causes of Biological Impairment in the Clear Fork Watershed, West Virginia. This study illustrates a causal assessment in a watershed using the US EPA stressor identification process described on the www.epa....

  16. Analytical chemistry at the interface between materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Janese Christine

    This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and other disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry's newest forays into these disciplines. This dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introductory chapter that provides background information pertinent to several key aspects of the work contained in this dissertation. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels derived from the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a vanadium alkoxide. Specifically, this chapter describes our attempts to increase the conductivity of vanadium sol-gels by optimizing the acidic and drying conditions used during synthesis. Chapter 3 reports the construction of novel antigenic immunosensing platforms of increased epitope density using Fab'-SH antibody fragments on gold. Here, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-layer cell (TLC) and confocal fluorescence spectroscopies, and scanning force microscopy (SFM) are employed to characterize the fragment-substrate interaction, to quantify epitope density, and to demonstrate fragment viability and specificity. Chapter 4 presents a novel method for creating and interrogating double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays suitable for screening protein:dsDNA interactions. Using the restriction enzyme ECoR1, we demonstrate the ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to detect changes in topography that result from the enzymatic cleavage of dsDNA microarrays

  17. Combustion method for assay of biological materials labeled with carbon-14 or tritium, or double-labeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, L. G.; Kisieleski, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    Dry catalytic combustion at high temperatures is used for assaying biological materials labeled carbon-14 and tritium, or double-labeled. A modified oxygen-flask technique is combined with standard vacuum-line techniques and includes convenience of direct in-vial collection of final combustion products, giving quantitative recovery of tritium and carbon-14.

  18. NASA Sponsored Research Involving Crystallization of Biological Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton

    2000-01-01

    An overview of NASA's plans for the performing experiments involving the crystallization of biological materials on the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. In addition, a brief overview of past work is provided as background. Descriptions of flight hardware currently available for use on the ISS are given and projections of future developments are discussed. In addition, experiment selection and funding is described. As of the flight of STS-95, these crystallization projects have proven to be some of the most successful in the history of microgravity research. The NASA Microgravity Research Division alone has flown 185 different proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and complexes on 43 different missions. 37 of the 185 have resulted, in, diffraction patterns with higher resolution than was obtained in all previous ground based experiments. This occurred despite the fact that an average of only 41 samples per protein were flown. A number of other samples have shown improved signal to noise characteristics, i.e. relative Wilson plots, when compared to the best ground experiments. In addition, a number of experiments investigating the effects of microgravity conditions on the crystallization of biological material have been conducted.

  19. Access and benefit sharing of Antarctica's biological material.

    PubMed

    Puig-Marcó, Roser

    2014-10-01

    Searching and sampling of Antarctic Biological Material (ABM) is happening with no explicit regulation on access and benefit sharing requirements. Patents already exist on inventions stemming from Antarctic living organisms. The Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) provides mechanisms to ensure that scientific knowledge and data generated from the collection and use of ABM are shared, although commercialization might be a threat to this free exchange of scientific knowledge. Some of the underlying problems regarding the access and benefit sharing of ABM are that under the ATS there are gaps concerning definitions, access to specimens, benefit sharing, commercialization and reporting issues. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) have decided that the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) is the competent body to discuss the matter, and the ATS is the appropriate framework for managing the collection of biological material in the Antarctic Treaty area and for considering its use. Nevertheless, opinions diverge as to the need for more specific rules on access and benefit sharing other than that already resulting from the obligation to give prior notification and share scientific results.

  20. Demonstration of packaging materials alternatives to expanded polystyrene. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, D.M.

    1998-04-01

    The report presents information on the environmental, economical, and performance characteristics of alternative packaging materials. Three alternative cushioning materials were identified for evaluation within this research; starch-based foam planks, layered corrugated pads, and recycled polyethylene foam. Through some have been used as cushioning materials for some time, these materials are termed alternative because each offers unique features beyond their cushioning capabilities. These unique features include their manufacture from recycled materials, biodegradability, water solubility, recyclability, and reusability. The properties and cushioning characteristics of expanded polystyrene (EPS) represent the baseline for this research; evaluation results for each material are compared against those of EPS. Technical, environmental, and economic evaluations were completed to assess various characteristics and parameters concerning the cushioning materials.

  1. Biology Teacher and Expert Opinions about Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Materials: A Software Entitled Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenekoglu, Ismet; Timucin, Melih

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to collect and evaluate opinions of CAI experts and biology teachers about a high school level Computer Assisted Biology Instruction Material presenting computer-made modelling and simulations. It is a case study. A material covering "Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis" topic was developed as the…

  2. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Twieg, R.J.

    1985-03-31

    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)

  3. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  4. Instructional Materials in Spanish for Agriculture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.

    A federally funded project to develop Spanish for Agricultural Purposes, a set of instructional materials for agricultural specialists planning to work in Latin America, is reported. The materials are intended for use by individuals with at least a year's college-level study of Spanish. They include: a series of authentic readings, each with an…

  5. Armed Services Materials Conversion. A Documentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization and Human Resources Development Associates, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This report discusses Phase 1 of a project to convert armed services dental and medical curriculum materials into separate curricula for dental and physician assistant for civilian education use. The first two sections focus on project tasks and acquisition of existing military materials in dental and physician assistant training. Samples of…

  6. Thermal expansion of several materials for superconducting magnets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.F.; Fujii, G.; Ranney, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    The thermal expansion of several materials used in the construction of high field superconducting magnets has been measured from 4 K to room temperature. The materials were a NbTi and two A15 multifilamentary conductors and several nonmetallic composites made from linen/phenolic, fiberglass/epoxy and superconducting wire/epoxy.

  7. AY 2002-2003 Industry Study: Final Report Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    the rare earth supermagnet NIB, used in the Joint Direct Attack Munition project that produces ‘smart bombs.’ In 1995, two Chinese companies and a...icaf/industry/IS2003/papers/2003%20Strategic%20Materials.htm access to the materials needed to make soft, hard, and rare earth supermagnets

  8. Vocational Home Economics Instructional Materials Exchange Network Plan. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    A project was undertaken to establish plans for a network through which postsecondary vocational home economics institutions in Texas could exchange instructional materials. After reviewing current literature on the idea of an instructional materials exchange, project staff mailed letters to the Board of Education in each of the 50 states…

  9. Neutron activation analysis of biological materials by the monostandard method.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Shinogi, M

    1979-12-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis by the monostandard method has been applied to the analyses of biological NBS standard reference materials; 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Aluminum foils containing 0.100% gold or 2.00% cobalt were used as the monostandards. The gamma-ray spectral data were recorded on punched paper tape and were analyzed by a computer assisted data processing. The following 25 elements were determined: Al, Ca, Cl Cu, Mg, Mn, V (by short period irradiation), As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm and Zn (by long period irradiation). The results were compared with the certified values by NBS and the reported values in literatures to prove the reliability and accuracy of the monostandard method.

  10. Ion beam modification of biological materials in nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Ion interaction with biological objects in nanoscale is a novel research area stemming from applications of low-energy ion beams in biotechnology and biomedicine. Although the ion beam applications in biotechnology and biomedicine have achieved great successes, many mechanisms remain unclear and many new applications are to be explored. We have carried out some research on exploring the mechanisms and new applications besides attaining ion beam induction of mutation breeding and gene transformation. In the studies on the mechanisms, we focused our investigations on the direct interaction in nanoscale between ions and biological living materials. Our research topics have included the low-energy ion range in DNA, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on DNA topological form change and mutation, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on the cell envelope and gene transformation, and molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-low-energy ion irradiation of DNA. In the exploration of new applications, we have started experiments on ion irradiation or bombardment, in the nanoscaled depth or area, of human cells for biomedical research. This paper introduces our experiments and reports interesting results.

  11. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  12. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  13. Newspaper Delivery of ABE/GED Curriculum Materials. Final Report and Final Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Kitty

    This report describes the delivery of adult basic education/general educational development (ABE/GED) materials throuqh a local newspaper. The materials, 24 English and math lessons developed by the Vineland (New Jersey) Adult Education Center and later distributed by Project Rural in Centre County, Pennsylvania, were published by the "Valley…

  14. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  15. Development of Safety and Health Instructional Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.; And Others

    This report describes a project conducted to design, develop, and disseminate modular instructional materials needed for infusing safety and health instruction into pre-employment vocational training curricula. Training needs were identified and specific content areas determined. Content areas were agriculture and agribusiness education, allied…

  16. Materials support for HITAF. Final report for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Tennery, V.J.

    1995-03-01

    Improvements in coal-fired systems will require a change from steam turbines to gas turbines using air as working fluid; pressurized ceramic heat exchangers operating up to 1600 C will be needed. Leading candidate materials are SiC-based ceramics. Mechanical properties of 3 materials are compared in this work: NT230 Si/SiC from Saint Gobain Norton, {beta}-SiC from Coors Ceramics Co., and Lanxide DIMOX SiCp/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from Du Pont Lanxide Composites Inc. The first material is siliconized Si carbide, the second is sintered. They all were tested in 4-point flexure at RT and 1100 and 1400 C. Fast-fracture tests were carried out. Slow crack growth was investigated. Failure modes were studied using optical microscopy and SEM. Four materials were exposed to two coal ashes at two different temperatures. In the comparison, Coors {beta}-SiC stands out from a strength and reliability standpoint when exposed to air at high temperatures. Lanxide DIMOX withstood coal ash exposure well.

  17. Developing New Materials for High School Geometry. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Dana S.

    This project endeavored to develop a high school course for use in the classroom and for use with a computer-controlled system of programed lessons. Many difficulties such as those in the display and control of figures were encountered in trying to organize and prepare the material for the computer. The conclusion reached was that the solution to…

  18. Spring 2004 Industry Study Final Report: Strategic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    material costs in order to create an economically viable alternative to steel in mass consumption product industries such as automobile, aerospace, and...Star, March 15, 2004. Available on line at: http://www.thestar.com. Potter, Van Rensselaer. Bioethics : Bridge to the future. New Jersey: Prentice

  19. Preparation of Programmed Chinese Language Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, William L.

    A project to convert part of a Chinese language course ("Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach") to the PLATO computerized teaching system is reported. The project involved: (1) transcribing all the first sequence audiotapes for the first six instructional modules (these tapes present the material of each lesson); (2) rewriting the lesson…

  20. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  1. Dissemination of Continuing Education Materials Via Television Delivery Systems. Final Technical Report and Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munushian, Jack

    In 1972, the University of Southern California School of Engineering established a 4-channel interactive instructional television network. It was designed to allow employees of participating industries to take regular university science and engineering courses and special continuing education courses at or near their work locations. Final progress…

  2. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  3. Laser desorption postionization for imaging MS of biological material.

    PubMed

    Akhmetov, Artem; Moore, Jerry F; Gasper, Gerald L; Koin, Peter J; Hanley, Luke

    2010-02-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization (VUV SPI) is a soft ionization technique that has the potential to address many of the limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for imaging MS. Laser desorption postionization (LDPI) uses VUV SPI for postionization and is experimentally analogous to a MALDI instrument with the addition of a pulsed VUV light source. This review discusses progress in LDPI-MS over the last decade, with an emphasis on imaging MS of bacterial biofilms, analytes whose high salt environment make them particularly resistant to imaging by MALDI-MS. This review first considers fundamental aspects of VUV SPI including ionization mechanisms, cross sections, quantum yields of ionization, dissociation and potential mass limits. The most common sources of pulsed VUV radiation are then described along with a newly constructed LDPI-MS instrument with imaging capabilities. Next, the detection and imaging of small molecules within intact biofilms is demonstrated by LDPI-MS using 7.87 eV (157.6 nm) VUV photons from a molecular fluorine excimer laser, followed by the use of aromatic tags for detection of selected species within the biofilm. The final section considers the future prospects for imaging intact biological samples by LDPI-MS.

  4. Materials compatibility with the volcanic environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Htun, K.M.

    1984-03-08

    Attempts were made to run materials compatibility, volcanic gas collection, and heat transfer experiments during the 1977 Kilauea eruption. Preliminary results from the recovered samples showed that Fe, Ni, and Fe-Ni alloys were the most heavily oxidized. The Mo and W alloys showed some attack and only neglible reaction was seen on 310 stainless, Hastelloy C, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Rene 41, and Nichrome. Results are qualitative only. (DLC)

  5. Fracture behavior of W based materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, J.E.

    1991-09-30

    This report describes the results of a program to investigate the fracture properties of tungsten based materials. In particular, the role of crack velocity on crack instability was determined in a W-Fe-Ni-Co ``heavy alloy`` and pure polycrystalline tungsten. A considerable effort was expended on the development of an appropriate crack velocity gage for use on these materials. Having succeeded in that, the gage technology was employed to determine the crack velocity response to the applied level of stress intensity factor at the onset of crack instability in pre-cracked specimens. The results were also correlated to the failure mode observed in two material systems of interest. Major results include: (1) unstable crack velocity measurements on metallic specimens which require high spatial resolution require the use of brittle, insulating substrates, as opposed to the ductile, polymer based substrates employed in low spatial resolution measurements; and (2) brittle failure modes, such as cleavage, are characterized by relatively slow unstable crack velocities while evidence of high degrees of deformation are associated with failures which proceed at high unstable crack velocities. This latter behavior is consistent with the predictions of the modeling of Hack et al and may have a significant impact on the interpretation of fractographs in general.

  6. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  7. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  8. Fissile material disposition program final immobilization form assessment and recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.G.; Dunlop, W.H.; Edmunds, T.A.; MacLean, L.M.; Gould, T.H.

    1997-10-03

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in its role as the lead laboratory for the development of plutonium immobilization technologies for the Department of Energy`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD), has been requested by MD to recommend an immobilization technology for the disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The recommendation and supporting documentation was requested to be provided by September 1, 1997. This report addresses the choice between glass and ceramic technologies for immobilizing plutonium using the can-in-canister approach. Its purpose is to provide a comparative evaluation of the two candidate technologies and to recommend a form based on technical considerations.

  9. Hazardous material minimization for radar assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendment, enacted in November 1990, empowered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to completely eliminate the production and usage of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by January 2000. A reduction schedule for methyl chloroform beginning in 1993 with complete elimination by January 2002 was also mandated. In order to meet the mandates, the processes, equipment, and materials used to solder and clean electronic assemblies were investigated. A vapor-containing cleaning system was developed. The system can be used with trichloroethylene or d-Limonene. The solvent can be collected for recycling if desired. Fluxless and no-clean soldering were investigated, and the variables for a laser soldering process were identified.

  10. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Zhujie; Was, Gary; Bartels, David

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  11. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-05

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  12. Effects of acid fog and dew on materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfeld, F.; Henry, R.; Vijayakumar, R.

    1989-10-01

    Field exposure tests have been carried out in order to separate the effects of acidic fog on materials damage from those caused by rain, dew and natural weathering. The test sites were McKittrick and Visalia in the Central Valley and West Casitas Pass in Ventura County. The field tests have been supported by laboratory tests in which materials damage has been determined during exposure to carefully controlled fog water chemistry. Analysis of the field exposure results for galvanized steel and the paint samples shows that the corrosivity of the atmosphere at the three test sites have been very low. The result is confirmed by the ACRM data which show very low corrosion activity. Since corrosion rates were so low approaching those for natural weathering, it was not possible to determine the effects of acidic fog. Based on the aerometric data and the observed corrosion behavior, it is doubtful that acidic fog conditions prevailed for significant times during the exposure period of 1/87 - 3/88 at Visalia and McKittrick. The results of the laboratory tests show that exposure to HNO3 at low pH and to high pollutant concentration increased the corrosion rate of galvanized steel to over 10 micro m/year. Exposure to HNO3 caused serious corrosion damage to anodized aluminum and the paint.

  13. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  14. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling—the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field—is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams—which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics—we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  15. Final Report: Nanoscale Dynamical Heterogeneity in Complex Magnetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kevan, Stephen

    2016-05-27

    A magnetic object can be demagnetized by dropping it on a hard surface, but what does ‘demagnetized’ actually mean? In 1919 Heinrich Barkhausen proved the existence of magnetic domains, which are regions of uniform magnetization that are much larger than atoms but much smaller than a macroscopic object. A material is fully magnetized when domain magnetizations are aligned, while it is demagnetized when the domain magnetizations are randomly oriented and the net magnetization is zero. The heterogeneity of a demagnetized object leads to interesting questions. Magnets are unstable when their poles align, and stable when their poles anti-align, so why is the magnetized state ever stable? What do domains look like? What is the structure of a domain wall? How does the magnetized state transform to the demagnetized state? How do domains appear and disappear? What are the statistical properties of domains and how do these vary as the domain pattern evolves? Some of these questions remain the focus of intense study nearly a century after Barkhausen’s discovery. For example, just a few years ago a new kind of magnetic texture called a skyrmion was discovered. A skyrmion is a magnetic domain that is a nanometer-scale, topologically protected vortex. ‘Topologically protected’ means that skyrmions are hard to destroy and so are stable for extended periods. Skyrmions are characterized by integral quantum numbers and are observed to move with little dissipation and so could store and process information with very low power input. Our research project uses soft x-rays, which offer very high magnetic contrast, to probe magnetic heterogeneity and to measure how it evolves in time under external influences. We will condition a soft x-ray beam so that the wave fronts will be coherent, that is, they will be smooth and well-defined. When coherent soft x-ray beam interacts with a magnetic material, the magnetic heterogeneity is imprinted onto the wave fronts and projected into

  16. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  17. Fullerene-based materials research and development. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, P A; Henderson, C C; Rohlfing, C M; Loy, D A; Assink, R A; Gillen, K T; Jacobs, S J; Dugger, M T

    1995-05-01

    The chemistry and physical properties of fullerenes, the third, molecular allotrope of carbon, have been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Early computational work investigated the stability of fullerene isomers and oxides, which was followed by extensive work on hydrogenated fullerenes. Our work led to the first synthesis of a polymer containing C{sub 60} and the synthesis of the simplest hydrocarbon derivatives of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. The excellent agreement between theory and experiment ({plus_minus} 0.1 kcal/mol in the relative stability of isomers) has provided insight into the chemical nature of fullerenes and has yielded a sound basis for prediction of the structure of derivatized fullerenes. Such derivatives are the key to the preparation of fullerene-based materials.

  18. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  19. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

  20. Alternate electrode materials for the SP100 reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.

    1992-05-01

    This work was performed in response to a request by the Astro-Space Division of the General Electric Co. to develop alternate electrodes materials for the electrodes of the PD2 modules to be used in the SP100 thermoelectric power conversion system. Initially, the project consisted of four tasks: (1) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiMo substrates, (2) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiGe substrates, (3) development of CVI W for porous graphite electrodes, and (4) technology transfer of pertinent developed processes. The project evolved initially into developing only ZrB{sub 2} coatings on SiGe and graphite substrates, and later into developing ZrB{sub 2} coatings only on graphite substrates. Several sizes of graphite and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite substrates were coated with ZrB{sub 2} during the project. For budgetary reasons, the project was terminated after half the allotted time had passed. Apart from the production of coated specimens for evaluation, the major accomplishment of the project was the development of the CVD processing to produce the desired coatings.

  1. Bioassays on Illinois waterway dredged material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.W.; Gibson, A.B.; Dillon, T.M.

    1992-12-01

    Sediment from the Illinois Waterway navigation channel is hydraulically dredged by the US Army Engineer District, Rock Island, and placed in the nearshore environment via pipeline. Water returning to the river can have a high-suspended solids load approaching fluid mud consistency. There is a concern that this return water may exceed the State of Illinois water quality standards for ammonia and have adverse effects on aquatic life. To address these concerns, composite sediment samples and site water collected from selected sites in the Illinois Waterway were evaluated in toxicity tests. Acute (48-hr) toxicity tests were conducted with two species, Pimephales promelas (the fathead minnow) and Daphnia magna (a freshwater cladoceran). A chronic (21-day) toxicity test was also conducted using Daphnia magna. Animals were exposed separately to different concentrations of filtered and unfiltered elutriates prepared from Acute, Cadmium, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promela, Ammonia, Chronic, Elutriate, Sediment, Bioassay, Cladoceran, Fathead minnow. Illinois Waterway edged material. Total ammonia concentrations were measured in all tests and the un-ionized fraction was calculated by adjusting for temperature and pH. Tests were conducted at the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. In addition, as part of an interlaboratory effort, a 48-hr acute toxicity test with Pimephales pomelas fry was conducted concurrently by the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Iowa, Des Moines, IA.

  2. Hydrogen Storage in Novel Molecular Materials, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor V. Struzhkin; Wendy L. Mao; Ho-Kwang Mao; Burkhard Militzer; Russell Hemley

    2006-05-31

    This project is conducting fundamental studies of inorganic H2 clathrates (H2O- and CH4- based). Insights gained from these studies could be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets, especially cost, specific energy, energy density, environmental cleanliness, and safety of hydrogen storage. We have synthesized clathrates with very high H2 contents in diamond anvil cells at high pressure and low temperature; clathrate formation and hydrogen release are spontaneous. The hydrogen clathrate structures have been synthesized at 300 MPa and 250 K with hydrogen weight content about 5%. This clathrate structure (sII) is stable at ambient pressure up to 80 K. The major technical issue is to extend the P-T stability field to near ambient P and T. Our approach is to explore H2-CH4-X and H2-H2O-X systems experimentally and theoretically to find additional components X (promoters ) that will stabilize existing large-cage clathrate structures, and to look for new clathrate structures with even larger hydrogen storage capacity. Most of the experimental studies performed by our group and other researchers have been concentrated on X=THF (tetrahydrofurane molecule).

  3. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K.

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  4. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  5. Organization and diffusion in biological and material fabrication problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Niall Mari

    This thesis is composed of two problems. The first is a systems level analysis of the carbon concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. The second presents a theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser melting for the purpose of hyperdoping silicon with sulfur. While these systems are very distant, they are both relevant to the development of alternative energy (production of biofuels and methods for fabricating photovoltaics respectively). Both problems are approached through analysis of the underlying diffusion equations. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria with a unique carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) which enhances carbon fixation. A greater understanding of this mechanism would offer new insights into the basic biology and methods for bioengineering more efficient biochemical reactions. The molecular components of the CCM have been well characterized in the last decade, with genetic analysis uncovering both variation and commonalities in CCMs across cyanobacteria strains. Analysis of CCMs on a systems level, however, is based on models formulated prior to the molecular characterization. We present an updated model of the cyanobacteria CCM, and analytic solutions in terms of the various molecular components. The solutions allow us to find the parameter regime (expression levels, catalytic rates, permeability of carboxysome shell) where carbon fixation is maximized and oxygenation is minimized. Saturation of RuBisCO, maximization of the ratio of CO2 to O2, and staying below or at the saturation level for carbonic anhydrase are all needed for maximum efficacy. These constraints limit the parameter regime where the most effective carbon fixation can occur. There is an optimal non-specific carboxysome shell permeability, where trapping of CO2 is maximized, but HCO3 - is not detrimentally restricted. The shell also shields carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 → HCO3- conversion at the thylakoid and cell membrane from one another. Co-localization of carbonic

  6. Standard Preparations, Limits of Potency, and Dating Period Limitations for Biological Products. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is amending the general biological products standards relating to dating periods and also removing certain standards relating to standard preparations and limits of potency. FDA is taking this action to update outdated requirements, and accommodate new and evolving technology and testing capabilities, without diminishing public health protections. This action is part of FDA's retrospective review of its regulations in response to an Executive order. FDA is issuing these amendments directly as a final rule because the Agency believes they are noncontroversial and FDA anticipates no significant adverse comments.

  7. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal.

  8. New Recommendation on Biological Materials Could Hamper Muscular Dystrophy Research

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Pauline; Woods, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The new ‘Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member States on research on biological materials of human origin’, adopted in Europe in May 2016 is confusing and lacks specificity on the research use of biomaterials taken from persons not able to consent. It is possible to interpret the relevant clauses in a restrictive manner and doing so would hamper biobank research, by requiring researchers or biobank curators to examine individual records in detail, to check they are adhering to the Recommendation. This would be particularly problematic for muscular dystrophy and other rare disease research, the progress of which relies increasingly on the sharing of biomaterials and data internationally, as it will add complexity to the logistics of biomaterials and data sharing and introduce barriers for researchers preparing biomaterials for sharing. Such barriers are contradictory to EC policies on promoting and funding rare disease research and removing barriers to better care and treatment. Such policies work in concert with international progress in rare disease research, in particular the NIH’s Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Centre. The rare disease community has in recent years worked to create a common framework of harmonised approaches to enable the responsible, voluntary, and secure sharing of biomaterials and data. These efforts are supported by the European Commission in such moves as FP7 funding to advance rare disease research and the introduction of National Plans for rare disease; and are bolstered by similar efforts in the USA via the Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program and the NIH/NCATS Patient Registry developments. Introducing Recommendations from the Committee of Ministers, containing clauses which are incompatible to the efforts to advance rare disease research, seems counter-productive. PMID:28133562

  9. Digital Learning Material for Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Building models to describe processes forms an essential part of molecular biology research. However, in molecular biology curricula little attention is generally being paid to the development of this skill. In order to provide students the opportunity to improve their model building skills, we decided to develop a number of digital cases about…

  10. Evolutionary Design in Biological Physics and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Park, J.-M.; Deem, M. W.

    In this chapter we provide a thorough discussion of the theoretical description of the multi-site approach to cancer vaccination. The discussion is somewhat demanding from a biological point of view. References to primary biological publications are given. A general reference on immunology is [1].

  11. Distinguishability of Biological Material Using Ultraviolet Multi-Spectral Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.C.; Heinen, R.J.; Rigdon, L.D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Shokair, I.R.; Siragusa, G.R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-14

    Recent interest in the detection and analysis of biological samples by spectroscopic methods has led to questions concerning the degree of distinguishability and biological variability of the ultraviolet (W) fluorescent spectra from such complex samples. We show that the degree of distinguishability of such spectra is readily determined numerically.

  12. The BIOSCI electronic newsgroup network for the biological sciences. Final report, October 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, D.; Mack, D.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report for a DOE funded project on BIOSCI Electronic Newsgroup Network for the biological sciences. A usable network for scientific discussion, major announcements, problem solving, etc. has been created.

  13. Third international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology (ISMB-95): Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The specific aims of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) were to: convene a critical mass of researchers applying advanced computational techniques to problems in molecular biology; promote interchange of problems and solutions between computer scientists and molecular biologists; create education opportunities in this cross-disciplinary field for students and senior researchers wishing to either apply or benefit from these techniques; produce an archival proceedings as a forum for rapid dissemination of new results in a peer-reviewed manner; produce a set of tutorial materials for education and training of researchers interested in this field; maintain the momentum generated by the highly successful previous conferences in the series, and establish a regular event that will help to solidify the field; and foster the involvement of women and minorities in the field.

  14. Trends in United States Biological Materials Oversight and Institutional Biosafety Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Biological materials oversight in life sciences research in the United States is a challenging endeavor for institutions and the scientific, regulatory compliance, and federal communities. In order to assess biological materials oversight at Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) registered with the United States National Institutes of Health,…

  15. Patients’ Attitudes toward the Donation of Biological Materials for the Derivation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Ishan; Bollinger, Juli; Mathews, Debra J.H.; Neumann, Neil M.; Rattani, Abbas; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Although academics have raised ethical issues with iPSCs, patients’ perspectives on them and their attitudes toward donating biological materials for iPSC research are unclear. Here, we provide such information to aid in developing policies for consent, collection, and use of biological materials for deriving iPSCs based on patient focus groups. PMID:24388172

  16. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2003-05-06

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

  17. Mechanisms of Microwave Induced Damage in Biologic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    246, 1978. [6] F. Oosawa, Polyelectrolytes, Marcel Dekker, New York, 88, 1971. (7] Z. Alexandrowics, A. Katchalsky, " Colligative properties of...condensation in polyelectrolyte solutions: I. Colligative properties ", The Journal of Chemical Physics, 51, 924-933, 1969. e3 CAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGICAL...exogenously applied electromagnetic fields on certain measured properties of a biological system is a transient one. 1,203,4 The system’s response, determined

  18. Chemical and Biological Barrier Materials for Collective Protection Shelters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    fall into several categories including butyl rubbers , chlorinated aliphatics, and fluorinated polymers. The degree of protection these barrier materials...M51 barrier material. These candidate materials consisted of butyl nylons, Teflon/Kevlar, Tedlar/vinyl coated Dacron, Teflon/Nomex, and...Teflon/Kevlar material was chosen based on its superior CB resistance, ability to be decontaminated, weight, mechanical properties, and the ability to

  19. Chemical and Biological Barrier Materials for Collective Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-19

    Directorate ColPro Shelters *Heavy *Cumbersome *High Logistic Burden *Very Expensive Barrier Materials * Butyl Rubbers *Chlorinated Aliphatics *Fluorinated...Natick Soldier Center Slide 17 • RDECOM Collective Protection Directorate NANOCOMPOSITE FILMS Background ! Novel patented nanotechnology is based on the...Material -Thickness -Inertness -Condition SEVERAL COMPONENTS # Base Material or Substrate *Provides Physical Properties #Impermeable Barrier **Provides CB

  20. Final Report on the Evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Instructional Materials Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tushnet, Naida C.; Millsap, Mary Ann; Abdullah-Welsh, Noraini; Brigham, Nancy; Cooley, Elizabeth; Elliott, Jeanne; Johnston, Karen; Martinez, Alina; Nierenberg, Marla; Rosenblum, Sheila

    This document presents the final report on the evaluation of the Instructional Materials Development (IMD) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and focuses on issues related to the development, dissemination, adoption, implementation, and impact of new instructional materials. The IMD program evaluates products at each step, from…

  1. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC...

  2. Analyses of Hazardous Substances in Biological Materials: Volume 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angerer, Jürgen; Schaller, Karl-Heinz

    1996-10-01

    Biological monitoring has proved extremely valuable in assessing the health risk of persons exposed to hazardous chemical substances in the environment or at the workplace. The chemical compounds are generally determined in body fluids. They are present in trace or ultratrace concentrations. Specific and extremely sensitive methods of chemical analysis are necessary to separate these substances from the biological matrix and to determine them precisely. This volume contains 12 standardized analytical methods. All methods are suitable for routine use. They meet exceptionally high standards of reliability and reproducibility and are in accordance with 'Good Laboratory Practice'. Considerable emphasis is placed on sample collection methods and on analytical quality control. One gereral chapter introduces biological monitoring using ICP-spectroscopy.

  3. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  4. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  5. Cueing Metacognition to Improve Researching and Essay Writing in a Final Year High School Biology Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, L. N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on degrees of awareness and use of specific metacognitive strategies by 16 students in a final-year high school biology class in New Zealand. The aims of the intervention were to broaden students' thinking about bioethical issues associated with cancer and to enhance students' use of metacognition. Cues and prompts were used in this unit of work to help students use metacognitive strategies since students did not generally use metacognitive strategies spontaneously. Scaffolding was mediated through the teacher modelling, questioning, cueing or prompting students to evaluate their learning. The research reported here illustrates how teachers can cue students to be more self-directed in their learning. Three case studies illustrate how learning strategies were used differentially. Most students were aware of strategies that could help them to learn more effectively. It was found that those students who were not only aware of but also used strategies to plan, monitor and evaluate their work, produced essays of higher quality.

  6. Linking Biological Responses of Terrestrial N Eutrophication to the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Classification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. D.; Clark, C.; Blett, T.

    2015-12-01

    The response of a biological indicator to N deposition can indicate that an ecosystem has surpassed a critical load and is at risk of significant change. The importance of this exceedance is often difficult to digest by policy makers and public audiences if the change is not linked to a familiar ecosystem endpoint. A workshop was held to bring together scientists, resource managers, and policy makers with expertise in ecosystem functioning, critical loads, and economics in an effort to identify the ecosystem services impacted by air pollution. This was completed within the framework of the Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) Classification System to produce a product that identified distinct interactions between society and the effects of nitrogen pollution. From each change in a biological indicator, we created multiple ecological production functions to identify the cascading effects of the change to a measureable ecosystem service that a user interacts with either by enjoying, consuming, or appreciating the good or service, or using it as an input in the human economy. This FEGS metric was then linked to a beneficiary group that interacts with the service. Chains detailing the links from the biological indicator to the beneficiary group were created for aquatic and terrestrial acidification and eutrophication at the workshop, and here we present a subset of the workshop results by highlighting for 9 different ecosystems affected by terrestrial eutrophication. A total of 213 chains that linked to 37 unique FEGS metrics and impacted 15 beneficiary groups were identified based on nitrogen deposition mediated changes to biological indicators. The chains within each ecosystem were combined in flow charts to show the complex, overlapping relationships among biological indicators, ecosystem services, and beneficiary groups. Strength of relationship values were calculated for each chain based on support for the link in the scientific literature. We produced the

  7. Final Report: Laser-Material Interactions Relevant to Analytic Spectroscopy of Wide Band Gap Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J. T.

    2014-04-05

    We summarize our studies aimed at developing an understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry in terms of laser materials interactions relevant to laser-based sampling and chemical analysis of wide bandgap materials. This work focused on the determination of mechanisms for the emission of electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules from laser irradiation of surfaces. We determined the important role of defects on these emissions, the thermal, chemical, and physical interactions responsible for matrix effects and mass-dependent transport/detection. This work supported development of new techniques and technology for the determination of trace elements contained such as nuclear waste materials.

  8. Targeting the finite-deformation response of wavy biological tissues with bio-inspired material architectures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqiong; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2013-12-01

    The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm driven by a homogenized-based model is employed to target the response of three types of heart-valve chordae tendineae with different stiffening characteristics due to different degrees of waviness of collagen fibril/fiber bundles. First, geometric and material parameters are identified through an extensive parametric study that produce excellent agreement of the simulated response based on simplified unit cell architectures with the actual response of the complex biological tissue. These include amplitude and wavelength of the crimped chordae microstructure, elastic moduli of the constituent phases, and degree of microstructural refinement of the stiff phase at fixed volume fraction whose role in the stiffening response is elucidated. The study also reveals potential non-uniqueness of bio-inspired wavy microstructures in attaining the targeted response of certain chordae tendineae crimp configurations. The homogenization-based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, whose predictions are validated through the parametric study, is then shown to be an excellent tool in identifying optimal unit cell architectures in the design space that exhibits very steep gradients. Finally, defect criticality of optimal unit cell architectures is investigated in order to assess their feasibility in replacing actual biological tendons with stiffening characteristics.

  9. Revocation of General Safety Test Regulations That Are Duplicative of Requirements in Biologics License Applications. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-02

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations by removing the general safety test (GST) requirements for biological products. FDA is finalizing this action because the existing codified GST regulations are duplicative of requirements that are also specified in biologics license applications (BLAs), or are no longer necessary or appropriate to help ensure the safety, purity, and potency of licensed biological products. FDA is taking this action as part of its retrospective review of its regulations to promote improvement and innovation, in response to the Executive order.

  10. [Biological decontamination of the imprints obtained from different dental materials].

    PubMed

    Brekhlichuk, P P; Petrov, V O; Bati, V V; Levchuk, O B; Boĭko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of the imprints made of alginate ("Ypeen") and silicone material ("Speedex") with and without the correction supplement has been investigated. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus have been estimated to be the most survivable species on the imprint surface, however their concentration differ depending on the type of imprints' material. The strains resistant to antibiotics dominated among all the isolated microorganisms. Bacterial preparations based on Bacillus - Biosporin and Subalin and some extracts of edible plants, fruits and berries can be used in dentistry for the decontamination of imprints obtained by the use of different materials.

  11. An outlook review: mechanochromic materials and their potential for biological and healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Macroscopic mechanical perturbations have been observed to result in optical changes for certain compounds and composite materials. This phenomenon could originate from chemical and physical changes across various length scales, from the rearrangement of chemical bonds to alteration of molecular domains on the order of several hundred nanometers. This review classifies the mechanisms and surveys of how each class of mechanochromic materials has been, and can potentially be applied in biological and healthcare innovations. The study of cellular and molecular responses to mechanical forces in biological systems is an emerging field; there is potential in applying mechanochromic principles and material systems for probing biological systems. On the other hand, application of mechanochromic materials for medical and healthcare consumer products has been described in a wide variety of concepts and inventions. It is hopeful that further understanding of mechanochromism and material innovations would initiate concrete, impactful studies in biological systems soon.

  12. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    PubMed

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls.

  13. A New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution. Final committee report

    SciTech Connect

    None None

    2012-05-10

    In July, 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences to convene a committee to examine the current state of biological research in the United States and recommend how best to capitalize on recent technological and scientific advances that have allowed biologists to integrate biological research findings, collect and interpret vastly increased amounts of data, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems. From September 2008 through July of 2009, a committee of 16 experts from the fields of biology, engineering and computational science undertook to delineate those scientific and technological advances and come to a consensus on how the U.S. might best capitalize on them. This report, authored by the Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century, describes the committee’s work and conclusions.

  14. Final LDRD report : development of advanced UV light emitters and biological agent detection strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Figiel, Jeffrey James; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Banas, Michael Anthony; Farrow, Darcie; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project which has focused on the development of novel, compact, ultraviolet solid-state sources and fluorescence-based sensing platforms that apply such devices to the sensing of biological and nuclear materials. We describe our development of 270-280 nm AlGaN-based semiconductor UV LEDs with performance suitable for evaluation in biosensor platforms as well as our development efforts towards the realization of a 340 nm AlGaN-based laser diode technology. We further review our sensor development efforts, including evaluation of the efficacy of using modulated LED excitation and phase sensitive detection techniques for fluorescence detection of bio molecules and uranyl-containing compounds.

  15. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  16. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  17. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2014-08-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing.

  18. Modulating material interfaces through biologically-inspired intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Melis; Steward, Robert L.; Chang, Chia-Jung; Orndoff, Cynthia J.; Zeng, Yukai; Ho, Mon-Shu; LeDuc, Philip R.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2011-12-01

    This letter describes the control of molecular filament organization through biologically inspired intermediates, enabling us to obtain large-area regular nanopatterns. We first studied cultured single filamentous actins on an unmodified glass surface (hydrophilic surface) and introduced myosin-II to modify the control. We then utilized an inorganic salt crystallization approach on the response of these two proteins, actin filament and myosin-II, to analyze the resultant spatially localized patterns. Through the utilization of myosin-II and the salt crystallization approach, we were able to induce the filament orientation of 63°; while without myosin-II, we induced an orientation of 90°.

  19. Water regime of mechanical-biological pretreated waste materials under fast-growing trees.

    PubMed

    Rüth, Björn; Lennartz, Bernd; Kahle, Petra

    2007-10-01

    In this study mechanical-biological pre-treated waste material (MBP) was tested for suitability to serve as an alternative surface layer in combination with fast-growing and water-consumptive trees for final covers at landfill sites. The aim was to quantify evapotranspiration and seepage losses by numerical model simulations for two sites in Germany. In addition, the leaf area index (LAI) of six tree species over the growing season as the driving parameter for transpiration calculations was determined experimentally. The maximum LAI varied between 3.8 and 6.1 m2 m(-2) for poplar and willow clones, respectively. The evapotranspiration calculations revealed that the use of MBP waste material for re-cultivation enhanced evapotranspiration by 40 mm year(-1) (10%) over an 11 year calculation period compared to a standard mineral soil. Between 82% (for LAI(max) = 3.8) and 87% (for LAI(max) = 6.1) of the average annual precipitation (506 mm) could be retained from the surface layer assuming eastern German climate conditions, compared with a retention efficiency between 79 and 82% for a mineral soil. Although a MBP layer in conjunction with water-consumptive trees can reduce vertical water losses as compared to mineral substrates, the effect is not sufficient to meet legal regulations.

  20. Using biological inspiration to engineer functional nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Wendell, David W; Patti, Jordan; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2006-11-01

    Humans have always looked to nature for design inspiration, and material design on the molecular level is no different. Here we explore how this idea applies to nanoscale biomimicry, specifically examining both recent advances and our own work on engineering lipid and polymer membrane systems with cellular processes.

  1. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Contamination Survivability: Material Effects Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-22

    compatibility X 23 Lubricity X 24 Solubility X 25 Melting point/boiling point X 26 Viscosity X Ph...MATERIAL PROPERTIES MATRIX AND DATA TEMPLATE. TABLE 2. CONTINUED Petroleum, Oils , and Lubricants Properties (cite method, SOP, ASTM, etc...used) Sample Name/Product Number Thermal Stability Chemical Compatibility Lubricity Solubility Melting Point/Boiling Point Viscosity

  2. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2000-11-21

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  3. [Materials for the substantiation of the biological MAC of benzene].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, I P; Avilova, G G; Karpukhina, E A; Karimova, L K; Boĭko, V I; Makar'eva, L M

    1990-09-01

    Relatively great amount of benzene-originated phenol, the presence of a definite relationship between phenol amount in the urine and benzene content in the air indicate that it is reasonable to use a phenol sample as an exposure test. To determine the intensity of benzene exposure, data on phenol content in the urine of people working at some big-tonnage enterprises has been analyzed. On the basis of the national and foreign literature data on the correlation between the phenol urine concentration and the level of benzene exposure a regression equation was deduced, which has made it possible to calculate phenol content in the urine on the level of average working day benzene concentration adopted in the USSR. This value equals 15 mg/l, which was proposed as a biological benzene MAC.

  4. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  5. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  6. Impact Debris With Biological Material In The Inner Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos E.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.

    2010-10-01

    Here we revisited the article published by Gladman et al. 2005 in which is assumed that asteroidal and cometary impacts onto Earth can liberate material containing viable microorganisms, we studied the subsequent distribution of the escaping impact ejecta throughout the inner Solar System on time scales of 30,000 years. We reproduce their results and found that there are impacts with Jupiter too, that is relevant since the satellites Europa and Ganymede are believed to have liquid oceans below their surfaces.

  7. Modeling of a biological material nacre: Waviness stiffness model.

    PubMed

    Al-Maskari, N S; McAdams, D A; Reddy, J N

    2017-01-01

    Nacre is a tough yet stiff natural composite composed of microscopic mineral polygonal tablets bonded by a tough biopolymer. The high stiffness of nacre is known to be due to its high mineral content. However, the remarkable toughness of nacre is explained by its ability to deform past a yield point and develop large inelastic strain over a large volume around defects and cracks. The high strain is mainly due to sliding and waviness of the tablets. Mimicking nacre's remarkable properties, to date, is still a challenge due in part to fabrication challenges as well as a lack of models that can predict its properties or properties of a bulk material given specific constituent materials and material structure. Previous attempts to create analytical models for nacre include tablet sliding but don't account for the waviness of the tablets. In this work, a mathematical model is proposed to account for the waviness of the tablet. Using this model, a better prediction of the elastic modulus is obtained that agrees with experimental values found in the literature. In addition, the waviness angle can be predicted which is within the recommended range. Having a good representative model aids in designing a bio-mimicked nacre.

  8. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  9. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51.97 Section 51.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... enrichment facility. As provided in section 5(e) of the Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power...

  10. Metamaterials as a Platform for the Development of Novel Materials for Energy Applications. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, Willie

    2016-02-11

    Final report detailing the work performed on DESC0005240 at Boston College. Report details research into metamaterial absorber theory, thermophotovoltaics a dynamic 3 state material capable of switching between transmissive, reflective, and absorptive states. Also high temperature NIR metamaterials are explored.

  11. A Plan for the Updating and Implementation of Performance-Based Vocational Education Material. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilger, Phyllis

    This final report presents five products of a health occupations project conducted (1) to update health occupations data, (2) to field test a performance-based curriculum in secondary programs, and (3) to develop materials (domain-referenced tests) to predetermine student and/or job incumbent competencies prior to entrance into a developed…

  12. Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Allen

    2011-08-26

    This document is the final report of research performed under U.S. DOE Award Number DE-FG02-07ER46379, entitled Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials. It covers the full period of the award, from June 1, 2007 through May 31, 2011.

  13. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  14. Comparison of the biological NH3 removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Kamamoto, M; Yani, M; Shoda, M

    2001-01-01

    Four inorganic packing materials were evaluated in terms of their availability as a packing material of a packed tower deodorization apparatus (biofilter) from the viewpoints of biological NH3 removal characteristics and some physical properties. Porous ceramics (A), calcinated cristobalite (B), calcinated and formed obsidian (C), granulated and calculated soil (D) were used. The superiority of these packing materials determined based on the values of non-biological removal per unit weight or unit volume of packing material, complete removal capacity of NH3 per unit weight of packing material per day or unit volume of packing material per day and pressure drop of the packed bed was in the order of A approximately = C > B > or = D. Packing materials A and C with high porosity, maximum water content, and suitable mean pore diameter showed excellent removal capacity.

  15. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  16. Method and plant for conversion of waste material to stable final products

    SciTech Connect

    Santen, S.; Thornblom, J.

    1985-04-02

    The invention relates to a method and plant for converting waste material containing and/or comprising thermally disintegratable chemcial substances to stable final products such as CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and HCI, the waste material being subjected to a plasma gas of high temperature generated in a plasma generator in order to effect disintegration. The waste material in feedable form is caused to flow through a reaction zone, heated by a plasma gas to at least 2000/sup 0/ C. The reaction zone comprises a cavity burned in a gas-permeable filling in piece form arranged in a reaction chamber, by means of the plasma jet from the plasma generator directed towards and projecting into said filling. An appropriate oxygen potential is maintained in at least the reaction zone such that the disintegration products are continuously converted to stable final products.

  17. Detection of Biological Materials Using Ion Mobility Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodacy, P.J.; Sterling, J.P.; Butler, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    Traditionally, Ion Mobility Spectroscopy has been used to examine ions of relatively low molecular weight and high ion mobility. In recent years, however, biomolecules such as bradykinin, cytochrome c, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), apomyoglobin, and lysozyme, have been successfully analyzed, but studies of whole bio-organisms have not been performed. In this study an attempt was made to detect and measure the mobility of two bacteriophages, {lambda}-phage and MS2 using electrospray methods to inject the viruses into the ion mobility spectrometer. Using data from Yeh, et al., which makes a comparison between the diameter of non-biologic particles and the specific particle mobility, the particle mobility for the MS2 virus was estimated to be 10{sup {minus}2} cm{sup 2}/volt-sec. From this mobility the drift time of these particles in our spectrometer was calculated to be approximately 65 msec. The particle mobility for the {lambda}-phage virus was estimated to be 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2}/volt-sec. which would result in a drift time of 0.7 sec. Spectra showing the presence of a viral peak at the expected drift time were not observed. However, changes in the reactant ion peak that could be directly attributed to the presence of the viruses were observed. Virus clustering, excessive collisions, and the electrospray injection method limited the performance of this IMS. However, we believe that an instrument specifically designed to analyze such bioagents and utilizing other injection and ionization methods will succeed in directly detecting viruses and bacteria.

  18. Model of heterogeneous material dissolution in simulated biological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazeva, A. G.; Gutmanas, E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    In orthopedic research, increasing attention is being paid to bioresorbable/biodegradable implants as an alternative to permanent metallic bone healing devices. Biodegradable metal based implants possessing high strength and ductility potentially can be used in load bearing sites. Biodegradable Mg and Fe are ductile and Fe possess high strength, but Mg degrades too fast and Fe degrades too slow, Ag is a noble metal and should cause galvanic corrosion of the more active metallic iron - thus, corrosion of Fe can be increased. Nanostructuring should results in higher strength and can result in higher rate of dissolution/degradation from grain boundaries. In this work, a simple dissolution model of heterogeneous three phase nanocomposite material is considered - two phases being metal Fe and Ag and the third - nanopores. Analytical solution for the model is presented. Calculations demonstrate that the changes in the relative amount of each phase depend on mass exchange and diffusion coefficients. Theoretical results agree with preliminary experimental results.

  19. Interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R; Otis, Gard

    2006-10-01

    Beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus Apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. We characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: Apis mellifera L., Apis andreniformis L., Apis dorsata L. and two subspecies of Apis cerana L. In order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. From the resulting stress-strain curves, values for yield stress, yield strain, stress and strain at the proportional limit, stiffness, and resilience were obtained. Apis dorsata wax was stiffer and had a higher yield stress and stress at the proportional limit than all of the other waxes. The waxes of A. cerana and A. mellifera had intermediate strength and stiffness, and A. andreniformis wax was the least strong, stiff and resilient. All of the waxes had similar strain values at the proportional limit and yield point. The observed differences in wax mechanical properties correlate with the nesting ecology of these species. A. mellifera and A. cerana nest in cavities that protect the nest from environmental stresses, whereas the species with the strongest and stiffest wax, A. dorsata, constructs relatively heavy nests attached to branches of tall trees, exposing them to substantially greater mechanical forces. The wax of A. andreniformis was the least strong, stiff and resilient, and their nests have low masses relative to other species in the genus and, although not built in cavities, are constructed on lower, often shielded branches that can absorb the forces of wind and rain.

  20. A planar transmission-line sensor for measuring microwave permittivity of liquid and semisolid biological materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An accurate technique for determining the permittivity of biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line is presented. The technique utilizes closed-form approximations that relate the material permittivity to the line propagation constant. A thru-reflect-line calibration procedure i...

  1. Spider dragline silk: correlated and mosaic evolution in high-performance biological materials.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Brook O; Blackledge, Todd A; Summers, Adam P; Hayashi, Cheryl Y

    2006-12-01

    The evolution of biological materials is a critical, yet poorly understood, component in the generation of biodiversity. For example, the diversification of spiders is correlated with evolutionary changes in the way they use silk, and the material properties of these fibers, such as strength, toughness, extensibility, and stiffness, have profound effects on ecological function. Here, we examine the evolution of the material properties of dragline silk across a phylogenetically diverse sample of species in the Araneomorphae (true spiders). The silks we studied are generally stronger than other biological materials and tougher than most biological or man-made fibers, but their material properties are highly variable; for example, strength and toughness vary more than fourfold among the 21 species we investigated. Furthermore, associations between different properties are complex. Some traits, such as strength and extensibility, seem to evolve independently and show no evidence of correlation or trade-off across species, even though trade-offs between these properties are observed within species. Material properties retain different levels of phylogenetic signal, suggesting that traits such as extensibility and toughness may be subject to different types or intensities of selection in several spider lineages. The picture that emerges is complex, with a mosaic pattern of trait evolution producing a diverse set of materials across spider species. These results show that the properties of biological materials are the target of selection, and that these changes can produce evolutionarily and ecologically important diversity.

  2. Nano-FTIR chemical mapping of minerals in biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Amarie, Sergiu; Zaslansky, Paul; Kajihara, Yusuke; Griesshaber, Erika; Schmahl, Wolfgang W

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methods for imaging of nanocomposites based on X-ray, electron, tunneling or force microscopy provide information about the shapes of nanoparticles; however, all of these methods fail on chemical recognition. Neither do they allow local identification of mineral type. We demonstrate that infrared near-field microscopy solves these requirements at 20 nm spatial resolution, highlighting, in its first application to natural nanostructures, the mineral particles in shell and bone. "Nano-FTIR" spectral images result from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). On polished sections of Mytilus edulis shells we observe a reproducible vibrational (phonon) resonance within all biocalcite microcrystals, and distinctly different spectra on bioaragonite. Surprisingly, we discover sparse, previously unknown, 20 nm thin nanoparticles with distinctly different spectra that are characteristic of crystalline phosphate. Multicomponent phosphate bands are observed on human tooth sections. These spectra vary characteristically near tubuli in dentin, proving a chemical or structural variation of the apatite nanocrystals. The infrared band strength correlates with the mineral density determined by electron microscopy. Since nano-FTIR sensitively responds to structural disorder it is well suited for the study of biomineral formation and aging. Generally, nano-FTIR is suitable for the analysis and identification of composite materials in any discipline, from testing during nanofabrication to even the clinical investigation of osteopathies. PMID:22563528

  3. Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material

    PubMed Central

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

  4. Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.

    PubMed

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

    2010-04-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue.

  5. Comparison of the biological H2S removal characteristics among four inorganic packing materials.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M; Kamamoto, M; Yani, M; Shoda, M

    2001-01-01

    Four inorganic packing materials were evaluated in terms of their availability as packing materials of a packed tower deodorization apparatus (biofilter) from the viewpoints of biological H2S removal characteristics and some physical properties. Among porous ceramics (A), calcinated cristobalite (B), calcinated and formed obsidian (C), granulated and calcinated soil (D), the superiority of these packing materials determined based on the values of non-biological removal per unit weight or unit volume of packing material, complete removal capacity of H2S per unit weight of packing material per day or unit volume of packing material per day and pressure drop of the packed bed was in the order of A approximately equal to C > D approximately equal to B, which is correlated with the maximum water content, porosity, and mean pore diameter.

  6. Development of nanostructured biocompatible materials for chemical and biological sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curley, Michael; Chilvery, Ashwith K.; Kukhatreva, Tatiana; Sharma, Anup; Corda, John; Farley, Carlton

    2012-10-01

    This research is focused on the fabrication of thin films followed by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) testing of these films for various applications. One technique involves the mixture of nanoparticles with twophoton material to be used as an indicator dye. Another method involved embedding silver nanoparticles in a ceramic nano-membrane. The substrates were characterized by both Atom Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We applied the nanostructured substrate to measure the SERS spectra of 10-6 Mol/L Rhodomine 6G(Rh6G), e-coli bacteria and RDX explosive. Our results showed that silver coated ceramic membranes can serve as appropriate substrates to enhance Raman signals. In addition, we demonstrated that the in-house-made colloidal silver can work for enhancement of the Raman spectra for bacteria. We measured the Raman spectra of Rh6G molecules on a substrate absorbed by a nanofluid of silver. We observed several strong Raman bands - 613cm-1,768 cm-1,1308cm-1 1356 cm-1,1510cm-1, which correspond to Rh6G vibrational modes υ53,υ65,υ115,υ117,υ146 respectively, using a ceramic membrane coated by silver. The Raman spectra of Rh6G absorbed by silver nanofluid showed strong enhancement of Raman bands 1175cm-1 and 1529cm-1, 1590 cm-1. Those correspond to vibrational frequency modes - υ103,υ151,152. We also measured the Raman spectra of e-coli bacteria, both absorbed by silver nanofluid, and on nanostructured substrate. In addition, the Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectra (FTIR) of the bacteria was measured.

  7. Digital learning material for student-directed model building in molecular biologyS.

    PubMed

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Coppens, Marjolijn; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-09-01

    The building of models to explain data and make predictions constitutes an important goal in molecular biology research. To give students the opportunity to practice such model building, two digital cases had previously been developed in which students are guided to build a model step by step. In this article, the development and initial evaluation of a third digital case is described. It concerns the selection of bristles during Drosophila development. To mimic a real research situation in a more realistic way, students are given much more freedom while building their models and can thus follow their own model-building approach. At the same time, however, students are provided with a sufficient amount of support to ensure that they can build their models without the requirement of intensive supervision.

  8. Small structures fabricated using ash-forming biological materials as templates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngbaek

    2003-01-01

    Different ash-forming biological materials such as gills of mushrooms, cotton wool, silk fiber, spider silk, dog's hair, and human hair were examined as templates to fabricate small structures. Ashes obtained from gills of mushrooms, silk fiber, and spider silk were miniaturized replicas of the original materials, whereas ashes from dog's hair and human hair were tubes. These materials were successfully coated with different inorganic materials by interface-selective sol-gel polymerization. Calcining coated materials yielded structures composed of ash and coated inorganic materials such as silica, titania, copper oxide, aluminum oxide, and iron oxide. Fully calcined ashes from native materials and materials coated with silica were usually 1/3 and 1/5 as large as their original materials, respectively. Silica-ash hybrid materials were much more rigid than ash materials. Incompletely calcined human hairs formed tubes with thick carbonized walls, and their inside morphologies suggested that medulla in human hairs might be responsible for tube formation. Preparation of complex tubular structures was possible as tied hairs did not break during calcination. Results in this study showed biological materials were useful as templates for fabricating inorganic structures regardless of ash formation.

  9. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  10. Biological conversion of biomass to methane. Final report, June 1, 1976-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, J T

    1980-02-01

    An experimental methane fermentation system was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the processng requirements and conversion efficiencies associated with production of methane from various organic feed stocks. The fermentation reactors had an operating volume 0.775 m/sup 3/. This permitted operation with an approximate continuous feed of milled organics including beef feedlot manure, corn stover, wheat straw and alfalfa hay. A thermochemical pretreatment was applied to the corn stover and wheat straw in order to increase the biodegradability of these substrates. Working with these large units provided sufficient volumes of fermented slurry for evaluation of the dewatering properties of these slurries. Kinetic data were obtained by operating four reactors at different retention times. These data were used to calculate a first order rate constant and the percent of substrate volatile solids that were biodegradable. These data were obtained on beef feed lot manure at 40/sup 0/C and 60/sup 0/C nominal fermentation temperatures. Data from the fermentation of corn stover showed that the biodegradability of the stover volatile solids was only 36 percent at the thermophilic fermentation temperature. The first order rate constant was found to be 0.25 day/sup -1/. Thermochemical pretreatment increased the biodegradability of stover volatile solids to 71 percent. The final substrate tested was a green crop that was field dried - alfalfa. Significant foaming problems were encountered with this material. The volatile solids were found to be 74 percent biodegradable at a fermentation temperature of 60/sup 0/C. (MHR)

  11. ``Standoff Biofinder'' for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E.; Sharma, Shiv K.; McKay, Christopher P.; Gasda, Patrick J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Lucey, Paul G.; Flynn, Luke; Nurul Abedin, M.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger

    2016-09-01

    We developed a prototype instrument called the Standoff Biofinder, which can quickly locate biological material in a 500 cm2 area from a 2 m standoff distance with a detection time of 0.1 s. All biogenic materials give strong fluorescence signals when excited with UV and visible lasers. In addition, the luminescence decay time of biogenic compounds is much shorter (<100 ns) than the micro- to millisecond decay time of transition metal ions and rare-earth ions in minerals and rocks. The Standoff Biofinder takes advantage of the short lifetime of biofluorescent materials to obtain real-time fluorescence images that show the locations of biological materials among luminescent minerals in a geological context. The Standoff Biofinder instrument will be useful for locating biological material during future NASA rover, lander, and crewed missions. Additionally, the instrument can be used for nondestructive detection of biological materials in unique samples, such as those obtained by sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids. The Standoff Biofinder also has the capacity to detect microbes and bacteria on space instruments for planetary protection purposes.

  12. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  13. Metropolitan Programs in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations; A Need and Attitude Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    To establish the feasibility of implementing applied biological and agricultural occupations programs in the metropolitan area of Chicago, four populations were surveyed by means of mailed questionnaires or interest inventories to determine: (1) the employment opportunities in the applied biological and agricultural industries, (2) the interests…

  14. A chirality-based search for extraterrestrial biological and prebiological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, Lioudmila; Sparks, William; Nagdimunov, Lev

    2013-04-01

    Important evidence relevant to extraterrestrial life is the existence in space of organic molecules of prebiological or biological significance. Such molecules are often characterized by a special type of asymmetry called "homochirality" (domination of molecules of a specific handedness). This results in optical activity of the material that contains those molecules. Due to optical activity, the light scattered by such materials is characterized by non-zero circular polarization. We review laboratory measurements of light scattered by biological (e.g. bacteria, leaves) and non-biological (minerals) samples. These have revealed distinctive features in the circular polarization spectra in absorption bands for the biological samples. We present theoretical simulations of light scattering by homochiral materials made with the superposition T-matrix code for clusters of optically-active spheres. This allowed us to simulate light scattering by biological objects, e.g. colonies of bacteria, and by materials of prebiological value, e.g. cometary dust. We explore how circular polarization depends on the porosity and size of aggregates. Based on this, we provide some recommendations for observing signs of life in space, specifically, on exoplanets. This study was supported by the NASA Exobiology and Astrobiology Program.

  15. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Judith

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  16. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  17. Truck transportation of hazardous materials: a national overview. Final report, October 1983-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, D.J.; Liu, T.K.

    1987-12-01

    The primary objective of the effort has been to provide government regulators and policymakers with (a) an estimate of the aggregate national volume of hazardous chemical and petroleum products transportation in trucks, (b) a profile of the truck fleet involved in hazardous-materials transport, and (c) the geographical distribution of the transport activity. After defining data sources and methods, hazardous chemical and petroleum products transport is quantified in terms of total tons, ton-miles, and haul distances. Truck-transport categories include domestic production from U.S. plants, imports from ports of entry, and distribution from regional storage facilities. Next, the report characterizes the truck fleet involved in hazardous-materials transport in terms of truck size, type, and placarded operations. Geographical distribution of truck transport of hazardous materials is then presented graphically, with traffic patterns mapped in terms of major highway corridors. Finally, trends in truck transport of hazardous chemical and petroleum products since 1977 are analyzed.

  18. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  19. Gas permeability of biochar-amended clay: potential alternative landfill final cover material.

    PubMed

    Wong, James Tsz Fung; Chen, Zhongkui; Ng, Charles Wang Wai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2016-04-01

    Compacted biochar-amended clay (BAC) has been proposed as an alternative landfill final cover material in this study. Biochar has long been proposed to promote crop growth, mitigate odor emission, and promote methane oxidation in field soils. However, previous studies showed that soil-gas permeability was increased upon biochar application, which will promote landfill gas emission. The objective of the present study is to investigate the possibility of using compacted BAC as an alternative material in landfill final cover by evaluating its gas permeability. BAC samples were prepared by mixing 425-μm-sieved peanut shell biochar with kaolin clay in different ratios (0, 5, 10, and 15 %, w/w) and compacting at different degrees of compactions (DOC) (80, 85, and 90 %) with an optimum water content of 35 %. The gas permeability of the BACs was measured by flexible wall gas permeameter and the microstructure of the BACs was analyzed by SEM with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the effects of biochar content on BAC gas permeability is highly dependent on the DOC. At high DOC (90 %), the gas permeability of BAC decreases with increasing biochar content due to the combined effect of the clay aggregation and the inhibition of biochar in the gas flow. However, at low DOC (80 %), biochar incorporation has no effects on gas permeability because it no longer acts as a filling material to the retard gas flow. The results from the present study imply that compacted BAC can be used as an alternative final cover material with decreased gas permeability when compared with clay.

  20. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  1. Analysis of biological reference materials, prepared by microwave dissolution, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Friel, J K; Skinner, C S; Jackson, S E; Longerich, H P

    1990-03-01

    A procedure has been developed for the analysis of biological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fast, efficient and complete sample digestion is achieved by a combined microwave-nitric acid/open beaker-nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide procedure. The ICP-MS analysis is performed with an on-line five-element internal standard to correct for matrix and instrumental drift effects. Results are presented for 24 elements in three biological reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials 5277a Liver and 1566 Oyster and International Atomic Energy Agency Certified Reference Material H4 Animal Muscle). For all elements significantly above the detection limit and reagent blank concentrations, good agreement exists between ICP-MS and certified values.

  2. New biologically active composite materials on the basis of dialdehyde cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashirov, Azamat A.; Zhansitov, Azamat A.; Zaikov, Genadiy E.; Khashirova, Svetlana Yu.

    2014-05-01

    In this work for the first time have been studied modification peculiarities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and its oxidized form (dialdehyde cellulose DA!) guanidine-containing monomers and polymers of vinyl and diallyl series. Researched the structure of the composites by IR spectroscopy and SEM. The biological activity of the synthesized composite materials was investigated and shown that the composite synthesized materials are quite active and have a biocidal effect against Gram-positive (St.Aureus) and Gram (E.coli) microorganisms.

  3. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Next Generation of Risk Assessment <span class=Final report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molec...

  4. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of selenium measurements in biological materials using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials has become increasingly important in view of the essential nature of this element for human nutrition and its possible role as a protective agent against cancer. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials is often difficult for most analytical techniques for a variety of reasons, including interferences, complicated selenium chemistry due to the presence of this element in multiple oxidation states and in a variety of different organic species, stability and resistance to destruction of some of these organo-selenium species during acid dissolution, volatility of some selenium compounds, and potential for contamination. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be one of the best analytical techniques for selenium determinations in biological materials for a number of reasons. Currently, precision at the 1% level (1s) and overall accuracy at the 1 to 2% level (95% confidence interval) can be attained at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for selenium determinations in biological materials when counting statistics are not limiting (using the {sup 75}Se isotope). An example of this level of precision and accuracy is summarized. Achieving this level of accuracy, however, requires strict attention to all sources of systematic error. Precise and accurate results can also be obtained after radiochemical separations.

  5. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  6. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    PubMed

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended.

  7. Biological and biochemical properties of the carbon composite and polyethylene implant materials.

    PubMed

    Pesáková, V; Smetana, K; Balík, K; Hruska, J; Petrtýl, M; Hulejová, H; Adam, M

    2003-06-01

    We studied the biocompatibility of the carbon composites and polyethylene materials with and without collagen or collagen and proteoglycan cover. We used the in vitro technology to study the adhesion of model cells evalution, their metabolic activity and the production of TNF-alpha as a cytokine model. Under in vivo condition, the biocompatibility of tested polymers were studied in the implantation experiment, subcutaneously in the interscapular region in the laboratory rat. We have found in the in vitro assay favorable proliferation and the smallest production of pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha cytokine in cells adherent to the hydrophobic polyethylene material coated with biological macromolecules. Using in vivo tests performed by the implantation of materials to the rat we demonstrated that the materials are not cytotoxic. The tissue capsule surrounding the implants was not significantly influenced by the type of the implant and the pre-treatment by the biological molecules. However, the foreign-body giant multinucleated cells were observed only in the vicinity of the collagen - covered hydrophobic polyethylene implant. Interestingly, while the collagen coating improved the biocompatibility of tested polymers in vitro, the inflammatory reaction against this covered materials was higher under in vivo conditions. The pre-treatment of carbon composites by both types of biological macromolecules reduced the occurrence of carbon debris in the implantation site. The tested carbon composites and polyethylene materials are not toxic. The pre-treatment of the materials by extracellular matrix components increased their biological tolerance in vitro and reduced implant wears in animal experiment, which can be important for the medical application.

  8. Biological rationale for the intramedullary canal as a source of autograft material.

    PubMed

    Hak, David J; Pittman, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    Bone harvested by intramedullary reaming offers a minimally invasive alternative to harvesting bone from the iliac crest, which has long been considered the gold standard for autogenous bone grafting. The biologic potential of intramedullary reaming material has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. The material provides osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties that are comparable to the material harvested from the iliac crest. In addition to the ability to obtain a large volume of bone, the graft harvested by the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator has been shown to be rich in growth factors, including BMP-2, TGF-beta1, IGF-I, FGFa, and PDGFbb.

  9. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  10. A Strategic Initiative in Applied Biological Simulations 01-SI-012 Final Report for FY01 - FY03

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Venclovas, C; Schwegler, E; Gygi, F; Colvin, M E; Bennion, B J; Barsky, D; Mundy, C; Lightstone, F C; Galli, G; Sawicka, D

    2004-02-16

    The goal of this Strategic Initiative in Applied Computational Biology has been to apply LLNL's expertise in computational simulation to forge a new laboratory core competency in biological simulation. By every measure, this SI has been very successful in this goal. Based on a strong publication record and large number of conference presentations and invited talks, we have built a recognized niche for LLNL in the burgeoning field of computational biology. Further, many of the projects that were previously part of this LDRD are now externally funded based on the research results and expertise developed under this SI. We have created successful collaborations with a number of outside research groups including several joint projects with the new UC Davis/LLNL Comprehensive Cancer Center. In addition to these scientific collaborations, the staff developed on this SI is involved in computational biology program development and advisory roles with other DOE laboratories and DOE Headquarters. Moreover, a number of capabilities and expertise created by this SI are finding use in LLNL programmatic applications. Finally, and most importantly, this SI project has brought to LLNL the human talent on who will be the ensuring the further success of computational biology at this laboratory.

  11. Linking sediment chemical and biological guidelines for characterization of dredged material.

    PubMed

    Casado-Martínez, M C; Riba, I; Blasco, J; DelValls, T A

    2005-01-01

    Dredged material management in Spain and possible options for the different categories is discussed according to chemical sediment quality guidelines. Also an approach using an integrated assessment that includes biological end points as part of a tiered testing schema is discussed for future implementation in Spanish recommendations. To establish the feasibility of using both kinds of guidelines, an example of the utility and validity of the approach that links both chemical and biological guidelines proposed for the management of dredged material characterization processes data from a particular case study associated with a port in the north of Spain are discussed. The use of both kinds of methodologies, together with the necessity of assessing the bioavailability of some contaminants, has been shown as a powerful tool for the best selection of different disposal options of dredged material in the case study described.

  12. Material considerations for HRSGs in gas turbine combined cycle plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, H.S.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objectives of this project are to investigate and identify the limitations of current heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) materials, identify potential materials that could be used in future high temperature HRSGs, and develop a research and development plan to address the deficiencies and the future requirements. The project team developed a comprehensive survey which was forwarded to many HRSG manufacturers worldwide. The manufacturers were questioned about cycle experience, failure experience, design practices, materials, research and development, and future designs. The team assembled the responses and other in-house data to identify the key problem areas, probably future operating parameters, and possible material issues. The draft report was circulated to the manufacturers surveyed for comments before the final report was issued. The predominant current problem area for HRSGs relates to insulation; however, it is anticipated that in future designs, tube failures and welds will become most important. Poor water chemistry has already resulted in numerous failure mechanisms. By 2005, HSRGs are expected to operated with the following average conditions: unfired gas temperatures of 1125 F, steam temperatures of 950 F, steam pressures of 1500 psi, and exhaust temperatures of 170 F.

  13. Measurement of complex permittivities of biological materials and human skin in vivo in the frequency band

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodgaonkar, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    A new method, namely, modified infinite sample method, has been developed which is particularly suitable for millimeter-wave dielectric measurements of biological materials. In this method, an impedance transformer is used which reduces the reflectivity of the biological sample. Because of the effect of introducing impendance transformer, the measured reflection coefficients are more sensitive to the complex permittivities of biological samples. For accurate measurement of reflection coefficients, two automated measurment systems were developed which cover the frequencies range of 26.5-60 GHz. An uncertainty analysis was performed to get an estimate of the errors in the measured complex permittivities. The dielectric properties were measured for 10% saline solution, whole human blood, 200 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and suspension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The Maxwell-Fricke equation, which is derived from dielectric mixture theory, was used for determination bound water in BSA solution. The results of all biological samples were interpreted by fitting Debye relaxation and Cole-Cole model. It is observed that the dielectric data for the biological materials can be explained on the basis of Debye relaxation of water molecule.

  14. Final report for Conference Support Grant "From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology - CBSB12"

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.

    2012-07-02

    This report summarizes the outcome of the international workshop From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology (CBSB12) which was held June 3-5, 2012, at the University of Tennessee Conference Center in Knoxville, TN, and supported by DOE through the Conference Support Grant 120174. The purpose of CBSB12 was to provide a forum for the interaction between a data-mining interested systems biology community and a simulation and first-principle oriented computational biophysics/biochemistry community. CBSB12 was the sixth in a series of workshops of the same name organized in recent years, and the second that has been held in the USA. As in previous years, it gave researchers from physics, biology, and computer science an opportunity to acquaint each other with current trends in computational biophysics and systems biology, to explore venues of cooperation, and to establish together a detailed understanding of cells at a molecular level. The conference grant of $10,000 was used to cover registration fees and provide travel fellowships to selected students and postdoctoral scientists. By educating graduate students and providing a forum for young scientists to perform research into the working of cells at a molecular level, the workshop adds to DOE's mission of paving the way to exploit the abilities of living systems to capture, store and utilize energy.

  15. CBW - are we prepared to combat the chemical/biological threat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, A.

    1994-02-08

    This research paper analyzes the current chemical and biological threat faced by the United States from Third World Countries. It explores the impact this threat brings on military planning and execution and recommends avenues that the United States should take to hedge against it. A historical background of chemical and biological weapons use is presented with emphasis on the magnitude and extent of this problem. The legal and moral frameworks are examined with focus on the capabilities, limitations, intentions, and preparedness of the United States and Third World Countries. The thesis presented is that the United States' posture in combating chemical and biological weapons is severely compromised. A lack of governmental commitment, inadequate technologies, lack of success in arms control negotiations, and an inability to control proliferation, compounds the problem. Although no U.S. forces were exposed to chemical or biological weapons in our latest conflict with Iraq, the future does not hold the promise that we will be as lucky the next time. And there will be a next time.

  16. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan continental shelf. Final reports of principal investigators, Volume 14. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The contents of the reprint include: the epifauna of three bays (Port Etches, Zaikof Bay and Rocky Bay) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, with notes on feeding biology; and the distribution, abundance, community structure and trophic relationships of the nearshore benthos of Cook Inlet.

  17. Determination of the Biologically Relevant Sampling Depth for Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical paper provides defensible approximations for what the depth of the biologically active zone, or “biotic zone” is within certain environments. The methods used in this study differ somewhat between Part 1 (Terrestrial Biotic Zone) and Part 2 (Aquatic Biotic Zone). ...

  18. 2nd Pan American Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology: Final Report for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2006-05-15

    The entire DOE funds were used to provide funds for students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty to attend the Plant Membrane Plant Biology meeting from May 17-21, 2006 in South Padre Texas. The meeting had an attendance of approximately 130 people from approximately 10 different countries. The location was selected for its proximity to the US-Mexico border. This was the second Pan American Plant Membrane Biology meeting (2003 for the first one) and it was a great success as we forged research relationships between South America and the United States. We provided an opportunity for researchers from the Western Hemisphere to exchange the most recent information and ideas relating to the biology of plant membranes in a workshop environment. The conference addressed such topics as Hormone Responses, Environmental Signal Perception, Nutrient Acquisition, Membranes and Development, Source/Sink Transport, Water Relations,Genomics, Evolution of Transporters, Structure/Function Relationships and Practical Applications of Membrane Research. Oral and poster presentations were thematically grouped and sessions included a representative mixture of experimental and intellectual approaches to important topics in plant membrane biology. Sections were led by prominent researchers in the specific focus area with talks presented by postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduate researchers. In keeping with the workshop format, provisions were made for extended discussion following talks. PIs and faculty advisors of speakers attended and contributed to the discussion of presentations. The lineup included forty speakers. This document also includes a list of participants funded by DOE and the amount of money spent.

  19. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061.

  20. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials.

  1. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 10. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume of final reports includes the following: Forage Fish Spawning Surveys Southern Bering Sea; Effects of Oil Contamination in the Sea Otter; Reconnaissance of Intertidal Communities in the Eastern Bering Sea; Effects of Ice Scour on Community Structure; and Study of Microbial Activity and Crude Oil-Microbial Interactions in the Waters and Sediments of Cook Inlet and the Beaufort Sea.

  2. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Trotter, D.R.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification technology is one of the most widely used techniques for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Cement-based products, commonly referred to as grouts, are the predominant materials of choice because of their low associated processing costs, compatibility with a wide variety of disposal scenarios, and ability to meet stringent processing and performance requirements. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. This blend is mixed with 106-AN at a mix ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents the final results of efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of WHC`s Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula.

  3. Final Report: Photo-Directed Molecular Assembly of Multifunctional Inorganic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    B.G. Potter, Jr.

    2010-10-15

    This final report details results, conclusions, and opportunities for future effort derived from the study. The work involved combining the molecular engineering of photoactive Ti-alkoxide systems and the optical excitation of hydrolysis and condensation reactions to influence the development of the metal-oxygen-metal network at the onset of material formation. Selective excitation of the heteroleptic alkoxides, coupled with control of alkoxide local chemical environment, enabled network connectivity to be influenced and formed the basis for direct deposition and patterning of Ti-oxide-based materials. The research provided new insights into the intrinsic photoresponse and assembly of these complex, alkoxide molecules. Using a suite of electronic, vibrational, and nuclear spectroscopic probes, coupled with quantum chemical computation, the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of molecular photoresponse and the nature of subsequent hydrolysis and condensation processes were probed in pyridine-carbinol-based Ti-alkoxides with varied counter ligand groups. Several methods for the patterning of oxide material formation were demonstrated, including the integration of this photoprocessing approach with conventional, dip-coating methodologies.

  4. Research on biological materials of human origin. Jurists and scientists face to face. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Ricciardi, Walter

    2017-01-01

    On 3rd October 2016 a convention was held in the Aldo Moro room of the Chamber of Deputies on "Research on biological materials of human origin. Jurists and scientists face to face". The convention was organised by the Bioethics Unit of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS, Italian National Institute of Health) in conjunction with the Italian Academy of the Internet Code (IAIC) and the Fondazione Centro di Iniziativa Giuridica Piero Calamandrei. The present contribution reports the topics discussed and the key conclusions reached. As a follow-up to the discussion, the scientists, jurists and institutions concerned are resolved to take further steps towards the formulation of operational proposals intended to facilitate research using human biological materials within a framework of precise and strict regulations.

  5. Trace elemental content of biological materials. A comparison of NAA and ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ward, N I; Abou-Shakra, F R; Durrant, S F

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the analysis of biological materials is reviewed. Comparison is made between NAA (instrumental) and ICP-MS (conventional pneumatic solution nebulization and laser ablation) analysis of the biological reference material National Bureau of Standards (NBS) SRM 1577 Bovine Liver. Relatively good agreement is achieved between the results for the 18 elements analyzed by both techniques and those either certified or reported in the literature. Elemental concentrations for Li, Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Cs are also reported for IAEA Mixed Human Diet (H9), NBS SRM 909 Human Serum, and NBS SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, analyzed by solution nebulization ICP-MS.

  6. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 11. Biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This volume of final reports includes the following: Toxicity of Oil-Well Drilling Muds to Alaska Larval Shrimp and Crabs; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Chukchi Sea; Trophic Relationships Among Ice-Inhabiting Phocid Seals and Functionally Related Marine Mammals in the Bering Sea; Ecological Studies in the Bering Strait Region; and The Relationships of Marine Mammal Distributions, Densities and Activities to Sea Ice Conditions.

  7. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  8. The spectral applications of Beer-Lambert law for some biological and dosimetric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Içelli, Orhan; Yalçin, Zeynel; Karakaya, Vatan; Ilgaz, Işıl P.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of biological and dosimetric materials which contain organic and inorganic materials and to make the determination by using the spectral theorem Beer-Lambert law. Beer-Lambert law is a system of linear equations for the spectral theory. It is possible to solve linear equations with a non-zero coefficient matrix determinant forming linear equations. Characteristic matrix of the linear equation with zero determinant is called point spectrum at the spectral theory.

  9. Lead determination in slurries of biological materials by ETAAS using a W-Rh permanent modifier.

    PubMed

    Lima, E C; Barbosa, F; Krug, F J

    2001-03-01

    A tungsten-rhodium coating on the integrated platform of a transversely heated graphite atomiser (THGA) was used as a permanent chemical modifier for the determination of lead in biological materials by slurry sampling in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Slurries were sonicated during 20 s before being delivered to the previously W-Rh treated platform. The number of particles of biological materials introduced into the atomiser for delivering 20 microL slurry aliquot ranged from 5,100 to 39,000. The permanent W-Rh modifier remained stable during approximately 300 analytical measurements when 20 microL of slurries containing up to 1.5% m/v were delivered into the atomiser. In addition, the permanent modifier increases the tube lifetime by approximately 100% when compared to untreated integrated platforms. Also, there is less decrease of sensitivity during the atomiser lifetime when compared with the conventional modifiers, resulting in a decreased need of re-calibration during routine analysis and consequently increasing the sample throughput. The atomiser lifetime was limited to the THGA wall durability, because the W-Rh treated platform was intact after more than 650 analytical firings in a medium containing up to 1.5% m/v slurry of biological material. The detection limit based on integrated absorbance was 20 ng g(-1) Pb for 1.50% m/v slurries. Results from the determination of lead in slurries of biological materials using the W-Rh permanent modifier were in agreement with those obtained with digested solutions using Pd + Mg(NO3)2.

  10. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  11. In situ application of hard-facing materials in Main Steam Isolation Valves. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, K.; Dahlke, R.; French, T.; McNeely, W.

    1985-03-01

    The Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV) in boiling water reactors (BWR) have shown a tendency to fail a local leak rate test (LLRT). Lapping applications were developed to improve seat conditions, but continued lapping or incorrect lapping can result in the need to resurface the seat. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated research projects (RP-2186-1, -2, and -4) to address the problem of hardfacing in MSIVs. This final report is a compilation of the results of research projects that evaluate the application of hardfacing materials to MSIVs (RP-2186-1) and resurfacing the valve body main seat (RP-2186-2). The report also discusses in-situ application of hardfacing in MSIVs (RP-2186-4).

  12. Enzymology of biological nitrogen fixation. Final report, May 1, 1987--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is of central importance in the earth`s nitrogen economy. Fixation of nitrogen is accomplished by a variety of microorganisms, all of them procaryotic. Some operate independently and some function symbiotically or associatively with photosynthesizing plants. Biological nitrogen fixation is accomplished via the reaction: N{sub 2} + 8H{sup +} + 8e{sup {minus}} {yields} 2NH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}. This reaction requires a minimum of 16 ATP under ideal laboratory conditions, so it is obvious that the energy demand of the reaction is very high. When certain nitrogen-fixing organisms are supplied fixed nitrogen (e.g., ammonium) the organisms use the fixed nitrogen and turn off their nitrogenase system, thus conserving energy. When the fixed nitrogen is exhausted, the organism reactivates its nitrogenase. The system is turned off by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyl transferase (DRAT) and turned back on by dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG). The authors have investigated the details of how DRAT and DRAG are formed, how they function, and the genetics of their formation and operation.

  13. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  14. Fracture analysis for biological materials with an expanded cohesive zone model.

    PubMed

    An, Bingbing; Zhao, Xinluo; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-07-18

    In this study, a theoretical framework for simulation of fracture of bone and bone-like materials is provided. An expanded cohesive zone model with thermodynamically consistent framework has been proposed and used to investigate the crack growth resistance of bone and bone-like materials. The reversible elastic deformation, irreversible plastic deformation caused by large deformation of soft protein matrix, and damage evidenced by the material separation and crack nucleation in the cohesive zone, were all taken into account in the model. Furthermore, the key mechanisms in deformation of biocomposites consisting of mineral platelets and protein interfacial layers were incorporated in the fracture process zone in this model, thereby overcoming the limitations of previous cohesive zone modeling of bone fracture. Finally, applications to fracture of cortical bone and human dentin were presented, which showed good agreement between numerical simulation and reported experiments and substantiated the effectiveness of the model in investigating the fracture behavior of bone-like materials.

  15. Biological and chemical-physical properties of root-end filling materials: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the biological and chemical-physical properties of four different root-end filling materials. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity towards murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) was evaluated using the Transwell insert methodology by Alamar blue test. Streptococcus salivarius, S. sanguis, and S. mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion test. Solubility was determined after 24 h and 2 months. pH values were measured after 3 and 24 h. To evaluate radiopacity, all materials were scanned on a GE Healthcare Lunar Prodigy. Results: Excellent percentage of vitality were obtained by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials and Biodentine. MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) showed the highest values for the inhibition zones when tested for S. mutans, while Biodentine showed the largest inhibition zone when tested for S. sanguis. All the materials fulfilled the requirements of the International Standard 6876, demonstrating low solubility with a weight loss of less than 3%. No significant reduction in pH value was demonstrated after 24 h. ProRoot MTA and MTA-Angelus showed the highest values of radiographic density. Conclusions: The differences showed by the root-end filling materials tested do not cover completely the ideal clinical requests. PMID:25829684

  16. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  17. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  18. Second generation biological signal processor. Final progress report, February 15, 1993--February 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Biological Information Signal Processor (BISP) is a VLSI ASIC implementation of the dynamic programming methods favored for direct sequence-to-sequence comparison in order to discover local as well as global similarities. These methods, based on the local algorithm of Smith and Waterman provide the most mathematically robust solution to the problem of sequence alignment (determination of the optimal character-to-character registration between the two sequence, including relative insertions and deletions, indels). BISP provides a complete implementation of the standard Smith and Waterman algorithm in a systolic array that allows full parameterization and several novel extensions to the algorithm. BISP operates at supercomputer speeds from a VME board on a Sun workstation. Each VME array provides a complete systolic pipeline for comparison and multiple arrays can be combined linearly in order to increase the pipeline length. Overall performance is a function of the IO speed of the pipelined disk-resident data and the length of the array.

  19. Final Report - Phylogenomic tools and web resources for the Systems Biology Knowledgebase

    SciTech Connect

    Sjolander, Kimmen

    2014-12-08

    The major advance during this last reporting period (8/15/12 to present) is our release of data on the PhyloFacts website: phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments and other data for protein families are now available for download from http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/data/. This project as a whole aimed to develop high-throughput functional annotation systems that exploit information from protein 3D structure and evolution to provide highly precise inferences of various aspects of gene function, including molecular function, biological process, pathway association, Pfam domains, cellular localization and so on. We accomplished these aims by developing and testing different systems on a database of protein family trees: the PhyloFacts Phylogenomic Encyclopedia (at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/ ).

  20. Final Report: Scintillator Materials for Medical Applications, December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Wojtowicz, A.J.; Szupryczynski, P.

    2000-05-01

    From the very beginning of our program we regarded the understanding of the scintillation mechanism as our primary mission. If in addition this understanding could lead to the discovery of a new material, so much the better. When we began this work some nine years ago, the theoretical basis for the scintillation phenomenon was in disarray. The initial and final steps were reasonably well characterized, but there was no consensus on the crucial intermediate, the transfer of energy from the lattice to the emitting center. In the over 40 publications that resulted from this program, we demonstrated that despite the highly insulating nature of the hosts and the great magnitude of the band gap, the primary means of transport is through mobile charge carriers and their sequential capture by the emitting center. Although radical at the time, this picture is now generally accepted throughout the field. Subsequently, we also recognized the critical role that trapping centers localized at lattice defects can play in the process, not merely as passive sources of loss but as active participants in the kinetics. In this sense shallow traps can wreak more havoc than deep ones, impeding the rate by which carriers can reach the emitting centers and seriously slowing the resulting decay. And we established low-temperature thermoluminescence as a comprehensive tool for quantizing these effects. As for new and better materials, our work also had an impact. We were among the first to recognize the potential of LuAlO{sub 3} (lutetium aluminum perovskite, or LuAP) as a detector for PET applications. Although this material has not supplanted LuSiO{sub 5} (lutetium oxysilicate, or LSO) in terms of light output or absence of afterglow, LuAP still exhibits by far the highest figure of merit (light output divided by decay time) of any scintillator material currently known. Our work has also bought into stark view the dismaying realization of just how improbable it is that a material will

  1. Designing and Developing Online Materials for Molecular Biology: Building Online Programs for Science

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    A well-accepted form of educational training offered in molecular biology is internships in research laboratories. However, the number of available research laboratories severely limits access by most students. Addressing this need, the University of Hawaii launched a project to expand this model to include newly developed online training materials in addition to a hands-on laboratory experience. This paper explores the design and development process of the online learning materials. This case study looks at the roles of the instructional designer, multimedia specialist, and research faculty who were the subject matter experts. The experiences of the design teams are shared in an effort to gain insight on how the collaborative efforts of the project group led to a successful deployment of the online learning materials. PMID:24319699

  2. Designing and Developing Online Materials for Molecular Biology: Building Online Programs for Science.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    A well-accepted form of educational training offered in molecular biology is internships in research laboratories. However, the number of available research laboratories severely limits access by most students. Addressing this need, the University of Hawaii launched a project to expand this model to include newly developed online training materials in addition to a hands-on laboratory experience. This paper explores the design and development process of the online learning materials. This case study looks at the roles of the instructional designer, multimedia specialist, and research faculty who were the subject matter experts. The experiences of the design teams are shared in an effort to gain insight on how the collaborative efforts of the project group led to a successful deployment of the online learning materials.

  3. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Brugmans, M J; Kemper, J; Gijsbers, G H; van der Meulen, F W; van Gemert, M J

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an understanding of heat accumulation and related thermal damage during (super) pulsed CO2 laser irradiation. The experiments show a very slow decay of temperatures in the longer time regime. This behavior is well predicted by a simple model for one-dimensional heat flow that considers the CO2 laser radiation as producing a heat flux on the material surface. The critical pulse repetition frequency for which temperature accumulation is sufficiently low is estimated at about 5 Hz. Although we have not investigated the ablative situation, our results suggest that very low pulse frequencies in microsurgical procedures may be recommended.

  4. Final Report: Biological and Synthetic Nanostructures Controlled at the Atomistic Level

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A; van Buuren, T

    2007-02-21

    Nanotechnology holds great promise for many application fields, ranging from the semiconductor industry to medical research and national security. Novel, nanostructured materials are the fundamental building blocks upon which all these future nanotechnologies will be based. In this Strategic Initiative (SI) we conducted a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the modeling, synthesis, characterization, and design techniques which are required to fabricate semiconducting and metallic nanostructures with enhanced properties. We focused on developing capabilities that have broad applicability to a wide range of materials and can be applied both to nanomaterials that are currently being developed for nanotechnology applications and also to new, yet to be discovered, nanomaterials. During this 3 year SI project we have made excellent scientific progress in each of the components of this project. We have developed first-principles techniques for modeling the structural, electronic, optical, and transport properties of materials at the nanoscale. For the first time, we have simulated nanomaterials both in vacuum and in aqueous solution. These simulation capabilities harness the worldleading computational resources available at LLNL to model, at the quantum mechanical level, systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of electrons. Significant advances in the density functional and quantum Monte Carlo techniques employed in this project were developed to enable these techniques to scale up to simulating realistic size nanostructured materials. We have developed the first successful techniques for chemically synthesizing crystalline silicon and germanium nanoparticles and nanowires. We grew the first macroscopic, faceted superlattice crystals from these nanoparticles. We have also advanced our capabilities to synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles using physical vapor deposition techniques so that we are now able to control of the size, shape and

  5. Biological determinants of photobioreactor design. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Palsson, B.; Brown, G.G.

    1997-04-01

    Microalgae is being considered for the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from power-plant flue-gases. High productivity of microalgae is necessary to make this process cost effective compared to the conventional methods used for reducing CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. This obviates the need for large-scale cultivation technologies and proper photobioreactor technology. The physical factors that influence the performance of a photoautotrophic microalgal culture are the quality and composition of light, inlet carbon dioxide concentration, nutrients, and secondary metabolites at high cell densities. In developing photobioreactor technology, balancing of biological processes to the physical rate process becomes important. The effect of various light compositions on the culture kinetics was studied. To determine the optimal composition, six wavelengths 470, 555, 560, 570, 580 and 605 nm, each supplemented with 680 nm of red light, were used to cultivate cultures. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that a monochromatic red light of 680 nm is sufficient to obtain maximum capacity.

  6. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  7. Final Technical Report - Use of Systems Biology Approaches to Develop Advanced Biofuel-Synthesizing Cyanobacterial Strains

    SciTech Connect

    Pakrasi, Himadri

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use a systems biology approach to evaluate the potentials of a number of cyanobacterial strains for photobiological production of advanced biofuels and/or their chemical precursors. Cyanobacteria are oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes. Among them, certain unicellular species such as Cyanothece can also fix N2, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such incompatible processes in a single cell, Cyanothece produces oxygen during the day, and creates an O2-limited intracellular environment during the night to perform O2-sensitive processes such as N2-fixation. Thus, Cyanothece cells are natural bioreactors for the storage of captured solar energy with subsequent utilization at a different time during a diurnal cycle. Our studies include the identification of a novel, fast-growing, mixotrophic, transformable cyanobacterium. This strain has been sequenced and will be made available to the community. In addition, we have developed genome-scale models for a family of cyanobacteria to assess their metabolic repertoire. Furthermore, we developed a method for rapid construction of metabolic models using multiple annotation sources and a metabolic model of a related organism. This method will allow rapid annotation and screening of potential phenotypes based on the newly available genome sequences of many organisms.

  8. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  9. Biological degradation of tetrachloroethylene in methanogenic conditions. Final report, 12 July 1991-11 January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, J.M.; DiStefano, T.D.; Stover, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    Research objective: investigate anaerobic biodegradation of perchloroethylene (PCE). Specific objectives: determine if the presence of PCE is necessary to sustain dechlorination of vinyl chloride (VC), delineate the role of hydrogen (H2) in PCE reductive dechlorination, investigate the ability of the high level PCE/methanol (MeOH) culture to utilize low levels of PCE, and determine the applicability of an Anaerobic Attached-film Expanded-bed (AAFEB) reactor to achieve PCE dechlorination. The investigators determined: by using a VC-fed culture unable to sustain ETH production, that the presence of PCE is required to sustain VC dechlorination, H2 acts as the electron donor directly used for the reductive dechlorination of PCE to ethene, the PCE/MeOH culture was able to use ppb levels of PCE due to the small requirement for electron donor (H2) by the culture, and that the loss of the dechlorinating biomass from the support matrix, and/or the inability of the culture to support PCE dechlorination at low concentrations, led to the failure of the AAFEB reactor system. Biodegradation, Tetrachloroethylene, Methanogenesis, Fixed-film reactors, Biological treatment, Chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  10. [Peculiarities of detection of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline in the biological material].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Andreeva, Yu V; Omel'chenko, V A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiarities of detection of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline in the biological material with the use of TLC, GC-MS, and electron spectrophotometry. We have proposed the rationale for the application of acetone as an insulating agent for the extraction of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline from the cadaveric hepatic tissue and biological fluids. It was shown that this compound is possible to separate from endogenous biomaterials on the silicagel L column (40/100 mcm). The results of the quantitative evaluation of different amounts of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline in the cadaveric hepatic tissue, blood, plasma, and urine are presented. The proposed method makes it possible to determine a minimum of 0.12 mg of 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline in 100 g of the biological material (cadaveric hepatic tissue), 0.09 mg in 100 g of blood, 0.06 mg and 0.05 mg in 100 u of plasma and urine respectively.

  11. Enhanced Removal of Lead by Chemically and Biologically Treated Carbonaceous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somia B.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid sorbents and biosorbents were synthesized via chemical and biological treatment of active carbon by simple and direct redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast. Surface functionality and morphology of chemically and biologically modified sorbents and biosorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Hybrid carbonaceous sorbents and biosorbents were characterized by excellent efficiency and superiority toward lead(II) sorption compared to blank active carbon providing a maximum sorption capacity of lead(II) ion as 500 μmol g−1. Sorption processes of lead(II) by these hybrid materials were investigated under the influence of several controlling parameters such as pH, contact time, mass of sorbent and biosorbent, lead(II) concentration, and foreign ions. Lead(II) sorption mechanisms were found to obey the Langmuir and BET isotherm models. The potential applications of chemically and biologically modified-active carbonaceous materials for removal and extraction of lead from real water matrices were also studied via a double-stage microcolumn technique. The results of this study were found to denote to superior recovery values of lead (95.0–99.0 ± 3.0–5.0%) by various carbonaceous-modified-bakers yeast biosorbents. PMID:22629157

  12. Efficient, intelligent systems for navigating the biological literature. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Futrelle, R.P.

    1997-04-04

    The biological literature is huge and increasingly moving to electronic form. By developing a variety of new techniques, it should be possible to take advantage of this huge and growing electronic store. Computers should allow one to use the literature with greater efficiency and insight to disseminate information and to advance scientific understanding. Though there is a great deal of research and development effort focused on electronic text, e.g., the Digital Libraries initiative, little attention has been paid to the diagrammatic content of documents. However, it is common knowledge among biologists, and scientists in general, that the figures in documents are of critical importance. Little work has been done to develop principles and systems for analyzing, representing, and indexing and searching the diagrammatic content of electronic documents. This has been the main thrust of this research project. The primary work in the world on the analysis of graphics in documents has been focused on low-level issues relating to scanning legacy documents (hardcopy) and trying to discover the graphics elements in them. Graphics files, as opposed to image files, have lines, curves, polygons, text, etc., represented as discrete objects, as they are originally generated in drawing and graphing applications. This has been their focus, the starting point for all their analysis. Using their Diagram Understanding System the authors have been able to automatically analyze (parse) a score of complex data graphs and gene diagrams, accomplishing something that no other research group (or commercial product) has been able to achieve. These diagrams were ones drawn directly from published papers, not ones they made up.

  13. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof’ electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies o1 eV can be ‘safely’ investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with no observable radiation damage. Furthermore, the technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ~10nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of tolerance in tardigrades: new perspectives for preservation and stabilization of biological material.

    PubMed

    Schill, Ralph O; Mali, Brahim; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina; Reuter, Dirk; Frohme, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Certain organisms found across a range of taxa, including bacteria, yeasts, plants and many invertebrates such as nematodes and tardigrades are able to survive almost complete loss of body water. The dry organisms may remain in this state, which is known as anhydrobiosis, for decades without apparent damage. When water again becomes available, they rapidly rehydrate and resume active life. Research in anhydrobiosis has focused mainly on sugar metabolism and stress proteins. Despite the discovery of various molecules which are involved in desiccation and water stress, knowledge of the regulatory network governing the stability of the cellular architecture and the metabolic machinery during dehydration is still fragmentary and not well understood. A combination of transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic approaches with bioinformatics tools can provide a better understanding of gene regulation that underlie the biological functions and physiology related to anhydrobiosis. The development of this concept will raise exciting possibilities and techniques for the preservation and stabilization of biological materials in the dry state.

  15. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Wolf, Sharon G.; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof' electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies <1 eV can be ‘safely' investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with no observable radiation damage. The technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼10 nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope. PMID:26961578

  16. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its distribution in

  18. Nanoparticles to increase adhesive properties of biologically secreted materials for surface affixing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Liu, Maozi; Bewick, Sharon; Suo, Zhiyong

    2009-06-01

    Surface adhesion in nature has been the focus of intense study over the past few years. Nevertheless, research in this field has primarily concentrated on understanding the chemical aspects of adhesion. While scientists have been able to determine some of the molecular structures present in the adhesives secreted by surface climbing or surface affixing biological systems such as mussels and barnacles, the fundamental adhesion mechanisms used by these systems are still unknown. This research paper focuses on the nano-scale morphological similarities of adhesive materials secreted from marine mussels, barnacles and ivy. We discovered that marine mussels secrete large amounts of adhesive materials in the form of nanoparticles for surface adhesion. This is in keeping with our previous work, which indicated a similar phenomenon for ivy. Both studies concur with earlier research on marine barnacles, polychaetes and sea stars. Taken together, these results indicate that nanoparticles are used by natural, biological systems to increase surface adhesion. These nanoparticle surface adhesion mechanisms have important implications in terms of engineering surface adhesive materials and devices.

  19. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, Daniel E.

    2016-08-29

    New materials are needed to significantly improve the efficiencies of energy harnessing, transduction and storage, yet the synthesis of advanced composites and multi-metallic semiconductors with nanostructures optimized for these functions remains poorly understood and even less well controlled. To help address this need, we proposed three goals: (1) to further investigate the hierarchical structure of the biologically synthesized silica comprising the skeletal spicules of sponges that we discovered, to better resolve the role and mechanism of templating by the hierarchically assembled silicatein protein filament; (2) to extend our molecular and genetic analyses and engineering of silicatein, the self-assembling, structure-directing, silica-synthesizing enzyme we discovered and characterized, to better understand and manipulate the catalysis and templating of semiconductor synthesis,; and (3) to further investigate, scale up and harness the biologically inspired, low-temperature, kinetically controlled catalytic synthesis method we developed (based on the mechanism we discovered in silicatein) to investigate the kinetic control of the structure-function relationships in magnetic materials, and develop new materials for energy applications. The bio-inspired catalytic synthesis method we have developed is low-cost, low temperature, and operates without the use of polluting chemicals. In addition to direct applications for improvement of batteries and fuel cells, the broader impact of this research includes a deeper fundamental understanding of the factors governing kinetically controlled synthesis and its control of the emergent nanostructure and performance of a wide range of nanomaterials for energy applications.

  20. SynTec Final Technical Report: Synthetic biology for Tailored Enzyme cocktails

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Janine; Teter, Sarah

    2016-06-30

    Using a novel enzyme screening method inspired by synthetic biology, Novozymes developed new technology under SynTec which allows for more rapidly tailoring of enzyme cocktails. The methodology can be applied to specific feedstocks, and or coupled to address a specific hydrolytic conversion process context. Using combinatorial high throughput screening of libraries of enzyme domains, we can quickly assess which combination of catalytic modules delivers the best performance for a specific condition. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the screening process, we measured performance of the output catalytic cocktail compared to CTec3/HTec3. SynTec benchmark cocktail - blend of Cellic® CTec3 and HTec3. The test substrate was - ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover (AFEX™ PCS).CTec3/HTec3 was assayed at the optimal pH and temperature, and also in the absence of any pH adjustment. The new enzyme cocktail discovered under SynTec was assayed in the absence of any pH adjustment and at the optimal temperature. Conversion is delivered by SynTec enzyme at significant dose reduction relative to CTec3/HTec3 at the controlled pH optimum, and without titrant required to maintain pH, which delivers additional cost savings relative to current state of the art process. In this 2.5 year $4M project, the team delivered an experimental cocktail that significantly outperformed CTec3/HTec3 for a specific substrate, and for specific hydrolysis conditions. As a means of comparing performance improvement delivered per research dollar spent, we note that SynTec delivered a similar performance improvement to the previous award, in a shorter time and with fewer resources than for the previously successful DOE project DECREASE, a 3.5 year, $25M project, though this project focused on a different substrate and used different hydrolysis conditions. The newly implemented technology for rapid sourcing of new cellulases and hemicellulases from nature is an example of Novozymes' continued

  1. Development and application of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, S.M.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1992-05-15

    This report describes progress as of the third year of a 3-year DoE grant for 1/1/92 to 12/31/92. Because this is the last year of a 3- year grant cycle, this report will summarize progress over the entire 3-year period. The overall goals of the grant are to develop novel instrumentation and techniques for the performance of biological and materials research, and especially for the development of x-ray detectors suitable for use at storage ring sources. Research progress has been excellent and the overall goals, as well as most of the specific goals have been successfully met.

  2. Modeling low energy x-ray interactions with biological material at the CUEBIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberger, J.; Schott, M.; Kimmel, T.; Medlin, D.; Gall, A.; Rusin, M.; Dean, D.; Takacs, E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments at Clemson University have established the need to model the production of x-rays using a highly charged ion beam generated by the Clemson University Electron Beam Ion Trap (CUEBIT). A Geant4 modeling environment has been developed on Clemson University's Palmetto2 supercomputing cluster to simulate the interaction of these x- rays with biological material. Preliminary results of the model have been obtained after performing initial simulations on the computing cluster. Future experiments using the CUEBIT as well as refinements to the Geant4 model are discussed.

  3. Cognition from the bottom up: on biological inspiration, body morphology, and soft materials.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Rolf; Iida, Fumiya; Lungarella, Max

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, in cognitive science the emphasis is on studying cognition from a computational point of view. Studies in biologically inspired robotics and embodied intelligence, however, provide strong evidence that cognition cannot be analyzed and understood by looking at computational processes alone, but that physical system-environment interaction needs to be taken into account. In this opinion article, we review recent progress in cognitive developmental science and robotics, and expand the notion of embodiment to include soft materials and body morphology in the big picture. We argue that we need to build our understanding of cognition from the bottom up; that is, all the way from how our body is physically constructed.

  4. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Final subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes results and conclusions of the final phase (III) of a three-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film heterojunction solar cells. The research consisted of the investigation of the relationships between processing, materials properties, and device performance. This relationship was quantified by device modeling and analysis. The analysis of thin-film polycrystalline heterojunction solar cells explains how minority-carrier recombination at the metallurgical interface and at grain boundaries can be greatly reduced by the proper doping of the window and absorber layers. Additional analysis and measurements show that the present solar cells are limited by the magnitude of the diode current, which appears to be caused by recombination in the space charge region. Developing an efficient commercial-scale process for fabricating large-area polycrystalline, thin-film solar cells from a research process requires a detailed understanding of the individual steps in making the solar cell, and their relationship to device performance and reliability. The complexities involved in characterizing a process are demonstrated with results from our research program on CuInSe{sub 2}, and CdTe processes.

  5. CRADA Final Report: Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Do Heui; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles H. F.; Howden, Ken; Stafford, Randy; Stang, John; Yezerets, Aleksey; Currier, Neal; Chen, H. -Y.; Hess, H.

    2009-03-01

    The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ‘lean-burn’ vehicle engines remains a challenge. The now commercial NOx adsorber (also known as lean-NOx trap (LNT) and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst) technology is based upon the concept of storing NOx as nitrates over storage components, typically alkali or alkaline-earth species such as barium, during a lean-burn operation cycle and then reducing the stored nitrates to N2 during fuel-rich conditions over a precious metal catalyst. In part via this successful five-year CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins Inc. (CRADA PNNL/213), Cummins and the Johnson/Matthey Company commercialized this technology on the 2007 Dodge Ram pickup truck. In particular, this CRADA has focused on problems arising from either or both thermal and SO2 deactivation which were impeding the ability of the technology to meet durability standards. The results obtained in this CRADA have provided an essential understanding of these deactivation processes thereby leading to materials and process improvements that enabled the commercialization effort. The objective of this project has been to identify a clear pathway to robust NOx after-treatment solutions for light-duty diesel engines. The project focussed on understanding and characterizing the NOx storage, release and conversion of existing NOx adsorber materials. The impact of sulfur on these processes was studied, with special attention given to methods of regenerating the catalyst in the presence of sulfur and the effects of these regeneration treatments on long-term catalyst durability. Model catalysts and more fully formulated catalysts were both studied. The goal of this project has been to identify and understand the deactivation mechanisms of LNT materials in order to provide more robust systems for diesel after-treatment systems that will meet the key emission standards for NOx. Furthermore, the project aimed to provide information critical to

  6. The development and role of international biological reference materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and reference ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of reference materials and reference measurement procedures. International biological reference materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.

  7. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  8. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis

    2010-09-10

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  9. QEEN Workshop: "Quantifying Exposure to Engineered Nano-materials from Manufactured Products": Write Up Biological Tissues and Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measurement and characterization of nanomaterials in biological tissues is complicated by a number of factors including: the sensitivity of the assay to small sized particles or low concentrations of materials; the ability to distinguish different forms and transformations of...

  10. Development of switchable hygroscopic materials. Final technical report FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The following are covered: current considerations in desiccant dehumidification materials, switchable desiccant theory, candidate materials, test methods, test results, product design considerations, and future research.

  11. Development and application of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gruner, S.M.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1991-07-23

    This report describes the progress of the second year of a 3-year DOE grant DE-FG-02-87ER60522 for the fiscal period 1/1/91 to 12/31/91 as of July 1991. The overall goals of the grant are to develop novel instrumentation and techniques for the performance of biological and materials research and to apply the new developments to basic biological and materials research problems. Since the last progress report, dated July 1990, there has been significant progress on most of the originally proposed instrumentation and applications research. The overall research goals proposed for the next year have not changed from those originally listed. A prototype large area CCD x-ray detector was assembled and evaluated at the CHESS synchrotron facility. Fiber optic CCD coupling methods have been developed and are being applied to in-house detector needs. Novel detector control and calibration software was developed and refined. Novel high pressure x-ray diffraction and dilatometric apparatus were designed and built, and are being applied to the study of membrane-lipid phase behavior. A time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of lipid phase transitions was used to demonstrate that conventual calorimetry does not accurately determine the phase transition parameters. The elastic properties of amphiphilic layers were studied both theoretically and experimentally. A re-entrant hexagonal-lamellar-hexagonal lipid phase transition was discovered and studied. Each of these accomplishments are detailed.

  12. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-06

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors.

  13. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13

    measure the indium distribution with near atomic resolution were developed and applied to test samples and devices that were provided by Lumilids. Further, the optical performance of the device materials was probed by photoluminescence, electroluminescence and time resolved optical measurements. Overall, the programs objective is to provide a physical basis for the development of a simulation program that helps making predictions to improve the growth processes such that the device efficiency can be increased to about 20%. Our study addresses all proposed aspects successfully. Carrier localization, lifetime and recombination as well as the strain-induced generation of electric fields were characterized and modeled. Band gap parameters and their relation to the indium distribution were characterized and modeled. Electron microscopy was developed as a unique tool to measure the formation of indium clusters on a nanometer length scale and it was demonstrated that strain induced atom column displacements can reliably be determined in any materials system with a precision that approaches 2 pm. The relation between the local indium composition x and the strain induced lattice constant c(x) in fully strained In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells was found to be: c(x) = 0.5185 + {alpha}x with {alpha} = 0.111 nm. It was concluded that the local indium concentration in the final product can be modulated by growth procedures in a predictable manner to favorably affect external quantum efficiencies that approached target values and that internal quantum efficiencies exceeded them.

  14. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  15. A comparison of methods for the determination of sound velocity in biological materials: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Konrad W; Markowski, Marek

    2013-07-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic methods for testing biological materials are applied in medicine as well as in food engineering to determine the physical parameters and the quality of agricultural products and raw materials such as meat. The purpose of this work was to identify the simplest and the most accurate of five methods for sound velocity determination across the fibers of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. The through-transmission technique (TT) was used for ultrasound signal acquisition with 2MHz transducers. The first two methods (M1, M2) are based on the acquisition of a single ultrasound signal in the analyzed material, another two methods (M3, M4) rely on the acquisition of two ultrasound signals in samples with different thicknesses (two-distance method) and the last method (M5) involves the acquisition of a single ultrasound signal in the analyzed material and the acquisition of a single ultrasound signal in distilled water at the same distance between ultrasonic transducers (relative method). The results were processed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and compared with published data. The mean values of sound velocity obtained with the use of the above methods in pork samples at post-storage, room and vital temperatures were as follows: method M1-1549.2/1581.7/1597.4m/s, method M2-1477.7/1509.8/1597.4m/s, method M3-1552.0/1599.0/1623.3m/s, method M4-1557.4/1598.3/1623.6m/s, method M5-1554.3/1583.7/1598m/s. The experiment indicates that the choice of method for determining sound velocity significantly influences the results. Two of the five analyzed methods (namely M3 and M4), which involved measurements of the time of sound wave propagation through samples of the same material with varied thickness, produced velocity values most consistent with published data.

  16. Second Wind: Bringing Good Coping Skills Materials to More Adult Students. Final Narrative Report [and] Coping Skills for Adults Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a narrative final project report and the project product, a new edition of five booklets in the "Coping with Crisis" series. The report describes the process of redesigning and repackaging existing adult basic education materials; comments from three students are given. The five booklets are as follows: (1)…

  17. Biological material detection identification and monitoring: combining point and standoff sensors technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Rowsell, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Detection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM) of biological material is critical to enhancing Situational Awareness (SA) in a timely manner, supporting decisions, and enabling the endangered force to take the most appropriate actions in a recognized CB environment. An optimum Bio DIM capability would include both point sensors to provide local monitoring and sampling for confirmatory ID of the material, and standoff sensors to provide wide-area monitoring from a distance, increasing available response time and enhancing SA. In June 2015, a Canadian team co-deployed a point (VPBio) and a standoff (BioSense) bio sensor during the international S/K Challenge II event, at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), USA. The co-deployment of the point and standoff sensors allowed the assessment of their respective strengths and limitations with regards to Bio DIM and SA in a realistic CB environment. Moreover, the initial hypothesis stating the existence of valuable leverages between the two sensors in a context of Bio DIM was confirmed. Indeed, the spatial limitation of the point sensor was overcome with the wide area coverage of the standoff technology. In contrast, the sampling capability of the point sensor can allow confirmatory identification of the detected material. Additionally, in most scenarios, the combined results allowed an increase in detection confidence. In conclusion, the demonstration of valuable leverages between point and standoff sensors in a context of Bio DIM was made, confirming the mitigation effect of co-deploying these systems for bio surveillance.

  18. MCM-enzyme-supramolecular hydrogel hybrid as a fluorescence sensing material for polyanions of biological significance.

    PubMed

    Wada, Atsuhiko; Tamaru, Shun-ichi; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2009-04-15

    Polyanions are important sensing targets because of their wide variety of biological activities. We report a novel polyanion-selective fluorescence sensing system composed of a hybrid material of supramolecular hydrogel, enzymes, and aminoethyl-modified MCM41-type mesoporous silica particles (NH(2)-MCM41) encapsulating anionic fluorescent dyes. The rational combination of the polyanion-exchange ability of NH(2)-MCM41 and semi-wet supramolecular hydrogel matrix successfully produced three distinct domains; namely, cationic nanopores, hydrophobic nano/microfibers, and aqueous bulk gel phase, which are orthogonal to each other. The coupling of anion-selective probe release from NH(2)-MCM41 with translocation of the probe facilitated by enzymatic reaction enabled fluorescence resonance energy transfer-type sensing in the hybrid materials for polyanions such as heparin, chondroitin sulfate, sucrose octasulfate, and so forth. The enzymatic dephosphorylation catalyzed by phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase or acid phosphatase) that is embedded in gel matrix with retention of activity also contributed to improving the sensing selectivity toward polysulfates relative to polyphosphates. It is clear that the orthogonal domain formation of these materials and maintaining the mobility of the fluorescent dyes between the three domains are crucial for the rapid and convenient sensing provided by this system.

  19. FINAL REPORT: DOE CONTRACT NUMBER FG0205ER64026 Biological Neutron Scattering: A Collaboration with the Oak Ridge Center for Structural Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, Jill

    2011-01-12

    The overarching goal of this project was to promote applications of small-angle scattering in structural molecular biology by providing model examples of cutting edge applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities and potential of the DOE national user facilities at Oak Ridge, especially the newly commissioned BioSANS. The approach taken was three-fold: (1) to engage in high impact collaborative research projects that would benefit from small-angle neutron scattering to both demonstrate the power of the technique while expanding the potential user community; (2) to provide access to scattering facilities established at the University of Utah to as broad a set of researchers as possible to increase the expertise in small-angle scattering generally; and (3) to develop new methods and tools for small-angle scattering. To these ends, three major research collaborations were pursued that resulted in a significant body of published work where neutron scattering and contrast variation played a major role. These major collaborations involved studies of protein complexes involved in (1) bacterial transcription regulation and adaptive response (a DOE/BER priority area); (2) regulation of cardiac muscle; and (3) neuronal disorders. In addition, to broaden the impact of the project, smaller collaborative efforts were supported that used either small-angle X-ray or neutron scattering. Finally, the DOE supported facilities at the University of Utah were made available to researchers on a service basis and a number of independent groups took advantage of this opportunity. In all of this work, there was an emphasis on the training of students and post docs in scattering techniques, and a set of publications (a book chapter, a review, and an encyclopedia article) were produced to guide the non-specialist potential user of scattering techniques in successful applications of the techniques. We also developed a suite of user friendly web-based computational tools currently

  20. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  1. Final Report: Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William B

    2012-12-31

    Over the past 20 years, great technical progress has been made in improving power density and durability of fuel cell stacks. Yet, operating durably at high performance levels under very dry conditions, e.g., < 20% RH at 80 °C or above, remains beyond even the best fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. Thus, today it is essential to humidify the gases supplied to the fuel cell inlets. In this work, we have produced a new, inexpensive, composite membrane capable of very high water vapor transport and low air cross-over. The composite structure consists of a very thin ionomer layer (e.g., < 5 m) sandwiched between two microporous polymer layers. The thin ionomer layer facilitates the rapid water transport and provides an impermeable layer to prevent gas cross-over. Such an approach reduces cost, but maintains performance. The microporous layer protects the thin ionomer layer from mechanical damage during handling; confers strength to the thin layer allowing it to be more durable during use; and allows it to withstand higher automotive pressures and temperatures. The composite structure will therefore allow lower total cost while still meeting automotive humidifier water transport and durability targets. Because the transport rates of these new materials are so high, existing planar membrane humidifier module designs available at the start of the program were incapable of efficiently utilizing the high rates. Therefore, the assembled team designed, tested and demonstrated an innovative, low-cost humidifier module with customized channel geometries that can take advantage of the high the water transport rates. Program Results The objectives of the program have been fully met. The optimized membrane produced in the program has very high transport rates, nearly twice that of the closest competitive option, a homogeneous perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane. Furthermore, the composite structure imparts significant durability advantages, allowing the membrane to

  2. Fundamentals of Composite Materials for Undergraduate Engineering--A Filmed Presentation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busching, Herbert W.

    Curricula in undergraduate engineering have not adequately reflected present usage and knowledge of composite materials (types of rock and organic matter in which structurally dissimilar materials are combined). Wide usage of composites is expected to increase the importance of this class of materials and the need for more substantive exposure to…

  3. A Survey of Text Materials Used in Aviation Maintenance Technician Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Bowers, William K.

    The report documents the results of a national survey of book publishing firms and aviation maintenance technician schools to (1) identify the text materials used in the training of aviation mechanics; (2) appraise the suitability and availability of identified text materials; and (3) determine the adequacy of the text materials in meeting the…

  4. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy.

  5. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy.

  6. Biological and structural characterization of a naturally inspired material engineered from elastin as a candidate for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Vassalli, Massimo; Sbrana, Francesca; Laurita, Alessandro; Papi, Massimiliano; Bloise, Nora; Visai, Livia; Bochicchio, Brigida

    2013-12-23

    The adoption of a biomimetic approach in the design and fabrication of innovative materials for biomedical applications is encountering a growing interest. In particular, new molecules are being engineered on the basis of proteins present in the extracellular matrix, such as fibronectin, collagen, or elastin. Following this approach scientists expect to be able not only to obtain materials with tailored mechanical properties but also to elicit specific biological responses inherited by the mimicked tissue. In the present work, a novel peptide, engineered starting from the sequence encoded by exon 28 of human tropoelastin, was characterized from a chemical, physical, and biological point of view. The obtained molecule was observed to aggregate at high temperatures, forming a material able to induce a biological effect similar to what elastin does in the physiological context. This material seems to be a good candidate to play a relevant role in future biomedical applications with special reference to vascular surgery.

  7. Same-day batch measurement of glycine betaine, carnitine, and other betaines in biological material.

    PubMed

    Lever, M; Bason, L; Leaver, C; Hayman, C M; Chambers, S T

    1992-08-15

    Glycine betaine, carnitine, carnitine esters, butyrobetaine, and proline betaine (stachydrine) concentrations in biological materials can be reliably measured in 100-microliters samples, with a detection limit below 1 mumol/liter. The procedure is suitable for batches of more than 30 specimens and it is possible to obtain a single result within 2 h. The betaines are extracted into an acetonitrile:methanol mixture, dried with anhydrous disodium hydrogen phosphate containing argentous oxide. The 4-bromophenacyl ester derivatives are formed using 4-bromophenacyl triflate as reagent, in the presence of solid magnesium oxide as base. The derivatives are separated by high-performance chromatography on a silica column, in a mixed partition and ion-exchange mode.

  8. Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material?

    PubMed

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    2011-02-01

    Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material? The question is answered in the present article in general philosophical terms from the point of view of an ethics of honour, a libertarian theory of rights, a view of respect for privacy based on the idea that autonomy is of value in itself, and utilitarianism respectively. For different reasons the ethics of honour and the idea of the value of autonomy are set to one side. It surfaces that the moral rights theory and utilitarianism present conflicting answers to the question. The main thrust of the argument is that there is no way of finding an overlapping consensus, so politicians have to take decisions that are bound to be controversial in that they can be questioned on reasonable philosophical grounds.

  9. [Application of biologically active suture materials in emergency surgery of abdominal cavity organs].

    PubMed

    Mokhov, E M; Chumakov, R Iu; Sergeev, A N

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of specific course of the wound process and near results of operations on 398 patients with emergency abdominal surgical pathology has revealed advantages of using new biologically active suture materials "Nikant" (with doxicyclin) and "Nikant-P" (with doxicyclin and stimulator of regeneration from the group of hermanium-containing organic compounds) in performing surgical interventions. Total number of patients with complications at the early postoperative period, operated using threads "Nikant" (38-29.9%) and "Nikant-P" (30-23.8%) proved to be reliably less than in patients of the control group (71-48.9%). The results of operations improved at the expense of considerable reduction of the number of postoperative local pyo-inflammatory processes.

  10. Cancer patients' attitudes toward future research uses of stored human biological materials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Champion, Victoria L; Eckles, Rachael; Johnson, Cynthia S; Meslin, Eric M

    2007-09-01

    THE POLICY DEBATE CONCERNING INFORMED consent for future, unspecified research of stored human biological materials (HBM) would benefit from an understanding of the attitudes of individuals who contribute tissue specimens to HBM repositories. Cancer patients who contributed leftover tissue to the Indiana University Cancer Center Tissue Bank under such conditions were recruited for a mail survey study of their attitudes. Our findings suggest that a clear majority of subjects would permit unlimited future research on stored HBMs without re-contact and reconsent, and a significant minority appear to desire ongoing control over future research uses of their tissue. These differences merit further investigation and suggest that a policy of blanket consent for all future, unspecified research would be premature.

  11. Ferromagnetic resonance for the quantification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biological materials

    PubMed Central

    Gamarra, Lionel F; daCosta-Filho, Antonio J; Mamani, Javier B; de Cassia Ruiz, Rita; Pavon, Lorena F; Sibov, Tatiana T; Vieira, Ernanni D; Silva, André C; Pontuschka, Walter M; Amaro, Edson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work is the presentation of a quantification methodology for the control of the amount of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) administered in biological materials by means of the ferromagnetic resonance technique (FMR) applied to studies both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study consisted in the analysis of the elimination and biodistribution kinetics of SPIONs after intravenous administration in Wistar rats. The results were corroborated by X-ray fluorescence. For the in vitro study, a quantitative analysis of the concentration of SPIONs bound to the specific AC133 monoclonal antibodies was carried out in order to detect the expression of the antigenic epitopes (CD133) in stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. In both studies FMR has proven to be an efficient technique for the SPIONs quantification per volume unit (in vivo) or per labeled cell (in vitro). PMID:20463936

  12. A controlled rate freeze/thaw system for cryopreservation of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Harrison, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A system which allows programmable temperature-time control for a 5 cc sample volume of an arbitrary biological material was constructed. Steady state and dynamic temperature control was obtained by supplying heat to the sample volume through resistive elements constructed as an integral part of the sample container. For cooling purposes, this container was totally immersed into a cold heat sink. Sample volume thermodynamic property data were obtained by measurements of heater power and heat flux through the container walls. Using a mixture of dry ice and alcohol at -79 C, sample volume was controlled from +40 C to -60 C at rates from steady state to + or - 65 C/min. Steady state temperature precision was better than 0.2 C while the dynamic capability depends on the temperature rate of change as well as the thermal mass of the sample and the container.

  13. Chromium(III) sorption enhancement through NTA - modification of biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.S.; Lee, C.K.; Lee, P.L.

    1997-03-01

    The use of low-cost biological materials for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from solution has been investigated extensively in recent times. To enhance their sorption capacities various chemical modifications on the sorbents were attempted. Freer et al. showed that bark from the Pinus radiata (D. Don) had a greater sorption capacity for metals after treatment with both inorganic acid and formaldehyde. Apple wastes treated with phosphorus oxychloride improved the efficiency of removing metal ions. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-modified groundnut, Arachis hypogea, was reported to improve the sorption of cadmium and lead ions. Modifications with the aid of dyes also enhanced metal sorption. Moss and coconut husk (CH) are readily obtainable in Malaysia. Their sorption potential for metals has been reported. This paper reports on the metal sorption enhancement of these two biosorbents after chemical modification with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Modeling and experimental study on frequency-domain electricity properties of biological materials].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Luo, Shiqiang; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Gang; Huang, Hua

    2009-12-01

    Frequency-domain electricity properties of four objects, including bullfrog skin, bullfrog muscle, triply distilled water and 0.9% NaCl, were tested in the range of 100Hz-10MHz using home-made electrode and measuring system. The experimental results showed that the resistance of 0.9% NaCl decreased dramatically, that the amplitude frequency characteristics of bullfrog's muscle and skin were similar, but that of triply distilled water did not change significantly. The frequency dependence of 0.9% NaCl showed that the electrode had great influence on the measuring system, so a new equivalent circuit model based on the electrode system was needed. These findings suggest that the new five-parameter equivalent circuit model, which embodies considerations on the interaction between electrodes and tissues, is a reasonable equivalent circuit for studying the electrical characteristics of biological materials.

  15. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.; Kujak, S.

    1993-05-01

    This volume contains the abstract, scope, discussion of results, charts of motor material compatibility, test procedures, material identifications, and 84 pages of data summary tables. Compatibility test results for 11 pure refrigerants and 17 refrigerant-lubricant combinations with 24 motor materials are included. The greatest effect on the motor materials was caused by adsorption followed by desorption of refrigerants at higher temperatures. High internal pressure of the adsorbed refrigerants and their tendency to evolve from the materials resulted in blisters, cracks, internal bubbles in the varnish, and delamination or bubbles in the sheet insulations. The second effect was extraction or dissolution of materials that lead to embrittlement of some sheet insulations. HCFC-22 and HCFC- 22/mineral oil had the most deleterious effects; the materials are expected to be reliable when used with most of the new refrigerants and lubricants. Tables.

  16. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; ...

    2016-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an ‘aloof’ electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies o1 eV can be ‘safely’ investigated. To demonstrate the potential of aloof spectroscopy, we record electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C–H, N–H and C=O vibrational signatures with nomore » observable radiation damage. Furthermore, the technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ~10nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.« less

  17. Graphene-based platform for nano-scale infrared near-field spectroscopy of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatib, Omar; Wood, Joshua D.; Doidge, Gregory P.; Damhorst, Gregory L.; Rangarajan, Aniruddh; Bashir, Rashid; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph W.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2014-03-01

    In biological and life sciences, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy serves as a noninvasive probe of vibrational fingerprints used to identify chemical and molecular species. Near-field spectroscopy, based on the illumination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip with an infrared laser, allows for determination of IR properties of a material at nanometer length scales. However, application of near-field IR spectroscopy to most biological systems has thus far been elusive. Physiological conditions required for experimentation are incompatible with typical implementations of nano-FTIR. Recently it became possible to trap water and small biomolecules underneath large-area graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The graphene layer serves as an IR-transparent cover that allows for a near-field interrogation of the underlying layers. We present near-field nano-imaging and spectroscopy data of unencapsulated Tobacco Mosaic Viruses (TMV), compared to those sandwiched between two large-area graphene sheets, and discuss the applicability of near-field IR spectroscopy to trapped biomolecules in aqueous environments.

  18. Chemical imaging of biological materials by NanoSIMS using isotopic and elemental labels

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Pett-Ridge, J; Ghosal, S; Hutcheon, I D

    2006-04-10

    The NanoSIMS 50 combines unprecedented spatial resolution (as good as 50 nm) with ultra-high sensitivity (minimum detection limit of {approx}200 atoms). The NanoSIMS 50 incorporates an array of detectors, enabling simultaneous collection of 5 species originating from the same sputtered volume of a sample. The primary ion beam (Cs{sup +} or O{sup -}) can be scanned across the sample to produce quantitative secondary ion images. This capability for multiple isotope imaging with high spatial resolution provides a novel new approach to the study of biological materials. Studies can be made of sub-regions of tissues, mammalian cells, and bacteria. Major, minor and trace element distributions can be mapped on a submicron scale, growth and metabolism can be tracked using stable isotope labels, and biogenic origin can be determined based on composition. We have applied this technique extensively to mammalian and prokaryotic cells and bacterial spores. The NanoSIMS technology enables the researcher to interrogate the fate of molecules of interest within cells and organs through elemental and isotopic labeling. Biological applications at LLNL will be discussed.

  19. Interaction of Materials and Biology in Total Joint Replacement – Successes, Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Sato, T; Yao, Z; Goodman, SB

    2014-01-01

    Total joint replacement (TJR) has revolutionized the treatment of end-stage arthritic disorders. This success is due, in large part, to a clear understanding of the important interaction between the artificial implant and the biology of the host. All surgical procedures in which implants are placed in the body evoke an initial inflammatory reaction, which generally subsides over several weeks. Thereafter, a series of homeostatic events occur leading to progressive integration of the implant within bone and the surrounding musculoskeletal tissues. The eventual outcome of the operation is dependent on the characteristics of the implant, the precision of the surgical technique and operative environment, and the biological milieu of the host. If these factors and events are not optimal, adverse events can occur such as the development of chronic inflammation, progressive bone loss due to increased production of degradation products from the implant (periprosthetic osteolysis), implant loosening or infection. These complications can lead to chronic pain and poor function of the joint reconstruction, and may necessitate revision surgery or removal of the prosthesis entirely. Recent advances in engineering, materials science, and the immunological aspects associated with orthopaedic implants have fostered intense research with the hope that joint replacements will last a lifetime, and facilitate pain-free, normal function. PMID:25541591

  20. Collection of biological materials in biodiversity prospecting in India: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, B N

    1996-04-01

    Forests are the chief resource for the collection and exploration of biological materials. The past few decades have witnessed a large scale deforestation in India due to substantial pressures generated by population growth, leading to demand for more land for agriculture, urbanization and industrial activities, in addition to increased demand for fuel wood and timber. This has resulted in the loss of soil cover, habitat destruction, environmental degradation and ecological imbalance. This scenario has created a progressive awareness for the conservation and restoration of habitats and, thus, the declaration of many forest areas into protected zones, such as national parks, biosphere reserves, etc., including the protection of some marine areas, by both the National and State Governments. Normally, permission for biological collecting is not granted in these protected areas. In India, forests are a State subject and grant for collection permission is vested with the State Forest Departments. In the absence of any rules, regulations and guidelines, either from National or State Governments, forest authorities impose their terms and conditions, which are arbitrary and even contradictory at times, in the process of granting collecting permits. A set of new rules to be applied throughout the country is needed.

  1. Evaluation of analytical methods for fluorine in biological and related materials.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, P

    1990-02-01

    During the past two decades, some major pitfalls in fluorine analysis have been recognized and overcome. Therefore, it is important that facts be separated from fallacies in published literature on levels and forms of fluorine (ionic, bound, covalent, etc.) in biological materials, in order that correct perceptions of physiological, biochemical, and toxicological aspects of inorganic as well as organic fluorine compounds can be formed. Trace amounts of inorganic fluoride in biological samples can now be accurately determined with the fluoride electrode either directly or following diffusion, adsorption, or reverse extraction of fluoride (when necessary). The aluminum monofluoride molecular absorption technique provides an excellent rapid method for determination of trace amounts of inorganic fluoride (in the absence of organic fluorine). Fluorine in most organic fluorine compounds is not available for distillation, diffusion, or reverse-extraction. The sample needs to be ashed (open ashing) or combusted (oxygen flask, oxygen bomb, pyrohydrolysis) for covalently bound fluorine to be converted to fluoride ions. This can now be readily accomplished at room temperature by the reductive cleavage of the C-F bond with the sodium biphenyl reagent. Some recommendations for future research have been made.

  2. Cultivation of human liver cell lines with microcarriers acting as biological materials of bioartificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Hu, Huan-Zhang; Yang, Ji-Zhen

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To improve the cultivation efficiency and yield of human liver cell line Cl-1. METHODS: High-density cultivation of Cl-1 on microcarriers was carried out with periodic observation of their growth and proliferation. The specific functions of human liver cell were also determined. RESULTS: Cells of Cl-1 cell line grew well on microcarrier Cytodex-3 and on the 7th day the peak was reached. The amount of Cl-1 cells was 2.13 × 108 and the total amount of albumin synthesis reached 71.23 μg, urea synthesis 23.32 mg and diazepam transformation 619.7 μg respectively. The yield of Cl-1 on microcarriers was 49.3 times that of conventional cultivation. The amounts of albumin synthesis, urea synthesis and diazepam transformation were 39.8 times, 41.6 times and 33.3 times those of conventional cultivation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The human liver cell line Cl-1 can be cultivated to a high density with Cytodex-3 and has better biological functions. High-density cultivation of Cl-1 on microcarriers can act as the biological material of bioartificial liver. PMID:11819434

  3. Errors and interferences in the determination of chromium in biological materials by INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.A. )

    1993-01-01

    In the late 1950s, chromium was found to be important in animal nutrition, and shortly after that was found to be essential for human nutrition. The most important chromium function is in maintaining normal glucose tolerance primarily by regulating insulin action, although the exact molecular structure involved has not yet been determined. In addition, some interaction of chromium with thyroid metabolism and with nucleic acids in both experimental animals and humans has been postulated. However, dietary intake of chromium in the United States and in other developed countries is reported to be suboptimal by 30 to 50%, based on the minimum US daily intake of 50 [mu]g. There are analytical problems with the determination of chromium in biological materials by most analytical techniques, including neutron activation analysis (NAA). The well-known International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) intercomparison on milk powder produced results for chromium by 13 laboratories ranging over more than four orders of magnitude. More recently, the 1990 American Society for Testing and Materials task group intercomparison on apple leaves initially produced results having a range of 483% for the four laboratories reporting chromium. The peach leaves results were similar with a range of 450%. Note also that these latter two intercomparisons were on botanical matrices having relatively high chromium concentrations of [approximately] 0.3 and 1 mg/kg, compared to the IAEA milk with a concentration of 0.02 mg/kg. This paper reports on potential errors and interferences which can enter into chromium measurements by INAA. Some errors discussed are generic, applying to any measurement system, and some are specific to the problem of chromium in biological matrices.

  4. Copper determination in biological materials by ETAAS using W-Rh permanent modifier.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eder C; Barbosa, Fernando; Krug, Francisco J; Tavares, Aline

    2002-04-22

    A tungsten-rhodium treatment on the integrated platform of a transversely heated graphite atomiser was used as a permanent chemical modifier for the determination of copper in biological materials by using digested samples as well as slurry sampling in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The W-Rh permanent modifier was as efficient as Pd+Mg(NO(3))(2) conventional modifier for obtaining good Cu thermal stabilisation in the digested and slurry samples. The permanent W-Rh modifier remained stable by approximately 300 and 250 firings when 20 mul of digested sample and 20 mul of slurry were delivered into the atomiser, respectively. In addition, the permanent modifier increased the tube lifetime up to 1370 and 744 analytical measurements in the digested and slurry samples, respectively. Also, when the W-Rh permanent modifier was employed, there was less variation of the slope of the analytical curves during the total atomiser lifetime, resulting in a decreased need of re-calibration during routine analysis, increasing the sample throughput, and consequently diminishing the variable analytical costs. Detection limits obtained with W-Rh permanent modifier were 0.64 and 0.33 mug g(-1) Cu for digested (dilution factor 100 ml g(-1)) and 1.0% m/v slurries of biological materials, respectively. Results for the determination of copper in the samples were in agreement with those obtained with decomposed sample solutions by using Pd+Mg(NO(3)), since no statistical differences were found after applying the paired t-test at the 95% level.

  5. Investigation and analysis of asbestos fibers and accompanying minerals in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Le Bouffant, L

    1974-12-01

    A method is described for isolating asbestos fibers contained in biological tissues. It consists in incinerating the biological material in activated oxygen at 150 degrees C, and attacking the ash by 1N HC1 for 18 hr. The residue is then filtered on a membrane covered with a carbon film. Electron microscope examination of the deposit makes it possible to determine fiber concentrations when the weight or volume of primary material is known, and to make size analyses. By x-ray diffraction, the mineralogical nature of the asbestos is determined by comparison with an aluminum reference diagram. For x-ray diffraction, a micromethod is used, with an ash sample of about 10 mug. These techniques are used for identifying and counting asbestos fibers in small fragments of lungs or other organs. It was found that asbestos fibers generally go along with other minerals which may be abundant. Most fibers found in lung are less than 5 mum long. Counts on lungs of asbestos workers give concentrations often greater than 10(7) particles per gram of dry tissue. The evolution of inhaled chrysotile seems to be different from that of amphiboles. In the case of pleural mesothelioma, a comparison of fibers within the tumor with fibers in the adjacent parenchyma shows only slight differences in the particle sizes, but marked differences in their nature, with a chrysotile enrichment in the pleural zone. Pleural plaques were analyzed in the same way. After decalcification, many small sized asbestos fibers were found. The same technique is now being used for determining ingested particles. A great number of observations concerning fiber counts, their nature and sizes, and the presence of various clays minerals will be necessary to establish the role of the different factors in the formation of lesions caused by the inhalation or the ingestion of asbestos fibers.

  6. Biological evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ahmed M; Hassanien, Ehab E; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M; Nagy, Mohamed M

    2017-03-02

    This study evaluates the biological properties of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement. This study was conducted on 48 teeth in 4 dogs (12 teeth/dog). The dogs were classified into two equal groups (n=24 teeth) according to the evaluation period including: group A (3 weeks) and group B (3 months). Each group was further subdivided into three equal subgroups (n=8 teeth) according to the capping material including: subgroup 1: mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), subgroup2: Portland cement+10% calcium hydroxide+20% bismuth oxide (Port Cal) and subgroup 3: Portland cement+bismuth oxide. After general anesthesia, a class V buccal cavity was prepared coronal to the gingival margin. After pulp exposure and hemostasis,the capping materials and glass ionomer filling were placed on the exposure sites. All histopathological findings, inflammatory cell count and dentin bridge formation were recorded. Data were analyzed statistically. After 3 months, the histopathological picture of the pulp in subgroup 1 showed normal pulp, continuous odontoblastic layer and complete dentin bridge formation while subgroup 2 showed partial and complete dentin bridge over a normal and necrotic pulps. Subgroup 3 showed loss of normal architecture, areas of necrosis, complete, or incomplete dentin bridge formation, attached and detached pulp stones and fatty degeneration in group B. For group A, MTA subgroup showed the least number of inflammatory cell infiltrate followed by Port Cal subgroup. While subgroup 3 showed the highest number of inflammatory cell infiltrate. For group B, the mean inflammatory cell count increased with the three tested materials with no statistical difference. Regarding dentin bridge formation at group A, no significant differences was found between subgroups, while at group B, MTA subgroup exhibited significantly higher scores than other subgroups. In conclusion, addition of calcium hydroxide to Portland cement improves the dentin bridge formation

  7. Developing column material for the separation of serum amyloid P and C reactive protein from biological sources.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Arzu; Ünlüer, Özlem Biçen; Dönmez, Gülnur; Hür, Deniz; Say, R Dvan

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we have investigated the isolation of serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from rainbow trout. It has recently been found that SAP is deposited in atherosclerotic lesions or neurofibrillary tangles, which are related to aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Given the importance of CRP, the CRP level in blood is becoming recognized as a potential means of monitoring cardiovascular risk. These two proteins, members of the pentraxin family of oligomeric serum proteins, were isolated from rainbow trout using N-methacryloyl-phosphoserine (MA-pSer) immobilized poly (2-hydroxy ethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogels as a column material in a fast protein liquid chromatography system. The separation process was verified in two steps. First, SAP and CRP proteins were isolated together from serum sample of rainbow trout using MA-pSer/PHEMA cryogel columns. Second, SAP protein was separated chromatographically from CRP protein using the Ca(2+) ion immobilized PHEMA cryogel column. According to the data, a new and effective technique has been developed for the isolation of SAP and CRP proteins from a biological source, rainbow trout. Finally, purified SAP and CRP were loaded using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel and western blot analysis to investigate the purity of chromatographically isolated SAP and CRP compared with commertial SAP and CRP.

  8. New molecular precursors for low-temperature routes to new oxide materials. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T.D.

    1997-10-01

    In this grant period, the authors have explored the single-source precursor route to silicate materials containing various main group and transition metals. They have also explored the development of polymeric precursors to zinc silicate materials. In addition, they have begun to examine precursors for phosphate materials, based on the di(tert-butyl)phosphate ligand, {minus}O{sub 2}P(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}. A primary focus of these studies is the development of molecular precursors to homogeneous, ultrapure metal silicates and phosphates. More recently, the authors have attempted to develop template-assisted network-forming reactions that could lead to micro- or mesoporous materials. Findings are summarized below for Zr and HF systems, Al systems, Cr systems, Cu systems, metal phosphate precursors, zinc silicate luminescent materials, and syntheses of inorganic materials using dendrimeric polymers as templates.

  9. Hazardous materials flows by rail. Final report, January 1986-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, F.; Hussey, L.; Zebe, P.

    1990-03-01

    The report presents a quantitative overview of the movement of hazardous materials by rail in the United States. The data used is a hazardous materials rail waybill sample developed at TSC from the 1983 Rail Waybill Sample. The report examines (1) the Rail Waybill Sample, (2) the characteristics of hazardous materials rail transport, (3) non-interchange versus interchange hazardous materials traffic, (4) the origins and destinations of hazardous materials traffic, and (5) specific information on the rail flows of STCC 289--Misc. Chemical Products, STCC 287--Agricultural Chemicals, STCC 291--Products of Petroleum Refining, and STCC 281--Industrial Organic Chemicals. The basic purpose of the report is to provide analysts and policymakers with information on the movement of hazardous materials by rail that can be used in the decision-making process.

  10. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  11. Purification, growth, fabrication and characterization of wide bandgap materials. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.T.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.

    1998-05-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductor single crystals, such as heavy metal halide compounds, have been grown by physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods. Zone-refining and vacuum sublimation techniques were used to purify and adjust the stoichiometric composition of the starting material, and were proven to be effective. Several spectroscopic, microscopic and thermodynamic analytical techniques were employed to investigate the optical, electrical and structural properties of crystals. These results revealed information regarding micro- and macroscopic defects, impurities and modifications resulting from source material, growth process, post-growth treatment and device fabrication. Crystal growth and processing conditions have been correlated with this information and were optimized to achieve the purest and highest quality materials for practical device applications. Future works will involve optimization of material purification and crystal growth processes to produce high purity and low defect crystals, development of sensitive material characterization tools allowing a better understanding of defects formation and their correlation with processing conditions. Developments in bulk crystal growth research for detector devices in the Center for Photonic Materials and Devices since its establishment have been reviewed. Purification processes and single crystal growth systems employing physical vapor transport and Bridgman methods were assembled and used to produce high purity and superior quality wide bandgap materials based on heavy metal halides semiconductors. Comprehensive material characterization techniques have been employed to reveal the optical, electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals, and the results were used to establish improved material processing procedures.

  12. Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents with a single multi-functional material.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gabi; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill D; Koepsel, Richard R; Russell, Alan J

    2010-05-01

    We report the synthesis of new polymers based on a dimethylacrylamide-methacrylate (DMAA-MA) co-polymer backbone that support both chemical and biological agent decontamination. Polyurethanes containing the redox enzymes glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can convert halide ions into active halogens and exert striking bactericidal activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. New materials combining those biopolymers with a family of N-alkyl 4-pyridinium aldoxime (4-PAM) halide-acrylate co-polymers offer both nucleophilic activity for the detoxification of organophosphorus nerve agents and internal sources of halide ions for generation of biocidal activity. Generation of free bromine and iodine was observed in the combined material resulting in bactericidal activity of the enzymatically formed free halogens that caused complete kill of E. coli (>6 log units reduction) within 1 h at 37 degrees C. Detoxification of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) by the polyDMAA MA-4-PAM iodide component was dose-dependent reaching 85% within 30 min. A subset of 4-PAM-halide co-polymers was designed to serve as a controlled release reservoir for N-hydroxyethyl 4-PAM (HE 4-PAM) molecules that reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Release rates for HE 4-PAM were consistent with hydrolysis of the HE 4-PAM from the polymer backbone. The HE 4-PAM that was released from the polymer reactivated DFP-inhibited AChE at a similar rate to the oxime antidote 4-PAM.

  13. Evaluation of radiochemical neutron activation analysis methods for determination of arsenic in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) with retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (HMD) has played a key role in the certification of As in biological materials at NIST. Although this method provides very high and reproducible yields and detection limits at low microgram/kilogram levels, counting geometry uncertainties may arise from unequal distribution of As in the HMD, and arsenic detection limits may not be optimal due to significant retention of other elements. An alternate RNAA procedure with separation of arsenic by solvent extraction has been investigated. After digestion of samples in nitric and perchloric acids, As(III) is extracted from 2 M sulfuric acid solution into a solution of zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform. Counting of (76)As allows quantitation of arsenic. Addition of an (77)As tracer solution prior to dissolution allows correction for chemical yield and counting geometries, further improving reproducibility. The HMD and solvent extraction procedures for arsenic were compared through analysis of SRMs 1577c (bovine liver), 1547 (peach leaves), and 1575a (pine needles). Both methods gave As results in agreement with certified values with comparable reproducibility. However, the solvent extraction method yields a factor of 3 improvement in detection limits and is less time-consuming than the HMD method. The new method shows great promise for use in As certification in reference materials.

  14. Numerical modelling of thermal effects on biological tissue during laser-material interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinovic, Z.; Sreckovic, M.; Janicijevic, M.; Ilic, J.; Radovanovic, J.

    2014-09-01

    Among numerous methods of the modelling of laser interaction with the material equivalent of biological tissue (including macroscopic and microscopic cell interaction), the case of pathogenic prostates is chosen to be studied. The principal difference between the inorganic and tissue equivalent material is the term which includes blood flow. Thermal modelling is chosen for interaction mechanisms, i.e. bio-heat equation. It was noticed that the principal problems are in selecting appropriate numerical methods, available mathematical program packages and finding all exact parameters for performing the needed calculations. As principal parameters, among them density, heat conduction, and specific heat, there are many other parameters which depend on the chosen approach (there could be up to 20 parameters, among them coefficient of time scaling, arterial blood temperature, metabolic heat source, etc). The laser type, including its wavelength which defines the quantity of absorbed energy and dynamic of irradiation, presents the term which could be modulated for the chosen problem. In this study, the program Comsol Multiphysics 3.5 is used in the simulation of prostate exposed to Nd3+:YAG laser in its fundamental mode.

  15. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin W H; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion.

  16. A study of the interface strength between protein and mineral in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baohua

    2008-01-01

    Bone, tooth, mineralized tendon and sea shells are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior mechanical properties. As the mineral is so small at nanoscale, the volume fraction of the protein-mineral interface in the bulk materials can be enormously large; therefore, the mechanics of the interface should be critically important for the integrity of these biomaterials. Currently, people do not have a good understanding of the interface between protein and mineral, a hybrid interface between organic and inorganic constituents in biological materials. In this paper, a tension-shear chain (TSC) model is introduced into the Dugdale model for estimating the fracture energy of biomaterials. The strength of the hybrid interface is then studied with a "soft-hard" bi-layer fracture model, by which we find for the first time that the interface strength depends on both the size and geometry of the mineral crystal, and has been highly optimized through the miniaturization of mineral at nanoscale. This study may provide important insights into the mechanics of bone and tooth at small scale for tissue engineering in biomedical applications.

  17. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2010-06-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  18. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  19. The Development of Environmental Education Materials for Investigating Fire-Environment-Man Relationships: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, David L.; Reider, David A.

    This publication details the development and use of environmental education materials based on the United States Forest Service "Process Approach." This publication focuses on materials that teach the ecology and management of natural and man-made forest and brush fires. The main body of the contents develop and document a rationale for…

  20. Industry to Education Technology Transfer Program. Composite Materials--Personnel Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomezsko, Edward S. J.

    A composite materials education program was established to train Boeing Helicopter Company employees in the special processing of new filament-reinforced polymer composite materials. During the personnel development phase of the joint Boeing-Penn State University project, an engineering instructor from Penn State completed a 5-month, full-time…

  1. Tylers Beach, Virginia, dredged material plume monitoring project, September 27 to October 4, 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    thevenot, M.M.; Prickett, T.L.; Kraus, N.C.

    1992-12-01

    The Tylers Beach, Virginia, Dredged Material Plume Monitoring Project (TBMP) was conducted during the period 27 September to 4 October 1991. The project was conducted under the Dredging Research Program Technical Area 1, entitled 'Analysis of Dredged Material Placed in Open Water,' in support of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk. The objectives of the TBMP were to (a) collect suspended material concentration data and current data to determine the potential for dredged material issuing from a pipeline discharge to reach environmentally sensitive areas adjacent to the placement site, and (b) continue development of PLUmes MEasurement System (PLUMES) for monitoring dredged material plumes. This report provides an overview of the equipment and procedures used during the TBMP, together with a presentation of the TBMP data and analysis results. The TBMP produced an extensive, high-quality data set from 12 acoustic surveys and numerous suspended material and bottom grab samples.... Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), PLUme MEasurement System (PLUMES), Dredged material, Point of-Shoals, James River, Suspended material.

  2. Women in the Work Force: Development and Field Testing of Curriculum Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Louise; Sethney, Barbara J.

    To aid girls in considering future alternatives and making plans for labor force participation and adult female roles, curriculum materials and associated measures of knowledge, attitudes, and plans were developed and pilot tested with 100 girls in Grades 7, 9, and 11. Materials and measures were revised on the basis of pilot test data, including…

  3. Development of radiative-cooling materials. Final technical report: FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Work on research and development on glazing and selective emitter materials that will enhance day and night sky radiative cooling is described. The emphasis is on glazing development with a secondary interest in the appropriate selective emitter. The testing focused on the individual material properties. (MHR)

  4. Statistical characterization of carbon phenolic prepreg materials, volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beckley, D.A.; Stites, J. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    The objective was to characterize several lots of materials used for carbon/carbon and carbon/phenol product manufacture. Volume one is organized into testing categories based on raw material of product form. Each category contains a discussion of the sampling plan, comments and observations on each test method utilized, and a summary of the results obtained each category.

  5. Development of a Curriculum and Materials for Teaching Basic Vocational Talents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, John T., Jr.; Neyman, Clinton A.

    The objectives of this project were to develop and evaluate special instructional materials covering abstract reasoning, mechanical comprehension, and spatial visualization as related to basic vocational talents for eighth and ninth grade students who had a high probability of entering vocational education. The materials: paper and pencil aptitude…

  6. Audio Visual Instructional Materials for Distributive Education; a Classified Bibliography. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendowski, Jerry C.

    The bibliography contains a list of 90 names and addresses of sources of audiovisual instructional materials. For each title a brief description of content, the source, purchase price, rental fee or free use for 16MM films, sound-slidefilms, tapes-records, and transparencies is given. Materials are listed separately by topics: (1) advertising and…

  7. SADMESS. Student Assisted Development of Materials for Environmental and Social Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen; And Others

    In June, 1971, the Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC) received a grant for a project--namely, Student Assisted Development of Materials for Environmental and Social Studies (SADMESS)--which employed high school students to develop curriculum materials emphasizing the social science aspects of environmental education. SADMESS personnel…

  8. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  9. Study of the stress wave factor technique for evaluation of composite materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.C. Jr.; Henneke, E.G. II; Kiernan, M.T.; Grosskopf, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic approach for nondestructive evaluation provides a measurement procedure for quantifying the integrated effect of globally distributed damage characteristic of fiber reinforced composite materials. The evaluation procedure provides a stress wave factor that correlates closely with several material performance parameters. The procedure was investigated for a variety of materials including advanced composites, hybrid structure bonds, adhesive bonds, wood products, and wire rope. The research program focused primarily on development of fundamental understanding and applications advancements of acousto-ultrasonics for materials characterization. This involves characterization of materials for which detection, location, and identification of imperfections cannot at present be analyzed satisfactorily with mechanical performance prediction models. In addition to presenting definitive studies on application potentials, the understanding of the acousto-ultrasonic method as applied to advanced composites is reviewed.

  10. Preparation of polysulfone materials on nickel foam for solid-phase microextraction of floxacin in water and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiujuan; Cheng, Ting; Wang, Shuxia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction with polysulfone and molecularly imprinted polymers as coating on nickel foam were used to adsorb and enrich floxacin drugs. The preparation method is simple and reproducible to obtain the materials with controlled thickness. After evaluation by scanning electron microscope and various adsorption experiments, the materials were used to adsorb analytes in water samples and biological samples. Coupling with chromatographic analysis, the method recoveries are satisfactory with 90.0-104.8% and 79.31-107.1% for water and biological samples. The method repeatability by intra- and interday experiments shows that the RSD values for water and biological samples were 1.0-9.9% and 1.7-10.3%, with the quantitative limits of three floxacin drugs as 3.0-6.2 μg L(-1). Graphical Abstract Preparation diagram of polysulfone material.

  11. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  12. Flows of selected hazardous materials by rail. Final report for Sep 87-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, F.; Church, R.; Zebe, P.; Frev, J.

    1991-05-01

    The report is a review of hazardous materials rail traffic in the continental United States. It focuses on the year 1986, a relatively typical recent year in which an estimated total of 1,477 million net tons of freight was moved by rail. Of this, 63 million net tons, or four percent of the total, were hazardous materials. The report is designed to characterize the flow of selected hazardous materials and show their geographical distribution. It focusses on materials that (1) have large tonnages moving by rail, such as Products of Refining, (2) are regarded as especially dangerous, such as Products That May Be Toxic by Inhalation, or (3) have been recently designated as hazardous materials, such as molten or liquid sulphur. Its scope includes national, state and Business Economic Areas (BEAs) rail traffic. The purpose of the report is to help those in government and industry who are interested in the flows of hazardous materials see how these materials are geographically distributed by rail.

  13. [Complementarity of causality and finality in biology--a report reviewing two lectures given at the 1987 annual meeting of the Leopoldina].

    PubMed

    Peil, J

    1988-01-01

    Reviews of the opening lecture of H. Mohr "The Elementary in the Science--Possibilities and Limits of the Reductionism" and of the final lecture of N. Bischof "Order and Organization as Heuristic Principles of the Reductive Way of Thinking" at the meeting 1987 of the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher LEOPOLDINA are framed by remarks about the connections between Biology and Physics.

  14. Causal Assessment of Biological Impairment in the Bogue Homo River, Mississippi Using the U.S. EPA’s Stressor Identification Methodology (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Causal Assessment of Biological Impairment in the Bogue Homo River, Mississippi Using the U.S. EPA’s Stressor Identification Methodology. This assessment is taken from more than 700 court ordered assessments of the cau...

  15. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  16. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Giulia; Bai, Zhaojun; Ceperley, David; Cai, Wei; Gygi, Francois; Marzari, Nicola; Pickett, Warren; Spaldin, Nicola; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Schwegler, Eric

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word ‘materials’ is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  17. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume IV - pictures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  18. TV Spots and Supportive Printed Materials on Child-Rearing Practices. Work Unit III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This is the 1976-1977 final report of Work Unit III of Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Early Childhood Program. The Unit was funded to develop media products, mass media delivery strategies, television spot announcements and supportive booklets designed to increase awareness of certain child-rearing skills and practices among low…

  19. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  20. Adaptive Back Sheet Material for Acoustic Liner Applications-ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Farrar, Dawnielle

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed piezo-electric composite film is evaluated for its usefulness in application in acoustic liners. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Technology Facility developed experiments to measure the electrical response of the material to acoustic excitation and the vibrational response of the material to electrical excitation. The robustness of the piezo-electric film was also assessed. The material's electrical response to acoustic excitation is found to be comparable to a commercial microphone in the range of frequencies from 500 to 3000 Hz. However, the vibrational response to electrical excitation in the frequency range of interest is an order of magnitude less than may be necessary for application to acoustic liners. Nevertheless, experimental results indicate that the potential exists for the material to produce a measurable change in the impedance spectrum of a liner. Work continues to improve the authority of the piezo-electric film.

  1. Materials and mechanical design analysis of boron carbide reactor safety rods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this task was to analyze the materials and mechanical design bases for the new boron carbide safety rod. These analyses included examination of the irradiation response of the materials, chemical compatibility of component materials, moisture considerations for the boron carbide pellets and susceptibility of the rod to corrosion under reactor environmental conditions. A number of issues concerning the mechanical behavior were also addressed. These included: safety rod dynamic response in scram scenarios, flexibility and mishandling behavior, and response to thermal excursions associated with gamma heating. A surveillance program aimed at evaluating the integrity of the safety rods following actual operating conditions and justifying life extension for the rods was also proposed. Based on the experimental testing and analyses associated with this task, it is concluded that the boron carbide safety rod design meets the materials and mechanical criteria for successful operational performance.

  2. Solar-collector materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminum substrate, and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminum substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  3. Mechanical behavior of a ceramic matrix composite material. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosskopf, Paul P.; Duke, John C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic materials have been used in industry for hundreds of years. These materials have proven their usefulness in many applications, yet, their potential for critical structural applications is limited. The existence of an imperfection in a monolithic ceramic on the order of several microns in size may be critical, resulting in catastrophic failure. To overcome this extreme sensitivity to small material imperfections, reinforced ceramic materials were developed. A ceramic matrix which has been reinforced with continuous fibers is not only less sensitive to microscopic flaws, but is also able to sustain significant damage without suffering catastrophic failure. A borosilicate glass reinforced with several layers of plain weave silicon carbide cloth (Nicalon) was studied. The mechanical testing which was performed included both flexural and tensile loading configurations. This testing was done not only to determine the material properties, but also to initiate a controlled amount of damage within each specimen. Several nondestructive testing techniques, including acousto-ultrasonics (AU), were performed on the specimens periodically during testing. The AU signals were monitored through the use of an IBM compatible personal computer with a high speed data acquisition board. Software was written which manipulates the AU signals in both the time and frequency domains, resulting in quantitative measures of the mechanical response of the material. The measured AU parameters are compared to both the mechanical test results and data from other nondestructive methods including ultrasonic C-scans and penetrant enhanced x ray radiography.

  4. Ferrite phase shifters using stress insensitive materials. Final report, July 1991-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, T.; Cox, P.; Harrison, G.; Rodrigue, P.

    1993-10-01

    This RD program sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory and being conducted by EMS Technologies, Inc., Norcross, Georgia, is focused toward achieving improved performance in microwave switching components via use of stress insensitive' microwave ferrite materials for applications where stable hysteresis characteristics of the materials are critical to the RF performance. The program, therefore, primarily addresses how to relieve or improve the magnetostrictive characteristics of the materials with emphasis on the specific application and demonstration of these materials in microwave switching components, particularly ferrite toroidal phase shifters. Material investigations were focused on Mn+3 substitutions in Yttrium-gadolinium iron garnet. These compounds were evaluated in dual toroid waveguide phase shifter structures with temperature, pressure Rf power as variables Manganese substitution per formula unit for Fe+3 of 0.11 to 0.13 (2.2 to 2.6%) produced compounds which exhibited stable performance from magnetostrictive stresses in phaser structures. Ferrite phase shifters, Stress insensitive materials Manganese substitution in garnets, Magnetostrictive, Stresses in ferrite phasers.

  5. FY98 Final Report Initial Interfacial Chemical Control for Enhancement of Composite Material Strength

    SciTech Connect

    GE Fryxell; KL Alford; KL Simmons; RD Voise; WD Samuels

    1999-10-14

    The U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) sponsored this research project to support the development of new self-assembled monolayer fiber coatings. These coatings can greatly increase the bond strength between the fiber and the resin matrix of a composite material. Composite ammunition components molded from such materials will exhibit higher strength than current materials, and will provide a major improvement in the performance of composites in military applications. Use of composite materials in military applications is desirable because of the lighter weight of the materials and their high strengths. The FY97 project investigated initial interfacial chemical control for enhancement of composite material strength. The core of the project was to modify the covalent interface of glass fibers (or other reinforcing fibers) to induce strong, uniform, defect-free adhesion between the fibers' surfaces and the polymer matrix. Installing a self-assembled monolayer tailored to the specific matrix resin accomplished this. Simply, the self-assembled monolayer modifies the fiber to make it appear to have the same chemical composition as the resin matrix. The self-assembled monolayer creates a receptive, hydrophobic interface that the thermoset resin (or polymer precursors) would wet more effectively, leading to a higher contact surface area and more efficient adhesion. The FY97 work phase demonstrated that it is possible to increase the adhesive strength, as well as increase the heat deflection temperature through the use of self-assembled monolayer.

  6. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  7. The Elemental Analysis of Biological and Environmental Materials Using a 2MEV Proton Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshed, Waheed

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A programme has been developed to simulate the proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectra and its uses have been described. The PIXE technique has been applied to the analysis of new biological reference materials which consist of IAEA human diet samples and NIST leaf samples. Homogeneity of these and two existing reference materials, IAEA soil -7 and Bowen's kale, has also been determined at the mug scale. A subsample representative of a material is ascertained by determination of sampling factors for the elements detected in the material. Proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis in conjunction with PIXE has been employed to investigate F and other elemental concentrations found in human teeth samples. The mean F concentration in enamel and dentine parts of teeth followed an age dependent model. Concentrations of Ca and P were found to be higher in the enamel than in the dentine. Analysis of blood and its components in the study of elemental models in sickle cell disease in Nigerians has been carried out. Comparisons revealed that Cl, Ca and Cu were at higher levels whereas K, Fe, Zn and Rb were at lower levels in the whole blood of the sicklers compared to controls. Similar results were obtained for the erythrocytes except that Br was found at higher concentration in erythrocytes of the sicklers. Higher concentrations of Cl, K, Fe and Cu were also observed in plasma of the sicklers compared to controls. PIXE and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the characterization of the Harmattan dust particulates collected at Kano and Ife. Most of the elements were found to be at higher concentrations as compared to those found in Recife (Brazil) and Toronto (Canada). The value of total suspended particulate was above the relevant national air quality standards. PIXE in conjunction with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed in the

  8. The NASA/JPL Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brinza, D.E.; Chung, S.Y.; Minton, T.K.; Liang, R.H.

    1994-12-01

    The deleterious effects of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) found in low-earth-orbit (LEO) environments on critical flight materials has been known since early shuttle flights. This corrosive effect is of considerable concern because it compromises the performance and longevity of spacecraft/satellite materials deployed for extended periods in LEO. The NASA Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials-3 (EOIM-3) experiment served as a testbed for a variety of candidate flight materials for space assets. A total of 57 JPL test specimens were present in six subexperiments aboard EOIM-3. In addition to a number of passive exposure materials for flight and advanced technology programs, several subexperiments were included to provide data for understanding the details of atomic oxygen interactions with materials. Data and interpretations are presented for the heated tray, heated strips, solar ultraviolet exposure, and scatterometer subexperiments, along with a detailed description of the exposure conditions experienced by materials in the various experiments. Mass spectra of products emerging from identical samples of a (sup 13)C-enriched polyimide polymer (chemically equivalent to Kapton) under atomic oxygen bombardment in space and in the laboratory were collected. Reaction products unambiguously detected in space were (sup 13)CO, NO, (sup 12)CO2, and (sup 13)CO2. These reaction products and two others, H2O and (sup 12)CO, were detected in the laboratory, along with inelastically scattered atomic and molecular oxygen. Qualitative agreement was seen in the mass spectra taken in space and in the laboratory; the agreement may be improved by reducing the fraction of O2 in the laboratory molecular beam.

  9. LDRD final report on nanocomposite materials based on hydrocarbon-bridged siloxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Bates, S.E.; Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Emerson, J.A.; Curro, J.G.

    1997-05-01

    Silicones [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers] are environmentally safe, nonflammable, weather resistant, thermally stable, low T{sub g} materials which are attractive for general elastomer applications because of their safety and their performance over a wide temperature range. However, PDMS is inherently weak due to its low glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and lack of stress crystallization. The major goal of this project was to create a family of reinforced elastomers based on silsesquioxane/PDMS networks. Polydimethylsiloxane-based (PDMS) composite materials containing a variety of alkylene-arylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes were synthesized in order to probe short chain and linkage effects in bimodal polymer networks. Monte Carlo simulations on the alkylene-bridged silsesquioxane/PDMS system predicted that the introduction of the silsesquioxane short chains into the long chain PDMS network would have a significant reinforcing effect on the elastomer. The silsesquioxane-PDMS networks were synthesized and evaluated. Analysis of the mechanical properties of the resulting materials indicated that use of the appropriate silisesquioxane generated materials with greatly enhanced properties. Arylene and activated alkylene systems resulted in materials that showed superior adhesive strength for metal-to-metal adhesion.

  10. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours. The original refrigerants and the Alternatives tested for retrofit were as follows: Most motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) were compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant. This was attributed to solution of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) found in Mylar and Melinex sheet and sleeving insulations was initially observed, but subsequent tests under dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was caused by moisture present during the exposure. Compatibility tests of elastomers with R-245ca, retrofitted from R-11 and R-123, showed that the nitrile was compatible with both R-11 and R-245ca, but not with R-123. The neoprene was unsatisfactory because of shrinkage in the R-245ca.

  11. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0001878 [Theory and Simulation of Defects in Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-04-14

    We explored a wide variety of oxide materials and related problems, including materials at the nanoscale and generic problems associated with oxide materials such as the development of more efficient computational tools to examine these materials. We developed and implemented methods to understand the optical and structural properties of oxides. For ground state properties, our work is predominantly based on pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), including new functionals and going beyond the local density approximation (LDA): LDA+U. To study excited state properties (quasiparticle and optical excitations), we use time dependent density functional theory, the GW approach, and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) methods based on a many-body Green function approaches. Our work focused on the structural, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of defects (such as oxygen vacancies) in hafnium oxide, titanium oxide (both bulk and clusters) and related materials. We calculated the quasiparticle defect states and charge transition levels of oxygen vacancies in monoclinic hafnia. we presented a milestone G0W0 study of two of the crystalline phases of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} clusters. We employed hybrid density functional theory to examine the electronic structure of sexithiophene/ZnO interfaces. To identify the possible effect of epitaxial strain on stabilization of the ferromagnetic state of LaCoO{sub 3} (LCO), we compare the total energy of the magnetic and nonmagnetic states of the strained theoretical bulk structure.

  12. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H.; Dahotre, N.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  13. Solid phase immobilization of optically responsive liposomes insol-gel materials for chemical and biological sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Stacey A.; Charych, Deborah H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Sasaki, Darryl Y.

    1997-04-01

    Liposomes enhanced with surface recognition groups have previously been found to have high affinity for heavy metal ions and virus particles with unique fluorescent and colorimetric responses, respectively. These lipid aggregate systems have now been successfully immobilized in a silica matrix via the sol-gel method, affording sensor materials that are robust, are easily handled, and offer optical clarity. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of preformed liposomes without modification of the aggregate structure. Lipid extraction studies of immobilized nonpolymerized liposomes showed no lipid leakage in aqueous solution over a period of 3 months. Heavy metal fluorescent sensor materials prepared with 5 percent N-[8-[1-octadecyl-2-(9-(1-pyrenyl)nonyl)-rac-glyceroyl]-3,6-dioxaoctyl]imino acid/distearylphosphatidylcholineliposomes exhibited a 4-50-fold enhancement in sensitivity to various metal ions compared to that of the liposomes in free solution. Through ionic attraction the anionic silicate surface, at the experimental pH of 7.4, may act as a preconcentrator of divalent metal ions, boosting the gel's internal metal concentration. Entrapped sialic acid-coated polydiacetylene liposomes responded with colorimetric signaling to influenza virus X31, although slower than the free liposomes in solution. The successful transport of the virus (50-100 nm diameter) reveals a large pore diameter of the gel connecting the liposome to the bulk solution. The porous and durable silica matrix additionally provides a protective barrier to biological attack (bacterial, fungal) and allows facile recycling of the liposome heavy metal sensor.

  14. Biological inspiration in optics and photonics: harnessing nature's light manipulation strategies for multifunctional optical materials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolle, Mathias; Sandt, Joseph D.; Nagelberg, Sara N.; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Kreysing, Moritz; Vukusic, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The precise control of light-matter interactions is crucial for the majority of known biological organisms in their struggle to survive. Many species have evolved unique methods to manipulate light in their environment using a variety of physical effects including pigment-induced, spectrally selective absorption or light interference in photonic structures that consist of micro- and nano-periodic material morphologies. In their optical performance, many of the known biological photonic systems are subject to selection criteria not unlike the requirements faced in the development of novel optical technology. For this reason, biological light manipulation strategies provide inspiration for the creation of tunable, stimuli-responsive, adaptive material platforms that will contribute to the development of multifunctional surfaces and innovative optical technology. Biomimetic and bio-inspired approaches for the manufacture of photonic systems rely on self-assembly and bottom-up growth techniques often combined with conventional top-down manufacturing. In this regard, we can benefit in several ways from highly sophisticated material solutions that have convergently evolved in various organisms. We explore design concepts found in biological photonic architectures, seek to understand the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of bio-optical systems, aim to devise viable manufacturing strategies that can benefit from insight in biological formation processes and the use of established synthetic routines alike, and ultimately strive to realize new photonic materials with tailor-made optical properties. This talk is focused on the identification of biological role model photonic architectures, a brief discussion of recently developed bio-inspired photonic structures, including mechano-sensitive color-tunable photonic fibers and reconfigurable fluid micro-lenses. Potentially, early-stage results in studying and harnessing the structure-forming capabilities of living cells that

  15. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  16. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  17. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  18. Corrosion and materials selection report update non-proprietary version. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1984-06-01

    The revised Baseline design (dated 22 October, 1982) used most of the available information with regard to the corrosion, erosion and materials of construction. This information was collected through various programs conducted at the major coal liquefaction pilot plants, e.g. SRC-1 and SRC-2, H-Coal and EDS, and at various research laboratories. The selection of materials of construction was also based on certain basic assumptions with regard to the plant life and life of each type of equipment. Other selection criteria included various process considerations and economics. In cases where no data on corrosion and erosion was available, past experience, licensors' knowhow and engineering judgement, were utilized in the selection process. Beyond the date of publication of the revised Baseline document, additional data from various pilot plants and lab programs has been made available. On account of continuous review being performed by DOE and their subcontractors and consultants, a number of comments were forwarded to ICRC. These comments and latest developmental programs suggested several improvements in the design. This report consists of the following major sections: A discussion on corrosion/erosion related research and pilot plant programs; the materials selection criterion, including plant and equipment life, and various process considerations, are discussed in detail; copies of the materials diagrams from the Revised Baseline are attached; ICRC response to unresolved materials-related comments is included in the Appendix A; areas of concern and data gaps, with regard to the materials of construction are identified; and recommended areas of future research and development programs are listed.

  19. Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO) of Ohio. Final report, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, B.

    1985-12-04

    This document summarizes the second two weeks of the transition plan for Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO) to transition into management of the Feed Materials Production Center. The report presents accomplishments, planned activities, and percieved problems for the process, organized into 15 general areas: operations and maintenance; human resources; community involvement; environmental, safety and health; security and safeguards; finance; legal and contracts management; engineering and construction; management control systems; quality assurance; waste management; productivity retention program; purchasing; liaison with customers of FMPC (Users) and DOE; development of 9-month program plan.

  20. Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO). Final report, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, B.

    1985-11-19

    This document summarizes the first two weeks of the transition plan for Westinghouse Materials Company (WMCO) to transition into management of the Feed Materials Production Center. The report presents accomplishments, planned activities, and percieved problems for the process, organized into 15 general areas: operations and maintenance; human resources; community involvement; environmental, safety and health; security and safeguards; finance; legal and contracts management; engineering and construction; management control systems; quality assurance; waste management; productivity retention program; purchasing; liaison with customers of FMPC (Users) and DOE; development of 9-month program plan.

  1. Test methods for the dynamic mechanical properties of polymeric materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.

    1980-06-01

    Various test geometries and procedures for the dynamic mechanical analysis of polymers employing a mechanical spectrometer have been evaluated. The methods and materials included in this work are forced torsional pendulum testing of Kevlar/epoxy laminates and rigid urethane foams, oscillatory parallel plate testing to determine the kinetics of the cure of VCE with Hylene MP, oscillatory compressive testing of B-3223 cellular silicone, and oscillatory tensile testing of Silastic E and single Kevlar filaments. Fundamental dynamic mechanical properties, including the storage and loss moduli and loss tangent of the materials tested, were determined as a function of temperature and sometimes of frequency.

  2. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area. PMID:24844938

  3. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  4. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-05-15

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  5. Development of instrumentation for routine ToF-SIMS imaging analysis of biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliff, B.; Lockyer, N. P.; Corlett, C.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The routine analysis of frozen-hydrated biological material is a goal that is highly sought after in the ToF-SIMS community. To this end we have developed a system based on an existing protocol developed elsewhere, but with several crucial advances. Here we report on the major design initiatives, some early performance characteristics and experimental data obtained. The system was designed with ease-of-use and reliability in mind in addition to performance, this should make the results repeatable. The device works on a freeze-fracture type method to expose pristine surface for SIMS analysis. An important performance characteristic that has emerged is one of time; the fracture stage can be cooled down to operating temperature within 30 min beginning of cooling. This is important as it minimises dead time at the beginning of an experimental session. We also present here images of freeze-fractured liposomes obtained with this hardware, showing two differing fracture regimes, we believe they are of similar quality to those obtained using other techniques.

  6. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  7. Thresholding for biological material detection in real-time multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, hyperspectral image analysis has proved successful for a target detection problem encountered in remote sensing as well as near sensing utilizing in situ instrumentation. The conventional global bi-level thresholding for target detection, such as the clustering-based Otsu's method, has been inadequate for the detection of biologically harmful material on foods that has a large degree of variability in size, location, color, shape, texture, and occurrence time. This paper presents multistep-like thresholding based on kernel density estimation for the real-time detection of harmful contaminants on a food product presented in multispectral images. We are particularly concerned with the detection of fecal contaminants on poultry carcasses in real-time. In the past, we identified 2 optimal wavelength bands and developed a real-time multispectral imaging system using a common aperture camera and a globally optimized thresholding method from a ratio of the optimal bands. This work extends our previous study by introducing a new decision rule to detect fecal contaminants on a single bird level. The underlying idea is to search for statistical separability along the two directions defined by the global optimal threshold vector and its orthogonal vector. Experimental results with real birds and fecal samples in different amounts are provided.

  8. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the wide range of creatinine mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, the assigned values for 16 of the 17 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. The excluded material was identified as having a marginally underestimated assigned uncertainty, giving it large and potentially anomalous influence on the KCRF. However, this material's %d of 1.4 +/- 1.5 indicates that it is equivalent with the other materials at the 95% level of confidence. The median |%d| for all 17 of the materials is 0.3 with a median U95(%d) of 1.9. All of these higher-order CRMs for creatinine in human serum are equivalent within their assigned uncertainties. The median |%D| for the participating NMIs is 0.3 with a median U95(%D) of 2.1. These results demonstrate that all participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for creatinine in human serum and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Collaborative Research. Fundamental Science of Low Temperature Plasma-Biological Material Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, David Barry; Oehrlein, Gottlieb

    2014-09-01

    atmospheric pressure using several types of low temperature plasma sources, for which radical induced interactions generally dominate due to short mean free paths of ions and VUV photons. For these conditions we demonstrated the importance of environmental interactions when atmospheric pressure plasma sources are used to modify biomolecules. This is evident from both gas phase characterization data and in-situ surface characterization of treated biomolecules. Environmental interactions can produce unexpected outcomes due to the complexity of reactions of reactive species with the atmosphere which determines the composition of reactive fluxes and atomistic changes of biomolecules. Overall, this work clarified a richer spectrum of scientific opportunities and challenges for the field of low temperature plasma-biomolecule surface interactions than initially anticipated, in particular for plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure. The insights produced in this work, e.g. demonstration of the importance of environmental interactions, are generally important for applications of APP to materials modifications. Thus one major contributions of this research has been the establishment of methodologies to more systematically study the interaction of plasma with bio-molecules. In particular, our studies of atmospheric pressure plasma sources using very well-defined experimental conditions enabled to combine atomistic surface modifications of biomolecules with changes in their biological function. The clarification of the role of ions, VUV photons and radicals in deactivation of biomolecules during low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-biomolecule interaction has broad implications, e.g. for the emerging field of plasma medicine. The development of methods to detect the effects of plasma treatment on immune-active biomolecules will be helpful in many future studies.

  10. Advanced baffle materials technology development. Final report, Jun 87-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; VonBenken, C.J.; Halverson, W.D.; Evans, R.D.; Wollam, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Optical sensors for strategic defense will require optical baffles to achieve adequate off-axis stray light rejection and pointing accuracy. Baffle materials must maintain their optical performance after exposure to both operational and threat environments. In addition, baffle materials must not introduce contamination which would compromise the system signal-to-noise performance or impair system mission readiness. Critical examination of failure mechanisms in current baffle materials are quite fragile and contribute to system contamination problems. Spire has developed technology to texture the substrate directly, thereby removing minute, fragile interfaces subject to mechanical failure. This program has demonstrated that ion beam texturing produces extremely dark surfaces which are immune to damage from ordinary handling. This technology allows control of surface texture feature size and hence the optical wavelength at which the surface absorbs. The USAMTL/Spire program has produced dramatic improvements in the reflectance of ion beam textured aluminum without compromising mechanical hardness. In simulated launch vibration tests, this material produced no detectable contamination on adjacent catcher plates.

  11. Supplemental Driver Safety Program Development Volume II--Pilot and Field Test Module Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Kenard; Weidman, James R.

    This volume contains materials to supplement existing driver education programming offered by high schools to youthful (16- to 18-year old) drivers. Section I contains three drinking/driving modules: an information-only module, a self-image module, and a three-unit peer intervention module. An instructor's guide provided for each module includes…

  12. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  13. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR Notice was issued by the Agency on April 9, 2012. PR Notices are issued by the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) to inform pesticide registrants and other interested persons about important......

  14. A Model for Producing and Sharing Instructional Materials in Veterinary Medicine. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.

    This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)

  15. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, K.E.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of these materials to a simulated coal combustion environment for relatively short periods of time (10-50 hours). Heat exchanger tubes from DuPont Lanxide Composite Inc. were cut and infiltrated with Cr by heating in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed. This resulted in continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. The Cr-free and the Cr-infiltrated specimens were reacted with the molten Illinois No. 6 slag for 2 and 20 h at 1260{degrees}C, and the reaction layers examined with SEM and EDX. In the Cr-free specimens, the segregation of Fe and the precipitation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were detected near the liquid/gas interface, but no evidence of corrosion was present. In the Cr-infiltrate specimens, corrosion was evident, since a rearrangement and segregation of the Cr-rich grains occurred toward the surface of the molten slag. In addition, evidence of the diffusion of major quantities of Fe was observed from the liquid slag into the Cr-rich layer formed by infiltration.

  16. Revision and Updating of Listings of Vocational Instructional Materials Available from Federal Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carol L.

    This document reports a survey of curriculum and instructional materials readily available from over ninety-two federal organizations which could be utilized by vocational educators. Chapters 1 and 2 (Executive Summary and Introduction) summarize this survey conducted by Human Resources Management, Inc., from 1979-80, which resulted in listings of…

  17. Development of Materials for Use in a Comprehensive Teaching Improvement System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theall, Michael

    The project expanded on an already developed process for teacher-course evaluation at the higher education level. The process uses student ratings collected with an instrument which focuses on teacher behaviors and activities, overall assessments, and student and course information. Teaching improvement materials were developed as was a…

  18. Exploiting Novel Radiation-Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Oxides in Relation to Their Technical Applications. Wiley Series on the Science and Technology of Materials, John Wiley & Sons, New York. 69 Smith...no applied DC field. ................................................................................................ 29  Figure 3-5: Mica samples ...18  Table III. Summary of XRD structure data for CoCr2S4 sample . The ICSD# denotes the number assigned to the pattern

  19. The development of peptide-based interfacial biomaterials for generating biological functionality on the surface of bioinert materials.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Steven R; Khoo, Xiaojuan; Huang, Xin; Walsh, Elisabeth B; Grinstaff, Mark W; Kenan, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials used in implants have traditionally been selected based on their mechanical properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, the durability and clinical efficacy of implantable biomedical devices remain limited in part due to the absence of appropriate biological interactions at the implant interface and the lack of integration into adjacent tissues. Herein, we describe a robust peptide-based coating technology capable of modifying the surface of existing biomaterials and medical devices through the non-covalent binding of modular biofunctional peptides. These peptides contain at least one material binding sequence and at least one biologically active sequence and thus are termed, "Interfacial Biomaterials" (IFBMs). IFBMs can simultaneously bind the biomaterial surface while endowing it with desired biological functionalities at the interface between the material and biological realms. We demonstrate the capabilities of model IFBMs to convert native polystyrene, a bioinert surface, into a bioactive surface that can support a range of cell activities. We further distinguish between simple cell attachment with insufficient integrin interactions, which in some cases can adversely impact downstream biology, versus biologically appropriate adhesion, cell spreading, and cell survival mediated by IFBMs. Moreover, we show that we can use the coating technology to create spatially resolved patterns of fluorophores and cells on substrates and that these patterns retain their borders in culture.

  20. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  1. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy

  3. Final Report - Assessment of Potential Phosphate Ion-Cementitious Materials Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Mattus, Catherine H; Dole, Leslie Robert

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to: (1) review the potential for degradation of cementitious materials due to exposure to high concentrations of phosphate ions; (2) provide an improved understanding of any significant factors that may lead to a requirement to establish exposure limits for concrete structures exposed to soils or ground waters containing high levels of phosphate ions; (3) recommend, as appropriate, whether a limitation on phosphate ion concentration in soils or ground water is required to avoid degradation of concrete structures; and (4) provide a "primer" on factors that can affect the durability of concrete materials and structures in nuclear power plants. An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a "bench-scale" laboratory investigation. Results of these activities indicate that: no harmful interactions occur between phosphates and cementitious materials unless phosphates are present in the form of phosphoric acid; phosphates have been incorporated into concrete as set retarders, and phosphate cements have been used for infrastructure repair; no standards or guidelines exist pertaining to applications of reinforced concrete structures in high-phosphate environments; interactions of phosphate ions and cementitious materials has not been a concern of the research community; and laboratory results indicate similar performance of specimens cured in phosphate solutions and those cured in a calcium hydroxide solution after exposure periods of up to eighteen months. Relative to the "primer," a separate NUREG report has been prepared that provides a review of pertinent factors that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures.

  4. Micro-processing of polymers and biological materials using high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Li

    has been observed in or around the laser-induced refractive index modification regions. These results support the notion that femtosecond laser micro-processing method may be an excellent means of altering the refraction or higher order aberration content of corneal tissue without cell death and short-term tissue damage, and has been named as Intra-tissue Refractive Index Shaping (IRIS). The femtosecond laser micro-processing workstation has also been employed for laser transfection of single defined cells. Some preliminary results suggest that this method can be used to trace individual cells and record their biological and morphological evolution, which is quite promising in many biomedical applications especially in immunology science. In conclusion, high repetition rate femtosecond laser micro-processing has been employed to fabricate microstructures in ophthalmological hydrogels and ocular tissues. Its unique three-dimensional capability over transparent materials and biological media makes it a powerful tool and will greatly impact the future of laser material-processing.

  5. Applied Biology and Chemistry. Course Materials: Chemistry 111, 112, 113, 114. Seattle Tech Prep Applied Academics Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    This publication contains materials for four courses in Applied Biology/Chemistry in the Applied Academics program at South Seattle Community College. It begins with the article, "Community College Applied Academics: The State of the Art?" (George B. Neff), which describes the characteristics, model, courses, and coordination activity…

  6. Application of a radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid during isolation from biologic material.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, A

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for evaluation of loss of salicylic acid in the process of isolation from biologic material is described. According to this study the mean loss during the total process of isolation amounts to 33.59%, the specific values being 19.47% during protein precipitation, 10.68% during extraction, and 3.44% during evaporation of solvent.

  7. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 9: General science. [experimental design in Astronomy, Biology, Geophysics, Aeronomy and Materials science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives and planning activities for the Apollo-Soyuz mission are summarized. Aspects of the space flight considered include the docking module and launch configurations, spacecraft orbits, and weightlessness. The 28 NASA experiments conducted onboard the spacecraft are summarized. The contributions of the mission to the fields of astronomy, geoscience, biology, and materials sciences resulting from the experiments are explored.

  8. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Final report on CCQM-K79: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Ethanol in aqueous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Sebastian; Philipp, Rosemarie; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    -weighted generalized distance regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, all of the assigned values for all 27 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the very wide range of ethanol mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). The median of the absolute values of the %D for the participating NMIs is less than 0.05% with a median U95(%D) of less than 1%. These results demonstrate that the participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for ethanol in aqueous media and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.A.; Miron, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  11. Strategic partnerships final LDRD report : nanocomposite materials for efficient solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, Erica L.; Miller, James Edward; Walker, Luke S.; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2012-05-01

    This 'campus executive' project sought to advance solar thermochemical technology for producing the chemical fuels. The project advanced the common interest of Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Arizona in creating a sustainable and viable alternative to fossil fuels. The focus of this effort was in developing new methods for creating unique monolithic composite structures and characterizing their performance in thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. The development and processing of the materials was undertaken in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Arizona; Sandia National Laboratories performed the thermochemical characterization. Ferrite/yttria-stabilized zirconia composite monoliths were fabricated and shown to have exceptionally high utilization of the ferrite for splitting CO{sub 2} to obtain CO (a process analogous to splitting H{sub 2}O to obtain H{sub 2}).

  12. Final Report: Stability and Novel Properties of Magnetic Materials and Ferromagnet / Insulator Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, Paul

    2013-07-24

    We report investigations of the synthesis, structure, and properties of new materials for spintronic applications integrated onto silicon substrates. Our primary focus is materials with very high, negative, intrinsic spin polarization of the density of states at the Fermi level. We have developed a new synthesis method for Fe3O4 thin films through selective oxidation of Fe, resulting in smooth, low-defect density films. We have synthesized Fe4N films and shown that they preferentially oxidize to Fe3O4. When integrated into magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Fe4N / AlOx / Fe, oxidation at the Fe4N / AlOx interface creates Fe3O4, leading to negative tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Oxidation of Fe in nominally symmetric CoFe / AlOx / CoFe also produces Fe3O4 and negative TMR under selected oxidation conditions.

  13. Liners of natural porous materials to minimize pollutant migration. Final report, Oct. 1975 - Sep. 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, W.H.

    1981-07-01

    The use of natural low-cost materials as barriers for minimizing pollution migration out of landfills by retaining contaminants from liquids was investigated. The relative effectiveness of natural low-cost liners of crushed limestone, clayey soil, hydrous oxides of iron, and crushed pecan hulls for minimizing the migration of Be, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and total organic carbon constituents of municipal solid waste landfill leachates was evaluated. Several leachate variables such as aqueous dilution, aeration, pH, and flux were also studied for their effect on movement of metals through 11 representative U.S. soils. Laboratory investigations using soil columns as a first step in screening for potential liners and manipulation practices are described. Limestone and hydrous iron oxide were found to be potentially useful as porous liners for retention of metallic leachate constituents. The amounts of these materials in natural soil were also found to be useful predictors of contaminant removal.

  14. Disposal of hazardous materials from TxDOT activities. Final report, September 1992-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, M.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Beavers, T.; Beck, B.; Mehevec, A.

    1994-11-01

    The process of purchasing, storing, handling and disposal of hazardous waste is demanding. The Texas Department of Transportation deals with many such compounds every day in performing its duty of maintaining over 70,000 miles of Texas roadway. With the new demands being placed on all users of hazardous materials by the new EPA guidelines, procedures must be enacted to ensure TxDOT`s compliance with these ever-changing regulations. The placement of full-time safety and hazardous materials coordinators in each district office will help to ensure that employees follow reporting procedures and use disposal guidelines. The report will discuss these actions and others that might help TxDOT in this task.

  15. Nuclear materials transportation workshops: USDOE outreach to local governments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-28

    To provide direct outreach to local governments, the Transportation Management Division of the United States Department of Energy asked the Urban Consortium and its Energy Task Force to assemble representatives for two workshops focusing on the transport of nuclear materials. The first session, for jurisdictions east of the Mississippi River, was held in New Orleans on May 5--6, 1988; the second was conducted on June 6--7, 1988 in Denver for jurisdictions to the west. Twenty local government professionals with management or operational responsibility for hazardous materials transportation within their jurisdictions were selected to attend each workshop. The discussions identified five major areas of concern to local government professionals; coordination; training; information resources; marking and placarding; and responder resources. Integrated federal, state, and local levels of government emerged as a priority coordination issue along with the need for expanded availability of training and training resources for first-reponders.

  16. Corrosion behavior of copper-base materials in a gamma-irradiated environment; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yunker, W.H.

    1990-09-01

    Specimens of three copper-base materials were corrosion tested with gamma radiation exposure dose rates in the range of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 3} R/h to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 5} R/h. Materials used were pure copper, 7% aluminum bronze and 30% copper-nickel. Exposures were performed in moist air at 95{degree}C and 150{degree}C and liquid Well J-13 water at 95{degree}C, for periods of up to 16 months. Specimens were monitored for uniform weight loss, stress-induced corrosion and crevice corrosion. Specimen surfaces were examined visually at 10X magnification as well as by Auger Electron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and metallography. Corrosion was not severe in any of the cases. In general, the pure copper was corroded most uniformly while the copper-nickel was the least reproducibly corroded. 11 refs, 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, Joshua; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Furnish, Michael David

    2013-12-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where heterogeneities lead to localization of deformation and loss of shear strength. Microstructural effects are of broad importance to the scientific community and several institutions within DoD and DOE; however, current models rely on inaccurate assumptions about mechanisms at the sub-continuum or mesoscale. Consequently, there is a critical need for accurate and robust methods for modeling heterogeneous material response at this lower length scale. This report summarizes work performed as part of an LDRD effort (FY11 to FY13; project number 151364) to meet these needs.

  18. A Study of Relationships among Teacher Behavior, Pupil Behavior, and Pupil Characteristics in High School Biology Classes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Jal S.

    A category system consisting of 36 categories was developed for classifying the verbal behavior of each pupil in high school biology lecture-discussion classes. Two classes each of eight high school biology teachers were observed and tape recorded for four consecutive days. Classroom interaction was coded combining a teacher-behavior category…

  19. "Capping Off" the Development of Graduate Capabilities in the Final Semester Unit for Biological Science Students: Review and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Biology is the most rapidly evolving scientific field of the 21st century. Biology graduates must be able to integrate concepts and collaborate outside their discipline to solve the most pressing questions of our time, e.g. world hunger, malnutrition, climate change, infectious disease and biosecurity. University educators are attempting to…

  20. Scarcity, recycling and substitution of potentially critical materials used for vehicular emissions control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    This report discusses the scarcity, recycling, and substitution of imported platinum-group metals; palladium, rhodium, chromium, manganese, nickle and titanium that will be used for vehicular emissions control in the United States. Issues discussed include; EPA policymaking, projections of materials consumption for motor vehicle emission control, background information on the platinum-group metals, recycling of such metals from catalytic converters and substitutes for them.

  1. Capacity vulnerability indicators for strategic and critical materials. Final report, October 1986-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kusik, C.L.; Mullins, J.W.; Vejins, V.; Bozdogan, K.

    1988-06-30

    A systematic approach was developed for assessing capacity pinchpoints and their vulnerability for strategic critical materials. The approach is grounded on the comparative statics framework of microeconomics coupled with engineering assessment on the capability of the industrial sector to respond in the short term to overseas supply curtailment. Various aspects of the approach are illustrated for selected commodities including chromium, cobalt, manganese, platinum, titanium, and natural rubber.

  2. Feasibility of pressurization to speed up enzymatic hydrolysis of biological materials for multielement determinations.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2007-03-01

    earth was used as dispersing agent for hydrolyses with either enzyme. Analytical performances, such as limits of detection and quantification and repeatability of the overall procedure, have been established. Finally, accuracy of the methods was assessed by analyzing seafood certified reference materials (GBW-08571, DORM-2, DOLT-3, TORT-2), fatty tissues certified reference materials (BCR 185, NIST 1577b), and fibrous certified reference materials (BCR 62, GBW-08501).

  3. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  4. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials. Final technicaal report, 1 June 1987-15 June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, R.L.; Orwoll, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the major environmental hazards in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The charged particles, electrons and protons, range in energy from 0.1 to 4 MeV and each have a flux of 10 to the 8th sq cm/sec. Over a 30 year lifetime, materials in the GEO will have an absorbed dose from this radiation of 10 to the 10th rads. The ultraviolet radiation comes uninhibited from the sun with an irradiance of 1.4 kw/sq m. Radiation is known to initiate chain sission and crosslinking in polymeric materials, both of which affect their structural properties. The 30-year dose level from the combined radiation in the GEO exceeds the threshold for measurable damage in most polymer systems studied. Of further concern is possible synergistic effects from the simultaneous irradiation with charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. Most studies on radiation effects on polymeric materials use either electrons or ultraviolet radiation alone, or in a sequential combination.

  5. Final proposed plan, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, task order 1, remedial investigation/feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Army is proposing a cleanup plan, referred to as a preferred alternative, to address outdoor contamination at the MTL Superfund site in Watertown, Massachusetts. The Proposed Plan recommends one of the cleanup options from among those that were evaluated during the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) performed for the site. The Army is publishing this Proposed Plan to provide opportunity for public review and comment on the cleanup alternatives, known as remedial alternatives, under consideration for the site. The Army is soliciting comments on the proposed level of cleanup and will consider public comments as part of the final decision-making process for selecting the cleanup remedy for the site.

  6. Alternatives of informed consent for storage and use of human biological material for research purposes: Brazilian regulation.

    PubMed

    Marodin, Gabriela; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de; Salgueiro, Jennifer Braathen; Motta, Marcia Luz da; Tannous, Gysélle Saddi; Lopes, Anibal Gil

    2014-12-01

    Informed consent is recognized as a primary ethical requirement to conduct research involving humans. In the investigations with the use of human biological material, informed consent (IC) assumes a differentiated condition on account of the many future possibilities. This work presents suitable alternatives for IC regarding the storage and use of human biological material in research, according to new Brazilian regulations. Both norms - Resolution 441/11 of the National Health Council, approved on 12 May 2011, and Ordinance 2.201 (NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR BIOREPOSITORIES AND BIOBANKS OF HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL FOR RESEARCH PURPOSE) of the Brazil Ministry of Health, approved on 14 September 2011 - state that the consent of subjects for the collection, storage and use of samples stored in Biobanks is necessarily established by means of a Free and Informed Consent Form (ICF). In order to obtain individual and formal statements, this form should contain the following two mutually exclusive options: an explanation about the use of the stored material in each research study, and the need for new consent or the waiver thereof when the material is used for a new study. On the other hand, ICF suitable for Biorepositories must be exclusive and related to specific research. Although Brazilian and international regulations identify the main aspects to be included in the IC, efforts are still necessary to improve the consent process, so that the document will become a bond of trust between subject and researcher.

  7. Practical Method for Preparation of Neo-Literate Materials. Final Report. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (4th, Jayagiri, Bandung, Indonesia, October 20-29, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia).

    Activities related to the preparation of literacy follow-up materials in Asia and the Pacific are described in this final report of a regional workshop. Following a summary of the proceedings of the workshop, chapter 1 reviews preparation and field testing of printed book materials, printed nonbook materials, electronic media materials, and games…

  8. NMR of group 2 element quadrupolar nuclei and some applications in materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohua

    1999-11-01

    For many years, NMR has provided an easy access for chemists to perform structural and kinetic studies on a whole variety of systems. To a great extent, these investigations have been restricted to non-quadrupolar nuclei. The study of quadrupolar nuclei (I > 1/2) offers the potential to gain insight into important problems in material science and biology. In addition to the large quadrupole moment associated with the spin active nuclei of interest, several of the most interesting species also possess an extremely low natural abundance. My recent research focuses on 87Sr NMR, which has been cited by earlier workers as being limited to only ionic species. Several strontium-containing compounds have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. 87Sr NMR signals were determined for these compounds in a series of aprotic polar solvents. The chemical shift variation was found to be consistent with linen free energy relationship, which can be very useful in helping to elucidate mechanism, in predicting reaction rates, and the extent of reaction at equilibrium, and in discovering under what conditions a change in mechanism occurs. Control over symmetry of the compound was found to be the key to obtain the good NMR signals. One application of the new technique that has been developed was in the area of material science. An observation relative to sol-gel derived ionic conductors (La0.8Sr0.2Co0.8Fe0.2O 3.2) was that films often formed cracks upon pyrolysis. By careful examination of the sol-gel process by 87Sr NMR, a model for the structure of the sol was developed. Through the relaxation rate study of the strontium sites, the polymerization mechanism was determined to be predominantly bimolecular within the concentration region studied. The kinetic study of the fast cation exchange between two strontium sites indicated that the inhomogeneity of the polymeric network lads to the film cracking during pyrolysis. As a consequence of understanding the

  9. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  10. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.

  11. Removal of Exogenous Materials from the Outer Portion of Frozen Cores to Investigate the Ancient Biological Communities Harbored Inside.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Robyn A; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Foley, Karen; Jones, Robert; Courville, Zoe; Douglas, Thomas; Perkins, Edward; Reynolds, Charles M

    2016-07-03

    The cryosphere offers access to preserved organisms that persisted under past environmental conditions. In fact, these frozen materials could reflect conditions over vast time periods and investigation of biological materials harbored inside could provide insight of ancient environments. To appropriately analyze these ecosystems and extract meaningful biological information from frozen soils and ice, proper collection and processing of the frozen samples is necessary. This is especially critical for microbial and DNA analyses since the communities present may be so uniquely different from modern ones. Here, a protocol is presented to successfully collect and decontaminate frozen cores. Both the absence of the colonies used to dope the outer surface and exogenous DNA suggest that we successfully decontaminated the frozen cores and that the microorganisms detected were from the material, rather than contamination from drilling or processing the cores.

  12. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials’ properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: • Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. • Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. • Hydrogen storage material made from activated

  13. High temperature materials technology research for advanced thermionic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, R.H.; Rose, M.F.

    1998-09-01

    Tungsten and tungsten alloys are candidate materials for the thermionic emitter in the space nuclear power convertor. In this work, the creep behavior of HfC strengthened tungsten alloys was studied. An ultrahigh vacuum, high precision creep test system was constructed for this purpose so that the samples could be heated up to 3,000 K for heat treatment and creep strain could be measured from the creep sample inside the UHV chamber. To explain the creep behavior observed in this dispersion strengthened alloy, a creep model was proposed which accounted for the presence of HfC particles in the form of a back stress generated by these particles. This model was verified by the creep test data of W-0.37 HfC alloys tested under both extruded and recrystallized microstructural conditions. According to this model, the steady state creep of this type of alloys was expected to increase with time due to coarsening of HfC particle and recrystallization of the alloys under high temperatures. In contrast, conventional simple power law creep model only predicts a constant steady state creep for these materials, which does not represent the microstructural evolution of the materials. The creep of solid solution alloys such as W-Re, W-Nb and W-Hf and Mo-Nb was also studied. These materials are expected to be more stable in creep properties due to the absence of coarsening particles. These solid solution alloys, in their single crystalline state, are reported possessing better corrosion resistance over their polycrystalline counterparts. Existing creep data of both solid solution tungsten and molybdenum alloys were re-analyzed. The data of these alloys showed two distinct different creep mechanisms: Class I and Class II. The dominating creep mechanism at low stresses could be explained by the Takuchi-Argon model (Class I). At higher stresses, the data could not be explained by any of the existing creep models. A creep model was thus proposed that contained a shift factor due to the

  14. Characterizing the emissivity of materials under dynamic compression (final report for LDRD project 79877).

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2007-10-01

    Temperature measurements are crucial to equation of state development, but difficult to perform reliably. In the case of infrared pyrometry, a large uncertainty comes from the fact that sample emissivity (the deviation from a blackbody) is unknown. In this project, a method for characterizing the emissivity of shocked materials was developed. By coupling infrared radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source to a gas gun system, broad spectrum emissivity changes were studied to a peak stress of 8 GPa. Emissivity measurements were performed on standard metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Pt) as well as a high emissivity coating developed at Sandia.

  15. Analysis of potential attack on insulating materials exposed to sodium. Final report. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, I.M.; Lamoreaux, R.H.; Loehman, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    The use of ceramics for thermally insulating the header of the LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is primarily determined by the chemical compatibility of the ceramics and liquid sodium. A series of thermodynamic calculations of ceramic stabilities as a function of oxygen concentration in the liquid sodium was used to select materials for experimental testing. Several commercial ceramics were exposed to liquid sodium for 10 weeks at 741/sup 0/K, in a test program aimed at evaluating their suitability as LMFBR insulators.

  16. Method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials using ion selective electrodes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salary, J.

    1987-02-01

    A method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials has been developed. Ion-selective electrodes and the standard addition method were used in all the analyses. The ion-selective electrode method was compared with neutron activation, ion chromatography and chloridometer titration. The ion-selective electrode technique results for chloride were similar to those of neutron activation, which is the acknowledged referee method. This ion-selective electrode method showed the highest standard recovery when compared with the ion chromatography and chloridometer titration methods.

  17. Quantification of ultraviolet photon emission from interaction of charged particles in materials of interest in radiation biology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Syed Bilal; McNeill, Fiona E.; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun; Seymour, Colin; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2014-01-01

    In radiation biology experiments often cells are irradiated using charged particles with the intention that only a specified number of cells are hit by the primary ion track. However, in doing so several other materials such as the cell container and the growth media etc. are also irradiated, and UV radiation emitted from these materials can potentially interact with the cells. We have hypothesized that some "bystander effects" that are thought to be chemically mediated, may be, in fact, a physical effect, where UV is interacting with non-targeted cells. Based upon our hypothesis we quantified the emission of UV from Polypropylene, Mylar, Teflon, and Cellophane which are all commonly used materials in radiation biology experiments. Additionally we measured the NIST standard materials of Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves as these powdered materials are derived from living cells. Protons accelerated up to an energy of 2.2 MeV, in a 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator, were used for irradiation. Beam current was kept to 10 nA, which corresponds to a proton fluence rate of 2.7 × 1010 protons mm-2 s-1. All the materials were found to emit light at UV frequencies and intensities that were significant enough to conduct a further investigation for their biological consequences. Mylar and polypropylene are commonly used in radiation induced bystander effect studies and are considered to be non-fluorescent. However our study showed that this is not the case. Significant luminescence observed from the irradiated NIST standard reference materials for Oyster tissue and Citrus leaves verified that the luminescence emission is not restricted only to the polymeric materials that are used to contain cells. It can also occur from ion interactions within the cells as well.

  18. Study of alternate material for pedal ventilator kits. Final report May 79-May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buday, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    The objective of this program was to conduct a study of alternate materials that could be utilized in the construction of a pedal ventilator kit (PVK). The goal of the study was to reduce unit cost in a large scale procurement. Cost savings and performance parameters were evaluated using the PVK developed in 1979 under Contract No. DCP01-78-C-0184 as a basis for comparison. A value analysis study was conducted on the PVK to determine viable material/design revisions that offered potential manufacturing economies. Based on the conclusions of the study, one optimum design was chosen for fabrication. Prior to fabrication, five breadboard support frames were constructed and tested. Fifteen fully assembled prototype pedal ventilator kits were constructed. Five of the PVK's were subsequently tested to assure compliance with performance and reliability requirements. Preliminary specifications and operating instructions were generated for the PVK. In addition, production cost estimates based on a procurement of 100,000 units were formulated for FEMA budgetary purposes.

  19. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Final report, August 1992--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1995-05-01

    SRI International conducted a theoretical and experimental program to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate the gaseous products of coal gasification. A variety of developmental efforts are underway, including a number of projects sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to improve the selectivity and permeability of porous inorganic membranes. DOE is also sponsoring efforts to extend the use of metallic membranes to new applications. Most developmental efforts have focused on hydrogen separation by inorganic membranes, which may be used to maximize hydrogen production from coal gas or to remove H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} contaminants via thermal or catalytic decomposition in integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. Membrane materials that have been investigated include glass (silica), alumina, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt). This report describes inorganic membrane materials, long term membrane exposure tests, membrane permeation tests, coal gasifier exposure tests, conclusions, and recommendations.

  20. Innovative processing to produce advanced intermetallic materials. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfy, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of synthesizing submicron titanium aluminide in a thermal rf plasma. Micron and submicron spherical titanium aluminide particles are produced in argon, hydrogen, and argon/hydrogen plasmas from the reaction of TiCl4(g), and Al(g). The ratio of Ti and Al is varied to produce the compounds Ti3Al, TiAl, and TiAl3. Microalloying with boron and macroalloying with niobium is demonstrated. Ti3Al whiskers can be produced, as well as other intermetallics of niobium aluminide, nickel aluminide, and molybdenum disilicide in the plasma synthesis process. Since submicron particles are produced, they have a high surface area and are sensitive to oxidation if not treated with a fugitive protective coating or utilized in a nonoxidizing atmosphere. Ti3Al particles are consolidated and utilized as a matrix for TiC and AlN composites. The submicron AlTi3 has significantly higher strength at room temperature than reported for commercial Ti3Al-11Nb alloy and useable strength is maintained up to 1000 C. The elongation is about the same as for commercial material because of possible oxide contamination in powder handling. However, dimpling and nacking is evident in the fracture surface, which suggests true room temperature ductility. Titanium aluminides have the potential to replace superalloys and become the dominant material for aerospace engines, air frames and skins for hypersonic vehicles.

  1. Geophysical investigation at US Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Massachusetts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-11-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation at 5 sites at the U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) located in Watertown, MA, are presented. In 1960, the Army's first materials research reactor was completed at MTL, which was used actively in molecular and atomic structure research activities until 1970, when it was deactivated. In addition to the research reactor were facilities that stored and handled depleted uranium (DU). In 1989, the Commission on Base Realignment and Closure recommended that MTL be closed. The MTL closure program is being supervised by the U.S. Army Environmental Center. As part of the MTL closure program, any previously contaminated sites must be identified. Based on historical information, 5 sites were selected at MTL to be examined in further detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigation was designed to detect and delineate anomalous conditions indicative of buried waste, waste containers, fuel storage tanks, and unmapped drain or sewer lines having the potential of carrying wastes off the site. Electromagnetics, Geophysics, Magnetics, Geophysical surveys, Ground penetrating, Radar.

  2. Hei-way general purpose recycled asphalt material (RHM). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, U.

    1993-02-01

    Utilization of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in paving projects is a popular concept. It conserves material and can often provide an economical alternative to using virgin materials. The research summarizes the utilization of about 8000 tons of RAP in a project in Armstrong County (SR 3011 and SR 3013) using a proprietary process by Heilman Pavement Specialities. The mix is called Recycled Heilman Mix (RHM), which is prepared using a proprietary blend of asphalt cement (AC-5) and a rejuvenator mixed with equal weights of RAP and virgin aggregates in a batch-type pugmill. A control mix was produced by using 9.6 gallons per ton of E-5 emulsion and a blend of equal weights of RAP and coarse aggregates. The construction of the two sites were completed in September 1988 without any significant problems. A three-wheeled roller, ballasted rubber-tired roller and a second 1-ton tandem roller was used for compaction. There were no significant construction problems. RHM performed well on this project. The method of recycling asphalt pavements appears to be viable. RHM is stockpileable. Although RHM was 40 to 50 percent more expensive on the project, the life cycle costs on larger projects can be more competitive, especially when the cost of a seal coat is either avoided or delayed on RHM jobs when compared to E-5 mixes as control.

  3. Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Thundat, Thomas G; Brown, Gilbert M; Hawk, John Eric; Boiadjiev, Vassil I

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  5. Final Report: X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Clarke

    2006-04-25

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02 ? 11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials.

  6. Investigations on deflagration to detonation transition in porous energetic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.S.

    1999-07-01

    The research carried out by this contract was part of a larger effort funded by LANL in the areas of deflagration to detonation in porous energetic materials (DDT) and detonation shock dynamics in high explosives (DSD). In the first three years of the contract the major focus was on DDT. However, some researchers were carried out on DSD theory and numerical implementation. In the last two years the principal focus of the contract was on DSD theory and numerical implementation. However, during the second period some work was also carried out on DDT. The paper discusses DDT modeling and DSD modeling. Abstracts are included on the following topics: modeling deflagration to detonation; DSD theory; DSD wave front tracking; and DSD program burn implementation.

  7. Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

  8. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Briefing material: Final review and executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages were assessed for configuration options for a modular 14' diameter space station, a modular aft cargo carrier and a shuttle derived vehicle. Early, intermediate, and mature configurations were defined as well as power requirements, heat rejection, hydrazine usage, and the external scavenging concept. Subsystems were analyzed for propulsion, attitude control, data processing, and communications. Areas of uncertainties, associated costs and benefits, and the cost by phase of the modular and shuttle derived vehicle configurations were identified. Technologies assessed included solar vs nuclear; gravity gradient vs active control; heat pipe radiators vs fluid loops; distributed processors vs centralized, and modular vs shuttle derived configuration. It was determined that the early space station architecture should include: (1) reusable OTV with aerobraking; (2) TMS with telepresence services; (3) OTV/TMS refueling and servicing capability; and (4) attached research laboratories for life sciences and materials processing.

  9. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  10. Powder-based synthesis of nanocrystalline material components for structural application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyuschenko, A.F.; Ivashko, V.S.; Okovity, V.A.

    1998-12-01

    Hydroxiapate spray coatings and substrates for implant production as well as multilayered metal ceramic coatings from nanocrystalline materials are a subject of the investigation. The work aims at the improvement of quality of said objects. This study has investigated the processes of hydroxiapatite powder production. Sizes, shapes and relief of initial HA powder surface are analyzed using SEM and TEM. Modes of HA plasma spraying on a substrate from titanium and associated compositions of traditional and nanocrystalline structure are optimized. The quality of the sprayed samples are studied using X-ray phase analysis and metallographic analysis. The results of investigations of bioceramic coating spraying on titanium are theoretically generalized, taking into account obtained experimental data. The results of investigations of ion-beam technology are presented for spraying multilayered coatings consisting of alternating metal-ceramic layers of nanocrystalline structure.

  11. High power laser and materials investigation. Final report, 31 July 1978-28 October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Chicklis, E.P.; Folweiler, R.C.; Pollak, T.M.; Baer, J.

    1980-06-01

    This is a combined study of resonant pumped solid state lasers as fusion drivers, and the development of crystalline optical materials suitable for propagation of the high peak powers associated with laser fusion research. During this period of study the concept of rare gas halide lasers was first demonstrated by the lasing of Tm:YLF at 453 nm pumped by the 353 nm energy of XeF. Excited stata densities of 5 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/ have been attained and spectroscopic measurements show that up to 60% of the pump energy can be converted into useful stored energy. Alternative lasers and pumping schemes are also discussed. In all cases the potential RGH/SS systems are evaluated in respect to internal efficiency and heat loading.

  12. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Briefing material: Final review and executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-04-01

    Advantages and disadvantages were assessed for configuration options for a modular 14' diameter space station, a modular aft cargo carrier and a shuttle derived vehicle. Early, intermediate, and mature configurations were defined as well as power requirements, heat rejection, hydrazine usage, and the external scavenging concept. Subsystems were analyzed for propulsion, attitude control, data processing, and communications. Areas of uncertainties, associated costs and benefits, and the cost by phase of the modular and shuttle derived vehicle configurations were identified. Technologies assessed included solar vs nuclear; gravity gradient vs active control; heat pipe radiators vs fluid loops; distributed processors vs centralized, and modular vs shuttle derived configuration. It was determined that the early space station architecture should include: (1) reusable OTV with aerobraking; (2) TMS with telepresence services; (3) OTV/TMS refueling and servicing capability; and (4) attached research laboratories for life sciences and materials processing.

  13. The protein and peptide mediated syntheses of non-biologically-produced oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Matthew B.

    Numerous examples exist in nature of organisms which have evolved the ability to produce sophisticated structures composed of inorganic minerals. Studies of such biomineralizing organisms have suggested that specialized biomolecules are, in part, responsible for the controlled formation of these structures. The research detailed in this dissertation is focused on the use of biomolecules (i.e., peptides and proteins) to form non-biologically produced materials under mild reaction conditions (i.e., neutral pH, aqueous solutions, and room temperature). The peptides utilized in the studies detailed in this dissertation were identified through the screening of single crystal rutile TiO2 substrates or Ge powder with a phagedisplayed peptide library. Twenty-one peptides were identified which possessed an affinity for Ge. Three of these twenty one peptides were tested for germania precipitation activity. Those peptides possessing a basic isoelectric point as well as hydroxyl- and imidazole-containing amino acid residues were found to be the most effective in precipitating amorphous germania from an alkoxide precursor. The phage-displayed peptide library screening of TiO2 substrates yielded twenty peptides. Four of these peptides, which were heavily enriched in histidine and/or basic amino acid residues, were found to possess signficant titania precipitation activity. The activity of these peptides was found to correlate with the number of positive charges they carried. The sequence of the most active of the library-identified peptides was modified to yield two additional peptides. The titania precipitation activity of these designed peptides was higher than the parent peptide, with reduced pH dependence. The titania materials generated by the library-identified and designed peptides were found to be composed of amorphous titania as well as <10 nm anatase and/or monoclinic TiO2 crystallites. The production of titania and zirconia resulting from the interaction of the

  14. Separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials by ion exchange and extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Maleszewska, H.

    1994-01-01

    Highly reliable radiochemical separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of trace amounts of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials was elaborated. The method consists in wet-ashing of the sample with HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} (1:1) mixture plus vanadium salt (oxidation catalyst), removal of silica by evaporation with HF and separation of cobalt from accompanying ions successively on 3 columns with Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 0.5 M HCl, Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 8 M HCl + 2 M MgCl{sub 2} and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer, from 7 M HCl solution, respectively. Cobalt of very high radiochemical purity is finally recovered in 1.2 M HCl solution with practically 100% yield. The separation scheme is universally applicable, to biological samples of both animal and plant origin and was devised to become an integral part of the very accurate ({open_quotes}definitive{close_quotes}) method of cobalt determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Preliminary results on Co determination by NAA in some certified reference materials confirmed high reliability of the devised separation scheme.

  15. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brian E. Hardin; Connor, Stephen T.; Peters, Craig H.

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949 mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV's goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to (1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and (2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin

  16. Ammonium attenuation in aquifer material impacted with high levels of organic wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-08-01

    Total concentrations of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +1}) have been found to exceed the State of Wyoming ground water quality standard for Class 1 aquifers near Torrington, Wyoming. The cause of the NH{sub 4}{sup +1} contamination is thought to be associated with fertilizer use and/or the leaching of organics into the ground water from impoundments holding wastes from sugar beet processing. This type of contamination could be expected from other industrial processes, including those associated with the use of fossil fuels. In an initial step in understanding and solving the ground water contamination problem, Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a laboratory investigation to understand the aquifer system as it relates to the chemistry of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} as it moves through the aquifer material. The data collected during the attenuation tests do provide an indication that the attenuation of NH{sub 4}{sup +1} in the ground water system will occur. In addition, the results show the redox condition of the site and the possible chemical reactions that are influencing the ground water quality.

  17. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  18. New mechanism for toughening ceramic materials. Final report, 15 March 1989-15 July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Cross, L.E.; Lange, F.F.

    1994-02-01

    Ferroelastic toughening was identified as a viable mechanism for toughening ceramics. Domain structure and domain switching was identified by x-ray diffraction, transmission optical microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy in zirconia, lead zirconate titanate and gadolinium molybdata. Switching in compression was observed at stresses greater than 600 MPa and at 400 MPa in tension for polycrystalline t'-zirconia. Domain switching contributes to toughness, as evidenced by data for monoclinic zirconia, t'-zirconia, PZT and GMO. The magnitude of toughening varied between 0.6 MPa.ml/2 for GMO to 2-6 MPa-ml/2 for zirconia. Polycrystalline monoclinic and t'-zirconias, which showed no transformation toughening, had similar toughness values as Y-TZP which exhibits transformation. Coarse-grained monoclinic and tetragonal (t') zirconia samples could be cooled to room temperature for mechanical property evaluation since fine domain size, not grain size, controlled transformation for t'-zirconia and minimized stress for m-ZrO2. LnAlO3, LnNbO4, and LnCrO3 were among the materials identified as high temperature ferroelastics.

  19. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  20. Dynamic materials testing and constitutive modeling of structural sheet steel for automotive applications. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III

    1996-08-23

    The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic mechanical properties of four different structural sheet steels used in automobile manufacture. The analysis of a drawing quality, special killed (DQSK) mild steel; high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steel; interstitial free (IF); and a high strength steel (M-190) have been completed. In addition to the true stress-true strain data, coefficients for the Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, and Mechanical Threshold Stress constitutive models have been determined from the mechanical test results at various strain rates and temperatures and are summarized. Compression, tensile, and biaxial bulge tests and low (below 0.1/s) strain rate tests were completed for all four steels. From these test results it was determined to proceed with the material modeling optimization using the through thickness compression results. Compression tests at higher strain rates and temperatures were also conducted and analyzed for all the steels. Constitutive model fits were generated from the experimental data. This report provides a compilation of information generated from mechanical tests, the fitting parameters for each of the constitutive models, and an index and description of data files.

  1. US strategic and critical materials imports: Dependency and vulnerability. The Latin American alternative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, J.L.

    1989-05-31

    In time of war or during a National Emergency, it will be necessary for the United States to minimize dependence on extra hemisphere supply. This paper examines the extent to which current suppliers of strategic and critical imported minerals and petroleum, received from outside the American Continent, could be superseded with Latin American sources, including the Caribbean, Central and South America. The paper concludes that this substitution of trade would be a desirable course of action now, to be pursued in peacetime, not only for the U.S. but also for the Latin American States as well. This paper lists the strategic and critical imported materials for the U.S., and also identifies current supply sources; determines to what extent current supply sources could be replaced by Latin American ones; identifies major U.S. policy changes that would be required to make new trade arrangements suitable, feasible, and acceptable; proposes conclusions, which are related to the future of the U.S. strategic stockpiling and to the improvement of the Latin American sources of supply.

  2. High-temperature cementing materials for completion of geothermal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    Several portland cement types, oil well cements, and various additives and admixtures were evaluated during the course of development of a number of promising compositions suitable for geothermal applications. Among the cements and various materials considered were portland cement Types I, III, and V; oil well cement Classes G, H, and J; and additives such as silica flour, blast furnace slags, pozzolan, hydrated lime, perlite, and aluminum phosphate. Properties of interest in the study were thickening time, compressive strength, cement-to-metal bond strength, and effects of the cements on the corrosion of steel well casings. Testing procedures and property data obtained on a number of compositions are presented and discussed. Several cementing compositions comprised of Class J oil well cement, pozzolan, blast furnace slags, and silica flour were found to possess properties which appear to make them suitable for use in geothermal well completions. Five of the promising cementing compositions have been submitted to the National Bureau of Standards for additional testing.

  3. Advanced radiation techniques for inspection of diesel engine combustion chamber materials components. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-09

    Heavy duty truck engines must meet stringent life cycle cost and regulatory requirements. Meeting these requirements has resulted in convergence on 4-stroke 6-in-line, turbocharged, and after-cooled engines with direct-injection combustion systems. These engines provide much higher efficiencies (42%, fuel consumption 200 g/kW-hr) than automotive engines (31%, fuel consumption 270 g/kW-hr), but at higher initial cost. Significant near-term diesel engine improvements are necessary and are spurred by continuing competitive, Middle - East oil problems and Congressional legislation. As a result of these trends and pressures, Caterpillar has been actively pursuing a low-fuel consumption engine research program with emphasis on product quality through process control and product inspection. The goal of this project is to combine the nondestructive evaluation and computational resources and expertise available at LLNL with the diesel engine and manufacturing expertise of the Caterpillar Corporation to develop in-process monitoring and inspection techniques for diesel engine combustion chamber components and materials. Early development of these techniques will assure the optimization of the manufacturing process by design/inspection interface. The transition from the development stage to the manufacturing stage requires a both a thorough understanding of the processes and a way of verifying conformance to process standards. NDE is one of the essential tools in accomplishing both elements and in this project will be integrated with Caterpillar`s technological and manufacturing expertise to accomplish the project goals.

  4. Consolidated guidance about materials licenses: Program-specific guidance about portable gauge licenses. Final report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, P.C.; Whitten, J.E.; Pelchat, J.M.; Arredondo, S.A.; Matson, E.R.; Lewis, S.H.; Collins, D.J.; Santiago, P.A.; Tingle, W.

    1997-05-01

    As part of its redesign of the materials licensing process, NRC is consolidating and updating numerous guidance documents into a single comprehensive repository as described in NUREG-1539 and draft NUREG-1541. NUREG-1556, Vol. 1, is the first program-specific guidance developed for the new process and will serve as a template for subsequent program-specific guidance. This document is intended for use by applicants, licensees, and NRC staff and will also be available to Agreement States. This document supersedes the guidance previously found in draft Regulatory Guide DG-0008, ``Applications for the Use of Sealed Sources in Portable Gauging Devices,`` and in NMSs Policy and guidance Directive 2-07, ``Standard Review Plan for Applications for Use of Sealed Sources in Portable Gauging Devices.`` This final report takes a more risk-informed, performance-based approach to licensing portable gauges, and reduces the information(amount and level of detail) needed to support an application to use these devices. It incorporates many suggests submitted during the comment period on draft NUREG-1556, Volume 1. When published, this final report should be used in preparing portable gauge license applications. NRC staff will use this final report in reviewing these applications.

  5. High temperature range recuperator. Phase II. Prototype demonstration and material and analytical studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    A summary of the work performed to fully evaluate the commercial potential of a unique ceramic recuperator for use in recovering waste heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases is presented. The recuperator concept being developed consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchange column formed from modular sections. Within the column, the gasketed modules form two helical flow passages - one for high temperature exhaust gases and one for pre-heating combustion air. The column is operated in a counterflow mode, with the exhaust gas entering at the bottom and the combustion air entering at the top of the column. Activities included design and procurement of prototype recuperator modules, construction and testing of two prototype recuperator assemblies, exposure and mechanical properties testing of candidate materials, structural analysis of the modules, and assessment of the economic viability of the concept. The results of the project indicated that the proposed recuperator concept was feasible from a technical standpoint. Economic analysis based upon recuperator performance characteristics and module manufacturing costs defined during the program indicated that 3 to 10 years (depending upon pre-heat temperature) would be required to recover the capital cost of the system in combustion air preheat applications. At this stage in the development of the recuperator, many factors in the analysis had to be assumed. Significant changes in some of the assumptions could dramatically affect the economics. For example, utilizing $2.85 per mcf for the natural gas price (as opposed to $2.00 per mcf) could reduce the payback period by more than half in certain cases. In addition, future commercial application will depend upon ceramic component manufacturing technique advances and cost reduction.

  6. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  7. Development of polyimide materials for use in solar energy systems. Final report, August 1, 1978-July 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxson, A.L.; Sorathia, U.A.; Gagliani, J.

    1980-01-01

    A program to optimize and characterize improved insulation materials for solar energy systems is described. Two separate and distinct products have been studied, a lightweight flexible insulating foam and a high density, rigid, load bearing insulating foam. These products are derived from a polyimide resin, the formulations and processes for which were developed under NASA-JSC sponsored programs. These materials are non-burning and do not emit measurable quantities of smoke or toxic by-products. Candidate resins were selected on the basis of cost, expected foam insulating and weatherability properties and ease of production. Critical characterization parameters were established for the flexible insulating foam in the form of environmental exposure resistance, thermal conductivity and hydrolytic stability. Studies initiated to improve the exposure resistance included additive studies, using reinforcements and UV absorbers, and postcure and densification studies. Optimum resin formulations, foam densities and foam structures were identified on the basis of the exposure, thermal conductivity, and microwave testing. Two candidate materials were selected and fully characterized for physical and thermal properties. This resulted in the selection of a final candidate material. The rigid foam was optimized through a glass reinforcement and process parameter study. This work was characterized on the basis of low cost, ease of production and the critical property requirement of compressive strength. The result of these studies was an optimized glass strand/microballoon reinforced foam which was then fully characterized for physical and thermal properties. Samples of both the flexible and rigid polyimide insulating materials were then prepared and submitted to DOE.

  8. The use of an ion-beam source to alter the surface morphology of biological implant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    An electron bombardment, ion thruster was used as a neutralized-ion beam sputtering source to texture the surfaces of biological implant materials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface morphology changes of all materials after ion-texturing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to determine the effects of ion texturing on the surface chemical composition of some polymers. Liquid contact angle data were obtained for ion textured and untextured polymer samples. Results of tensile and fatigue tests of ion-textured metal alloys are presented. Preliminary data of tissue response to ion textured surfaces of some metals, polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina, and segmented polyurethane were obtained.

  9. Development of the technology of designing of nanocomposite materials based on fluorocontaining synthetic latex and biologically active polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, G. A.; Selezneva, I. I.; Knot'ko, A. V.; Savintseva, I. V.; Montrel, M. M.; Gavrilyuk, B. K.

    2008-03-01

    A conceptually novel approach to the formation of composite biosynthetic materials is proposed, which is based on the phenomenon of self-organization of ensembles of nanoparticles of synthetic latex and biologically active polysaccharides into three-dimensional structures. It is shown that, by varying the polysaccharide/latex ratio, the nature of polysaccharide, and the temperature of drying of colloidal suspension, it is possible to control the architecture of ensembles of nanoparticles and the physicochemical characteristics of biosynthetic materials formed on their basis.

  10. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  11. Protein viscosity, mineral fraction and staggered architecture cooperatively enable the fastest stress wave decay in load-bearing biological materials.

    PubMed

    Qwamizadeh, Mahan; Zhang, Zuoqi; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2016-07-01

    One of the key functions of load-bearing biological materials, such as bone, dentin and sea shell, is to protect their inside fragile organs by effectively damping dynamic impact. How those materials achieve this remarkable function remains largely unknown. Using systematic finite element analyses, we study the stress wave propagation and attenuation in cortical bone at the nanoscale as a model material to examine the effects of protein viscosity, mineral fraction and staggered architecture on the elastic wave decay. It is found that the staggered arrangement, protein viscosity and mineral fraction work cooperatively to effectively attenuate the stress wave. For a typical mineral volume fraction and protein viscosity, an optimal staggered nanostructure with specific feature sizes and layouts is able to give rise to the fastest stress wave decay, and the optimal aspect ratio and thickness of mineral platelets are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. In contrary, as the mineral volume fraction or the protein viscosity goes much higher, the structural arrangement is seen having trivial effect on the stress wave decay, suggesting that the damping properties of the composites go into the structure-insensitive regime from the structure-sensitive regime. These findings not only significantly add to our understanding of the structure-function relationship of load-bearing biological materials, and but also provide useful guidelines for the design of bio-inspired materials with superior resistance to impact loading.

  12. Chemistry and biology of Tc-99m renal function radiopharmaceuticals. Final report, May 1, 1982-January 15, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported on research conducted during the period May 1, 1982 to January 15, 1983. The chemistry and biology of two possible renal function radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m N, N'-bis (mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diamino-propanoate (Tc-99m CO/sub 2/DADS, 1(X=OH)) and the Tc-99m complex of penicillamine. (ACR)

  13. Procurement of a Nanoindenter for Structure-Function Analyses of Biologically Inspired High Performance Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    Zavattieri (Purdue University), Dr. Ali Miserez (Nanyang University), Dr. Dimitri Deheyn (Scripps, UCSD), Dr. Masa Rao (UCR). Finally, through the...Chitons. The fourth project, to be performed in collaboration with Professor Masa Rao at UCR, would investigate micro-and nano-mechanical properties...Miserez (Nanyang University), Dr. Dimitri Deheyn (Scripps, UCSD), Dr. Masa Rao (UCR). Finally, through the procurement of this instrument, the data we

  14. Biological effects of millimeter-wave irradiation: living bacterial organisms. Final report 15 July 1982-14 October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, O.P.; Hill, D.W.; Furia, L.; Iskander, M.F.; Ghodgaonkar, D.

    1984-04-01

    The report describes experiments on the effects of millimeter-wave irradiation on the mutation rates of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535 and TA 1538. No frequency-sensitive irradiation effects have been observed in spite of closely spaced frequencies used in the 42-48 and 65-75 GHz bands. Some preliminary experiments performed with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have given rates of growth that are dependent on the irradiation frequency. However, on account of the high degree of variability, accurate frequency resettability is a must before firm conclusions can be drawn. A new method for measuring complex permittivities of biological media in vitro and in vivo has been proposed and tested for feasibility. Raman laser spectroscopy is proposed as a means of searching for frequency-specific biological effects of millimeter-wave irradiation. The Raman system setup for these studies is used for pilot studies with vesicular stomatitis, Sindbis, and LaCrosse viruses and with bacillus megaterium.

  15. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The biological communities off North Carolina were poorly known, and prior to any drilling activities, a limited regional data base was required. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa both in terms of density, numbers of species, and biomass. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  16. Yields of biologically significant damage produced in mammalian DNA by irradiation associated with radon decay. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the difference between damage to DNA caused by alpha particles and by low LET radiation. Estimation of the risk posed by exposure to high LET radiation (such as that from radon) relies at present on epidemiological data, and is therefore largely empirical. This empiricism is evident from the concepts of quality factor or RBE that find use for describing the biological effects of high LET radiation. The author argues that some effort should be made to address the mechanisms of DNA damage by high and low LET forms of radiation, and how these mechanisms might relate to the biological endpoints. This report summarizes the results of the author`s investigations and the current understanding of these mechanisms.

  17. Measurement and modeling of energetic-material mass transfer to soil-pore water - Project CP-1227 final technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Phelan, James M.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2006-05-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live-fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low-order detonations also disperse solid-phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution. This final report documents the results of experimental and simulation model development for evaluating mass transfer processes from solid-phase energetics to soil-pore water.

  18. Biological properties of IRM with the addition of hydroxyapatite as a retrograde root filling material.

    PubMed

    Owadally, I D; Chong, B S; Pitt Ford, T R; Wilson, R F

    1994-10-01

    The effect of adding 10% & 20% hydroxyapatite (HAP) on the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material) when used as a retrograde root filling was compared with amalgam, a commonly used material. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the agar diffusion inhibitory test. Forty standardized pellets of each material were produced. Fresh materials, and materials aged for 1 week in sterile distilled water, were placed on blood agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) or Enterococcus faecalis. The presence and diameter of zones of inhibition were recorded at intervals of 3, 7 and 10 days. There was no statistically significant overall difference in the response of the two bacteria tested. However, there were statistically significant overall differences in diameters of the zones of inhibition related to different materials, period of exposure and ageing of materials (P < 0.001). The diameter of the zones of inhibition increased with time for all materials, fresh and aged. IRM and both the HAP-modified forms produced large zones of inhibition. Amalgam produced no measureable zones of inhibition whether aged or fresh, regardless of period of exposure and was different from the other materials (P < 0.001). The cytotoxicity was assessed using the Millipore filter method. Ten standardized pellets of each material were produced and aged by storage in sterile distilled water for 72 h. Ten filters were included as controls. Amalgam produced a consistent cytotoxic score of 1, and the difference between amalgam and the other materials was statistically significant (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Digital Learning Material for Student-Directed Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Coppens, Marjolijn; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    The building of models to explain data and make predictions constitutes an important goal in molecular biology research. To give students the opportunity to practice such model building, two digital cases had previously been developed in which students are guided to build a model step by step. In this article, the development and initial…

  20. Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to studies of biological and organic materials. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and improve appropriate experimental techniques to the point where they could be applied to specific classes of biological problems. Progress is reported in the following areas: (1) area detectors; (2) x-ray diffraction studies of membranes; (3) electron transfer in loosely coupled systems; (4) bioluminescence and fluorescence; and (5) sonoluminescence. (ACR)