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Sample records for biological standardization iabs

  1. Poverty and inequality: challenges for the IAB: IAB presidential address.

    PubMed

    Luna, Florencia

    2005-10-01

    This paper focuses on poverty and inequality in the world today. First, it points out how this topic is a main concern for the IAB. Second, it proposes 'new' theoretical tools in order to analyze global justice and our obligations towards the needy. I present John Rawls's denial that the egalitarian principle can be applied to the global sphere, his proposed weak duty of assistance, and his consideration of endemic poverty as essentially homegrown. In opposition, I focus on Thomas Pogge as representative of a cosmopolitan view who also holds a critical position towards the international systems which allow and cause poverty. I endorse the general normative proposal that defends every human being as an ultimate unit of moral concern, as well as the strategy of moving away from the charity model of bilateral aid to the realm of rights and duties. These ideas should redesign and broaden the normative and practical roles of institutions, and should also help provide a new approach on bioethical issues such as drug patenting or the imbalance in global research and neglected diseases.

  2. The US Biology Education Standards, New Biology Curricula and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of the events leading up to the current US biology education standards, a brief examination of the National Science Education Standards for biology, and a description of the three recently developed biology curricula that were designed to address the new standards. Several evaluative studies of these curricula…

  3. A Petrologic Study of the IAB Iron Meteorites: Constraints on the Formation of the IAB-Winonaite Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.; Love, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied IAB iron meteorites and their silicate-bearing inclusions to elucidate the origin of their parent body. We have divided IAB irons into five categories which best describe the inclusions and other properties of the irons.

  4. Standards and ontologies in computational systems biology.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Herbert M; Bergmann, Frank T

    2008-01-01

    With the growing importance of computational models in systems biology there has been much interest in recent years to develop standard model interchange languages that permit biologists to easily exchange models between different software tools. In the present chapter two chief model exchange standards, SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) and CellML are described. In addition, other related features including visual layout initiatives, ontologies and best practices for model annotation are discussed. Software tools such as developer libraries and basic editing tools are also introduced, together with a discussion on the future of modelling languages and visualization tools in systems biology.

  5. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international recommendations for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the attention of the Committee and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines, growth factors, and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, contains guidelines on the production and quality control of candidate tetravalent dengue virus vaccines and recommendations for the preparation, characterization and establishment of international and other biological reference standards. Also included are a list of recommendations, guidelines and other documents for biological substances used in medicine, and of international standards and reference reagent for biological substances.

  6. Standards and Ontologies in Computational Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Sauro, Herbert M.; Bergmann, Frank

    2009-01-01

    With the growing importance of computational models in systems biology there has been much interest in recent years to develop standard model interchange languages that permit biologists to easily exchange models between different software tools. In this chapter two chief model exchange standards, SBML and CellML are described. In addition, other related features including visual layout initiatives, ontologies and best practices for model annotation are discussed. Software tools such as developer libraries and basic editing tools are also introduced together with a discussion on the future of modeling languages and visualization tools in systems biology. PMID:18793134

  7. WHO Expert Committee on biological standardization.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international recommendations for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the attention of the Committee and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines, growth factors, and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, contains WHO recommendations and guidelines on human papillomavirus vaccines; meningococcal A conjugate vaccines; and stability evaluation of vaccines. Also included are a list of recommendations, guidelines and other documents for biological substances used in medicine, and of international standards and reference reagent for biological substances.

  8. WHO Expert Committee on biological standardization.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international recommendations for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the attention of the Committee and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines, growth factors, and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, contains WHO recommendations and guidelines on Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated), human; regulatory preparedness for human pandemic influenza vaccines; and clinical evaluation of meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Also included are a list of recommendations, guidelines and other documents for biological substances used in medicine, and of international standards and reference reagent for biological substances.

  9. Biological measures of the standard of living.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    When economists investigate long-term trends and socioeconomic differences in the standard of living or quality of life, they have traditionally focused on monetary measures such as gross domestic product--which has occupied center stage for over 50 years. In recent decades, however, scholars have increasingly recognized the limitations of monetary measures while seeking useful alternatives. This essay examines the unique and valuable contributions of four biological measures--life expectancy, morbidity, stature, and certain features of skeletal remains--to understand levels and changes in human well-being. People desire far more than material goods and in fact they are quite willing to trade or give up material things in return for better physical or psychological health. For most people, health is so important to their quality of life that it is useful to refer to the "biological standard of living." Biological measures may be especially valuable for historical studies and for other research circumstances where monetary measures are thin or lacking. A concluding section ruminates on the future evolution of biological approaches in measuring happiness.

  10. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the Committee's attention and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antibiotics, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines and growth factors and other substances for which the Committee has discerned a need for international reference materials. The second part of the report, of particular relevance of manufacturers and national control authorities, contains guidelines for the production and control of synthetic peptide vaccines, requirements for tick-borne encephalitis vaccine (inactivated), guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy, an amendment to the requirements for hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant DNA techniques and a report on the standardization and calibration of cytokine immunoassays.

  11. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... preparations required by OMB Circular A-25, User Charges. This notice also announces current contact... current inventory of reference biological standards and biological preparations and the current...

  12. Classification and origin of IAB and IIICD iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byeon-Gak; Ouyang, Xinwei; Wasson, John T.

    1995-02-01

    We have analyzed, by duplicate neutron-activation analysis, 125 members of iron meteorite groups IAB and IIICD. These data show no hiatus between the groups, and we recommend that the two sets be treated as a single group until data are obtained that require their separation. In cases where there is no ambiguity, we will use IAB to designate the combined group. Our data allow properties of group IAB to be more tightly constrained than heretofore. We examined the properties of ungrouped irons occupying the same region of GaNi and GeNi space as IAB and found that our more precise data did not add any to the group. Based primarily on CoNi, AuNi, and to a lesser extent, CuNi and AsNi trends we find that three irons (Hassi-Jekna, Magnesia and Qarat al Hanash) previously assigned to IIICD are better designated ungrouped, primarily because their Au contents diverge from those of IAB; six irons (EET 84300, Mertzon, Misteca, Persimmon Creek, Yongning, and Zacatecas (1792)) have also been removed from IAB on the basis of the new data. Fractional crystallization models of magmas saturated in troilite yield trends for several elements quite similar to those observed in IAB and, with moderate modification of the distribution coefficients, these can also account for the IIICD trend. However, this model requires metal segregation and convective stirring at very low temperatures, and predicts a much lower abundance of low-Ni irons than observed. It also fails to account for the ubiquitous presence of trapped melt and chondritic (or subchondritic) silicates in IAB irons. The weight of the evidence supports an impact-melt model in which individual IAB irons are interpreted as melt pools produced by impacts into a chondritic megaregolith. The lower the melt temperature of the melt, the larger the fraction of Ga, Ge, and Ir that remained sequestered in unmelted solids. The increasing range in Ga, Ge, and Ir with increasing Ni content can be explained by mixing

  13. Palladium-silver chronology of IAB iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, K. J.; Schönbächler, M.; Benedix, G. K.; Rehkämper, M.; Andreasen, R.; Davies, C.

    2013-01-01

    The extinct 107Pd-107Ag decay system (half-life ˜6.5 Ma) is a useful chronometer to constrain the thermal evolution of the IAB parent body. To this end, Pd/Ag concentrations and the Ag isotope compositions of metals separated from 6 different IAB iron meteorites were determined. The samples show ɛ107Ag variations between +0.1 and +15.8 with 108Pd/109Ag ratios between 38 and 200. The data can be divided into two groups based on their petrology, each defining an isochron: a graphite and troilite rich inclusion bearing group (A), with the IAB meteorites Toluca, Odessa and Canyon Diablo and a more silicate rich group (B), which includes Campo Del Cielo, Caddo County and Goose Lake. Using the initial abundance of 107Pd derived from carbonaceous chondrites, the corresponding age for the group (A) is 18.7 (+3.6/-5.0) Ma after the start of the solar system and 14.9 (+2.5/-4.9) Ma for the group (B). This suggests that the last thermal event to reach high enough temperatures to melt metal on the IAB parent body occurred within the first 15 Ma of our solar system.

  14. Biology Teachers' Attitudes toward and Use of Indiana's Evolution Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Lisa A.; Boone, William J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between biology teachers' evolution teaching practices and their regard and use of Indiana state evolution standards. A survey developed by the authors contained five subscales: use of standards; attitude toward standards; attitude toward evolution standards; evolution teaching practices; and demographic…

  15. Working Time and the Volume of Work in Germany: The IAB Concept of Measurement. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Koch, Susanne

    The Institut fuer Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) or Institute for Employment Research has developed a detailed working time and volume of work measurement concept in order to more comprehensively assess the demand for labor. The individual components of working time in Germany are obtained from various data sources and combined to form…

  16. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international recommendations for the production and quality control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the attention of the Committee and provides information on issues relevant to international guidelines, recommendations and other matters related to the manufacture and quality control of biologicals. This is followed by information on the status and development of reference materials for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, various antigens, blood products, cytokines, growth factors and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular interest to manufacturers and national control authorities, contains sets of recommendations for the production and control of poliomyelitis vaccine (oral) and poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) and guidelines for the production and control of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Also included are lists of recommendations and guidelines for biological substances used in medicine, and other relevant documents.

  17. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input–output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems. PMID:19493898

  18. Consistent design schematics for biological systems: standardization of representation in biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Yukiko; Ghosh, Samik; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-08-06

    The discovery by design paradigm driving research in synthetic biology entails the engineering of de novo biological constructs with well-characterized input-output behaviours and interfaces. The construction of biological circuits requires iterative phases of design, simulation and assembly, leading to the fabrication of a biological device. In order to represent engineered models in a consistent visual format and further simulating them in silico, standardization of representation and model formalism is imperative. In this article, we review different efforts for standardization, particularly standards for graphical visualization and simulation/annotation schemata adopted in systems biology. We identify the importance of integrating the different standardization efforts and provide insights into potential avenues for developing a common framework for model visualization, simulation and sharing across various tools. We envision that such a synergistic approach would lead to the development of global, standardized schemata in biology, empowering deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms as well as engineering of novel biological systems.

  19. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B; Minor, P; Morgenthaler, J J; Burnouf, T; McIntosh, R; Padilla, A; Thorpe, R; van Aken, W G

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the Committee's attention and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines, growth factors, and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, contains recommendations for the production and quality control of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines, guidelines for regulatory expectations for clinical evaluation of vaccines, guidelines for the production and quality control of inactivated oral cholera vaccines and guidelines on viral inactivation and removal procedures intended to assure the viral safety of human blood plasma products.

  20. Who Expert Committee on Biological Standardization.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the Committee's attention and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibodies, antigens, blood products and related substances, cytokines, growth factors, and endocrinological substances. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national regulatory authorities, contains recommendations for the production and quality control of smallpox vaccine, an addendum to the recommendations for the production and quality control of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines, guidelines on regulatory expectations related to the elimination, reduction or replacement of thiomersal in vaccines, and guidelines for the safe production and quality control of IPV manufactured from wild polioviruses.

  1. A New IAB Lab Iron Meteorite from China

    SciTech Connect

    Ponganis, K V; Lavielle, B; Spettel, B; Buchwald,V F; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W; Marti, K

    2001-03-30

    Dr. W. Wei, at UCSD, provided our laboratory with chips from a suspected iron meteorite. The mass (>10 kg) was found approximately 8 northwest of Zhongshan in Guangxi province by a farmer in his fields. This mass has now been identified as an IAB iron meteorite (provisional name Zhongshan No.1) based on its composition, N signature, and petrographic analysis. A second chip from a much larger mass (Zhongshan No.2), still in the ground, was recently made available and work is in progress on it, but not reported. Preliminary N isotopic analysis on Zhongshan sample No.1 suggested that the iron mass might be a IAB/IIICD type. Petrographic inspection and INAA analysis has verified that this sample is a typical member of the coarse octahedrites, of the resolved chemical group IAB. Zhongshan No.1 was well-shielded. Its estimated CRE age is {ge}440 Ma. Determination of the radionuclides and noble gases on Zhongshan sample No.2 (in progress) will give useful information on the exposure and shielding history of the meteoroid and its possible atmospheric break-up.

  2. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  3. International reference preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Minor, P

    2014-10-01

    International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working reference materials are calibrated against international standards giving a common unit of measurement between laboratories. The references are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single reference method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The process has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary reference must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the reference with real life analytes.

  4. Toward the First Data Acquisition Standard in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Bultelle, Matthieu; Kitney, Richard I

    2016-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a new data acquisition standard for synthetic biology. This comprises the creation of a methodology that is designed to capture all the data, metadata, and protocol information associated with biopart characterization experiments. The new standard, called DICOM-SB, is based on the highly successful Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard in medicine. A data model is described which has been specifically developed for synthetic biology. The model is a modular, extensible data model for the experimental process, which can optimize data storage for large amounts of data. DICOM-SB also includes services orientated toward the automatic exchange of data and information between modalities and repositories. DICOM-SB has been developed in the context of systematic design in synthetic biology, which is based on the engineering principles of modularity, standardization, and characterization. The systematic design approach utilizes the design, build, test, and learn design cycle paradigm. DICOM-SB has been designed to be compatible with and complementary to other standards in synthetic biology, including SBOL. In this regard, the software provides effective interoperability. The new standard has been tested by experiments and data exchange between Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and Imperial College London.

  5. Sustainable model building the role of standards and biological semantics.

    PubMed

    Krause, Falko; Schulz, Marvin; Swainston, Neil; Liebermeister, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology models can be reused within new simulation scenarios, as parts of more complex models or as sources of biochemical knowledge. Reusability does not come by itself but has to be ensured while creating a model. Most important, models should be designed to remain valid in different contexts-for example, for different experimental conditions-and be published in a standardized and well-documented form. Creating reusable models is worthwhile, but it requires some efforts when a model is developed, implemented, documented, and published. Minimum requirements for published systems biology models have been formulated by the MIRIAM initiative. Main criteria are completeness of information and documentation, availability of machine-readable models in standard formats, and semantic annotations connecting the model elements with entries in biological Web resources. In this chapter, we discuss the assumptions behind bottom-up modeling; present important standards like MIRIAM, the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), and the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN); and describe software tools and services for handling semantic annotations. Finally, we show how standards can facilitate the construction of large metabolic network models.

  6. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  7. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and...

  8. Evidence for a Late Reducing Event in IAB-Silicate Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seckendorff, V. V.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Zipfel, J.; Palme, H.

    1992-07-01

    Coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol) in silicate inclusions of IAB-iron meteorites have different Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios. Ferrosilite (fs) contents of opx are higher than fayalite contents (fa) of ol (e.g., Bunch and Keil 1970). Non-ideal solid solution of fs in opx and/or fa in ol is generally assumed. We reinvestigated the equilibrium Fe-Mg distribution between coexisting ol+opx in the system MgO-FeO-SiO2 (von Seckendorff and O'Neill 1992). Reversal experiments at high- Mg compositions were performed from 900 to 1600 degrees C at 16 and 20 kbar using a barium borosilicate flux. The data could be fitted to a simple thermodynamic model with ol and opx treated as regular solutions and this model was found to describe satisfactorily the literature data extending down to 700 degrees C. For Fe/(Fe+Mg) between 0.05 to 0.15 we find KD^ol-opx close to one from 1600 to 700 degrees C, virtually independent of pressure and temperature. Fig. 1 shows experimental results at the Mg-rich end. Error bars mark 1-sigma standard deviations. Ol is in all cases more Fe-rich than coexisting opx, except for a single run at 1000 degrees C that probably did not reach equilibrium because of slow reaction kinetics. Two calculated distribution curves (1300, 700 degrees C at 16 kbar) lie close together indicating the absence of any significant temperature dependence of the exchange reaction at the Mg- rich end of the system. IAB-silicate inclusions plot outside the range of experimental data (Fig. 1). Although some previous models for Fe-Mg exchange between ol and opx (e.g., Sack 1980) extrapolate to KD<1 at temperatures near 500 degrees C, such models reproduce the experimental data (700 to 1600 degrees C) less well, than our updated model. In addition, temperatures at 500 degrees C are probably too low to allow Fe diffusion in opx. Two pyroxene equilibration temperatures of IAB-silicate inclusions are around 900-1000 degrees C suggesting a similar closure temperature for Fe diffusion

  9. Biological standards: problems in large-scale production.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P J

    1976-10-01

    A biological standard usually consists of a batch of perhaps several thousand ampoules. In defining a batch of ampoules to be a standard, we are in essence making a number of fundamental claims: (1) That in terms of content, (mass and potency) each individual ampoule is identical to every other amoule in the batch. (2) That in the course of preparation of the standard, the contents of each ampoule have been treated in exactly the same way and held for the same length of time under the same conditions, (i.e. all the ampoules of the standard have been treated as one single batch, each stage of processing being carried out under constant conditions in one complete working session, however long). (3) That the stability or instability of the biological activity of the contents of each ampoule of the batch is identical to every other ampoule (i.e. that moisture, oxygen, light, raised temperature--all factors which cause deterioration of biological activity--have been exculuded to the same degree in each and every ampoule in the batch, so that each ampoule of the standard is equally stable or unstable). It is quite a difficult task to meet these criteria even in a small number of ampoules at the bench. It becomes a very demanding exercise to achieve the same results in 4,000 ampoules--the normal batch size at NIBSC. Details of the methods used at NIBSC for the production of large batches of ampoules of biological standards have already been published (Campbell, 1974). The author of the papers will take the opportunity to develop various aspects of the published detail.

  10. Improving Collaboration by Standardization Efforts in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative genome-scale reconstruction endeavors of metabolic networks would not be possible without a common, standardized formal representation of these systems. The ability to precisely define biological building blocks together with their dynamic behavior has even been considered a prerequisite for upcoming synthetic biology approaches. Driven by the requirements of such ambitious research goals, standardization itself has become an active field of research on nearly all levels of granularity in biology. In addition to the originally envisaged exchange of computational models and tool interoperability, new standards have been suggested for an unambiguous graphical display of biological phenomena, to annotate, archive, as well as to rank models, and to describe execution and the outcomes of simulation experiments. The spectrum now even covers the interaction of entire neurons in the brain, three-dimensional motions, and the description of pharmacometric studies. Thereby, the mathematical description of systems and approaches for their (repeated) simulation are clearly separated from each other and also from their graphical representation. Minimum information definitions constitute guidelines and common operation protocols in order to ensure reproducibility of findings and a unified knowledge representation. Central database infrastructures have been established that provide the scientific community with persistent links from model annotations to online resources. A rich variety of open-source software tools thrives for all data formats, often supporting a multitude of programing languages. Regular meetings and workshops of developers and users lead to continuous improvement and ongoing development of these standardization efforts. This article gives a brief overview about the current state of the growing number of operation protocols, mark-up languages, graphical descriptions, and fundamental software support with relevance to systems biology. PMID:25538939

  11. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  12. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heyer, W. Ronald; Donnelly, Maureen A.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1994-01-01

    Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity is the first book to provide comprehensive coverage of standard methods for biodiversity sampling of amphibians, with information on analyzing and using data that will interest biologists in general.In this manual, nearly fifty herpetologists recommend ten standard sampling procedures for measuring and monitoring amphibian and many other populations. The contributors discuss each procedure, along with the circumstances for its appropriate use. In addition, they provide a detailed protocol for each procedure's implementation, a list of necessary equipment and personnel, and suggestions for analyzing the data.The data obtained using these standard methods are comparable across sites and through time and, as a result, are extremely useful for making decisions about habitat protection, sustained use, and restoration—decisions that are particularly relevant for threatened amphibian populations.

  13. Organizing Community-Based Data Standards: Lessons from Developing a Successful Open Standard in Systems Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucka, M.

    2015-09-01

    In common with many fields, including astronomy, a vast number of software tools for computational modeling and simulation are available today in systems biology. This wealth of resources is a boon to researchers, but it also presents interoperability problems. Despite working with different software tools, researchers want to disseminate their work widely as well as reuse and extend the models of other researchers. This situation led in the year 2000 to an effort to create a tool-independent, machine-readable file format for representing models: SBML, the Systems Biology Markup Language. SBML has since become the de facto standard for its purpose. Its success and general approach has inspired and influenced other community-oriented standardization efforts in systems biology. Open standards are essential for the progress of science in all fields, but it is often difficult for academic researchers to organize successful community-based standards. I draw on personal experiences from the development of SBML and summarize some of the lessons learned, in the hope that this may be useful to other groups seeking to develop open standards in a community-oriented fashion.

  14. Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: Standard methods for mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Don E.; Cole, F. Russell; Nichols, James D.; Rudran, Rasanayagam; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1996-01-01

    Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Mammals provides a comprehensive manual for designing and implementing inventories of mammalian biodiversity anywhere in the world and for any group, from rodents to open-country grazers. The book emphasizes formal estimation approaches, which supply data that can be compared across habitats and over time. Beginning with brief natural histories of the twenty-six orders of living mammals, the book details the field techniques—observation, capture, and sign interpretation—appropriate to different species. The contributors provide guidelines for study design, discuss survey planning, describe statistical techniques, and outline methods of translating field data into electronic formats. Extensive appendixes address such issues as the ethical treatment of animals in research, human health concerns, preserving voucher specimens, and assessing age, sex, and reproductive condition in mammals.Useful in both developed and developing countries, this volume and the Biological Diversity Handbook Series as a whole establish essential standards for a key aspect of conservation biology and resource management.

  15. International biological standards for coagulation factors and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Anthony R

    2007-04-01

    The use of international biological standards during the last 30 years has proved extremely successful in promoting global harmonization of estimates between laboratories and methods. Experience has led to the identification of physical criteria essential for standards to be suitable for long-term use. High precision of liquid filling coupled with low residual moisture and oxygen and the use of sealed glass ampoules have been found consistent with homogeneous and stable International Standards (ISs). Most plasma coagulation factors and inhibitors are calibrated in International Units (IU), which are defined as the amount of analyte in 1 mL of normal pooled plasma. Adoption of the IU has provided clarity in the definition of normal and abnormal states and has facilitated dose calculation for replacement therapy. The assay of like-versus-like materials (e.g., concentrate versus concentrate) has been found to improve interlaboratory agreement and there are now both plasma and concentrate ISs available for many coagulation factors and inhibitors. Studies into the assay of recombinant factor VIII have indicated that additional measures, such as modifications to assay methodology, are necessary to reduce interlaboratory variability. This experience may prove valuable in the future, when we have to deal increasingly with the challenges to standardization associated with the products of bioengineering.

  16. The Sm-Nd systematics of silicate inclusions in iron meteorites: Results from Caddo (IAB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Brian W.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The timing of events leading to the formation of silicate-rich and metal-rich regions in planetesimals remains an important problem in the study of planetary formation and differentiation in the early solar system. The IAB irons are especially important as they are considered to represent a magmatic differentiation series. Iron meteorites present a particular challenge for chronological studies, due to the relative paucity of phases serving as hosts for radioactive parent-daughter nuclides. Recent work using the Re-Os system, following on the pioneering work by Herr et al. and Luck and Allegre, appears promising, but investigators up to now have concentrated on whole rock isochrons. Silicate clasts enclosed within iron meteorites can provide information about the chronology and thermal history of irons. Extensive work on Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and I-Xe has been reported on silicate inclusions in iron meteorites. We report the initial results from our Sm-Nd study of an inclusion with the Caddo IAB iron, the first Sm-Nd isotopic study of a silicate clast embedded within an iron meteorite. Our results include measurements of the standard long-lived Sm-147/Nd-143 (tau = 152 AE) system, as well as the shorter-lived SM-146/Nd-142 (tau = 0.149 AE) system, which has been shown to be very useful in deciphering the history of the early solar system. The Caddo silicate clast was described by Palme et al., who kindly provided us with a major part of the inclusion. The inclusion is coarse-grained consisting predominantly of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase, with lesser amounts of orthopyroxene, Fe-Ni metal, sulfide, and phosphate. The relatively large grain size (up to 3 mm) and 120 degree grain boundaries suggest extensive metamorphism at high temperatures. Based on study of a thin section, there is evidence for metal invading along grain boundaries in some regions of the inclusion, suggesting that the Fe-Ni metal was molten when the silicate clast was incorporated. Metamorphic

  17. He Who Seeks Shall Find... Or Perhaps Not? Analysis of Firms' Searches for Qualified Personnel, Using Data from the IAB Establishment Panel 2000. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolling, Arnd

    The success of German firms' searches for qualified personnel to fill openings in skilled occupations was examined through a statistical analysis of data from the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit's (IAB) establishment panel for 2000. An employer search model was used to explain the current German debate…

  18. Trace elements of olivine in silicate inclusions of IAB iron meteorites reflecting low-temperature history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipfel, J.; Weinbruch, S.; Specht, S.; Palme, H.

    1994-07-01

    IAB iron meteorites with silicate inclusions may have formed at the core-mantle boundary of planetary bodies. Important constraints on the thermal evolution and the size of these bodies are given by cooling rates obtained from these meteorites. Recent metallographic cooling rates determined in metal grains enclosed in silicates of IAB irons are between 30 and 70 C/m.y. An independent method for obtaining cooling rates of IAB silicates inclusions was suggested by Kohler (1991). The Ca contents of olivines are zoned from core to rim reflecting cooling from about 650 to 500 C, at similar temperatures as kamacite-taenite exsolution occurs. Calcium zoning of ol was observed in Landes, Caddo County, Woodbine, and Persimmon Creek (recent ion microprobe data). In addition, the central Ca content of olivine grains of different IAB meteorites should also reflect cooling rates. Olivine core compositions in silicates of several IAB meteorites, e.g., Persimmon Creek (PC), El Taco (ET), Woodbine (WB), Landes (LA), Caddo County (CC), and Copiapo (COP) were determined with the electron microprobe. Results of the electron microporbe study are discussed. The use of Ca core contents and Ca profiles as indicators of low-temperature cooling rates requires further work. Nickel in ol may provide additional constraints on the thermal histories.

  19. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  20. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4557.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4557-4560 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4562.3 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar degassing ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older Ar ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. The older Ar-Ar ages for IABs are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the Ar-Ar ages and IAB cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration profiles in IAB metal (Herpfer et al., 1994) are consistent if the time of the post-assembly metamorphism was as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define much older ages of approx.4558-4566 Myr, which cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages. An explanation for the difference in radiometric ages of IABs may reside in combinations of the following: a) I-Xe ages have very

  1. Ar-Ar and I-XE Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx. 4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx. 3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ges for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 plus or minus 0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx. 4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the postassembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx. 4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx. 4560 to approx. 4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni

  2. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4560- 4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and s,uggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  3. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Nay Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 +/-0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 My. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  4. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  5. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. Forty-sixth Report.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the recommendations of a WHO Expert Committee commissioned to coordinate activities leading to the adoption of international requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biologicals and the establishment of international biological reference materials. The report starts with a discussion of general issues brought to the Committee's attention and provides information on the status and development of reference materials for various antibiotics, antibodies, antigens, blood products, cytokines, endocrinological and related substances and toxins. The second part of the report, of particular relevance to manufacturers and national control authorities, contains the revised list of laboratories approved by WHO for the production of yellow fever vaccine, revised requirements for yellow fever vaccine, an amendment to the General Requirements for the Sterility of Biological Substances, and a summary protocol for the batch release of virus vaccines.

  6. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  7. Secondary Biology Textbooks and National Standards for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Hanks, Joseph H.; Erickson, Lynette B.

    2017-01-01

    Given secondary teachers' dependence on textbooks for curricular and instructional guidance, the challenges introduced by increasingly diverse classrooms in the United States, and national efforts to provide equitable access to science for all students, this study examined the alignment between three popular high school biology textbooks and the…

  8. Carbon Isotopic Heterogeneity of Graphite in the San Juan Mass of the Campo Del Cielo IAB Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruoka, T.; Kurat, G.; Zinner, E.; Varela, M. E.; Ametrano, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of IAB iron meteorites is still a matter of debate. It is generally believed that iron meteorites originated from molten cores in small planetesimals because the fractionation trend of trace elements (e.g., Ir, Ge, Ga, etc. vs. Ni) for most iron meteorites can be more or less explained by fractional crystallization from metal melts. However, this process cannot produce trace element characteristics of the IAB (and other) iron meteorites. To explain these trace element abundance patterns, several models have been proposed. Although most of these models require a high temperature, clear evidence has recently been obtained for a sub-solidus formation of IAB iron meteorites from noble gas analyses. Moreover, heterogeneous distributions of some trace elements in metal and other phases also suggest a low temperature origin of at least some IAB iron meteorites. Here we use the carbon isotopic compositions of graphite to constrain the origin of IAB iron meteorites. Our data confirm a possible low temperature origin of IAB iron meteorites.

  9. On the limitations of standard statistical modeling in biological systems: a full Bayesian approach for biology.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime; Sanz, Ricardo

    2013-09-01

    One of the most important scientific challenges today is the quantitative and predictive understanding of biological function. Classical mathematical and computational approaches have been enormously successful in modeling inert matter, but they may be inadequate to address inherent features of biological systems. We address the conceptual and methodological obstacles that lie in the inverse problem in biological systems modeling. We introduce a full Bayesian approach (FBA), a theoretical framework to study biological function, in which probability distributions are conditional on biophysical information that physically resides in the biological system that is studied by the scientist.

  10. Ohio High School Biology Teachers' Views of State Standard for Evolution: Impacts on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    High school biology teachers face many challenges as they teach evolution. State standards for evolution may provide support for sound evolution instruction. This study attempts to build upon previous work by investigating teachers' views of evolution standards and their evolution practices in a state where evolution standards have been…

  11. I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of the Toluca IAB Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A. P.; Petaev, M. I.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2008-03-01

    The I-Xe system in Toluca silicates seems to survive catastrophic impact and breakup of the IAB parent body. As a result of cooling at about 40 +/- 20 K/Ma, the I-Xe system in the high-Mg pyroxenes in Toluca nodules closed at about 4559.7 Ma, in low-Mg pyroxenes at 4553.6-4548.9 Ma.

  12. The evolution of partially differentiated planetesimals Evidence from iron meteorite groups IAB and IIICD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kracher, A.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the properties of IAB and IIICD iron meteorites thought to be derived from partially differentiated planetesimals are summarized, and the physical aspects that may have controlled parent body differentiation and affected the composition of the sulfide melt are outlined. The chemical evolution of the parent body is then discussed, and observations supporting the partial differentiation model are examined. Finally, an attempt is made to reinterpret barometric and chronometric data in light of the partial differentiation model, and tentative conclusions are presented.

  13. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  14. Blueprints for green biotech: development and application of standards for plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology aims to apply engineering principles to the design and modification of biological systems and to the construction of biological parts and devices. The ability to programme cells by providing new instructions written in DNA is a foundational technology of the field. Large-scale de novo DNA synthesis has accelerated synthetic biology by offering custom-made molecules at ever decreasing costs. However, for large fragments and for experiments in which libraries of DNA sequences are assembled in different combinations, assembly in the laboratory is still desirable. Biological assembly standards allow DNA parts, even those from multiple laboratories and experiments, to be assembled together using the same reagents and protocols. The adoption of such standards for plant synthetic biology has been cohesive for the plant science community, facilitating the application of genome editing technologies to plant systems and streamlining progress in large-scale, multi-laboratory bioengineering projects.

  15. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  16. Metabolomics, Standards, and Metabolic Modeling for Synthetic Biology in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Camilla Beate; Czauderna, Tobias; Klapperstück, Matthias; Roessner, Ute; Schreiber, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Life on earth depends on dynamic chemical transformations that enable cellular functions, including electron transfer reactions, as well as synthesis and degradation of biomolecules. Biochemical reactions are coordinated in metabolic pathways that interact in a complex way to allow adequate regulation. Biotechnology, food, biofuel, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries are highly interested in metabolic engineering as an enabling technology of synthetic biology to exploit cells for the controlled production of metabolites of interest. These approaches have only recently been extended to plants due to their greater metabolic complexity (such as primary and secondary metabolism) and highly compartmentalized cellular structures and functions (including plant-specific organelles) compared with bacteria and other microorganisms. Technological advances in analytical instrumentation in combination with advances in data analysis and modeling have opened up new approaches to engineer plant metabolic pathways and allow the impact of modifications to be predicted more accurately. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale metabolic data, present an overview of current bioinformatics methods for the modeling and visualization of metabolic networks, and discuss approaches for interfacing bioinformatics approaches with metabolic models of cellular processes and flux distributions in order to predict phenotypes derived from specific genetic modifications or subjected to different environmental conditions. PMID:26557642

  17. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  18. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P.; Bader, Gary D.; Bergmann, Frank T.; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J.; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE’s aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models. PMID:25759811

  19. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.

  20. Three-cluster dynamics within an <i>ab initio framework

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr

    2013-09-26

    In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the <i>ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent <i>ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to a 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (4He) polarization effects.

  1. Interpreting the I-Xe system in individual silicate grains from Toluca IAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Petaev, M.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed isotopic and mineralogical studies of silicate inclusions separated from a troilite nodule of the Toluca IAB iron meteorite reveal the presence of radiogenic 129Xe in chlorapatite, plagioclase, perryite, and pyroxene grains. Subsequent I-Xe studies of 32 neutron-irradiated pyroxene grains indicate that high-Mg and low-Mg pyroxenes have distinctive I-Xe signatures. The I-Xe system in high-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4560.5 ± 2.4 Ma, probably reflecting exsolution of silicates from the melt, while the low-Mg pyroxenes closed at 4552.0 ± 3.7 Ma, 8.5 Ma later, providing a means for determining the cooling rate at the time of exsolution. If the host Toluca graphite-troiliterich inclusion formed after the breakup and reassembly of the IAB parent body as has been suggested, the I-Xe ages of the high-Mg pyroxenes separated from this inclusions indicate that this catastrophic impact occurred not later than 4560.5 Ma, 6.7 Ma after formation of CAIs. The cooling rate at the time of silicates exsolution in Toluca is 14.5 ± 10.0 °C/Ma.

  2. Unified <i>ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo

    2016-04-13

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in <i>ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on <i>ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Be ${({\\rm{p}},\\gamma )}^{8}{\\rm{B}}$ radiative capture. Lastly, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H${({\\rm{d}},{\\rm{n}})}^{4}$He fusion.

  3. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  4. Glossary (for Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 300 technical terms and 250 diagrammatic sketches and illustrations are provided for the Smithsonian Institution methods book, ‘Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Fungi.’ Technical terms focus on traditional morphotaxonomy, ecology, and pathology. Als...

  5. Standard Preparations, Limits of Potency, and Dating Period Limitations for Biological Products. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is amending the general biological products standards relating to dating periods and also removing certain standards relating to standard preparations and limits of potency. FDA is taking this action to update outdated requirements, and accommodate new and evolving technology and testing capabilities, without diminishing public health protections. This action is part of FDA's retrospective review of its regulations in response to an Executive order. FDA is issuing these amendments directly as a final rule because the Agency believes they are noncontroversial and FDA anticipates no significant adverse comments.

  6. The Aggregate National Supply of Job Openings and Firms' Procedures for Filling Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magvas, Emil; Spitznagel, Eugen

    Surveys by the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) of German firms' job openings have been combined with job registry data from the Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit on an annual basis since 1989 in order to determine the scope and structure of the aggregate national supply of job openings. The surveys also indicated problems encountered…

  7. Developmental inhibition of miR-iab8-3p disrupts mushroom body neuron structure and adult learning ability

    PubMed Central

    Busto, Germain U.; Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Chakraborty, Molee; Davis, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that inhibit protein expression post-transcriptionally. They have been implicated in many different physiological processes, but little is known about their individual involvement in learning and memory. We recently identified several miRNAs that either increased or decreased intermediate-term memory when inhibited in the central nervous system, including miR-iab8-3p. We report here a new developmental role for this miRNA. Blocking the expression of miR-iab8-3p during the development of the organism leads to hypertrophy of individual mushroom body neuron soma, a reduction in the field size occupied by axonal projections, and adult intellectual disability. We further identified four potential mRNA targets of miR-iab8-3p whose inhibition modulates intermediate-term memory including ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase, which may account for the behavioral effects produced by miR-iab8-3p inhibition. Our results offer important new information on a microRNA required for normal neurodevelopment and the capacity to learn and remember normally. PMID:27634569

  8. [Book review] Developments in biological standardization (Vol. 49): Fish Biologics: Seriodiagnostics and Vaccines, edited by W. Hennessen and D. P. Andersen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Review of: Developments in Biologicals, Vol. 49. Fish Biologics: Serodiagnostics and Vaccines. International Symposium, Leetown, W.Va., April 1981. Editor(s): Hennessen, W. (Bern); Andersen, D.P. (Leetown, W.Va.); Society/Societies: International Association of Biological Standardization, XII + 496 p., 90 fig., 110 tab., soft cover, 1981. ISBN: 978-3-8055-3471-0.

  9. Biological standards for potency assignment to fibrinolytic agents used in thrombolytic therapy.

    PubMed

    Thelwell, Craig

    2014-03-01

    Thrombolytic drugs are used for the treatment of thrombotic disorders such as acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Biological standards are used for potency assignment to the range of fibrinolytic proteins used in thrombolytic therapy. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards are primary reference materials, calibrated in arbitrary units (international unit), assigned by collaborative study using the range of assay methods available at the time. Provided the standard and test material are equivalent, adhering to the principle of measuring like versus like, the exact nature of the assay method is unimportant. This approach has been applied successfully for several decades since the advent of fibrinolytic treatment, ensuring consistency for potency labeling and the correct dosing of patients. The emergence of generic biosimilar products and new recombinant variants poses a challenge to this system, where functional differences impact on the relative biological activity in different assay systems. A more demanding system of standardization may therefore be required on the basis of international reference materials with associated reference methods. WHO recognizes this, and where possible and practical is seeking to incorporate concepts of traceability, uncertainty, and commutability to International Standards. However, some caution is needed because limitations on the characterization of many complex biologicals remain real, and a flexible approach is required on the basis of real-world needs.

  10. Interdisziplinärer Arbeitskreis Bewegungsstörungen (IAB): an interdisciplinary working group for promoting multimodal therapy of movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Adib Saberi, Fereshte; Dressler, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Increasing complexity of therapeutic strategies for movement disorders (MD) requires multimodal therapies involving various health care professionals and physicians. Coordinating all professions involved is difficult. An interdisciplinary working group (Interdisziplinärer Arbeitskreis Bewegungsstörungen, IAB) serves to promote and improve multimodal therapies of MD. IAB was started 6 years ago in Hamburg, Germany as an interdisciplinary special interest group with about 25 physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, nurse specialists, physicians and invited guests regularly meeting each quarter. IAB expanded and now also includes a webpage with data bases, a special interest group for Parkinson assistants, a meeting arm for organising meetings accredited by continuous medical education authorities and a publication arm for production of educational materials including a communication form and a communication calendar developed by IAB. Recently, IAB acquired a video production enterprise producing educational MD videos. In the meantime, two more IAB groups were founded in other regions of Germany. IAB's stability over more than 6 years and its expansion into more regions and other tasks documents the demand for promotion of multimodal therapies for MD.

  11. Bioinformatics in high school biology curricula: a study of state science standards.

    PubMed

    Wefer, Stephen H; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics content of each state's biology standards was analyzed and categorized into nine areas: Human Genome Project/genomics, forensics, evolution, classification, nucleotide variations, medicine, computer use, agriculture/food technology, and science technology and society/socioscientific issues. Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics-related content, which varied substantially across the different areas, with Human Genome Project/genomics and computer use being the lowest (8%), and evolution being the highest (64%) among states' science frameworks. This essay concludes with recommendations for reworking/rewording existing standards to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy among secondary school students.

  12. Siderophile element systematics of IAB complex iron meteorites: New insights into the formation of an enigmatic group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsham, Emily A.; Bermingham, Katherine R.; Walker, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Siderophile trace element abundances and the 187Re-187Os isotopic systematics of the metal phases of 58 IAB complex iron meteorites were determined in order to investigate formation processes and how meteorites within chemical subgroups may be related. Close adherence of 187Re-187Os isotopic data of most IAB iron meteorites to a primordial isochron indicates that the siderophile elements of most members of the complex remained closed to elemental disturbance soon after formation. Minor, presumably late-stage open-system behavior, however, is observed in some members of the sLM, sLH, sHL, and sHH subgroups. The new siderophile element abundance data are consistent with the findings of prior studies suggesting that the IAB subgroups cannot be related to one another by any known crystallization process. Equilibrium crystallization, coupled with crystal segregation, solid-liquid mixing, and subsequent fractional crystallization can account for the siderophile element variations among meteorites within the IAB main group (MG). The data for the sLM subgroup are consistent with equilibrium crystallization, combined with crystal segregation and mixing. By contrast, the limited fractionation of siderophile elements within the sLL subgroup is consistent with metal extraction from a chondritic source with little subsequent processing. The limited data for the other subgroups were insufficient to draw robust conclusions about crystallization processes involved in their formation. Collectively, multiple formational processes are represented in the IAB complex, and modeling results suggest that fractional crystallization within the MG may have been a more significant process than has been previously recognized.

  13. A comparison of biochemical and biological properties of standard and defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, R. M.; Burner, P. A.; Holland, J. J.; Oldstone, M. B. A.; Thompson, H. A.; Villarreal, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus infection of the mouse is the best-studied model of persistent viral infection. In cell culture, persistent LCM virus infections are associated with the production of large quantities of defective interfering (DI) LCM virus. These defective interfering particles cannot replicate by themselves yet can interfere with the replication of the standard virus and prevent the cytolytic effect caused by the standard virus. It is important to determine the mechanism of interference and to establish whether the DI virus plays a role in vivo. Biological and biochemical properties of the standard and DI virus particles and also virus enzymes are compared. Antigenic analyses reveal that cells releasing only DI virus particles have less cell surface expression of viral antigens than cells releasing the standard virus. In the animal model, the DI virus is shown to have a protective effect against the pathogenesis of the LCM virus disease both in the mouse and in the rat. PMID:60182

  14. A comparison of biochemical and biological properties of standard and defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    PubMed

    Welsh, R M; Burner, P A; Holland, J J; Oldstone, M B; Thompson, H A; Villarreal, L P

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus infection of the mouse is the best-studied model of persistent viral infection. In cell culture, persistent LCM virus infections are associated with the production of large quantities of defective interfering (DI) LCM virus. These defective interfering particles cannot replicate by themselves yet can interfere with the replication of the standard virus and prevent the cytolytic effect caused by the standard virus. It is important to determine the mechanism of interference and to establish whether the DI virus plays a role in vivo. Biological and biochemical properties of the standard and DI virus particles and also virus enzymes are compared. Antigenic analyses reveal that cells releasing only DI virus particles have less cell surface expression of viral antigens than cells releasing the standard virus. In the animal model, the DI virus is shown to have a protective effect against the pathogenesis of the LCM virus disease both in the mouse and in the rat.

  15. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol (IX) and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol (XN), all of which were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  16. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy.

  17. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  18. Microstructures, mineral chemistry, noble gases and nitrogen in the recent fall, Bhuka iron (IAB) meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, S. V. S.; Ranjith, P. M.; Ray, Dwijesh; Ghosh, S.; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Shrivastava, K. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report some chemical, petrological and isotopic studies of the Bhuka iron meteorite that fell in Rajasthan, India in 2005. Numerous silicate and graphite inclusions are visible on the surface of the hand specimen. In the polished and etched surface studied, irregular patches of graphite are found as the most dominant inclusion and commonly associated with pure corundum (95 wt% Al2O3), spinel, feldspar and Si-rich phases. Apart from typical lamellar intergrowth with kamacite (i.e. the Widmänstatten pattern), taenites are also commonly found to occur as a rim of the graphite inclusions. P-rich (up to 10 wt%) taenites are also found locally within the recrystallised kamacite matrix. Based on mineralogy, texture and bulk composition, Bhuka resembles the low-Ni IAB subgroup (ungrouped). Noble gas isotope studies suggest He, Ne and Ar are mostly of cosmogenic origin, while Kr and Xe are a mixture of cosmogenic, radiogenic and trapped components. A pre-atmospheric radius of 10±1 cm and a cosmic ray exposure age of 346±52 Ma are derived based on depth dependant (3He/4He)c and 38Arc respectively, as per the production systematics of cosmogenic noble gas isotopes (Ammon et al., 2009). Cosmogenic 83Kr and 126Xe yield production rates of 12 and 0.335 (in 10-15ccSTP/g Ma) for 83Kr and 126Xe respectively. Presence of trapped Kr and Xe, with (84Kr/132Xe)t=2 and radiogenic 129Xe=120×10-12 ccSTP/g are due to presence of graphite/silicate inclusions in the analysed sample. Over ~150% excess 131Xec than expected from spallation suggests contribution from (n,ɤ) reactions from Ba from inclusions and suggests irradiation of pre-atmospheric object in a larger body, indicative of complex irradiation. Trapped N of 24 ppm, with δ15N=-10.7±0.8‰ observed in Bhuka, is heavier than the range observed hither to in IAB irons.

  19. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its distribution in

  20. Identification of functional regions on the I-Ab molecule by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, L E; Glimcher, L H; Waldmann, R A; Smith, J A; Ben-Nun, A; Seidman, J G; Choi, E

    1986-01-01

    Functional analysis of mutant class II major histocompatibility complex molecules has begun to identify regions important for antibody binding and for T-cell activation. By using in vitro mutagenesis directed at the beta 1 domain of the Ab beta gene we have constructed three structurally distinct mutant Ab beta genes. Each of these genes, as well as the wild-type Ab beta gene, was cotransfected together with the wild-type Ab alpha gene into the Ia-negative B-lymphoma cell line M12.C3. Transfection resulted in the successful synthesis and cell surface expression of three mutant class II antigens that showed serological and functional alterations as compared to the I-Ab antigens from the M12.C3 cell transfected with the wild-type gene. The variable patterns of both I-Ab-specific monoclonal antibody binding and activation of I-Ab-specific T-cell hybridomas show that the mutations result in the loss of structural epitopes required for both monoclonal antibody binding and for T-cell recognition. The data suggest that there are multiple sites on a single Ia molecule that are recognized by T helper cells and also that the tertiary conformation of the Ia molecule can be critical in the formation of such sites. PMID:2418441

  1. A standards-based content analysis of selected biological science websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled with criteria derived from the Web-based Inquiry (WBI) for Learning Science instrument (Bodzin, 2005) and other pertinent published educational literature, was utilized. The analysis focused on elucidating the appropriateness of the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment tools of selected websites for facilitating the biological science education of Grade 12 students. Frequencies of agreement and disagreement of the content of each selected website with criteria included in the data collection instrument were used for alignment determination of the content of each website with the NSES. Chi-square tests were performed by Microsoft Excel to determine the statistical significance of differences of actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of the analyzed website parameters with indicators of alignment to NSES. Chi-square tests indicated that at a 0.05 level of significance there was an overall difference between the actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of biology content, instructional strategies and assessment methods with website indicators of alignment with the NSES (p < 0.05). Chi-square tests also indicated that there was a significant difference between the actual and expected frequencies of alignment of analyzed categories (biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods) of the sampled websites with website indicators of alignment with the NSES ( p < 0.05). Major findings of this study indicated that 3 out of 4 of the analyzed content attributes, 12 out of 13 of the instructional strategies, and all the assessment methods of the researched biological science

  2. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  3. Physical and biological properties of U. S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Csako, G.; Elin, R.J.; Hochstein, H.D.; Tsai, C.M.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques that reduce the toxicity of bacterial endotoxins are useful for studying the relationship between structure and biological activity. We used ionizing radiation to detoxify a highly refined endotoxin preparation. U.S. standard endotoxin EC. Dose-dependent changes occurred by exposure to /sup 60/Co-radiation in the physical properties and biological activities of the endotoxin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis showed gradual loss of the polysaccharide components (O-side chain and R-core) from the endotoxin molecules. In contrast, although endotoxin revealed a complex absorption pattern in the UV range, radiation treatment failed to modify that pattern. Dose-related destruction of the primary toxic component, lipid A, was suggested by the results of activity tests: both the pyrogenicity and limulus reactivity of the endotoxin were destroyed by increasing doses of radiation. The results indicate that the detoxification is probably due to multiple effects of the ionizing radiation on bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and the action involves (i) the destruction of polysaccharide moieties and possibly (ii) the alteration of lipid A component of the endotoxin molecule.

  4. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  5. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology.

    PubMed

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, André B; Mensonides, Femke I C; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J; van Gulik, Walter M; Brul, Stanley; Heijnen, Joseph J; de Winde, Johannes H; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V; Bakker, Barbara M

    2010-02-01

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay conditions that yield the maximum activity of each enzyme. In practice, this means that the kinetic parameters of different enzymes are measured in different buffers, at different pH values, with different ionic strengths, etc. In a joint effort of the Dutch Vertical Genomics Consortium, the European Yeast Systems Biology Network and the Standards for Reporting Enzymology Data Commission, we have developed a single assay medium for determining enzyme-kinetic parameters in yeast. The medium is as close as possible to the in vivo situation for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and at the same time is experimentally feasible. The in vivo conditions were estimated for S. cerevisiae strain CEN.PK113-7D grown in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures at an extracellular pH of 5.0 and a specific growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). The cytosolic pH and concentrations of calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur and magnesium were determined. On the basis of these data and literature data, we propose a defined in vivo-like medium containing 300 mM potassium, 50 mM phosphate, 245 mM glutamate, 20 mM sodium, 2 mM free magnesium and 0.5 mM calcium, at a pH of 6.8. The V(max) values of the glycolytic and fermentative enzymes of S. cerevisiae were measured in the new medium. For some enzymes, the results deviated conspicuously from those of assays done under enzyme-specific, optimal conditions.

  6. The IAB Iron-Meteorite Complex: A Group, Five Subgroups, Numerous Grouplets, Closely Related, Mainly Formed by Crystal Segregation in Rapidly Cooling Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    We present new data or iron meteorites that are members of group IAB or are closely related to this large group, and we have also reevaluated some of our earlier data for these irons. In the past it was not possible to distinguish IAB and IIICD irons on the basis of their positions on element-Ni diagrams. We now find that plotting, the new and revised data yields six sets of compact fields on element-Au diagrams, each set corresponding to a compositional group. The largest set includes the majority (approximately equal to 70) of irons previously designated IA: We christened this set the IAB main group. The remaining five sets we designate subgroups within the IAB complex. Three of these subgroups have Au contents similar to the main group, and form parallel trends in most element-Ni diagrams. The groups originally designated IIIC and IIID are two of these subgroups: they are now well resolved from each other and from the main group. The other low-Au subgroup has Ni contents just above the main group. Two other IAB subgroups have appreciably higher Au contents than the main group and show weaker compositional links to it. We have named these five subgroups on the basis of their Au and Ni contents. The three subgroups having Au contents similar to the main group are the low-Au (L) subgroups the two others the high-Au (H) subgroups. The Ni contents are designated high (H), medium (M), or low (L). Thus the old group IIID is now the sLH subgroup. the old group IIIC is the sLM subgroup. In addition, eight irons assigned to two grouplets plot between sLL and sLM on most element-Au diagrams. A large number (27) of related irons plot outside these compact fields but nonetheless appear to be sufficiently related to also be included in the IAB complex.

  7. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - fluorescent biomolecules, biological standard particles and potential interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Huffmann, J. A.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, biogenic polymers and debris from larger organisms are known to influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere and public health. PBAP account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in urban, rural and pristine environment and are released with estimated emission rates of up to ~1000 Tg/a [1]. Continuous measurements of the abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP have been difficult until recently, however. The application of on-line instruments able to detect autofluorescence from biological particles in real-time has been a promising development for the measurement of PBAP concentrations and fluxes in different environments [2,3]. The detected fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) can be regarded as a subset of PBAP, although the exact relationship between PBAP and FBAP is still being investigated. Autofluorescence of FBAP is usually a superposition of fluorescence from a mixture of individual fluorescent molecules (fluorophores). Numerous biogenic fluorophores such as amino acids (e.g., tryptophan, tyrosine), coenzymes (e.g., NAD(P)H, riboflavin) and biopolymers (e.g., cellulose) emit fluorescent light due to heterocyclic aromatic rings or conjugated double bonds within their molecular structures. The tryptophan emission peak is a common feature of most bioparticles because the amino acid is a constituent of many proteins and peptides. The influence of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and riboflavin on the autofluorescence of bacteria can be regarded as an indicator for bacterial metabolism and has been utilized to discriminate between viable and non-viable organisms [4]. However, very little information is available about other essential biofluorophores in fungal spores and pollen. In order to better understand the autofluorescence behavior of FBAP, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to analyze standard

  8. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  9. 4He+n+n continuum within an <i>ab initio framework

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume

    2014-07-16

    In this study, the low-lying continuum spectrum of the 6He nucleus is investigated for the first time within an <i>ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He+n+n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest decay channel. This is achieved through an extension of the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method, in which energy-independent nonlocal interactions among three nuclear fragments can be calculated microscopically, starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent <i>ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with three-body scattering boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonics method on a Lagrange mesh. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we find the known Jπ = 2+ resonance as well as a result consistent with a new low-lying second 2+ resonance recently observed at GANIL at ~2.6 MeV above the He6 ground state. We also find resonances in the 2, 1+, and 0 channels, while no low-lying resonances are present in the 0+ and 1 channels.

  10. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - Biological standard particles and the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex; Förster, Jan-David; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, biogenic polymers and debris from larger organisms are known to influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere and public health. PBAP can account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in urban, rural and pristine environment and are released with estimated emission rates of up to ~1000 Tg/a [1]. Continuous measurements of the abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP have been difficult until recently, however. The application of on-line instruments able to detect autofluorescence from biological particles in real-time has been a promising development for the measurement of PBAP concentrations and fluxes in different environments [2,3]. The detected fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) can be regarded as a subset of PBAP, although the exact relationship between PBAP and FBAP is still being investigated. Autofluorescence of FBAP is usually a superposition of fluorescence from a mixture of individual fluorescent molecules (fluorophores). Numerous biogenic fluorophores such as amino acids (e.g., tryptophan, tyrosine), coenzymes (e.g., NAD(P)H, riboflavin) and biopolymers (e.g., cellulose) emit fluorescent light due to heterocyclic aromatic rings or conjugated double bonds within their molecular structures. The tryptophan emission peak is a common feature of most bioparticles because the amino acid is a constituent of many proteins and peptides. The influence of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and riboflavin on the autofluorescence of bacteria can be regarded as an indicator for bacterial metabolism and has been utilized to discriminate between viable and non-viable organisms [4]. However, very little information is available about other essential biofluorophores in fungal spores and pollen. In order to better understand the autofluorescence behavior of FBAP, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to analyze

  11. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing''; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  12. Intended use of reference products & WHO International Standards/Reference Reagents in the development of similar biological products (biosimilars).

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Robin; Wadhwa, Meenu

    2011-09-01

    Reference Products and WHO International Standards/Reference Reagents have roles to play in the development and characterization of similar biological products (SBPs). However, these roles are distinct and non-interchangeable. The uses of these materials and their limitations are considered in this paper.

  13. Expanding biological data standards development processes for US IOOS: visual line transect observing community for mammal, bird, and turtle data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fornwall, M.; Gisiner, R.; Simmons, S. E.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Canonico, G.; Halpin, P.; Goldstein, P.; Fitch, R.; Weise, M.; Cyr, N.; Palka, D.; Price, J.; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has recently adopted standards for biological core variables in collaboration with the US Geological Survey/Ocean Biogeographic Information System (USGS/OBIS-USA) and other federal and non-federal partners. In this Community White Paper (CWP) we provide a process to bring into IOOS a rich new source of biological observing data, visual line transect surveys, and to establish quality data standards for visual line transect observations, an important source of at-sea bird, turtle and marine mammal observation data. The processes developed through this exercise will be useful for other similar biogeographic observing efforts, such as passive acoustic point and line transect observations, tagged animal data, and mark-recapture (photo-identification) methods. Furthermore, we suggest that the processes developed through this exercise will serve as a catalyst for broadening involvement by the larger marine biological data community within the goals and processes of IOOS.

  14. Monocular deprivation delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tao; Su, Qing; Xi, Ping; Han, Song; Li, Junfa

    2015-03-01

    Synapsins as a family of presynaptic terminal phosphoprotein participates in neuronal development, but their role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex is unclear. In this study, the impact of monocular deprivation (MD) on dynamic changes of isoform-specific protein expression and site 1 phosphorylation of synapsins in visual cortex of the postnatal mice were observed by using the technique of Western blot analysis. The results showed that the total (T-) protein levels of synapsins including the isoform of Ia/b, IIa/b and IIIa were about 21-26% of adult level in visual cortex of mice at postnatal 7 days (P7), and then the T-synapsin Ia/b and IIb could quickly reach adult level at P35. However, the T-synapsin IIa and IIIa increased more slowly (71-74% at P35), and then kept increasing in the visual cortex of mice at P60. Unlike to the changes of T-synapsins, the level of phosphorylated (P-) synapsin Ia/b (not IIa/b and IIIa) at site 1 increased with development to the highest level at P21, and then decreased rapidly to a low level in visual cortex of mice at P35-60. In addition, we found that the levels of P-synapsin Ia/b increased significantly in left visual cortex of P28 and P35 (not P21 and P42) mice with 1-week MD of right eye; and no significant changes of T-synapsins were observed in both left and right sides of visual cortex in P21-42 mice with MD treatment. These results suggested that the isoform-specific protein expression and site-1 phosphorylation of synapsins might play a different role in the synaptic plasticity of visual cortex, and MD delays the dynamic changes of phosphorylated synapsin Ia/b at site-1 in contralateral visual cortex of juvenile mice.

  15. American College Biology and Zoology Course Requirements: A de facto Standardized Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Frank; And Others

    Without a formal mechanism to produce consensus, American colleges generally have come to agree on what constitutes an appropriate set of course requirements for Biology and Zoology majors. This report describes a survey of American four-year colleges and universities offering biology and/or zoology degrees. Questionnaires were sent to 741 biology…

  16. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  17. <i>Ab initio multiple cloning simulations of pyrrole photodissociation: TKER spectra and velocity map imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Saita, Kenichiro; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we report a detailed computational simulation of the photodissociation of pyrrole using the <i>ab initio Multiple Cloning (AIMC) method implemented within MOLPRO. The efficiency of the AIMC implementation, employing train basis sets, linear approximation for matrix elements, and Ehrenfest configuration cloning, allows us to accumulate significant statistics. We calculate and analyze the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectrum and Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) of pyrrole and compare the results directly with experimental measurements. Both the TKER spectrum and the structure of the velocity map image (VMI) are well reproduced. Previously, it has been assumed that the isotropic component of the VMI arises from long time statistical dissociation. Instead, our simulations suggest that ultrafast dynamics contributes significantly to both low and high energy portions of the TKER spectrum.

  18. Genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses and circulation of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB strain during an interepizootic period.

    PubMed

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J; Weaver, Scott C; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-07-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973-1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized.

  19. Communication: GAIMS—generalized <i>ab initio multiple spawning for both internal conversion and intersystem crossing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Rauer, Clemens; Marquetand, Philipp; Gonzalez, Leticia; Martinez, Todd J.

    2016-03-11

    Full Multiple Spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and <i>ab initio Multiple Spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. Lastly, the results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalism and its implementation.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Venezuelan Alphaviruses and Circulation of a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Subtype IAB Strain During an Interepizootic Period

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Gladys; Garzaro, Domingo J.; Barrios, Miguel; Auguste, Albert J.; Weaver, Scott C.; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    Several species of alphaviruses have been previously described in the Americas, some of which are associated with encephalitis and others are associated with arthralgia. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are endemic to Venezuela, with the former being responsible for major outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of Venezuelan alphaviruses isolated during two decades (1973–1999) of surveillance in northern Venezuela. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the circulation of a VEEV subtype IAB strain 8 years after the last reported outbreak. Thirteen strains within two subclades of South American lineage III of EEEV were also found in Venezuela. Considerable genetic variability was observed among Venezuelan Una virus strains, which were widely distributed among the clades. The first Venezuelan Mayaro sequence was also characterized. PMID:25940191

  1. Electronic excitation induced amorphization in titanate pyrochlores: an <i>ab initio molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; Zu, X. T.; Li, Sean

    2015-02-09

    In this study, the response of titanate pyrochlores (A2Ti2O7, A = Y, Gd and Sm) to electronic excitation is investigated utilizing an <i>ab initio molecular dynamics method. All the titanate pyrochlores are found to undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous structural transition under a low concentration of electronic excitations. The transition temperature at which structural amorphization starts to occur depends on the concentration of electronic excitations. During the structural transition, O2-like molecules are formed, and this anion disorder further drives cation disorder that leads to an amorphous state. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of amorphization in titanate pyrochlores under laser, electron and ion irradiations.

  2. <i>Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ion-solid interactions in zirconate pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Haiyan Y.; Weber, William J.; Zhang, Yanwen; Zu, X. T.

    2015-01-31

    In this paper, an <i>ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to study low energy recoil events in zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7, A = La, Nd and Sm). It shows that both cations and anions in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are generally more likely to be displaced than those in La2Zr2O7. The damage end states mainly consist of Frenkel pair defects, and the Frenkel pair formation energies in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are lower than those in La2Zr2O7. These results suggest that the order–disorder structural transition more easily occurs in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 resulting in a defect-fluorite structure, which agrees well with experimental observations. Our calculations indicate that oxygen migration from 48f and 8b to 8a sites is dominant under low energy irradiation. A number of new defects, including four types of cation Frenkel pairs and six types of anion Frenkel pairs, are revealed by <i>ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The present findings may help to advance the fundamental understanding of the irradiation response behavior of zirconate pyrochlores.

  3. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Michela

    2013-12-01

    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration.

  4. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  5. YeastFab: the design and construction of standard biological parts for metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yakun; Dong, Junkai; Zhou, Tong; Auxillos, Jamie; Li, Tianyi; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Lihui; Shen, Yue; Luo, Yisha; Zheng, Yijing; Lin, Jiwei; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Qingyu; Cai, Yizhi; Dai, Junbiao

    2015-01-01

    It is a routine task in metabolic engineering to introduce multicomponent pathways into a heterologous host for production of metabolites. However, this process sometimes may take weeks to months due to the lack of standardized genetic tools. Here, we present a method for the design and construction of biological parts based on the native genes and regulatory elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have developed highly efficient protocols (termed YeastFab Assembly) to synthesize these genetic elements as standardized biological parts, which can be used to assemble transcriptional units in a single-tube reaction. In addition, standardized characterization assays are developed using reporter constructs to calibrate the function of promoters. Furthermore, the assembled transcription units can be either assayed individually or applied to construct multi-gene metabolic pathways, which targets a genomic locus or a receiving plasmid effectively, through a simple in vitro reaction. Finally, using β-carotene biosynthesis pathway as an example, we demonstrate that our method allows us not only to construct and test a metabolic pathway in several days, but also to optimize the production through combinatorial assembly of a pathway using hundreds of regulatory biological parts. PMID:25956650

  6. YeastFab: the design and construction of standard biological parts for metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yakun; Dong, Junkai; Zhou, Tong; Auxillos, Jamie; Li, Tianyi; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Lihui; Shen, Yue; Luo, Yisha; Zheng, Yijing; Lin, Jiwei; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Qingyu; Cai, Yizhi; Dai, Junbiao

    2015-07-27

    It is a routine task in metabolic engineering to introduce multicomponent pathways into a heterologous host for production of metabolites. However, this process sometimes may take weeks to months due to the lack of standardized genetic tools. Here, we present a method for the design and construction of biological parts based on the native genes and regulatory elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have developed highly efficient protocols (termed YeastFab Assembly) to synthesize these genetic elements as standardized biological parts, which can be used to assemble transcriptional units in a single-tube reaction. In addition, standardized characterization assays are developed using reporter constructs to calibrate the function of promoters. Furthermore, the assembled transcription units can be either assayed individually or applied to construct multi-gene metabolic pathways, which targets a genomic locus or a receiving plasmid effectively, through a simple in vitro reaction. Finally, using β-carotene biosynthesis pathway as an example, we demonstrate that our method allows us not only to construct and test a metabolic pathway in several days, but also to optimize the production through combinatorial assembly of a pathway using hundreds of regulatory biological parts.

  7. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  8. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  9. Satisfying Friendship Maintenance Expectations: The Role of Friendship Standards and Biological Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Larson, Kiley A.; Watts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    The ideal standards model predicts linear relationship among friendship standards, expectation fulfillment, and relationship satisfaction. Using a diary method, 197 participants reported on expectation fulfillment in interactions with one best, one close, and one casual friend (N = 591) over five days (2,388 interactions). Using multilevel…

  10. The biological properties, assay, and standardization of interferon-alpha: a need for a WHO collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mire-Sluis, A R; Gaines Das, R; Zoon, K; Padilla, A; Thorpe, R; Meager, A

    1996-08-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) exists as a range of closely related, biologically active proteins and has been the subject of extensive research and clinical investigation. Standardization of IFN-alpha and the uniform reporting of IFN-alpha activity in International Units (IU) is critical to preclinical research and the clinical development of IFN-alpha products as therapeutic agents. Currently, several different IFN-alpha-containing reference preparations, established as World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards (IS) for particular IFN-alpha proteins (mixtures or single molecular species) are available for assay calibration. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous nature of IFN-alpha has raised standardization issues relating to the activity of individual IFN-alpha proteins, hence-forth termed subtypes, in the various biologic assays used for determining IFN-alpha levels. These issues include the question of parallelism of dose-response curves among particular IFN-alpha subtypes and different, naturally produced IFN-alpha subtype mixtures, for example, leukocyte IFN-alpha, and the applicability of IU of IFN-alpha activity defined by antiviral assays to alternative biologic assays, for example, antiproliferative assays. To address such issues, a WHO Consultative Group on Cytokine Standardization requested that the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) and the Centre for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) organize an international collaborative study to compare the activities and relative potencies of the several available IFN-alpha preparations, including those derived from human cells containing mixtures of IFN-alpha subtypes and those derived by rDNA methods containing single IFN-alpha subtypes, in different assays. To date, 111 participants in 32 countries have been recruited to the study and have agreed to assay a total of 17 different natural and recombinant IFN-alpha preparations or a defined subset thereof in specific in

  11. 77 FR 47117 - Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Protective Ensemble Standard, Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public (at www.justnet.org) three draft documents related to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) protective ensembles used by law enforcement...

  12. The iab-7 Polycomb Response Element Maps to a Nucleosome-Free Region of Chromatin and Requires Both GAGA and Pleiohomeotic for Silencing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh K.; Mihaly, Jozsef; Barges, Stéphane; Spierer, Annick; Karch, François; Hagstrom, Kirsten; Schweinsberg, Susan E.; Schedl, Paul

    2001-01-01

    In the work reported here we have undertaken a functional dissection of a Polycomb response element (PRE) from the iab-7 cis-regulatory domain of the Drosophila melanogaster bithorax complex (BX-C). Previous studies mapped the iab-7 PRE to an 860-bp fragment located just distal to the Fab-7 boundary. Located within this fragment is an ∼230-bp chromatin-specific nuclease-hypersensitive region called HS3. We have shown that HS3 is capable of functioning as a Polycomb-dependent silencer in vivo, inducing pairing-dependent silencing of a mini-white reporter. The HS3 sequence contains consensus binding sites for the GAGA factor, a protein implicated in the formation of nucleosome-free regions of chromatin, and Pleiohomeotic (Pho), a Polycomb group protein that is related to the mammalian transcription factor YY1. We show that GAGA and Pho interact with these sequences in vitro and that the consensus binding sites for the two proteins are critical for the silencing activity of the iab-7 PRE in vivo. PMID:11158316

  13. 2ab assembly: a methodology for automatable, high-throughput assembly of standard biological parts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is growing demand for robust DNA assembly strategies to quickly and accurately fabricate genetic circuits for synthetic biology. One application of this technology is reconstitution of multi-gene assemblies. Here, we integrate a new software tool chain with 2ab assembly and show that it is robust enough to generate 528 distinct composite parts with an error-free success rate of 96%. Finally, we discuss our findings in the context of its implications for biosafety and biosecurity. PMID:23305072

  14. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  15. Operator evolution for <i>ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4He

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Micah D.; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin W.; Jurgenson, Eric D.; Navartil, Petr

    2015-07-24

    A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopic internucleon forces. A major element of such an effort is applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for nonscalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculation of the 4He total photoabsorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the <i>ab initio no-core shell model. Furthermore, we find that, although seemingly small, the effects of evolved operators on the photoabsorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the chiral three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected.

  16. <i>Ab initio study of point defects near stacking faults in 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jianqi; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2016-07-02

    Interactions between point defects and stacking faults in 3C-SiC are studied using an <i>ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results show that the discontinuity of the stacking sequence considerably affects the configurations and behavior of intrinsic defects, especially in the case of silicon interstitials. The existence of an intrinsic stacking fault (missing a C-Si bilayer) shortens the distance between the tetrahedral-center site and its second-nearest-neighboring silicon layer, making the tetrahedral silicon interstitial unstable. Instead of a tetrahedral configuration with four C neighbors, a pyramid-like interstitial structure with a defect state within the band gap becomes a stable configuration. In addition, orientation rotation occurs in the split interstitials that has diverse effects on the energy landscape of silicon and carbon split interstitials in the stacking fault region. Moreover, our analyses of ionic relaxation and electronic structure of vacancies show that the built-in strain field, owing to the existence of the stacking fault, makes the local environment around vacancies more complex than that in the bulk.

  17. Intrathecal Baclofen therapy in Germany: Proceedings of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders Consensus Meeting.

    PubMed

    Dressler, D; Berweck, S; Chatzikalfas, A; Ebke, M; Frank, B; Hesse, S; Huber, M; Krauss, J K; Mücke, K-H; Nolte, A; Oelmann, H-D; Schönle, P W; Schmutzler, M; Pickenbrock, H; Van der Ven, C; Veelken, N; Vogel, M; Vogt, T; Saberi, F Adib

    2015-11-01

    Continuous intrathecal Baclofen application (ITB) through an intracorporeal pump system is widely used in adults and children with spasticity of spinal and supraspinal origin. Currently, about 1200 new ITB pump systems are implanted in Germany each year. ITB is based on an interdisciplinary approach with neurologists, rehabilitation specialists, paediatricians and neurosurgeons. We are presenting the proceedings of a consensus meeting organised by IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders. The ITB pump system consists of the implantable pump with its drug reservoir, the refill port, an additional side port and a flexible catheter. Non-programmable pumps drive the Baclofen flow by the reservoir pressure. Programmable pumps additionally contain a radiofrequency control unit, an electrical pump and a battery. They have major advantages during the dose-finding phase. ITB doses vary widely between 10 and 2000 μg/day. For spinal spasticity, they are typically in the order of 100-300 μg/day. Hereditary spastic paraplegia seems to require particularly low doses, while dystonia and brain injury require particularly high ones. Best effects are documented for tonic paraspasticity of spinal origin and the least effects for phasic muscle hyperactivity disorders of supraspinal origin. Oral antispastics are mainly effective in mild spasticity. Botulinum toxin is most effective in focal spasticity. Myotomies and denervation operations are restricted to selected cases of focal spasticity. Due to its wide-spread distribution within the cerebrospinal fluid, ITB can tackle wide-spread and severe spasticity.

  18. Agrarian reforms, agrarian crisis and the biological standard of living in Poland, 1844-1892.

    PubMed

    Kopczyński, Michał

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines changes in the biological well-being in the Kingdom of Poland on the basis of data concerning the physical height of conscripts drafted into the Russian army between the 1860s and 1913. The rise in the average height began with the cohorts born in the mid-1860s and lasted until the mid-1880s. The height increment was 1.9 cm. In the birth cohorts of 1882-1892 the mean height stagnated as a result of the agrarian crisis. In Galicia the increase in height of conscripts began also with the cohorts born in the 1860s and lasted uninterruptedly until 1890. The persistence of the trend in the 1880s was due to the development of animal husbandry after the closure of the border against imported cattle in 1882 and the more balanced pattern of modernization than in the Kingdom of Poland.

  19. Standardization of the method for estimation of ethambutol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluid.

    PubMed

    Gurumurthy, Prema; Gayathri, T N; Bhagavathy, S; Venkatesan, P

    2004-01-01

    A simple column chromatographic method for determination of ethambutol (EMB) in pharmaceutical preparations containing EMB in combination with other anti-TB drugs is presented. The method involved extraction of EMB into an organic solvent, followed by basification and column chromatographic separation on Amberlite CG 50 (100-200 mesh) and elution with suitable eluants and estimation at a wavelength of 270 nm. The assay was linear from 25 to 400 microg/ml. The relative standard deviations of intra and inter day assays were lower than 5%. Ethambutol was recovered from human urine quantitatively and stable for a period of at least one week in urine stored at -20 degrees C.

  20. Standardizing Analysis of Circulating MicroRNA: Clinical and Biological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Nicholas H.; Wood, Marie E.; Perrapato, Scott D.; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Stein, Gary S.; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) provide a new dimension as clinical biomarkers for disease diagnosis, progression, and response to treatment. However, the discovery of individual miRNAs from biofluids that reliably reflect disease states is in its infancy. The highly variable nature of published studies exemplifies a need to standardize the analysis of miRNA in circulation. Here, we show that differential sample handling of serum leads to inconsistent and incomparable results. We present a standardized method of RNA isolation from serum that eliminates multiple freeze/thaw cycles, provides at least 3 normalization mechanisms, and can be utilized in studies that compare both archived and prospectively collected samples. It is anticipated that serum processed as described here can be profiled, either globally or on a gene by gene basis, for c-miRNAs and other non-coding RNA in the circulation to reveal novel, clinically relevant epigenetic signatures for a wide range of diseases. PMID:24357537

  1. Development of soil cleanup standards for the biological treatment of wood preserving wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jerger, D.E.; LaGoy, P.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of hazardous waste site remediation is to achieve a set of conditions that are environmentally safe for organismal receptors, and will prevent any further action on site. Establishing these conditions raises the issue of ``how clean is clean`` or ``what concentration of a contaminant in soil is environmentally acceptable`` for contaminated sites. This debate is occurring on a national scale as part of the Superfund reauthorization. Historically, cleanup goals have not explicitly addressed whether the remedial action results in a safe site. The use of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT), or limits of detection (LOD) as a cleanup criteria may also be inappropriate if the remediating goal is to protect human health and the environment. OHM Remediation Services Corp. (OHM) has recently completed the successful treatment of 14,000 tons of creosote-contaminated material at the Southeastern Wood Superfund Site in Canton, MS. Slurry phase biological treatment was the technology chosen to remediate the contaminated material classified as RCRA K001 criteria for CERCLA (Superfund) actions: protection of public health, welfare, and the environment.

  2. Biological activity of a standardized freeze-dried platelet derivative to be used as cell culture medium supplement.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Anita; Ottonello, Chiara; Spanò, Raffaele; Dozin, Beatrice; Strada, Paolo; Grandizio, Michele; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    Serum of animal origin and in particular fetal bovine serum is the most commonly utilized cell culture medium additive for in vitro cell growth and differentiation. However, several major concerns have been raised by the scientific community regarding the use of animal sera for human cell-based culture applications. Among the possible alternatives to the animal serum, platelet-derived compounds have been proposed since more than 10 years. Nevertheless, the high degree of variability between the different platelet preparations, and the lack of standardized manufacturing and quality control procedures, made difficult to reach a consensus on the applicability of this novel cell culture medium supplement. In this study, we describe the preparation of a standardized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative obtained starting from human-certified buffy coat samples with a defined platelet concentration and following protocols including also freeze-drying, gamma irradiation and biological activity testing prior the product release as cell culture medium additive. Biological activity testing of the different preparations was done by determining the capability of the different PRP preparations to sustain human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clone formation and proliferation. Taking advantage of a developed MSC in vitro clonogenicity test, we also determined biological activity and stability of the freeze-dried gamma-sterilized PRP preparations after their storage for different times and at different temperatures. The PRP effects on cell proliferation were determined both on primary cell cultures established from different tissues and on a cell line. Results were compared with those obtained in "traditional" parallel control cultures performed in the presence of bovine serum [10% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. Compared to FCS, the PRP addition to the culture medium increased the MSC colony number and average size. In primary cell cultures and in cell line cultures, the PRP

  3. The Vimos VLT deep survey. Global properties of 20,000 galaxies in the IAB < 22.5 WIDE survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Le Brun, V.; de la Torre, S.; Meneux, B.; Tresse, L.; Franzetti, P.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Gregorini, L.; Vergani, D.; Bottini, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Blaizot, J.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Mellier, Y.; Moreau, C.; Paioro, L.

    2008-08-01

    The VVDS-Wide survey has been designed to trace the large-scale distribution of galaxies at z ~ 1 on comoving scales reaching ~100~h-1 Mpc, while providing a good control of cosmic variance over areas as large as a few square degrees. This is achieved by measuring redshifts with VIMOS at the ESO VLT to a limiting magnitude IAB = 22.5, targeting four independent fields with sizes of up to 4 deg2 each. We discuss the survey strategy which covers 8.6 deg2 and present the general properties of the current redshift sample. This includes 32 734 spectra in the four regions, covering a total area of 6.1 deg2 with a sampling rate of 22 to 24%. This paper accompanies the public release of the first 18 143 redshifts of the VVDS-Wide survey from the 4 deg2 contiguous area of the F22 field at RA = 22^h. We have devised and tested an objective method to assess the quality of each spectrum, providing a compact figure-of-merit. This is particularly effective in the case of long-lasting spectroscopic surveys with varying observing conditions. Our figure of merit is a measure of the robustness of the redshift measurement and, most importantly, can be used to select galaxies with uniform high-quality spectra to carry out reliable measurements of spectral features. We also use the data available over the four independent regions to directly measure the variance in galaxy counts. We compare it with general predictions from the observed galaxy two-point correlation function at different redshifts and with that measured in mock galaxy surveys built from the Millennium simulation. The purely magnitude-limited VVDS Wide sample includes 19 977 galaxies, 304 type I AGNs, and 9913 stars. The redshift success rate is above 90% independent of magnitude. A cone diagram of the galaxy spatial distribution provides us with the current largest overview of large-scale structure up to z ~ 1, showing a rich texture of over- and under-dense regions. We give the mean N(z) distribution averaged over 6

  4. The ups and downs of Mexican economic growth: the biological standard of living and inequality, 1870-1950.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, Moramay; Condey, Raúl Porras

    2003-06-01

    The secular change in the biological standard of living of the Mexican population between 1870 and 1950 is examined based on evidence on the physical stature from military and passport records. While Mexico industrialized and experienced rapid economic growth during this period, there was only a modest overall improvement in the height, health and nutritional status of the Mexican population. The average Mexican born in the 1940s was not only slightly taller than its compatriot of the 1870s. There were, however, considerable social differences: the Mexican upper class was markedly taller than the working class and the gap increased prior to the revolution. Economic growth with systemic inequality largely accounts for such a pattern.

  5. The biological standard of living (and its convergence) in Colombia, 1870-2003. A tropical success story.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Adolfo; Vega, Margarita

    2007-03-01

    During the 20th century, the evolution of the biological standard of living in Colombia was a tropical success story from the point of view of the secular increase in height as well as the reduction of inequality. During the period 1905-1985 the average height of females and males increased by nearly 9 cm on the basis of 9 million records examined from National Identification Cards. We also study the evolution of height of Colombians on the basis of passport records. The elite group of passport holders was much taller than average, and remained stable for the birth cohorts of 1870-1919. In the early 20th century the height of passport recipients was 168.7 cm (men) and 158 cm (women) compared with 162 cm and 150 cm for heights in the national ID cards. The results also show that Colombians experienced significant regional and intrapersonal convergence in height.

  6. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  7. Deuteron-induced nucleon transfer reactions within an <i>ab initio framework: First application to p-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, Francesco; Hupin, Guillaume; Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia

    2016-05-10

    Low-energy transfer reactions in which a proton is stripped from a deuteron projectile and dropped into a target play a crucial role in the formation of nuclei in both primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis, as well as in the study of exotic nuclei using radioactive beam facilities and inverse kinematics. Here, <i>ab initio approaches have been successfully applied to describe the 3H(d,n)4He and 3He(d,p)4He fusion processes. An <i>ab initio treatment of transfer reactions would also be desirable for heavier targets. In this work, we extend the <i>ab initio description of (d,p) reactions to processes with light p-shell nuclei. As a first application, we study the elastic scattering of deuterium on 7Li and the 7Li(d,p)8Li transfer reaction based on a two-body Hamiltonian. We use the no-core shell model to compute the wave functions of the nuclei involved in the reaction, and describe the dynamics between targets and projectiles with the help of microscopic-cluster states in the spirit of the resonating group method. The shapes of the excitation functions for deuterons impinging on 7Li are qualitatively reproduced up to the deuteron breakup energy. The interplay between d–7Li and p–8Li particle-decay channels determines some features of the 9Be spectrum above the d+7Li threshold. Our prediction for the parity of the 17.298 MeV resonance is at odds with the experimental assignment. Deuteron stripping reactions with p-shell targets can now be computed <i>ab initio, but calculations are very demanding. Finally, a quantitative description of the 7Li(d,p)8Li reaction will require further work to include the effect of three-nucleon forces and additional decay channels and to improve the convergence rate of our calculations.

  8. Cobalt complexes as internal standards for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry studies in biological inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Hannah U; Morrow, Stuart J; Kubanik, Mario; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-01-02

    Run-by-run variations are very common in capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations and cause imprecision in both the migration times and the peak areas. This makes peak and kinetic trend identification difficult and error prone. With the aim to identify suitable standards for CE separations which are compatible with the common detectors UV, ESI-MS, and ICP-MS, the Co(III) complexes [Co(en)3]Cl3, [Co(acac)3] and K[Co(EDTA)] were evaluated as internal standards in the reaction of the anticancer drug cisplatin and guanosine 5'-monophosphate as an example of a classical biological inorganic chemistry experiment. These Co(III) chelate complexes were considered for their stability, accessibility, and the low detection limit for Co in ICP-MS. Furthermore, the Co(III) complexes are positively and negatively charged as well as neutral, allowing the detection in different areas of the electropherograms. The background electrolytes were chosen to cover a wide pH range. The compatibility to the separation conditions was dependent on the ligands attached to the Co(III) centers, with only the acetylacetonato (acac) complex being applicable in the pH range 2.8-9.0. Furthermore, because of being charge neutral, this compound could be used as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. In general, employing Co complexes resulted in improved data sets, particularly with regard to the migration times and peak areas, which resulted, for example, in higher linear ranges for the quantification of cisplatin.

  9. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  10. Verification of Anderson superexchange in MnO via magnetic pair distribution function analysis and <i>ab initio theory

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin A. Frandsen; Brunelli, Michela; Page, Katharine; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Staunton, Julie B.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-05-11

    Here, we present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. <i>Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. Furthermore, the Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by <i>ab initio theory.

  11. I-Xe ages of Campo del Cielo silicates as a record of the complex early history of the IAB parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Kurat, G.

    2013-12-01

    Using in situ laser analyses of a polished thin section from the IAB iron meteorite Campo del Cielo, we identified two silicate grains rich in radiogenic 129*Xe, Cr-diopside, and oligoclase, excavated them from the metal, and irradiated them with thermal neutrons for I-Xe dating. The release profiles of 129*Xe and 128*Xe are consistent with these silicates being diopside and oligoclase, with activation energies, estimated using Arrhenius plots, of ˜201 and ˜171 kcal mole-1, respectively. The 4556.4 ± 0.4 Ma absolute I-Xe age of the more refractory diopside is younger than the 4558.0 ± 0.7 Ma I-Xe age of the less refractory oligoclase. We suggest that separate impact events at different locations and depths on a porous initial chondritic IAB parent body led to the removal of the melt and recrystallization of diopside and oligoclase at the times reflected by their respective I-Xe ages. The diopside and oligoclase grains were later brought into the studied inclusion by a larger scale catastrophic collision that caused breakup and reassembly of the debris, but did not reset the I-Xe ages dating the first events. The metal melt most probably was <1250 °C when it surrounded studied silicate grains. This reassembly could not have occurred earlier than the I-Xe closure in diopside at 4556.4 ± 0.4 Ma.

  12. DEVELOPING STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL STRESSORS THROUGH ASTM COMMITTEE E47: A PAST FOUNDATION OF PROVEN STANDARDS, A FUTURE OF GREAT POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of standards associated with assessing the bioavailability of contaminants in sediment will be used as a case study for how standards have been developed through Committee E47. In 1987, Committee E47 established Subcommittee E47.03 on Sediment Assessment and Toxicity....

  13. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, Gerald

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the emphasis given to human evolution in secondary biology textbooks historically and in the current state science standards. Prior to the 1960s, biology textbooks provided little emphasis to human evolution. In the 1970s and early 1980s textbooks reduced the coverage of human evolution. However, in the 1990s the coverage became quite comprehensive again. In 2004, the state science frameworks of only three states had standards concerned with human evolution.

  14. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-10-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean, specifically in Belize, an English-speaking nation with a high school system guided by a regional biology syllabus and strict standardized tests. Using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument and knowledge test, we investigated (1) the current level of acceptance and understanding of evolution as given by 97% of high school biology teachers in Belize; (2) the factors associated with acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory. With an average MATE score of 64.4 and a mean knowledge score of 47.9%, Belizean teachers were classified as having both 'Low Acceptance' and 'Low Understanding' of evolutionary theory. A positive correlation was found between teacher acceptance and understanding of evolution. A review of the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate biology syllabus suggests that evolution plays a minimal role in the high school biology classroom. We believe that Belize presents a unique opening for future training on evolution instruction since 57% of the biology teachers self-proclaim to be unprepared to teach evolution. The results of this study have implications for policy, practice and research with teachers' acceptance, understanding and confidence in teaching evolution serving as important predictors for instructional approaches used in the biology classroom.

  15. Comparison of the immunological responses and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 vaccine formulations against subcutaneous and aerosol challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IAB.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon S; Bakken, Russell R; Lind, Cathleen M; Garcia, Patricia; Jenkins, Erin; Glass, Pamela J; Parker, Michael D; Hart, Mary Kate; Fine, Donald L

    2010-01-22

    We recently developed a gamma-irradiation method to inactivate V3526, a live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidate. Dosage and schedule studies were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 (gV3526). Subcutaneous (SC) and low dosage intramuscular (IM) administration of gV3526 were highly effective in protecting mice against a SC challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad Donkey strain, but not against an equivalent aerosol challenge. More robust immune responses and increased protective efficacy were noted when the IM dosage of gV3526 was increased. IM administration of gV3526 formulated with either CpG or CpG plus Alhydrogel further augmented the immune response in mice and resulted in 100% protection against aerosol challenge.

  16. Protein engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin: Mutations at domain II of CryIAb enhance receptor affinity and toxicity toward gypsy moth larvae

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, Francis; Alzate, Oscar; Cotrill, Jeffrey A.; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H.

    1996-01-01

    Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to gypsy moth midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) ≈4-fold. Deletion of N372 (D3), however, substantially reduced toxicity (>21 times) as well as binding affinity, suggesting that residue N372 is involved in receptor binding. Interestingly, a triple mutant, DF-1 (N372A, A282G and L283S), has a 36-fold increase in toxicity to gypsy moth neonates compared with wild-type toxin. The enhanced activity of DF-1 was correlated with higher binding affinity (18-fold) and binding site concentrations. Dissociation binding assays suggested that the off-rate of the BBMV-bound mutant toxins was similar to that of the wild type. However, DF-1 toxin bound 4 times more than the wild-type and N372A toxins, and it was directly correlated with binding affinity and potency. Protein blots of gypsy moth BBMV probed with labeled N372A, DF-1, and CryIAb toxins recognized a common 210-kDa protein, indicating that the increased activity of the mutants was not caused by binding to additional receptor(s). The improved binding affinity of N372A and DF-1 suggest that a shorter side chain at these loops may fit the toxin more efficiently to the binding pockets. These results offer an excellent model system for engineering δ-endotoxins with higher potency and wider spectra of target pests by improving receptor binding interactions. PMID:8962052

  17. Collaborative study for the establishment of the WHO 3(rd) International Standard for Endotoxin, the Ph. Eur. endotoxin biological reference preparation batch 5 and the USP Reference Standard for Endotoxin Lot H0K354.

    PubMed

    Findlay, L; Desai, T; Heath, A; Poole, S; Crivellone, M; Hauck, W; Ambrose, M; Morris, T; Daas, A; Rautmann, G; Buchheit, K H; Spieser, J M; Terao, E

    2015-01-01

    An international collaborative study was organised jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO)/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM/Council of Europe) for the establishment of harmonised replacement endotoxin standards for these 3 organisations. Thirty-five laboratories worldwide, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers enrolled in the study. Three candidate preparations (10/178, 10/190 and 10/196) were produced with the same material and same formulation as the current reference standards with the objective of generating a new (3(rd)) International Standard (IS) with the same potency (10 000 IU/vial) as the current (2(nd)) IS, as well as new European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). and USP standards. The suitability of the candidate preparations to act as the reference standard in assays for endotoxin performed according to compendial methods was evaluated. Their potency was calibrated against the WHO 2(nd) IS for Endotoxin (94/580). Gelation and photometric methods produced similar results for each of the candidate preparations. The overall potency estimates for the 3 batches were comparable. Given the intrinsic assay precision, the observed differences between the batches may be considered unimportant for the intended use of these materials. Overall, these results were in line with those generated for the establishment of the current preparations of reference standards. Accelerated degradation testing of vials stored at elevated temperatures supported the long-term stability of the 3 candidate preparations. It was agreed between the 3 organisations that batch 10/178 be shared between WHO and EDQM and that batches 10/190 and 10/196 be allocated to USP, with a common assigned value of 10 000 IU/vial. This value maintains the continuity of the global harmonisation of reference materials and

  18. [The biological component of the professional standards and qualification characteristics of preventive medicine specialists (as exemplified by the specialty of parasitology)].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    In the context of theoretical analysis, the paper characterizes a specialist training system based on the biological component of the qualification characteristics and professional standard of preventive medicine specialists. Evidence is provided for the relationship between the components of the training system for preventive medicine specialists. The authors also specify the fact that the content of qualification characteristics and professional standards, besides general requirements, must take into account requirements for training the specialists in terms of natural and climatic and socioeconomic characteristics of regions.

  19. A data standard for sourcing fit-for-purpose biological samples in an integrated virtual network of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Philip R; Mistry, Gita; Bullbeck, Helen; Carter, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Human tissue biobanks are at the epicenter of clinical research, responsible for providing both clinical samples and annotated data. There is a need for large numbers of samples to provide statistical power to research studies, especially since treatment and diagnosis are becoming ever more personalized. A single biobank cannot provide sufficient numbers of samples to capture the full spectrum of any disease. Currently there is no infrastructure in the United Kingdom (UK) to integrate biobanks. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Confederation of Cancer Biobanks (CCB) Working Group 3 looked to establish a data standard to enable biobanks to communicate about the samples they hold and so facilitate the formation of an integrated national network of biobanks. The Working Group examined the existing data standards available to biobanks, such as the MIABIS standard, and compared these to the aims of the working group. The CCB-developed data standard has brought many improvements: (1) Where existing data standards have been developed, these have been incorporated, ensuring compatibility with other initiatives; (2) the standard was written with the expectation that it will be extended for specific disease areas, such as the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank (BCCTB) and the Strategic Tissue Repository Alliances Through Unified Methods (STRATUM) project; and (3) biobanks will be able to communicate about specific samples, as well as aggregated statistics. The development of this data standard will allow all biobanks to integrate and share information about the samples they hold, facilitating the possibility of a national portal for researchers to find suitable samples for research. In addition, the data standard will allow other clinical services, such as disease registries, to communicate with biobanks in a standardized format allowing for greater cross-discipline data sharing.

  20. Towards standards for data exchange and integration and their impact on a public database such as CEBS (Chemical Effects in Biological Systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Fostel, Jennifer M.

    2008-11-15

    Integration, re-use and meta-analysis of high content study data, typical of DNA microarray studies, can increase its scientific utility. Access to study data and design parameters would enhance the mining of data integrated across studies. However, without standards for which data to include in exchange, and common exchange formats, publication of high content data is time-consuming and often prohibitive. The MGED Society ( (www.mged.org)) was formed in response to the widespread publication of microarray data, and the recognition of the utility of data re-use for meta-analysis. The NIEHS has developed the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database, which can manage and integrate study data and design from biological and biomedical studies. As community standards are developed for study data and metadata it will become increasingly straightforward to publish high content data in CEBS, where they will be available for meta-analysis. Different exchange formats for study data are being developed: Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data (SEND; (www.cdisc.org)); Tox-ML ( (www.Leadscope.com)) and Simple Investigation Formatted Text (SIFT) from the NIEHS. Data integration can be done at the level of conclusions about responsive genes and phenotypes, and this workflow is supported by CEBS. CEBS also integrates raw and preprocessed data within a given platform. The utility and a method for integrating data within and across DNA microarray studies is shown in an example analysis using DrugMatrix data deposited in CEBS by Iconix Pharmaceuticals.

  1. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  2. Intellectual property rights, standards and data exchange in systems biology: Reflections from the IP Expert Meeting at the University of Luxembourg, 8-9 October 2015, ERASysAPP - ERA-Net for Systems Biology Applications.

    PubMed

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Rutz, Berthold; Minssen, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become a key concern for researchers and industry in basically all high-tech sectors. IPRs regularly figure prominently in scientific journals and at scientific conferences and lead to dedicated workshops to increase the awareness and "IPR savviness" of scientists. In 2015, Biotechnology Journal published a report from an expert meeting on "Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights" organized by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation sponsored by the European Research Area Network (ERA-Net) in Synthetic Biology (ERASynBio), in which we provided a number of recommendations for a variety of stakeholders [1]. The current article offers some deeper reflections about the interface between IPRs, standards and data exchange in systems biology (SysBio) resulting from an Expert Meeting funded by another ERA-Net, ERASysAPP. The meeting brought together experts and stakeholders (e.g. scientists, company representatives, officials from public funding organizations) in SysBio from different European countries. Despite the different profiles of the stakeholders at the meeting and the variety of interests, many concerns and opinions were shared. In case particular views were expressed by a specific type of stakeholder, this will be explicitly mentioned in the text. In this article, we explore a number of particularly relevant issues that were discussed at the meeting and offer some recommendations. SysBio involves the study of biological systems at a so-called systems level. This is not a new concept in the life sciences - many former approaches in physiology, enzymology and other scientific disciplines have already taken a systemic view of selected biological subjects. Yet, SysBio has gained strong interest within the past 10 to 15 years. One predominant reason and a critical prerequisite for this success story being that the relevant scientific methodologies and research tools have become far more powerful and

  3. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  4. Strong influence of coadsorbate interaction on CO desorption dynamics on Ru(0001) probed by ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and <i>ab initio simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, H.; LaRue, J.; Oberg, H.; Beye, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Turner, J. J.; Gladh, J.; Ng, M. L.; Sellberg, J. A.; Kaya, S.; Mercurio, G.; Hieke, F.; Nordlund, D.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Minitti, M. P.; Fohlisch, A.; Wolf, M.; Wurth, W.; Ogasawara, H.; Norskov, J. K.; Ostrom, H.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.; Ablid-Pedersen, F.

    2015-04-16

    We show that coadsorbed oxygen atoms have a dramatic influence on the CO desorption dynamics from Ru(0001). In contrast to the precursor-mediated desorption mechanism on Ru(0001), the presence of surface oxygen modifies the electronic structure of Ru atoms such that CO desorption occurs predominantly via the direct pathway. This phenomenon is directly observed in an ultrafast pump-probe experiment using a soft x-ray free-electron laser to monitor the dynamic evolution of the valence electronic structure of the surface species. This is supported with the potential of mean force along the CO desorption path obtained from density-functional theory calculations. Charge density distribution and frozen-orbital analysis suggest that the oxygen-induced reduction of the Pauli repulsion, and consequent increase of the dative interaction between the CO 5σ and the charged Ru atom, is the electronic origin of the distinct desorption dynamics. <i>Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of CO desorption from Ru(0001) and oxygen-coadsorbed Ru(0001) provide further insights into the surface bond-breaking process.

  5. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  6. The role of differentiation and standards-based grading in the science learning of struggling and advanced learners in a detracked high school honors biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Michelina Ruth Carter

    The accountability movement in education resulting from the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has brought to light the disparities that exist in student achievement in the United States which play out along racial and socioeconomic lines. Three educational practices hold promise for reducing this achievement gap: differentiated instruction, standards-based assessment, and elimination of academic tracking. The purpose of this practitioner research study was to examine the ways that differentiation and standards-based assessment can support struggling learners and challenge advanced learners in a detracked, honors biology classroom. To gain insight into the role that differentiation and standards-based assessment played in supporting struggling and advanced learners, I used practitioner research to examine the development and implementation of a differentiated, standards-based instructional unit around the conceptual topic of protein synthesis. I collected multiple data pieces for 10 students in the study: two advanced learners, four struggling learners, and four strong learners who struggled in biology. Data analyzed included formative, self-, and summative assessment results; student artifacts; informal and formal student interviews; and, a practitioner reflection journal chronicling critical incidents and actions taken during the development and implementation of this unit and notes from peer debriefing during and following the unit's implementation. As I analyzed the data collected, my four findings fell into two overarching categories related to student grouping. My first three findings reflect what I learned about homogeneous grouping: (1) Pre-assessment based on unit outcomes is not useful for determining groups for tiered instruction; (2) Decisions about differentiation and grouping for differentiation must be made in the act of teaching using formative assessment results; and, (3) Flexible grouping structures are effective for both struggling

  7. Convergence of regenerative medicine and synthetic biology to develop standardized and validated models of human diseases with clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena Maria; Pereira, Brooke Anne; Ellem, Stuart John; Loessner, Daniela; Risbridger, Gail Petuna

    2015-12-01

    In order to progress beyond currently available medical devices and implants, the concept of tissue engineering has moved into the centre of biomedical research worldwide. The aim of this approach is not to replace damaged tissue with an implant or device but rather to prompt the patient's own tissue to enact a regenerative response by using a tissue-engineered construct to assemble new functional and healthy tissue. More recently, it has been suggested that the combination of Synthetic Biology and translational tissue-engineering techniques could enhance the field of personalized medicine, not only from a regenerative medicine perspective, but also to provide frontier technologies for building and transforming the research landscape in the field of in vitro and in vivo disease models.

  8. The SYSCILIA gold standard (SCGSv1) of known ciliary components and its applications within a systems biology consortium.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Teunis Jp; Wheway, Gabrielle; Slaats, Gisela G; Huynen, Martijn A; Giles, Rachel H

    2013-05-31

    The multinational SYSCILIA consortium aims to gain a mechanistic understanding of the cilium. We utilize multiple parallel high-throughput (HTP) initiatives to develop predictive models of relationships between complex genotypes and variable phenotypes of ciliopathies. The models generated are only as good as the wet laboratory data fed into them. It is therefore essential to orchestrate a well-annotated and high-confidence dataset to be able to assess the quality of any HTP dataset. Here, we present the inaugural SYSCILIA gold standard of known ciliary components as a public resource.

  9. Fluorescence Processes in the Outer Atmospheres of the Evolved M-Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The prototypical M-giant and M-supergiant stars, Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)) and Alpha Ori (M2Iab), have been observed as part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres). "ASTRAL-Cool Stars" is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/). In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, Gamma Cru (GaCrux) and Alpha Ori (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work and newly identified in our on-going analysis of these extraordinary new “Treasury” spectra. Detailed descriptions of selected processes are given to illustrate their operation. The wide variety of fluorescence processes in operation in these outer atmospheres, both molecular and atomic, suggest that there is a mixture of warm and cool plasmas present and that H I Ly-alpha in particular is locally very strong, even though, in the case of Alpha Ori, no flux is seen at earth due to strong circumstellar absorption at that wavelength. Many new fluorescence line products and several new processes have been identified in these spectra, which are more complete and of higher S/N than previously available for these stars.

  10. A IAB-Complex Iron Meteorite Containing Low-Ca Clinopyroxene: Northwest Africa 468 and its Relationship to Iodranites and Formation by Impact Melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Wasson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    Northwest Africa 468 (NWA 468) is a new ungrouped, silicate-rich member of the IAB complex of nonmagmatic iron meteorites. The silicates contain relatively coarse (approximately 300 micron-size) grains of low-Ca clinopyroxene with polysynthetic twinning and inclined extinction. Low-Ca clinopyroxene is indicative of quenching from high temperatures (either from protoenstatite in a few seconds or high-temperature clinoenstatite in a few hours). It seems likely that NWA 468 formed by impact melting followed by rapid cooling to less than or equal to 660 C. After the loss of a metal-sulfide melt from the silicates, sulfide was reintroduced, either from impact-mobilized FeS or as an S2 vapor that combined with metallic Fe to produce FeS. The O-isotopic composition (delta O-17 = -1.39 %) indicates that the precursor material of NWA 468 was a metal-rich (e.g., CR) carbonaceous chondrite. Lodranites are similar in bulk chemical and O-isotopic composition to the silicates in NWA 468; the MAC 88177 lodranite (which also contains low-Ca clinopyroxene) is close in bulk chemical composition. Both NWA 468 and MAC 88177 have relatively low abundances of REE (rare earth elements) and plagiophile elements. Siderophiles in the metal-rich areas of NWA 468 are similar to those in the MAC 88177 whole rock; both samples contain low Ir and relatively high Fe, Cu and Se. Most unweathered lodranites contain approximately 20 - 38 wt. % metallic Fe-Ni. These rocks may have formed in an analogous manner to NWA 468 (i.e., by impact melting of metal-rich carbonaceous-chondrite precursors) but with less separation of metal-rich melts from silicates.

  11. Physicochemical standardization, HPTLC profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa: A comparative study of three famous commercial brands

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaur, Navdeep; Paul, Atish Tulsiram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa is a polyherbal formulation that is available commercially as an over the counter drug. There are three famous brands that are available in the market. However, there are no comparative reports on the physicochemical, chromatographic, and biological profiles of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by these famous companies. Aims: The present study deals with the physicochemical standardization, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profiling, and biological evaluation of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa. Materials and Methods: Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa manufactured by three leading companies were purchased from Jalandhar, Punjab. The physicochemical standardization of the samples was carried out in accordance with the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API). Authentified Eisenia foetida were procured from Ujjwal Ujala Vermiculture Group, Amritsar. The anthelmintic activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging ability of Aśvagandhādyariṣṭa was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: The data of anthelmintic activity were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean of six earthworms in each group. The statistical analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Dunnet t-test. The difference in values at P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Most of the physicochemical standardization parameters mentioned as per the API were found to be within limit. HPTLC profiling showed the presence of withanolide D in commercial samples. Out of three commercial brands, ASA-DAB was the most active as compared to the ASA-BDN and ASA-AVP at the concentration of 200 mg/ml for anthelmintic activity against E. foetida. ASA-DAB showed the best antioxidant activity in both the in vitro assay at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. Conclusions: The ability of this formulation to scavenge free radicals supports its medical claim of antistress formulation

  12. Low-drift nozzles vs. standard nozzles for pesticide application in the biological efficacy trials of pesticides in apple pest and disease control.

    PubMed

    Doruchowski, Grzegorz; Świechowski, Waldemar; Masny, Sylwester; Maciesiak, Alicja; Tartanus, Małgorzata; Bryk, Hanna; Hołownicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26. The evaluated treatments were combinations of three spray volume rates: 250, 500 and 750lha(-1), and two types of nozzles: hollow cone nozzles generating very fine spray, and flat fan air induction nozzles producing coarse droplets. The biological performance of treatments was determined based on severity of diseases: apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.), as well as population or damage caused by pests: green apple aphid (Aphis pomi), rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.), woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum), apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali) and apple blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum L.). In general apple scab was equally controlled by all treatments. Only in the years of high infection pressure efficacy of powdery mildew control was better for fine spray nozzles and high volume rates. Green and rosy apple aphids were better controlled with higher volume rates, though significance of the advantage over the lower rates was occasional. No effect of spray quality on efficacy of aphid and mite control was found for any spray volume rate. Better control of apple blossom weevil and woolly apple aphid was achieved with the high spray volume rate providing heavy coverage to the point of run-off. The air induction nozzles having drift reducing potential are biologically efficacious alternative to conventional hollow cone nozzles.

  13. The Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative Quality Control Working Group: Making Quality Control More Accessible for Biological Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Walzer, Mathias; Tenzer, Stefan; Zhu, Weimin; Salek, Reza M; Eisenacher, Martin; Tabb, David L

    2017-03-30

    To have confidence in results acquired during biological mass spectrometry experiments, a systematic approach to quality control is of vital importance. Nonetheless, until now, only scattered initiatives have been undertaken to this end, and these individual efforts have often not been complementary. To address this issue, the Human Proteome Organization-Proteomics Standards Initiative has established a new working group on quality control at its meeting in the spring of 2016. The goal of this working group is to provide a unifying framework for quality control data. The initial focus will be on providing a community-driven standardized file format for quality control. For this purpose, the previously proposed qcML format will be adapted to support a variety of use cases for both proteomics and metabolomics applications, and it will be established as an official PSI format. An important consideration is to avoid enforcing restrictive requirements on quality control but instead provide the basic technical necessities required to support extensive quality control for any type of mass spectrometry-based workflow. We want to emphasize that this is an open community effort, and we seek participation from all scientists with an interest in this field.

  14. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods for the analysis of human parathyroid hormone in reference standards, parathyroid tissue and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Zanelli, J M; Kent, J C; Rafferty, B; Nissenson, R A; Nice, E C; Capp, M W; O'Hare, M J

    1983-08-12

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been used to fractionate human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) from a variety of natural sources and to compare it with synthetic hPTH and hPTH fragments. Multiple radioimmunoassay systems for amino, mid and carboxyl regions of hPTH were used to monitor various preparations of hPTH previously prepared by conventional methods and ampouled in nanogram amounts for reference standard and reagent purposes. Results confirmed that they were free of detectable cleavage products, but showed that the intact hPTH comprised three or four closely associated components. A similar pattern of heterogeneity was obtained when hPTH was extracted from stored human parathyroid adenomata by a simple rapid HPLC bulk fractionation method. Comparison with synthetic 1-84 hPTH and modification of sample handling to minimize oxidative conditions, indicate that some of these components are probably intermediate oxidation products. A number of less hydrophobic components, with carboxyl region immunoreactivities, were obtained from the individual adenoma samples, human parathyroid cyst fluid, ampouled samples of human adenoma tissue culture medium, and secondary hyperparathyroid plasma ultrafiltrate when they were fractionated by RP-HPLC. The results strongly suggest that the biological degradation of hPTH is more complex than generally believed, and that RP-HPLC offers a new dimension in its analysis.

  16. The VIMOS VLT deep survey. First epoch VVDS-deep survey: 11 564 spectra with 17.5 ≤ IAB ≤ 24, and the redshift distribution over 0 ≤ z ≤ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Vettolani, G.; Garilli, B.; Tresse, L.; Bottini, D.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mathez, G.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents the “First Epoch” sample from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The VVDS goals, observations, data reduction with the VIPGI pipeline and redshift measurement scheme with KBRED are discussed. Data have been obtained with the VIsible Multi Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on the ESO-VLT UT3, allowing us to observe ≃600 slits simultaneously at a spectral resolution R≃230. A total of 11 564 objects have been observed in the VVDS-02h and VVDS-CDFS “Deep” fields over a total area of 0.61 deg^2, selected solely on the basis of apparent magnitude 17.5 ≤ IAB ≤ 24. The VVDS efficiently covers the redshift range 0 < z ≤ 5. It is successfully going through the “redshift desert” 1.5IAB=24. The redshift distribution N(z) has a median of z=0.62, z=0.65, z=0.70, and z=0.76, for magnitude-limited samples with IAB≤22.5, 23.0, 23.5 and 24.0 respectively. A high redshift tail above redshift 2 and up to redshift 5 becomes readily apparent for IAB>23.5, probing the bright star-forming population of galaxies. This sample provides an unprecedented dataset to study galaxy evolution over ~90% of the life of the

  17. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chemistry, and Ar-39 - Ar-40 and Ages of the Caddo County IAB Iron: Evidence for Early Partial Melt Segregation of a Gabbro Area Rich in Plagioclase-Diopside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    We found coarse-grained gabbroic material rich in plagioclase and diopside in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. The polished thin sections studied were made from areas rich in Al and Ca detected by a micro-focus X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping technique. The gabbro is not a clast within a breccia, but rather this area is located mainly at silicate-metal boundaries only a few cm away from an area with fine-grained, ultramafic silicate similar to winonaites. Medium-grained orthopyroxene and olivine are found in transitional areas showing no disturbance of their crystalline textures. A vein-like region, starting at the area rich in fine-grained mafic silicate, extends towards the gabbroic area with a gradual increase in abundance of plagioclase and diopside. This texture and our accumulated knowledge of the formation mechanism of IAB/winonaltes meteorites, suggest that the gabbroic materials were formed by inhomogeneous segregation of partial melts of chondritic source materials. Compositional data on two mineralogically distinct samples of the gabbro-rich portion of the inclusion were obtained by INAA. Compared to an average of LAB silicate inclusions or winonaites, the Caddo County gabbro is enriched in the incompatible lithophile elements Na, Ca, Sc, REE and Hf, which is consistent with a melt origin for the gabbro. The cosmogenic space exposure age of Caddo County (511 Ma) is significantly younger than exposure ages of some other IAB meteorites, An 39Ar-40Ar age determination of the gabbroic material indicates a series of upward steps in age from 4.516 Ga to 4.523 Ga, with a few high temperature ages up to 4.54 Ga. The older age could approximate the primary recrystallization age of silicates. The stepped Ar age spectrum may indicate differences in Ar closure temperatures during slow cooling of -2-20'C/Myr in the parent body. Alternatively, the younger Ar-Ar ages may date a shock event which occurred while Caddo County was hot and which also created textures

  18. International Research and Development in Systems Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    instead what is it that genes actually do. Dr. Piano outlined three challenges facing biologists: 1) decades of research into C . elegans has identified...database of automated recording of cell lineage in C . elegans mutants. The Institute for Advanced Biosciences (IAB, http://www.iab.keio.ac.jp/) at...Circadian Clocks Limited by Noise. Nature 403: 267–8. Covert, M. W., C . H. Schilling and B. Palsson. 2001. Regulation of gene expression in flux

  19. The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to eliminate or neutralize the coverage of evolution in high school biology textbooks in the United States have persisted with varying degrees of intensity and success since the 1920s. In particular, the coverage of human evolution has been impacted by these efforts. Evidence of the success of these efforts can be chronicled by the…

  20. The biological assessment of flora and fauna as standards for changes in the near-shore ocean environment: a study of Barbers Point Harbor.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Y; Wachi, K M; Shiraki, A; Goo, C; Ebesu, J S

    2001-02-01

    The biological assessments of the flora and fauna in the near-shore ocean environment, specifically Barbers Point Harbor (BPH), demonstrate the usefulness of these biological analyses for evaluation of the changes occurring following man-made excavation for expansion of the harbor. The study included identification and enumeration of macroalgae and dinoflagellates and analyses of herbivores and carnivores in four areas within the perimeter of the harbor and the north and south entrances into the harbor. Numbers of macroalgae varied between 1994 and 1999 surveys, with significant decrease in numbers in stations C, D and E. Stations A and B were similar between 1994 and 1999 with a slight increase in 1999. The significant differences were shown with the appearance of Gambierdiscus toxicus (G toxicus) in 1999 among the algae in stations A and B. Assessment of herbivores and carnivores with the immunological membrane immunobead assay using monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin and related polyethers demonstrated an increase in fish toxicity among the herbivore from 1994-1999 (22% increase) with a decrease (22%) in non-toxic fish. This was also demonstrated in the carnivores, but to a lesser degree. It is suggested that the biological analyses of the flora and the fauna of the near-shore ocean environment are appropriate to assess the changes that occur from natural and man-made alterations.

  1. Hexadeutero-11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid: a superior internal standard for the GC/MS analysis of delta 9-THC acid metabolite in biological specimens.

    PubMed

    elSohly, M A; Little, T L; Stanford, D F

    1992-01-01

    GC/MS analysis of biological specimens is believed to be the most forensically accepted method for confirming the presence of abused drugs. 11-Nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (delta 9-THC-COOH) is the major metabolite of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) for which testing (including GC/MS) is directed as an indication of marijuana use. The currently available internal standard for delta 9-THC-COOH is d3-delta 9-THC-COOH, which has the deuterium atoms located on the side chain. In addition to the high cost of this compound, it suffers from a limited dynamic range of analysis, especially when the methyl derivative is used. This is because of a contribution to one of the internal standard ions (m/z 316) from a fragmentation of the natural drug which involves loss of the side chain. The new internal standard, d6-11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (d6-delta 9-THC-COOH), avoids these disadvantages. The six deuterium atoms are located on the two methyl groups of Carbon 6 in the dibenzopyran structure. The dynamic range of analysis with the new internal standard was tested between 6.25 to 1,000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. Analysis of several urine specimens for delta 9-THC metabolite using both d3- and d6-internal standards showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9987.

  2. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A Critical Analysis of the Role of Biology Teachers and Science Standards in Shaping Evolution Instruction in Belize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…

  3. A modified Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne: A variant of the standard model with increased biological realism and reduced computational complexity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Gossmann, Toni I; Waxman, David

    2016-03-21

    The Wright-Fisher model is an important model in evolutionary biology and population genetics. It has been applied in numerous analyses of finite populations with discrete generations. It is recognised that real populations can behave, in some key aspects, as though their size that is not the census size, N, but rather a smaller size, namely the effective population size, Ne. However, in the Wright-Fisher model, there is no distinction between the effective and census population sizes. Equivalently, we can say that in this model, Ne coincides with N. The Wright-Fisher model therefore lacks an important aspect of biological realism. Here, we present a method that allows Ne to be directly incorporated into the Wright-Fisher model. The modified model involves matrices whose size is determined by Ne. Thus apart from increased biological realism, the modified model also has reduced computational complexity, particularly so when Ne⪡N. For complex problems, it may be hard or impossible to numerically analyse the most commonly-used approximation of the Wright-Fisher model that incorporates Ne, namely the diffusion approximation. An alternative approach is simulation. However, the simulations need to be sufficiently detailed that they yield an effective size that is different to the census size. Simulations may also be time consuming and have attendant statistical errors. The method presented in this work may then be the only alternative to simulations, when Ne differs from N. We illustrate the straightforward application of the method to some problems involving allele fixation and the determination of the equilibrium site frequency spectrum. We then apply the method to the problem of fixation when three alleles are segregating in a population. This latter problem is significantly more complex than a two allele problem and since the diffusion equation cannot be numerically solved, the only other way Ne can be incorporated into the analysis is by simulation. We have

  4. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  5. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  6. 21 CFR 610.20 - Standard preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard preparations. 610.20 Section 610.20 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Standard Preparations and Limits of Potency § 610.20 Standard preparations. Standard preparations made available by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research shall...

  7. Challenges in the indirect quantitation of acyl-glucuronide metabolites of a cardiovascular drug from complex biological mixtures in the absence of reference standards.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Nouri, Parya; Kavetskaia, Olga

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the quantitation of acyl-glucuronide metabolites (M26 and M5) of a cardiovascular-drug (torcetrapib) from monkey urine, in the absence of their reference standards. LC/MS/MS assays for M1 and M4 (aglycones of M26 and M5, respectively) were characterized from normal and base-treated urine, as their respective reference standards were available. The in vivo study samples containing M26 and M5 were treated with 1 n sodium hydroxide to hydrolyze them to their respective aglycones. The study samples were assayed for M1 and M4 before and after alkaline hydrolysis and the difference in the concentrations provided an estimate of the urinary levels of M26 and M5. Prior to the main sample analysis, conditions for alkaline hydrolysis of the glucuronides were optimized by incubating pooled study samples. During incubations, a prolonged increase in M4 levels over time was observed, which is inconsistent with the base-hydrolysis of an acyl-glucuronide (expected to hydrolyze rapidly). Possible interference of the metabolite M9 (an ether-glucuronide metabolite isobaric to M4) was investigated to explain this observation using chromatographic and wet-chemistry approaches. The strategies adopted herein established that the LC/MS/MS assay and our approach were reliable. The metabolite exposure was then correlated to toxicological observations to gain initial insights into the physiological role of these metabolites.

  8. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R'afat Mahmoud; Abu Shanab, Alaa Mohamed; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml(-1) for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml(-1) for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml(-1) for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n=5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  9. Kinetic spectrophotometric H-point standard addition method for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole in binary mixtures and biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R.'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Mohamed Abu; Shaat, Nahed Talab

    2013-10-01

    Simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of diloxanide furoate and metronidazole using H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method is based on the oxidation rate difference of diloxanide and metronidazole by potassium permanganate in basic medium. A green color has been developed and measured at 610 nm. Different experimental parameters were carefully optimized. The limiting logarithmic and the initial-rate methods were adopted for the construction of the calibration curve of each individual reaction with potassium permanganate. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 1.0-20.0 and 5.0-25.0 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The detection limits were 0.22 μg ml-1 for diloxanide furoate and 0.83 μg ml-1 for metronidazole. Correlation coefficients of the regression equations were greater than 0.9970 in all cases. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the maximum value of relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.06% (n = 5). The accuracy, expressed as recovery was between 99.4% and 101.4% with relative error of 0.12 and 0.14 for diloxanide furoate and metronidazole, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms and human urine samples and compared with alternative HPLC method.

  10. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  11. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  12. Plant proteomics update (2007-2008): Second-generation proteomic techniques, an appropriate experimental design, and data analysis to fulfill MIAPE standards, increase plant proteome coverage and expand biological knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Maldonado, Ana M; Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Valledor, Luis; Castillejo, Mari A; Curto, Miguel; Valero, José; Sghaier, Besma; Donoso, Gabriel; Redondo, Inmaculada

    2009-04-13

    This review is the continuation of three previously published articles [Jorrin JV, Maldonado AM, Castillejo MA. Plant proteome analysis: a 2006 update. Proteomics 2007; 7: 2947-2962; Rossignol M, Peltier JB, Mock HP, Matros A, Maldonado AM, Jorrin JV. Plant proteome analysis: a 2004-2006 update. Proteomics 2006; 6: 5529-5548; Canovas FM, Dumas-Gaudot E, Recorbet G, Jorrin J, Mock HP, Rossignol M. Plant proteome analysis. Proteomics 2004; 4: 285-298] and aims to update the contribution of Proteomics to plant research between 2007 and September 2008 by reviewing most of the papers, which number approximately 250, that appeared in the Plant Proteomics field during that period. Most of the papers published deal with the proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), and focus on profiling organs, tissues, cells or subcellular proteomes, and studying developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses using a differential expression strategy. Although the platform based on 2-DE is still the most commonly used, the use of gel-free and second-generation Quantitative Proteomic techniques has increased. Proteomic data are beginning to be validated using complementary -omics or classical biochemical or cellular biology techniques. In addition, appropriate experimental design and statistical analysis are being carried out in accordance with the required Minimal Information about a Proteomic Experiment (MIAPE) standards. As a result, the coverage of the plant cell proteome and the plant biology knowledge is increasing. Compared to human and yeast systems, however, plant biology research has yet to exploit fully the potential of proteomics, in particular its applications to PTMs and Interactomics.

  13. Synthetic Biology - The Synthesis of Biology.

    PubMed

    Ausländer, Simon; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-12-11

    Synthetic biology envisages the engineering of man-made living biomachines from standardized components that can perform pre-defined functions in a (self-)controlled manner. Different research strategies and interdisciplinary efforts are pursued to implement engineering principles to biology. The "top-down" strategy exploits nature's incredible diversity of existing, natural parts to construct synthetic compositions of genetic, metabolic or signalling networks with predictable and controllable properties. This mainly application-driven approach results in living factories that produce drugs, biofuels, biomaterials and fine chemicals and results in living pills that are based on engineered cells with the capacity to autonomously detect and treat disease states in vivo. In contrast, the "bottom-up" strategy seeks to be independent of existing living systems by designing biological systems from scratch and synthesizing artificial biological entities not found in nature. This more knowledge-driven approach investigates the reconstruction of minimal biological systems that are capable of performing basic biological phenomena, such as self-organization, self-replication and self-sustainability. Moreover, the syntheses of artificial biological units, such as synthetic nucleotides or amino acids, and their implementation into polymers inside living cells currently set the boundaries between natural and artificial biological systems. In particular, the in vitro design, synthesis and transfer of complete genomes into host cells and the application of efficient genome-wide intervention techniques point to the future of synthetic biology: the creation of living designer cells with tailored desirable properties for biomedicine and biotechnology.

  14. Comment on “Correlation and relativistic effects in U metal and U-Zr alloy: Validation of <i>ab initio approaches”

    SciTech Connect

    Söderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-10-01

    In a recent paper, Xie et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 235128 (2013)], report that the density-functional theory (DFT) with the so-called DFT plus Hubbard U (DFT+U) modification improves energetics, volumes, and formation enthalpies over the standard form of DFT for uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. Also, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) was argued to advance the aforementioned properties in these systems. We demonstrate, contrarily, that neither the Hubbard U approach nor SOC is necessary for a correct description of uranium metal and U-Zr alloys. We further illustrate that the combination of DFT+U and SOC in the projector augmented-wave calculations by Xie et al. results in unrealistically large volume expansions, particularly for γ-U, in stark contrast to all previous calculations for elemental uranium. This in turn may also explain why the DFT+U with SOC model predicts negative enthalpy of mixing in the U-Zr alloy system contradicting conventional DFT as well as one of the main features of the experimental U-Zr phase diagram. The assertion by Xie et al. that DFT+U is an improvement over DFT for these systems is illustrated to be incorrect.

  15. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from <i>ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mal -Soon; Peter McGrail, B.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki -Alexandra

    2015-10-12

    Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences (R.R.), and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computational resources were provided by PNNL’s Platform for Institutional Computing (PIC), the W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at PNNL and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  16. The development of explosions in axisymmetric <i>ab initio core-collapse supernova simulations of 12–25 M stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenn, Stephen W.; Lentz, Eric J.; Hix, William Raphael; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Harris, James Austin; Messer, O. E. Bronson; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John M.; Chertkow, Merek Austin; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Marronetti, Pedro; Yakunin, Konstantin N.

    2016-02-16

    We present four ab initio axisymmetric core-collapse supernova simulations initiated from 12, 15, 20, and 25 M zero-age main sequence progenitors. All of the simulations yield explosions and have been evolved for at least 1.2 s after core bounce and 1 s after material first becomes unbound. These simulations were computed with our Chimera code employing RbR spectral neutrino transport, special and general relativistic transport effects, and state-of-the-art neutrino interactions. Continuing the evolution beyond 1 s after core bounce allows the explosions to develop more fully and the processes involved in powering the explosions to become more clearly evident. We compute explosion energy estimates, including the negative gravitational binding energy of the stellar envelope outside the expanding shock, of 0.34, 0.88, 0.38, and 0.70 Bethe (B ≡ 1051 erg) and increasing at 0.03, 0.15, 0.19, and 0.52 BS–1, respectively, for the 12, 15, 20, and 25 M models at the endpoint of this report. We examine the growth of the explosion energy in our models through detailed analyses of the energy sources and flows. We discuss how the explosion energies may be subject to stochastic variations as exemplfied by the effect of the explosion geometry of the 20 M model in reducing its explosion energy. We compute the proto-neutron star masses and kick velocities. In conclusion, we compare our results for the explosion energies and ejected 56Ni masses against some observational standards despite the large error bars in both models and observations.

  17. All biology is computational biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  18. All biology is computational biology.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  19. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  20. DRDC Ottawa Working Standard for Biological Dosimetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    the chi-square distribution with 1 degree of freedom ; d x y y x y x x( ) $ ( ) ( $ $ $ )* * *= − = − + +β β β0 1 2 2 is the estimated residual, and...is distributed asymptotically normal with variance V d x V y V y x[ ( )] [ ] [ $ ( )]* *= + . Estimates of the variancesV y[ ]* andV y x...Radiat. Bot. 15 (1975) 127-140. 9. PERRY, P., WOLFF , S. New Giemsa method for the differential staining of sister chromatids. Nature (London) 2SI

  1. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  2. Standard Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uher, Alan E.

    Whether common standards exist among the national standards for kindergarten through grade 12 mathematics, science, and civics and government was studied. Common standards were explored among "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics," produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the "National…

  3. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  4. Bioethics: power and injustice: IAB presidential address.

    PubMed

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2003-10-01

    A major focus within the modern bioethics debate has been on reshaping power relationships within the doctor-patient relationship. Empowerment of the vulnerable has been achieved through an emphasis on human rights and respect for individual dignity. However, power imbalances remain pervasive within healthcare. To a considerable extent this relates to insufficient attention to social injustice. Such power imbalances together with the development of new forms of power, for example through new genetic biotechnology, raise the spectre of increasing social injustice. Attention will be drawn to the need to extend the bioethics debate to include ethical considerations regarding public health. Changes in political philosophy will also be required to reshape international power relations and improve population health.

  5. Engineering microbes with synthetic biology frameworks.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Effendi; Nielsen, David; Solomon, Kevin; Prather, Kristala Jones

    2008-12-01

    Typically, the outcome of biologically engineered unit operations cannot be controlled a priori due to the incorporation of ad hoc design into complex natural systems. To mitigate this problem, synthetic biology presents a systematic approach to standardizing biological components for the purpose of increasing their programmability and robustness when assembled with the aim to achieve novel biological functions. A complex engineered biological system using only standardized biological components is yet to exist. Nevertheless, current attempts to create and to implement modular, standardized biological components pave the way for the future creation of highly predictable artificial biological systems. Although synthetic biology frameworks can be applied to any biological engineering endeavor, this article will focus on providing a brief overview of advances in the field and its recent utilization for the engineering of microbes.

  6. Synthetic biology--putting engineering into biology.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Matthias; Panke, Sven

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic biology is interpreted as the engineering-driven building of increasingly complex biological entities for novel applications. Encouraged by progress in the design of artificial gene networks, de novo DNA synthesis and protein engineering, we review the case for this emerging discipline. Key aspects of an engineering approach are purpose-orientation, deep insight into the underlying scientific principles, a hierarchy of abstraction including suitable interfaces between and within the levels of the hierarchy, standardization and the separation of design and fabrication. Synthetic biology investigates possibilities to implement these requirements into the process of engineering biological systems. This is illustrated on the DNA level by the implementation of engineering-inspired artificial operations such as toggle switching, oscillating or production of spatial patterns. On the protein level, the functionally self-contained domain structure of a number of proteins suggests possibilities for essentially Lego-like recombination which can be exploited for reprogramming DNA binding domain specificities or signaling pathways. Alternatively, computational design emerges to rationally reprogram enzyme function. Finally, the increasing facility of de novo DNA synthesis-synthetic biology's system fabrication process-supplies the possibility to implement novel designs for ever more complex systems. Some of these elements have merged to realize the first tangible synthetic biology applications in the area of manufacturing of pharmaceutical compounds.

  7. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey final data release: a spectroscopic sample of 35 016 galaxies and AGN out to z ~ 6.7 selected with 17.5 ≤ iAB ≤ 24.75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Cassata, P.; Cucciati, O.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Moreau, C.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Zamorani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Lemaux, B.; López-Sanjuan, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Mellier, Y.; Merighi, R.; Merluzzi, P.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Tasca, L.; Vergani, D.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Deep representative surveys of galaxies at different epochs are needed to make progress in understanding galaxy evolution. Aims: We describe the completed VIMOS VLT Deep Survey and the final data release of 35 016 galaxies and type-I AGN with measured spectroscopic redshifts covering all epochs up to redshift z ~ 6.7, in areas from 0.142 to 8.7 square degrees, and volumes from 0.5 × 106 to 2 × 107 h-3 Mpc3. Methods: We selected samples of galaxies based solely on their i-band magnitude reaching iAB = 24.75. Spectra were obtained with VIMOS on the ESO-VLT integrating 0.75 h, 4.5 h, and 18 h for the Wide, Deep, and Ultra-Deep nested surveys, respectively. We demonstrate that any "redshift desert" can be crossed successfully using spectra covering 3650 ≤ λ ≤ 9350 Å. A total of 1263 galaxies were again observed independently within the VVDS and from the VIPERS and MASSIV surveys. They were used to establish the redshift measurements reliability, to assess completeness in the VVDS sample, and to provide a weighting scheme taking the survey selection function into account. We describe the main properties of the VVDS samples, and the VVDS is compared to other spectroscopic surveys in the literature. Results: In total we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 34 594 galaxies, 422 type-I AGN, and 12 430 Galactic stars. The survey enabled identifying galaxies up to very high redshifts with 4669 redshifts in 1 ≤ zspec ≤ 2, 561 in 2 ≤ zspec ≤ 3, and 468 with zspec > 3, and specific populations like Lyman-α emitters were identified out to z = 6.62. We show that the VVDS occupies a unique place in the parameter space defined by area, depth, redshift coverage, and number of spectra. Conclusions: The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey provides a comprehensive survey of the distant universe, covering all epochs since z ~ 6, or more than 12 Gyr of cosmic time, with a uniform selection, which is the largest such sample to date. A wealth of science results derived from

  9. The effect of a county's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on end-of-course standard of learning tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry and World History and Geography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Brenda L.

    The Commonwealth of Virginia requires high school students to receive a passing grade in core courses and a passing score on End-of-Course Standards of Learning (EOC SOL) tests to receive verified credits that lead to a Virginia high school diploma. These tests are believed to accurately reflect what students should know and be able to do in order to experience success in their endeavors beyond high school. For some students remediation is required to experience success on EOC SOL tests. This study sought to determine the effect of a County's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on EOC SOL tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry, and World History and Geography II. Specifically, the purpose of the study sought to determine the following: (a) If significant gains were made by students who attended the summer remediation program; (b) If significant gains were made by students who did not attend the summer remediation program; (c) If there were differences in gain scores of students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program; and (d) If there were differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to school site, gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. The results of the study indicate that students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program made significant gains. However, the gains for students who attended the summer remediation program were significantly greater than the gains made by students who did not attend. The study also found that there were no significant differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. There were significant differences in Algebra I gain scores related to school site. Recommendations for

  10. Our Hidden Past: Biology, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ray; Russell, Liane; Mazur, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In their new home at "The Mouse House" at Y-12, researchers from ORNL's Biology Division conducted studies that led to standards such as dose rate effects that form the basis for current international standards for radiation exposure in humans.

  11. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  16. Training Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-09-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation.

  17. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  18. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  19. Foldit Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  20. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  1. Networking standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The enterprise network is currently a multivendor environment consisting of many defacto and proprietary standards. During the 1990s, these networks will evolve towards networks which are based on international standards in both Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) space. Also, you can expect to see the higher level functions and applications begin the same transition. Additional information is given in viewgraph form.

  2. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  3. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.H.; Dillon, H.K.

    1986-02-01

    Biological monitoring is defined as the measurement and assessment of workplace agents or their metabolites in tissues, secreta, excreta, expired air, or any combination of these to evaluate exposure and health risk compared to an appropriate reference. Biological monitoring offers several advantages: it takes into account individual variability in biological activity resulting from a chemical insult. It takes into account the effects of personal physical activity and individual life styles. It is a valuable adjunct to ambient monitoring and health surveillance. The importance of chemical speciation in the toxicity of pollutants is discussed. Basic protocols for lead, aluminum, cadmium, mercury, selenium, and nickel are presented. Basic criteria for biological monitoring methods are presented. 11 references, 1 table.

  4. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  5. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  6. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  7. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  8. Noise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling. PMID:24444693

  9. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  10. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  11. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  12. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  13. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

  14. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  16. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  17. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  18. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  19. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  20. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  1. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  2. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  3. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  4. Biology Excursions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Provides many useful suggestions and cautions for planning and executing a biology field excursion. Specific procedures are outlined for investigating land communities and coastal areas, and a number of follow-up laboratory activities are described. The appendix provides an extensive bibliography with useful comments on the literature. (JR)

  5. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  6. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  7. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  8. Information Visualization for Biological Data.

    PubMed

    Czauderna, Tobias; Schreiber, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful method to present and explore a large amount of data. It is increasingly important in the life sciences and is used for analyzing different types of biological data, such as structural information, high-throughput data, and biochemical networks. This chapter gives a brief introduction to visualization methods for bioinformatics, presents two commonly used techniques in detail, and discusses a graphical standard for biological networks and cellular processes.

  9. Aristotle's biopolitics: a defense of biological teleology against biological nihilism.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, L

    1988-02-01

    Modern Darwinian biology seems to promote nihilism, for it seems to teach that there is no rationally discoverable standard in nature for giving meaning to life. The purpose of this article is to argue for a revival of Aristotle's biological teleology as a reasonable alternative to biological nihilism. The article begins with Edward Wilson's vain struggle against nihilism. Then it is argued that a teleological understanding of nature is assumed in the practice of medicine, as illustrated by one case from Oliver Sacks' neurological practice. The article then considers the importance of biological teleology for Aristotle's moral and political philosophy, and attention is given to some points of agreement and disagreement with contemporary sociobiologists. The main part of the article is then devoted to a defense of Aristotle's biology against the five objections that might be made by a Darwinian biologist. Finally, the article illustrates the practical implications of this issue for bioethics by considering the recent work of Engelhardt.

  10. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  11. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  12. [Standard rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Bardot, J; Jallut, Y; Nguyen, P-S

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who consult a surgeon for rhinoplasty do not want a radical change in their nose. They seek a reduction in the volume of the nasal pyramid and correction of a precise element that they judge to be ungainly--most often an osteocartilaginous hump. The procedure that we qualify as "standard" will eliminate the osteocartilaginous hump, decrease the dimensions of the septum and reduce the size of the alar crus of the alar cartilage. Although the required technical maneuvers are simple, their sequence must be coherent with a few basic rules that are simple but rarely explained in order to avoid defects linked to excessive, or on the contrary, insufficient corrections.

  13. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  14. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads’ stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls (“IHControls”). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories. PMID:25940339

  15. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  16. 42 CFR 493.1411 - Standard; Technical consultant qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived... biology and additionally has documentation of 2 years of work experience performing tests of...

  17. Biology Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1646.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide, developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program, contains the minimum competencies and process skills that should be included in a biology course. It consists of: (1) a rationale for an effective science program; (2) a list and description of four major goals of…

  18. Standard atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Willis Ray

    1923-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and discusses the need of a standard set of values of pressure, temperature and density at various altitudes and points out the desirability of adopting such values as are most in accord with actual average conditions, in order that corrections in individual cases may be as small as possible. To meet this need, so far as the united states is concerned, all free-air observations obtained by means of kites and balloons at several stations in this country near latitude 40 degrees N., have been used, and average values of pressure, temperature, and density, based upon those observations, have been determined for summer, winter, and the year, and for all altitudes up to 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). These values are presented in tables and graphs in both metric and english units; and in the tables of densities there are also included values of density for other parts of the world, more particularly for Europe. A comparison with these values shows that, except in the lowest levels, the agreement is very satisfactory.

  19. Are Biology and Chemistry Out of Order?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, Felix A.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses advantages and disadvantages of standard high school biology and chemistry course sequences. Relates these sequences to Piagetian developmental levels as well as to David Ausubel's cognitive theory. Suggests that the sequences be reexamined in light of issues considered. (JM)

  20. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  1. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K.; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  3. Proposed minimum reporting standards for chemical analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a general consensus that supports the need for standardized reporting of metadata or information describing large-scale metabolomics and other functional genomics data sets. Reporting of standard metadata provides a biological and empirical context for the data, facilitates experimental re...

  4. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  5. Journal standards.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  6. High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

  7. Standardized pedigree nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.

    1995-10-01

    Although an attempt to standardize the representation of genetic and social relationships using pedigree diagrams is welcome, there are problems with the present recommendations that should be addressed. Essentially, I would describe these problems as arising from a reliance on topographic rather than topological conventions to represent relationships between individuals. As an example of what I mean, it seems perfectly sensible to use solid lines for biological relationships and dotted lines for adoptive relationships, but it seems problematic to use a vertical line to indicate a gestational relationship and a diagonal line for gamete donation. The use of shorter lines for pregnancies that do not go to term may also be problematic. 3 refs.

  8. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  9. The synthetic biology open language.

    PubMed

    Myers, Chris; Clancy, Kevin; Misirli, Goksel; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline; Roehner, Nicholas; Sauro, Herbert M

    2015-01-01

    The design and construction of engineered organisms is an emerging new discipline called synthetic biology and holds considerable promise as a new technological platform. The design of biologically engineered systems is however nontrivial, requiring contributions from a wide array of disciplines. One particular issue that confronts synthetic biologists is the ability to unambiguously describe novel designs such that they can be reengineered by a third-party. For this reason, the synthetic biology open language (SBOL) was developed as a community wide standard for formally representing biological designs. A design created by one engineering team can be transmitted electronically to another who can then use this design to reproduce the experimental results. The development and the community of the SBOL standard started in 2008 and has since grown in use with now over 80 participants, including international, academic, and industrial interests. SBOL has stimulated the development of repositories and software tools to help synthetic biologists in their design efforts. This chapter summarizes the latest developments and future of the SBOL standard and its supporting infrastructure.

  10. Evaluation of ¹³C- and ²H-labeled internal standards for the determination of amphetamines in biological samples, by reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Karlsen, Morten; Oiestad, Ase Marit Leere; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Liu, Huiling; Strand, Dag Helge

    2014-05-30

    Stable isotope-labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs) are often used when applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze for legal and illegal drugs. ISs labeled with (13)C, (15)N, and (18)O are expected to behave more closely to their corresponding unlabeled analytes, compared with that of the more classically used (2)H-labeled ISs. This study has investigated the behavior of amphetamine, (2)H3-, (2)H5, (2)H6-, (2)H8-, (2)H11-, and (13)C6-labeled amphetamine, during sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS analyses. None or only minor differences in liquid-liquid extraction recoveries of amphetamine and the SIL-ISs were observed. The chromatographic resolution between amphetamine and the (2)H-labeled amphetamines increased with the number of (2)H-substitutes. For chromatographic studies we also included seven additional (13)C6-amphetamines and their analytes. All the (13)C6-labeled ISs were co-eluting with their analytes, both when a basic and when an acidic mobile phase were used. MS/MS analyses of amphetamine and its SIL-ISs showed that the ISs with the highest number of (2)H-substitutes required more energy for fragmentation in the collision cell compared with that of the ISs with a lower number. The findings, in this study, support those of previous studies, showing that (13)C-labeled ISs are superior to (2)H-labeled ISs, for analytical purposes.

  11. The ontology of biological taxa

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan; Stenzhorn, Holger; Boeker, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: The classification of biological entities in terms of species and taxa is an important endeavor in biology. Although a large amount of statements encoded in current biomedical ontologies is taxon-dependent there is no obvious or standard way for introducing taxon information into an integrative ontology architecture, supposedly because of ongoing controversies about the ontological nature of species and taxa. Results: In this article, we discuss different approaches on how to represent biological taxa using existing standards for biomedical ontologies such as the description logic OWL DL and the Open Biomedical Ontologies Relation Ontology. We demonstrate how hidden ambiguities of the species concept can be dealt with and existing controversies can be overcome. A novel approach is to envisage taxon information as qualities that inhere in biological organisms, organism parts and populations. Availability: The presented methodology has been implemented in the domain top-level ontology BioTop, openly accessible at http://purl.org/biotop. BioTop may help to improve the logical and ontological rigor of biomedical ontologies and further provides a clear architectural principle to deal with biological taxa information. Contact: stschulz@uni-freiburg.de PMID:18586729

  12. Biologic adjuvants for fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue has an exceptional quality to regenerate to native tissue in response to injury. However, the fracture repair process requires mechanical stability or a viable biological microenvironment or both to ensure successful healing to native tissue. An improved understanding of the molecular and cellular events that occur during bone repair and remodeling has led to the development of biologic agents that can augment the biological microenvironment and enhance bone repair. Orthobiologics, including stem cells, osteoinductive growth factors, osteoconductive matrices, and anabolic agents, are available clinically for accelerating fracture repair and treatment of compromised bone repair situations like delayed unions and nonunions. Preclinical and clinical studies using biologic agents like recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins have demonstrated an efficacy similar or better than that of autologous bone graft in acute fracture healing. A lack of standardized outcome measures for comparison of biologic agents in clinical fracture repair trials, frequent off-label use, and a limited understanding of the biological activity of these agents at the bone repair site have limited their efficacy in clinical applications. PMID:23198865

  13. Biological satellite scientific devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepech, B. L.; Rumiantsev, V. P.; Galkin, V. M.; Shakhvorostov, S. V.; Rvachev, S. S.

    1991-02-01

    The paper describes the NA SBS 9 systems developed for the ninth Cosmos-2044 biological test mission. The NA SBS 9 life support systems designed for monkeys and rats follow standard design of BIOS-Vivarium and BIOS-Primate units. The main features of NA SBS 9 include the use of a recently developed HF physiological data recorder Skat-3; the incorporation into BIOS-Primate of two units intended for biorhythmic studies (the BBI-Zh system for studying beetles and the VITALOG developed by NASA for studies on monkeys); and a new version of BIOS-Primate system incorporating a capacitance-link and an inductance-link temperature transmitters and a brain tissue oxygen tension control channel.

  14. Biological safety cabinetry.

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, R H; Puckett, W H; Richardson, J H

    1991-01-01

    The biological safety cabinet is the one piece of laboratory and pharmacy equipment that provides protection for personnel, the product, and the environment. Through the history of laboratory-acquired infections from the earliest published case to the emergence of hepatitis B and AIDS, the need for health care worker protection is described. A brief description with design, construction, function, and production capabilities is provided for class I and class III safety cabinets. The development of the high-efficiency particulate air filter provided the impetus for clean room technology, from which evolved the class II laminar flow biological safety cabinet. The clean room concept was advanced when the horizontal airflow clean bench was manufactured; it became popular in pharmacies for preparing intravenous solutions because the product was protected. However, as with infectious microorganisms and laboratory workers, individual sensitization to antibiotics and the advent of hazardous antineoplastic agents changed the thinking of pharmacists and nurses, and they began to use the class II safety cabinet to prevent adverse personnel reactions to the drugs. How the class II safety cabinet became the mainstay in laboratories and pharmacies is described, and insight is provided into the formulation of National Sanitation Foundation standard number 49 and its revisions. The working operations of a class II cabinet are described, as are the variations of the four types with regard to design, function, air velocity profiles, and the use of toxins. The main certification procedures are explained, with examples of improper or incorrect certifications. The required levels of containment for microorganisms are given. Instructions for decontaminating the class II biological safety cabinet of infectious agents are provided; unfortunately, there is no method for decontaminating the cabinet of antineoplastic agents. Images PMID:2070345

  15. How to compare biologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Esplugues, Juan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    This consensus document reviews the evidence on the evaluation of biological drugs. The main conclusions of the group are: a) the current evidence on biological comparisons is based on indirect comparisons and is generally unreliable and with important methodological limitations. Therefore, b) it is considered necessary to amend the regulatory directives in the sense of strongly favoring randomized non-inferiority studies comparing face to face the new biological treatment with current standards, avoiding trials versus placebo, c) A key element in this process will be determined by consensus among regulatory agencies, scientific societies, the pharmaceutical industry and health authorities regarding the clinical differences that should be considered relevant in each of the conditions tested.

  16. Biological Availability of Total Phosphorus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    STANDARDS-I963- A ELECT MA 18 * SZCURIrY CLASSIFICAION Of THIS PACE (U"n 1De a rnt*.d) 5REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGEREDISUCON Final Biological Aviaiiyof...Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia University Joseph V. DePinto Clarkson College January 1979 A I , Lake Erie Wastevater Manageuent Study U. S...INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 4 A a . Chemical Fractionation of Sediment Phosphorus b. Chemical Measurement of Available P c. Bioassay Measurement of

  17. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert.

    PubMed

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  18. [Main direction of harmonization of Russian and international requirements on providing of biological safety when handling pathogenic biological agents].

    PubMed

    Dobrokhotskiĭ, O N; Diatlov, A I

    2013-01-01

    The actuality of harmonization of Russian and international requirements when handling with pathogenic biological agents (PBA) is caused by the need to ensure biological security on the basis of control of biorisks. One of the basic conditions for harmonization is development and implementation of the Russian standard for biorisk management based on international standard CWA 15793:2008.

  19. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  20. [Important issues of biological safety].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The problem of biological security raises alarm due to the real growth of biological threats. Biological security includes a wide scope of problems, the solution of which becomes a part of national security as a necessary condition for the constant development of the country. A number of pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus, exotic Ebola and Lassa viruses causing hemorrhagic fever,rotaviruses causing acute intestinal diseases, etc. were first discovered in the last century. Terrorist actions committed in the USA in 2001 using the anthrax pathogen made the problem of biological danger even more important. In Russian Federation, biological threats are counteracted through the united state policy being a part of general state security policy. The biological Security legislation of Russian Federation is chiefly based on the 1992 Federal Law on Security. On the basis of cumulated experience, the President of Russia ratified Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond on 4 December, 2003. The document determines the main directions and stages of the state development in the area of chemical and biological security. The Federal target program Russian Federation's National Program for Chemical and Biological Security is being developed, and its development is to be completed soon in order to perfect the national system for biological security and fulfill Basics of Russian Federation's State Policy for Chemical and Biological Security for the Period through 2010 and Beyond, ratified by the President. The new global strategy for control over infectious diseases, presented in the materials of Saint Petersburg summit of the Group of Eight, as well as the substantive part of its elements in Sanitary International Standards, are to a large degree an acknowledgement of the Russian Federation's experience and the algorithm for fighting extremely dangerous infections. This Russia's experience has

  1. Comparison of agriculture biology and general biology testing outcomes in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despain, Deric Walter

    Agriculture education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students. Prior to 1996, agriculture education was not considered adequate to prepare Utah high school students to meet state biology requirements. The appropriateness of making that equalizing decision in 1996 was not tested until this 2014 study, comparing student test scores on the state biology test for general biology and agriculture biology students. The 2008-2012 data were collected from the Utah Department of Education Data and Statistics, utilizing a descriptive comparative post-test only analysis. As seen in this study, not only did B/AS students tend to score lower than their General Biology counterparts, in multiple cases this difference was significant (p ≤ .05). This contrary finding challenges the theoretical foundation of this study. As a result of this study three implications were made; (a) the Utah CRT-Biology test is not a reliable gauge of academic achievement in agriculture biology, (b) agriculture students in the sample population have not been taught with rigorous biology standards, and (c) biology standards taught in agricultural biology classes are not aligned with content tested by the biology portion of the Utah CRT-Biology test standards. The results of this study indicate to stakeholders that there is a gap occurring within the B/AS education, and the need to reevaluate the biology curriculum delivery to its population may possibly be in need of immediate action.

  2. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  3. Nanoparticle-based biologic mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Cliffel, David E.; Turner, Brian N.; Huffman, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Centered on solid chemistry foundations, biology and materials science have reached a crossroad where bottom-up designs of new biologically important nanomaterials are a reality. The topics discussed here present the interdisciplinary field of creating biological mimics. Specifically, this discussion focuses on mimics that are developed using various types of metal nanoparticles (particularly gold) through facile synthetic methods. These methods conjugate biologically relevant molecules, e.g., small molecules, peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, in conformationally favorable orientations on the particle surface. These new products provide stable, safe, and effective substitutes for working with potentially hazardous biologicals for applications such as drug targeting, immunological studies, biosensor development, and biocatalysis. Many standard bioanalytical techniques can be used to characterize and validate the efficacy of these new materials, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Metal nanoparticle–based biomimetics continue to be developed as potential replacements for the native biomolecule in applications of immunoassays and catalysis. PMID:20049778

  4. [Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].

    PubMed

    Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified.

  5. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  6. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2001-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  7. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2004-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  8. Standards 101; the ASA standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul D.

    2002-11-01

    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  9. Dynamical Systems and Control Theory Inspired by Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0282 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Eduardo Sontag RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY...Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS AND CONTROL THEORY INSPIRED BY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0247...is to develop new concepts, theory, and algorithms for control and signal processing using ideas inspired by molecular systems biology. Cell biology

  10. Standardizing scavenger receptor nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Prabhudas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K; Moestrup, Soren K; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community.

  11. Learning Biology by Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    According to a century-old tradition in biological thinking, organisms can be considered as being optimally designed. In modern biology this idea still has great heuristic value. In evolutionary biology a so-called design heuristic has been formulated which provides guidance to researchers in the generation of knowledge about biological systems.…

  12. Biological conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  13. [Biological age estimation by means of electroencephalography].

    PubMed

    Belozerova, L M

    2013-01-01

    The indices of computer electroencephalography have been estimated in 183 persons at the age of 20-89. Test-programs and the method of biological age determination by computer electroencephalography have been elaborated. We have found three subpopulations in each age group--people with slowing-down, mean and accelerated age changes rate. The proposed method of biological age determination includes standard generally established indices of computer electroencephalography.

  14. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  15. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  16. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    PubMed

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering.

  17. The International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bentzon, M. Weis; Krag, P.

    1961-01-01

    Following the establishment by WHO of International Reference Preparations of Cardiolipin and Egg Lecithin to facilitate reproduction of cardiolipin antigens for use in serological tests for syphilis, a series of studies has been carried out between co-operating laboratories in several parts of the world, aiming at the establishment of an international standard preparation for freeze-dried human syphilitic serum. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, in 1957, established the new International Standard for Human Syphilitic Serum which is now available to national laboratories from the International Laboratory for Biological Standards, Statens Serum-institut, Copenhagen. The International Unit of Human Syphilitic Serum is equivalent to 3.617 mg of the freeze-dried International Standard. A solution containing 8 International Units per ml can be obtained by reconstituting the contents of one ampoule of the International Standard in 6.1 ml of 0.6% saline. The new Standard will allow major serological laboratories to calibrate their national reference sera in terms of the International Unit; the comparability of results from different areas will be improved by this procedure. Technical details are given on the investigations preceding the establishment of the Standard. The analysis of the collaborative assay between co-operating laboratories also includes data on titres, reactivity, turbidity and other technical aspects. PMID:20604087

  18. Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) Version 2.0.0.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Bryan; Beal, Jacob; Clancy, Kevin; Misirli, Goksel; Roehner, Nicholas; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Bissell, Michael; Madsen, Curtis; Nguyen, Tramy; Zhang, Zhen; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris; Wipat, Anil; Sauro, Herbert

    2015-09-04

    Synthetic biology builds upon the techniques and successes of genetics, molecular biology, and metabolic engineering by applying engineering principles to the design of biological systems. The field still faces substantial challenges, including long development times, high rates of failure, and poor reproducibility. One method to ameliorate these problems would be to improve the exchange of information about designed systems between laboratories. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) has been developed as a standard to support the specification and exchange of biological design information in synthetic biology, filling a need not satisfied by other pre-existing standards. This document details version 2.0 of SBOL, introducing a standardized format for the electronic exchange of information on the structural and functional aspects of biological designs. The standard has been designed to support the explicit and unambiguous description of biological designs by means of a well defined data model. The standard also includes rules and best practices on how to use this data model and populate it with relevant design details. The publication of this specification is intended to make these capabilities more widely accessible to potential developers and users in the synthetic biology community and beyond.

  19. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    PubMed

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2016-07-08

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools.

  20. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed…

  1. S-Nitrosothiol measurements in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Gow, Andrew; Doctor, Allan; Mannick, Joan; Gaston, Benjamin

    2007-05-15

    S-Nitrosothiol (SNO) cysteine modifications are regulated signaling reactions that dramatically affect, and are affected by, protein conformation. The lability of the SNO bond can make SNO-modified proteins cumbersome to measure accurately. Here, we review methodologies for detecting SNO modifications in biology. There are three caveats. (1) Many assays for biological SNOs are used near the limit of detection: standard curves must be in the biologically relevant concentration range. (2) The assays that are most reliable are those that modify SNO protein or peptide chemistry the least. (3) Each result should be quantitatively validated using more than one assay. Improved assays are needed and are in development.

  2. Engineering reduced evolutionary potential for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Renda, Brian A; Hammerling, Michael J; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2014-07-01

    The field of synthetic biology seeks to engineer reliable and predictable behaviors in organisms from collections of standardized genetic parts. However, unlike other types of machines, genetically encoded biological systems are prone to changes in their designed sequences due to mutations in their DNA sequences after these devices are constructed and deployed. Thus, biological engineering efforts can be confounded by undesired evolution that rapidly breaks the functions of parts and systems, particularly when they are costly to the host cell to maintain. Here, we explain the fundamental properties that determine the evolvability of biological systems. Then, we use this framework to review current efforts to engineer the DNA sequences that encode synthetic biology devices and the genomes of their microbial hosts to reduce their ability to evolve and therefore increase their genetic reliability so that they maintain their intended functions over longer timescales.

  3. 40 CFR 265.1083 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... degrees Celsius. (3) A tank or surface impoundment used for biological treatment of hazardous waste in...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL... average VO concentration of the hazardous waste at the point of waste treatment is less than the...

  4. 40 CFR 264.1082 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees Celsius. (3) A tank or surface impoundment used for biological treatment of hazardous waste in...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air... average VO concentration of the hazardous waste at the point of waste treatment is less than the...

  5. 40 CFR 264.1082 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... degrees Celsius. (3) A tank or surface impoundment used for biological treatment of hazardous waste in...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air... average VO concentration of the hazardous waste at the point of waste treatment is less than the...

  6. 40 CFR 265.1083 - Standards: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees Celsius. (3) A tank or surface impoundment used for biological treatment of hazardous waste in...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL... average VO concentration of the hazardous waste at the point of waste treatment is less than the...

  7. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  8. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  9. Systems Biology of Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Lucas B.; Chandrasekaran, Sriram; Price, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a complete organism from a single cell involves extraordinarily complex orchestration of biological processes that vary intricately across space and time. Systems biology seeks to describe how all elements of a biological system interact in order to understand, model, and ultimately predict aspects of emergent biological processes. Embryogenesis represents an extraordinary opportunity – and challenge – for the application of systems biology. Systems approaches have already been used successfully to study various aspects of development, from complex intracellular networks to 4D models of organogenesis. Going forward, great advancements and discoveries can be expected from systems approaches applied to embryogenesis and developmental biology. PMID:20003850

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);…

  11. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  12. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  13. Teaching biology with model organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, Dolores A.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and use model organisms that represent each of the kingdoms biologists use to classify organisms, while experiencing the process of science through guided inquiry. The model organisms will be the basis for studying the four high school life science core ideas as identified by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): LS1-From molecules to organisms, LS2-Ecosystems, LS3- Heredity, and LS4- Biological Evolution. NGSS also have identified four categories of science and engineering practices which include developing and using models and planning and carrying out investigations. The living organisms will be utilized to increase student interest and knowledge within the discipline of Biology. Pre-test and posttest analysis utilizing student t-test analysis supported the hypothesis. This study shows increased student learning as a result of using living organisms as models for classification and working in an inquiry-based learning environment.

  14. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  15. Standards for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borson, Eugene N.

    2004-10-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job. Standards that are used in contamination control have increased in numbers over the years as more industries have had to improve their manufacturing processes to enhance reliability or yields of products. Some older standards have been revised to include new technologies, and many new standards have been developed. Some of the new standards were written for specific industries while others apply to many industries. Many government standards have been replaced with standards from nongovernmental standards organizations. This trend has been encouraged by U.S. law that requires the government to use commercial standards where possible. This paper reviews some of the more important standards for the aerospace industry, such as IEST-STD-CC1246 and ISO 14644-1, that have been published in recent years. Benefits, usage, and problems with some standards will be discussed. Some standards are referenced, and websites of some standards organizations are listed.

  16. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  17. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  19. Resetting Biological Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  20. Standardized Analytical Methods for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methodology was formulated for use in the event of a terrorist attack using a variety of chemical, radioactive, biological, and toxic agents. Standardized analysis procedures were determined for use should these events occur. This publication is annually updated....

  1. Mythology in Introductory Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Argues that introductory courses in college biology do a poor job of encouraging students to enter a career in biology. Cites examples of poorly written textbooks and treatments of various aspects of biology including basic definitions, cells and their operations, the mechanics of life, the nervous system, evolution and sex. (TW)

  2. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  3. General Biology Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Scott; Watthews, Thomas

    This syllabus has been developed as an alternative to Regents biology and is intended for the average student who could benefit from an introductory biology course. It is divided into seven major units dealing with, respectively: (1) similarities among living things; (2) human biology (focusing on nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, and…

  4. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  5. Teaching and Learning Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdeswell, W. H.

    Provided in this book is a critical review of modern biology curricula and teaching methods with particular reference to the advance of knowledge and changes in society. The book consists of an introduction (discussing biology as a subject, attitudes to learning, and values in biology teaching), 12 chapters, and 4 appendices. Teaching/learning…

  6. Biology Myth-Killers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  7. Designing synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  8. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  9. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  10. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  11. 78 FR 43817 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of 1995 E. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) F. Civil Justice Reform (Executive Order 12988) G... to remove the reference to an organizational unit that no longer exists and replace it with current... assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required. F. Civil Justice Reform (Executive Order...

  12. The chromosome-centric human proteome project: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Hühmer, Andreas F R; Paulus, Aran; Martin, LeRoy B; Millis, Kevin; Agreste, Tasha; Saba, Julian; Lill, Jennie R; Fischer, Steven M; Dracup, William; Lavery, Paddy

    2013-01-04

    The grand vision of the human proteome project (HPP) is moving closer to reality with the recent announcement by HUPO of the creation of the HPP consortium in charge of the development of a two-part HPP, one focused on the description of proteomes of biological samples or related to diseases (B/D-HPP) and the other dedicated to a systematic description of proteins as gene products encoded in the human genome (the C-HPP). This new initiative of HUPO seeks to identify and characterize at least one representative protein from every gene, create a protein distribution atlas and a protein pathway or network map. This vision for proteomics can be the roadmap of biological and clinical research for years to come if it delivers on its promises. The Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) to HUPO shares the visions of C-HPP. The IAB will support and critically accompany the overall project goals and the definitions of the critical milestones. The member companies are in a unique position to develop hardware and software, reagents and standards, procedures, and workflows to ensure a reliable source of tools available to the proteomics community worldwide. In collaboration with academia, the IAB member companies can and must develop the tools to reach the ambitious project goals. We offer to partner with and challenge the academic groups leading the C-HPP to define both ambitious and obtainable goals and milestones to make the C-HPP a real and trusted resource for future biology.

  13. Biological and phylogenic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease virus circulating in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this report, virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2006 were subjected to biological and phylogenetic assessment. Biological characterization using standard pathogenicity tests and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT)...

  14. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  15. 40 CFR 414.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 414.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment... end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance... also must not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow...

  17. 40 CFR 414.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment... end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance... also must not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow...

  18. 40 CFR 414.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 414.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....84 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.9 of this...

  20. 40 CFR 414.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....84 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.9 of this...

  1. 40 CFR 414.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment... end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance... also must not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow...

  2. 40 CFR 414.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 414.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment... end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance... also must not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow...

  4. 40 CFR 414.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to this...

  5. 40 CFR 414.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 414.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....64 New source performance standards (NSPS) (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.91 of this...

  7. 40 CFR 414.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....64 New source performance standards (NSPS) (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.91 of this...

  8. 40 CFR 414.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....64 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.91 of this...

  9. 40 CFR 414.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....84 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.9 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 414.74 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment... end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance... also must not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow...

  11. 40 CFR 414.34 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to this...

  12. 40 CFR 414.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....84 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.9 of this...

  13. 40 CFR 414.64 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....64 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.91 of this...

  14. 40 CFR 414.84 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in....84 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.9 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 414.24 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is subject to... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to this...

  16. 40 CFR 414.54 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 414.44 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source that uses end-of-pipe biological treatment and is... biological treatment and is subject to this subpart must achieve discharges in accordance with § 414.101 of... not exceed the quantity (mass) determined by multiplying the process wastewater flow subject to...

  18. Plant Content in the National Science Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards (NSES) provides few resources for teaching about plants. To assure students understand and appreciate plants, the author advocates teaching about plants as a basic biological concept, avoiding animal chauvinism in biology coursework, correcting pseudoscience and anthropomorphisms about plants, and making…

  19. Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Suzanne W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Living organisms are used as biological pest control agents in (i) classical biological control, primarily for permanent control of introduced perennial weed pests or introduced pests of perennial crops; (ii) augmentative biological control, for temporary control of native or introduced pests of annual crops grown in monoculture; and (iii) conservative or natural control, in which the agroecosystem is managed to maximize the effect of native or introduced biological control agents. The effectiveness of biological control can be improved if it is based on adequate ecological information and theory, and if it is integrated with other pest management practices.

  20. Synthetic biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M.

    2013-09-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics.

  1. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  2. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. PMID:24222925

  3. Challenges and opportunities in synthetic biology for chemical engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, YZ; Lee, JK; Zhao, HM

    2013-11-15

    Synthetic biology provides numerous great opportunities for chemical engineers in the development of new processes for large-scale production of biofuels, value-added chemicals, and protein therapeutics. However, challenges across all scales abound. In particular, the modularization and standardization of the components in a biological system, so-called biological parts, remain the biggest obstacle in synthetic biology. In this perspective, we will discuss the main challenges and opportunities in the rapidly growing synthetic biology field and the important roles that chemical engineers can play in its advancement. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007). The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology / systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology. PMID:20838980

  5. Computational systems chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  6. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  7. Medical Assisting Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the medical assisting program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  8. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  9. Stricter clean air standards

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    1997-07-01

    New standards for ozone and particulate matter stir a debate between the EPA and industrial groups. The article discusses both the history of the ozone and particulates standards, the goal of the EPA to protect health and evaluation of what the standards mean to health, and the industrial response.

  10. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  11. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  12. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and…

  13. ALA Standards Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL. Committee on Standards.

    This American Library Association (ALA) policy statement and procedure manual is intended for use in the preparation of all standards issued by ALA and its component units to insure coordination of format and correlation of content of ALA standards. A brief discussion of the purpose of standards is offered, followed by definitions of four types of…

  14. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  15. Standards for excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A history of the development of standard units and regulations of measurement are discussed in this educational video. John Aston narrates the historical background, from colonial times to the present, of the need for measurement standardization and discusses the conception of the National Bureau of Standards (1901), of the United States Department of Commerce. Historical photography and film footage is included.

  16. Standards for Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

  17. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  18. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  19. Chemical Foundations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

  20. [Biologic therapy in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy].

    PubMed

    Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Ramos Casals, Manel; Grau Junyent, Josep M

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this article is to study the evidence-based knowledge related to the use of biological therapies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (dermatomyositis, polymyositis and inclusion body myositis). In this review the leading published studies related to the use of biological therapy in patients with myositis are analysed; mainly those with high methodological standards, that means randomized and controlled studies. Methodological drawbacks due to the rarity and heterogeneity of these complex diseases are also addressed. Up to now is not possible to ascertain the biologics as a recommended therapy in patients with myositis, at least based in the current evidence-based knowledge, although it can not be neglected as a therapeutic option in some clinical situations, taking into account the scarce of effective treatments in those patients, especially in refractory myositis. Future studies probably will help to better define the role of biological therapies in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

  1. Energy efficient lighting for the biological clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Unexpectedly the existence of a formerly unknown type of photoreceptor in the human eye has been proven about 10 years ago. Primarily sensitive in the blue spectral range it is responsible for transducing light signals directly into the brain, controlling essential biological functions like setting of the circadian clock or daytime activation. Recent scientific research has enabled beneficial applications. The paradigms for good lighting design are shifting and standardization activities have been started to build up a sound base for description and application of biologically effective lighting. Latest improvements of LED technology are now allowing realizeation of advanced lighting solutions based on SSL. Optimization of biological effects is possible while demands on good vision are maintained. As biologically effective lighting is addressing a second system besides vision in the human body a measure beyond lumen per watt is required for a proper description of energy efficiency.

  2. Nature versus design: synthetic biology or how to build a biological non-machine.

    PubMed

    Porcar, M; Peretó, J

    2016-04-18

    The engineering ideal of synthetic biology presupposes that organisms are composed of standard, interchangeable parts with a predictive behaviour. In one word, organisms are literally recognized as machines. Yet living objects are the result of evolutionary processes without any purposiveness, not of a design by external agents. Biological components show massive overlapping and functional degeneracy, standard-free complexity, intrinsic variation and context dependent performances. However, although organisms are not full-fledged machines, synthetic biologists may still be eager for machine-like behaviours from artificially modified biosystems.

  3. The Biology of Ewing Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Keir A.; Smyth, Niall A.; Murawski, Christopher D.; Kennedy, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to review the current literature on the biology of Ewing's sarcoma, including current treatments and the means by which an understanding of biological mechanisms could impact future treatments. Methods. A search of PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration was performed. Both preclinical and clinical evidence was considered, but specific case reports were not. Primary research articles and reviews were analyzed with an emphasis on recent publications. Results. Ewing sarcoma is associated with specific chromosomal translocations and the resulting transcripts/proteins. Knowledge of the biology of Ewing sarcoma has been growing but has yet to significantly impact or produce new treatments. Localized cases have seen improvements in survival rates, but the same cannot be said of metastatic and recurrent cases. Standard surgical, radiation, and chemotherapy treatments are reaching their efficacy limits. Conclusion. Improving prognosis likely lies in advancing biomarkers and early diagnosis, determining a cell(s) of origin, and developing effective molecular therapeutics and antiangiogenic agents. Preclinical evidence suggests the utility of molecular therapies for Ewing sarcoma. Early clinical results also reveal potential for novel treatments but require further development and evaluation before widespread use can be advocated. PMID:23346417

  4. Permanent Turbidity-Standards

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, William G.; Brewer, Carl R.

    1967-01-01

    Permanent turbidity reference standards suitable for measurement of microbial suspensions were prepared by suspending finely divided titanium dioxide in aryl sulfonamide-formaldehyde or methylstyrene resins. Turbidities of these standards, adjusted to a useful range for microbiological and immunological studies, were compared with other reference standards in use today. Tube holders for a Coleman Photonephelometer and a Nepho-Colorimeter were modified to eliminate the water well and to allow use of optically standardized 10-, 16-, or 18-mm test tubes. The standards and the tube holders have been used satisfactorily for more than 12 years. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6077410

  5. Airborne Network Camera Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 10 standards for command and control over a...cover terminology included in or consistent with the GigE Vision1 (GEV) and IRIG 106-13 Chapter 102 standards for command and control over a variety of... standard is primarily to cover terminology included in or consistent with the GEV standard and the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 standard document. RCC Document

  6. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  7. Introducing Statistical Inference to Biology Students through Bootstrapping and Randomization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Robin H.; Lock, Patti Frazer

    2008-01-01

    Bootstrap methods and randomization tests are increasingly being used as alternatives to standard statistical procedures in biology. They also serve as an effective introduction to the key ideas of statistical inference in introductory courses for biology students. We discuss the use of such simulation based procedures in an integrated curriculum…

  8. Cycles of Nature. An Introduction to Biological Rhythms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren, Andrew; Halberg, Franz

    This book is an outlined for the short study (1- to 2-weeks) of chronobiology, a field of science that explores the relationships between time and biological functions. It develops step-by-step the reasoning that leads to the current scientific understanding of biological rhythms. The unit can be inserted into a standard middle or high school…

  9. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  10. [Natural biological risks and military biological risks].

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Attree, O; Mage, R; Tournier, J N; Quesnel-Hellmann, A

    2000-01-01

    The Iraqi biological program, the activities of sect Aum in Japan and the extensive endemicity of plague prove the existence of military, terrorist and natural biological risks. Among the agents of natural risk (viruses, bacteria.), plague is induced by modification of the ecosystem. Present since 1921 in the high plateau of Madagaskar, the disease evolves under two modes, endemic (natural) or epidemic (urban). Since the control of endemicity is impossible, the decrease of incidence will be obtained by the control of the animal reservoir. The military risk is part of the history of armed conquests. Anthrax and botulinum toxins, are the most toxic agents, banned by the Convention of London (1972). In 1995, 4 years after the end of Gulf war, UNSCOM obtained from authorities the inventory of Iraqi biological program, with details on the militarization of toxins and spores. These furtive weapons, are produced with limited technological skills, often in dual manufactures and are difficult to control.

  11. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  12. The fusion of biology, computer science, and engineering: towards efficient and successful synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Linshiz, Gregory; Goldberg, Alex; Konry, Tania; Hillson, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a nascent field that emerged in earnest only around the turn of the millennium. It aims to engineer new biological systems and impart new biological functionality, often through genetic modifications. The design and construction of new biological systems is a complex, multistep process, requiring multidisciplinary collaborative efforts from "fusion" scientists who have formal training in computer science or engineering, as well as hands-on biological expertise. The public has high expectations for synthetic biology and eagerly anticipates the development of solutions to the major challenges facing humanity. This article discusses laboratory practices and the conduct of research in synthetic biology. It argues that the fusion science approach, which integrates biology with computer science and engineering best practices, including standardization, process optimization, computer-aided design and laboratory automation, miniaturization, and systematic management, will increase the predictability and reproducibility of experiments and lead to breakthroughs in the construction of new biological systems. The article also discusses several successful fusion projects, including the development of software tools for DNA construction design automation, recursive DNA construction, and the development of integrated microfluidics systems.

  13. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  14. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  15. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  16. Using the international normalized ratio to standardize prothrombin time.

    PubMed

    Stern, R; Karlis, V; Kinney, L; Glickman, R

    1997-08-01

    The international normalized ratio, or INR, was introduced in 1983 by the World Health Organization, or WHO, Committee on Biological Standards to more accurately assess patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. The INR mandates the universal standardization of prothrombin time. This article describes the method used to calculate INR, as well as its clinical relevance to the practice of dentistry.

  17. Macromolecules Inquiry: Transformation of a Standard Biochemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Identification of macromolecules in food is a standard introductory high school biology lab. The intent of this article is to describe the conversion of this standard cookbook lab into an inquiry investigation. Instead of verifying the macromolecules found in food, students use their knowledge of the macromolecules in food to determine the…

  18. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  19. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  20. Biological detector and method

    SciTech Connect

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  1. Do Standards Matter? How the Quality of State Standards Relate to Evolution Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses biology instruction focusing on evolution-related policies and state guidelines. Reports on teacher preferences for teaching either creationism or evolution in science classes and compares these results between states based on grade level and how they treat evolution in their educational standards. (Contains 26 references.) (YDS)

  2. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  3. NDTA narcotics standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

  4. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  5. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  6. Workshop Introduction: Systems Biology and Biological Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we consider the future of toxicity testing, the importance of applying biological models to this problem is clear. Modeling efforts exist along a continuum with respect to the level of organization (e.g. cell, tissue, organism) linked to the resolution of the model. Generally,...

  7. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  8. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences.

  9. International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; Lightbown, J. W.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1959-01-01

    A batch of highly purified phenoxymethylpenicillin has been examined by eight laboratories in seven different countries, and has been assayed against the phenoxymethylpenicillin standard of the Food and Drug Administration of the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The material examined has been established as the International Standard for Phenoxymethylpenicillin, and the International Unit of Phenoxymethylpenicillin is defined as the activity contained in 0.000590 mg of the International Standard. PMID:14405369

  10. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  11. Evolving Parts Standardization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 WARFIGHTER FOCUSED, GLOBALLY RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 2 • Supports nearly...RESPONSIVE SUPPLY CHAIN LEADERSHIP 5 • Limited at DLA – Legacy systems with MIL- STD -965 requirements – Few parts review for MIL- STD -3018 • Standardization...Standardization by natural selection – Performance characteristics – MIL- STD -3018 – Availability, usage on other systems, environmental

  12. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  13. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  14. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  15. Avionic standard module development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Stanley C.; Cormier, Edmond P.; Piszkin, Thomas A.

    Avionics standard modules with redundancy offer substantial economic benefits compared to special-purpose processor units for the orbital transfer vehicle and advanced launch vehicle programs. A fiber optic, serial vehicle bus provides high throughput with modest hardware. A bistage, split tapered, star optical coupler uses a token-pass/token-demand protocol. It is reported that a standard module implementation of the above is a feasible, cost-effective approach to avionics design using standard buses and standard packaging. The VHSIC integrated package readily accommodates higher-speed VLSI chips as they become available.

  16. Biological monitors of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, M.

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the use of biological monitors to assess the biological consequences of toxicants in the environment, such as bioavailability, synergism, and bioaccumulation through the food web. Among the organisms discussed are fly larvae, worms, bees, shellfish, fishes, birds (starlings, owls, hawks, songbirds) and mammals (rabbits, field mice, shrews).

  17. Biology Bulletins "Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In October 1981, an article appeared in "The American Biology Teacher" with the catchy title, "Bio-Bull." In it, author, Dale Carlson, described a powerful form of communication that he employed successfully in his community college classes. Each week students received what he called a "Bio-Bull" that included current biological topics,…

  18. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  19. Biology 100-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

    This publication is the course guide book for a one-semester, non-laboratory junior college course in biology. Included for each topic are lesson objectives, learning materials, and discussion ideas for seminar groups. Topics include the organization of life, heredity, reproduction, the meaning of biology to modern man, and homeostasis and…

  20. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  1. Biology and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sheila; Oberg, Kristina; Unnerstad, Gunilla

    1999-01-01

    Researchers studied English and Swedish biology student teachers' perceptions of teaching health as part of biology. As part of the study, the students investigated secondary students' understanding of health. Surveys and interviews were effective in collecting student teachers' views. They indicated that student teachers' perceptions changed over…

  2. Sourcebook for Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Donald L.; And Others

    This is a reference book of curriculum and multimedia materials, equipment and supplies, professional references, and auxiliary resource material. This sourcebook attempts to meet the needs of the classroom biology teacher and is a direct response to the many questions and concerns of both biology teachers and those preparing to become teachers.…

  3. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  4. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  5. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  6. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  7. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  8. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology.

    PubMed

    Haumann, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  9. Human Biology: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Education is a process of adapting to change, and the rate of change is especially rapid in science today. This curriculum in human biology is an alternative to the New York State courses in general and Regents biology, and it has been designed to focus on change from the standpoint of the urban student. It is designed to provide students with…

  10. Towards a Liberal Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P. M. C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of a university biology department and the organization of its curriculum in terms of perceived crises in British biology. Concludes that reform becomes a project of crucial importance, not only to the social and technological development of civilized societies, but to the survival of the human species. (Author/AL)

  11. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  12. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  13. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  14. Reform in biology education: Teachers' implementation of a new biology curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasse, Eleanor Enthoven

    Biology: A Community Context (BACC) (Leonard & Penick, 1998) is a National Science Foundation funded high school biology curriculum designed to meet the goals of the reform movement in science education as envisioned in the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1993). This study of a pilot implementation of the BACC curriculum illustrates some of the issues that emerged for teachers as they used an inquiry curriculum in the context of a district emphasis on meeting standards. In the first paper, "Teaching Biology Content Using an Inquiry Curriculum," I discuss the issues involved with teaching biology content using this inquiry curriculum. Teachers had difficulty bridging the gaps they perceived between the content in the curriculum and the content in their district standards; they had difficulty using the inquiry activities in the curriculum to teach content, and they did not accept some aspects of the instructional strategy. Professional development for teachers implementing inquiry curricula in the context of accountability for content oriented standards needs to address these issues directly and in an on-going fashion. In the second paper, "Is Science Education Reform Reaching the Classroom?", I use a framework developed by the National Research Council (2002) to investigate the ways in which these teachers and their classroom practices were affected by national standards. This framework has three channels of influence: ways in which national standards might affect classroom practice and thus student learning. These are curriculum, teacher development, and assessment and accountability practices. In the pilot implementation of BACC, all three channels had been influenced by "Standards" based reform, but they were not internally aligned nor were they completely coordinated with one another. This led to implementation issues

  15. ESTABLISH AND STANDARDIZE METHODOLOGY FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research is conducted to develop and standardize methods to detect and measure occurrence of human enteric viruses that cause waterborne disease. The viruses of concern include the emerging pathogens--hepatitis E virus and group B rotaviruses. Also of concern are the coxsackieviruses and echoviruses--two members of the Office of Water's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Under this task, indicators of fecal pollution are also being evaluated as to their importance in evaluating microbial water quality. Another focus of the research is to address the standardization, evaluation and promulgation of detection methods for bacterial viruses. Develop sensitive techniques to detect and identify emerging human waterborne pathogenic viruses and viruses on the CCL.Determine effectiveness of viral indicators to measure microbial quality in water matrices.Support activities: (a) culture and distribution of mammalian cells for Agency and scientific community research needs, (b) provide operator expertise for research requiring confocal and electron microscopy, (c) glassware cleaning, sterilization and biological waste disposal for the Cincinnati EPA facility, (d) operation of infectious pathogenic suite, (e) maintenance of walk-in constant temperature rooms and (f) provide Giardia cysts.

  16. Standardization through Mechanization”

    PubMed Central

    KIRK, ROBERT G. W.

    2012-01-01

    “In all his work,” Science News-Letter reported on 17 August 1940, “Reyniers follows a slogan of his own, follows it so zealously as to make it almost a fetish: standardization through mechanization.”1 Utilizing new technologies that he designed and built, James Reyniers came to “wide notice in the world of science” due to his innovative approach to standardizing organisms for use as experimental tools. “Ordinarily, when a scientist wants to study an unknown germ (or drug, or nutrient) he tries it out on an experimental animal,” Life magazine explained in September 1949 when reporting Reyniers’s innovative technologies. “But since all laboratory animals are invariably contaminated by a host of unknown germs, he can never be absolutely sure that results he sees are really caused by the agent he is testing. This problem … can be solved only by using animals whose bodies contain no germs at all. Now, for the first time, such animals are available.”2 Reyniers had extended the bacteriological ideal of pure culture to encompass the whole organism, creating “bacteriologically blank” organisms, or “biological tabula rasa,” which he believed formed ideal tools for experimental science. PMID:22530388

  17. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  18. Rewriting the Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, aggressive leadership from the National Association for Music Education resulted in the adoption of the nine National Standards for Music Education. Now, almost two decades later, much has changed. Standards have been studied and critiqued, and scholars have undertaken a great deal of research to identify best practices not only for…

  19. The Standards Projects: Agricultural Education Standards; Industrial Arts Education Standards; Vocational Home Economics Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Harold R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three program areas in vocational education which now have nationally developed and validated standards: agriculture and agribusiness education, home economics, and industrial arts. Standards cover curriculum, students served, instructional staff, administration and supervision, support systems, teaching methods, public relations, safety…

  20. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public comments.…

  1. Appliance Standard Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  2. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  3. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. ); Lebot, B. )

    1993-03-01

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  4. Smithsonian Microbeam Standards.

    PubMed

    Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This is a short history of the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards; their sources, selection, preparation, and analyses. Fifty-eight minerals, natural glasses, and synthetic samples have been characterized in the past 25 years. During that time, over 750 requests were received for approximately 11 000 individual samples. These reference samples are referred to as the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards.

  5. Standardized Developmental Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlam, David; Byrne, Maureen

    The feasibility of standardized assessment of features of children's organization of knowledge and the demonstration of differences in organization between stages of development were investigated. It was possible to standardize developmentally derived instruments, in the same way as empirically derived tests because such evaluations concern the…

  6. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  7. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  8. New Source Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

    1972-01-01

    This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

  9. Why Standards Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  10. [CAS General Standards 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  11. Technological Literacy Standards Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Shelli; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Creating programs and curricular offerings that are standards-based is a worthwhile goal that can best be achieved by using the many and varied resources available to educators and others. This article describes several such resources, including the ITEA Annual Conference, ITEA-CATTS Standards Specialists, ITEA-CATTS Engineering byDesign[TM]…

  12. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Oregon Social Sciences Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The study of the social sciences includes: history, civics, geography, and economics to prepare students for responsible citizenship. The Oregon state standards for social sciences sets out common curriculum goals, content standards, information for Benchmark 1 (grade three), Benchmark 2 (grade five), Benchmark 3 (grade eight), and Certificate of…

  14. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  15. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  16. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  17. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  18. Appliance Standard Testing

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen; Tiemann, Gregg

    2016-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Appliance Standards and Equipment Program tests, sets and helps enforce efficiency standards on more than 60 U.S. products. A majority of that testing is performed at the Intertek laboratory in Cortland, NY.

  19. Descriptive Metadata: Emerging Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahronheim, Judith R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses metadata, digital resources, cross-disciplinary activity, and standards. Highlights include Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); Extensible Markup Language (XML); Dublin Core; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Text Encoding Initiative (TEI); Encoded Archival Description (EAD); art and cultural-heritage metadata initiatives;…

  20. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  1. Standards in Science Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    The final version of standards aimed at reshaping the focus and delivery of science instruction in U.S. schools was publicly unveiled last week, setting the stage for states--many of which helped craft the standards--to take the next step and consider adopting them as their own. More than three years in the making, the Next Generation Science…

  2. Minnesota Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document contains all of the Minnesota kindergarten academic standards in the content areas of Arts, English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies. For each content area there is a short overview followed by a coding diagram of how the standards are organized and displayed. This document is adapted from the official versions…

  3. Biological Resource Centers and Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Lilburn, Timothy G

    2009-02-11

    There are hundreds of Biological Resource Centers (BRCs) around the world, holding many little-studied microorganism. The proportion of bacterial strains that is well represented in the sequence and literature databases may be as low as 1%. This body of unexplored diversity represents an untapped source of useful strains and derived products. However, a modicum of phenotypic data is available for almost all the bacterial strains held by BRCs around the world. It is at the phenotypic level that our knowledge of the well-studied strains of bacteria and the many yet-to-be studied strains intersects. This suggests we might leverage the phenotypic data from the data-poor bacteria with the omics data from the data-rich bacteria, using our knowledge of their evolutionary relationships, to map the metabolic networks of the little-known bacteria. This systems biology-based approach is a new way to explore the diversity harbored in BRCs.

  4. Electron microprobe analysis program for biological specimens: BIOMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. F.

    1972-01-01

    BIOMAP is a Univac 1108 compatible program which facilitates the electron probe microanalysis of biological specimens. Input data are X-ray intensity data from biological samples, the X-ray intensity and composition data from a standard sample and the electron probe operating parameters. Outputs are estimates of the weight percentages of the analyzed elements, the distribution of these estimates for sets of red blood cells and the probabilities for correlation between elemental concentrations. An optional feature statistically estimates the X-ray intensity and residual background of a principal standard relative to a series of standards.

  5. Lizard thermal biology: do genders differ?

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Pianka, Eric R

    2007-09-01

    For more than six decades, physiological ecologists have intensively studied diverse aspects of lizard thermal biology. Nevertheless, a recent review notes that prior studies have generally ignored gender differences in body temperatures, thermal sensitivity, or other aspects of thermal biology. We concur that gender differences have been ignored and should be examined: if gender differences prove common, standard protocols for studying lizard natural history, thermal physiology, and ecology will require significant modification. To help resolve this issue, we conducted a retrospective analysis of our huge data set on the thermal biology of many desert lizards (more than 11,000 individuals from 56 species in seven major clades) from Africa, Australia, and North America. Results are unambiguous: gender differences in body temperature, air temperature, and time of activity--and thus in field thermal biology--are almost always minor. In fact, mean body temperatures of males and females differ by less than 1 degrees C in 80.4% of species. For desert lizards, gender differences in thermal biology are the exception, not the rule. Nevertheless, gender differences should be examined when feasible because exceptions--though likely rare--could be biologically interesting.

  6. Biology curriculum in twentieth-century Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Óscar; Zanón, Beatriz; Pérez-Pl, José Francisco

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years of history of Spanish biology curricula are reviewed in this article. The aim of this analysis is focused on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decisionmaking procedures in the construction of the national curricula published under the different regimes that have governed Spain over the last 100 years. The study covers the secondary level of schooling (age 10 up to university), and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level. Special attention is given to the teaching of evolution, the most sensitive issue in biology education, and some parallelisms are traced and compared with similar phenomena occurring in other countries. The new trends in biology education from the last reform of the Spanish education system are briefly discussed. This study provides a perspective of the pressures affecting socially controversial issues included in education. These pressures have been identified mainly as political, social, and religious beliefs held by powerful and influential social groups, the same kinds of forces that have existed in other countries worldwide. Studies such as this one, about the real forces that have shaped curriculum development in the past, are vital for understanding the present circumstances in biology education and, therefore, unavoidable in order to enhance future standards in biology education.

  7. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  8. Toward a Common Standard: The Role of Law Enforcement at WMD Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    York City model, and the U.S. Bomb Squad and United Kingdom law enforcement chemical/biological/ radiological /nuclear training programs are examined as...City model, and the U.S. Bomb Squad and United Kingdom law enforcement chemical/biological/ radiological /nuclear training programs are examined as...14 D. THE LACK OF MANDATORY FEDERAL CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL/ RADIOLOGICAL DETECTION EQUIPMENT STANDARDS

  9. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  10. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  11. Controlled annotations for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Juty, Nick; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide sufficient information to enable a reader, new to the subject of Systems Biology, to create and use effectively controlled annotations, using resolvable Identifiers.org Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). The text details the underlying requirements that have led to the development of such an identification scheme and infrastructure, the principles that underpin its syntax and the benefits derived through its use. It also places into context the relationship with other standardization efforts, how it differs from other pre-existing identification schemes, recent improvements to the system, as well as those that are planned in the future. Throughout, the reader is provided with explicit examples of use and directed to supplementary information where necessary.

  12. Metabolomics and malaria biology

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Daily, Johanna P.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolomics has ushered in a novel and multi-disciplinary realm in biological research. It has provided researchers with a platform to combine powerful biochemical, statistical, computational, and bioinformatics techniques to delve into the mysteries of biology and disease. The application of metabolomics to study malaria parasites represents a major advance in our approach towards gaining a more comprehensive perspective on parasite biology and disease etiology. This review attempts to highlight some of the important aspects of the field of metabolomics, and its ongoing and potential future applications to malaria research. PMID:20970461

  13. Evolutionary Design in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Kay C.

    Much progress has been achieved in recent years in molecular biology and genetics. The sheer volume of data in the form of biological sequences has been enormous and efficient methods for dealing with these huge amounts of data are needed. In addition, the data alone does not provide information on the workings of biological systems; hence much research effort has focused on designing mathematical and computational models to address problems from molecular biology. Often, the terms bioinformatics and computational biology are used to refer to the research fields concerning themselves with designing solutions to molecular problems in biology. However, there is a slight distinction between bioinformatics and computational biology: the former is concerned with managing the enormous amounts of biological data and extracting information from it, while the latter is more concerned with the design and development of new algorithms to address problems such as protein or RNA folding. However, the boundary is blurry, and there is no consistent usage of the terms. We will use the term bioinformatics to encompass both fields. To cover all areas of research in bioinformatics is beyond the scope of this section and we refer the interested reader to [2] for a general introduction. A large part of what bioinformatics is concerned about is evolution and function of biological systems on a molecular level. Evolutionary computation and evolutionary design are concerned with developing computational systems that "mimic" certain aspects of natural evolution (mutation, crossover, selection, fitness). Much of the inner workings of natural evolutionary systems have been copied, sometimes in modified format into evolutionary computation systems. Artificial neural networks mimic the functioning of simple brain cell clusters. Fuzzy systems are concerned with the "fuzzyness" in decision making, similar to a human expert. These three computational paradigms fall into the category of

  14. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  15. Standardization in optics characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Detlev

    2000-11-01

    In many advanced fields of optical technology, progresses are extremely dependent on reliable characterization procedures employed for quality assessment in volume manufacturing as well as for the optimization of high performance optical components. With the rapid development of laser technology and modern optics, especially optical metrology gained of importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical components. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered nowadays as common quality factors, which are often indicated in optics catalogues and are considered by the customers for the design of optical systems. As a consequence of this trend, standardization of measurement procedures for the characterization of optical components became a crucial point for the optics industry and for critical applications of optical components in laser systems as well as conventional optical devices. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed in the Technical Committee ISO/TC 172 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) resulting in practical International Standards or Draft Standards for the measurement of optical absorption, scattering, reflectance and laser induced damage thresholds. In this paper, the current state of standardized characterization techniques for optical components is summarized. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO/DIS 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO/DIS 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of recent trends in laser technology and its applications in semiconductor lithography.

  16. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  17. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  18. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  19. Implementation Of Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pates, Don

    1981-01-01

    The application of the proposed ASHRAE Standard "Application of Infrared Sensing Devices to the Assessment of Building Heat Loss Characteristics" afford the design professional and the construction industry with a standard of performance and a test of the quality of the Building Envelope. An established standard is required to communicate a uniform performance test that can be included in Section 00200 supplementary conditions of a new project specifications or contracted for as a special test before commencing a remodeling -retrofit project. Thermograms provided to the design professionals will assist in more thermally effective future designs.

  20. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  1. The navigation of biological hyperspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway Morris, Simon

    2003-04-01

    A recurrent argument against the reality of biological evolution is the claim that there is insufficient time for the emergence of biological complexity. Such a view is a staple of creation "scientists", but even cosmologists and biochemists have been overheard murmuring similar sentiments. Certainly the stock response, that the scientific evidence for evolution is overwhelming, must be made. However, it is also the case that whilst the efficacity of natural selection is not in dispute, it is context-free and fails to explain the specificities of life. This observation is usually greeted with a Gallic shrug: "Yes, the biosphere is very rich, but so what?" Indeed, the standard scientific response is that evolution is dogged by contingent happenstance, with the implication that a given complexity, say intelligence, is an evolutionary fluke. This, however, is inconsistent with the ubiquity of evolutionary convergence. Here I outline the argument for such convergence providing a "road-map" of possibilities that arguably has universal applications and as importantly points to a much deeper structure to life.

  2. Vaccines and biologics.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel; Isenberg, David

    2014-08-01

    Patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infectious complications during the course of their disease. The introduction of biologics has been a major achievement in treating these diseases, but an increased risk of infection associated with these therapies has become evident. Some infections can be prevented by vaccination and it is clearly worthwhile considering which immunisations would be sensible and practicable for these patients. To date no formal specific recommendations for patients on biologics have been published. A search was made of Medline (via PubMed) from 1970 to January 2014 to provide results. This review aims to provide a systematic analysis of the data about vaccines and biologics and considers recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with biologics.

  3. Adding Math to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Describes a teaching method in which students learn about evolutionary biology through the use of mathematics. Uses the concept of biostatistics, the mathematical analysis of the variation in nature, to understand evolution. (SAH)

  4. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  5. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  6. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  7. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-03-08

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 86 is June 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  9. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  10. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  11. Biologic Medications for Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prescribe a biologic if: You have had tuberculosis in the past. You have had other infections. ... include: Allergic reactions Liver damage Cancer Serious infections: tuberculosis, pneumonia, staph, and certain fungal infections Here’s what ...

  12. A Challenge to Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Cautions biology instructors to be aware of the possible overproduction of life science scholars whose future may include unemployment or underemployment. Urges that these instructors provide their students with knowledge for employment outside the traditional educational and research fields. (MLH)

  13. Progress in space biology.

    PubMed

    Imshenetskii, A A

    1979-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has arisen a new branch of biology--space biology. This short review is devoted to a discussion of its achievements. It considers the results of research in the area of gravitation biology, and an account is made of studies in those areas of radiobiology which have relevance to the study of the cosmos. There is a brief summary of the results of the search for the upper and lower limits of the biosphere, and information is presented regarding the measures employed to maintain planetary quarantine. A great deal of attention has been given to the search for extraterrestrial life, one of the most important of problems. The results obtained with the aid of the American Viking probes on Mars are given special attention. The review presents experimental data based both upon data obtained in experiments on biological specimens during space flights of satellites and space vehicles, and also upon the results of laboratory research.

  14. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  15. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  16. Biological entity recognition with conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2008-11-06

    Due to the rapid evolution of molecular biology and the lack of naming standards, biological entity recognition (BER) remains a challenging task for information extraction and natural language understanding. In this study, we presented a statistical machine learning approach for extracting features, modeling, and predicting biological named entities. Our approach utilizes UMLS semantic types together with MetaMap, SemRep, and ABGene, as well as the conditional random fields (CRF) framework, and learns both the structure and parameters of a statistical model. Results of this study are competitive with the results of the state of the art tools in this field. Unlike competing similar approaches, the presented method is fully automatic, hence more generalizable and directly transferable to other named entity recognition (NER) problems in medical informatics.

  17. Principles of biological therapy in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Caca Biljanovska, N; V'lckova Laskoska, M

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic T-cell mediated autoimmune skin disease, potentially associated with arthritis. The new understanding of immunopathogenesis and inflammatory cytokine pathways was actually the rationale for developing and introducing biological drugs in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Different from the traditional systemic drugs that impact the entire immune system, bio-logics target only specific points of the immune system. This review focuses on five biologics which target either T-cells (alefacept) or TNF-alpha (etanercept, adalimumab and infliximab) or interleukin IL-12/IL-23 (ustekinumab)--their efficacy, safety, patient monitoring and recommended dosage. The purpose of the treatment guidelines presented here is to provide a high standard of continuing care of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients.

  18. Tadpoles: the Biology of Anuran Larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Altig, R.

    1999-01-01

    The recent alarming declines in amphibian populations worldwide and the suitability of amphibians for use in answering research questions in disciplines as diverse as molecular systematics, animal behavior, ecology, and evolutionary biology have focused enormous attention on tadpoles. Yet despite this growing interest, relatively little is known about these fascinating creatures. n this invaluable reference, leading experts on tadpole biology relate what we currently know about tadpoles and what we might learn from them in the future. Tadpoles provides detailed summaries of tadpole morphology, development, behavior, ecology, and environmental physiology; explores the evolutionary consequences of the tadpole stage; synthesizes available information on their biodiversity, and presents a standardized terminology and an exhaustive literature review of tadpole biology.

  19. Potential Biological Weapons Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    Iraq’s admission in 1995 to having quantities of anthrax, botulinum toxin, and aflatoxin ready to use as weapons have clearly shown that research in...could cause large loss of life, in addition to disruption, panic, and overwhelming of the civilian health- care resources (12). To be used for a...Biological agents involved in bioterrorism or biocrimes3 Pathogens Toxins Anti- crop agents Traditional biological warfare agents Bacillus

  20. Nestedness across biological scales.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Mauricio; Pires, Mathias M; Marquitti, Flavia M D; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P; Perez, S Ivan; Barneche, Diego R; Brandt, Débora Y C; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G; Floeter, Sergio R; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  1. Abortion, ethics, and biology.

    PubMed

    Wind, J

    1978-01-01

    An argument is made for applying the principles of evolutionary biology to abortion behavior, based on the idea that long-lasting behavior (including ethical behavior) has a positive selective value which theoretically can be translated into population numbers. The approach verges on utilitarianism; it is argued that such an approach could reduce or avoid the emotionality and subjectivity of arguments for and against induced abortion. Actual application of evolutionary biology principles is limited by the rudimentary present state of behavioral science.

  2. Biological Parameters of Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-09-01

    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  3. Nanotubes in biological applications.

    PubMed

    Mundra, Ruchir V; Wu, Xia; Sauer, Jeremy; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kane, Ravi S

    2014-08-01

    Researchers over the last few years have recognized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as promising materials for a number of biological applications. CNTs are increasingly being explored as potent drug carriers for cancer treatment, for biosensing, and as scaffolds for stem cell culture. Moreover, the integration of CNTs with proteins has led to the development of functional nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties. This review aims at understanding the critical role of CNTs in biological applications with a particular emphasis on more recent studies.

  4. Nestedness across biological scales

    PubMed Central

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  5. Standardizing immunophenotyping for the Human Immunology Project.

    PubMed

    Maecker, Holden T; McCoy, J Philip; Nussenblatt, Robert

    2012-02-17

    The heterogeneity in the healthy human immune system, and the immunological changes that portend various diseases, have been only partially described. Their comprehensive elucidation has been termed the 'Human Immunology Project'. The accurate measurement of variations in the human immune system requires precise and standardized assays to distinguish true biological changes from technical artefacts. Thus, to be successful, the Human Immunology Project will require standardized assays for immunophenotyping humans in health and disease. A major tool in this effort is flow cytometry, which remains highly variable with regard to sample handling, reagents, instrument setup and data analysis. In this Review, we outline the current state of standardization of flow cytometry assays and summarize the steps that are required to enable the Human Immunology Project.

  6. Methodological approach to EMF protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchia, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been investigated for many years. Exposure standards have been developed internationally, that provide adequate protection against all known adverse effects of exposure to EMF. The guidelines developed by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are widely recognized and have formed the basis for national regulations in several countries. Concerns for hypothesized, but unproven, long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level EMFs have created a demand for precautionary measures beyond the standards for recognized, acute effects. However, such measure should be separate from exposure standards, and adopted with special care to avoid undermining the credibility of science-based guidelines, and of health protection agencies.

  7. Establishment of reference standards in biosimilar studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijing; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2013-07-31

    When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios. The reference standard can then be used for assessing the degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies.

  8. Molecular biology in physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, S.; Gargus, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this symposium on molecular biology in physiology was to introduce molecular biology to physiologists who had relatively little exposure to the new developments in this field, so that they can become conversant on this topic and contribute to the advancement of physiology by incorporating molecular biological approaches as a part of their research arsenal. This report is a review of the symposium, which consisted of two four-part sessions. Each session had four papers. After the discussion of the basic concepts, terminology, and methodology used in molecular biology, it was shown how these basic principles have been applied to the study of the genes encoding two membrane proteins that have important transport functions (band 3 and ATPase). The second half of the symposium consisted of papers on the state-of-the-art developments in the application of molecular biology to the studies of the atrial natriuretic factor and renin genes, adenylate cyclase-coupled adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine receptors and sodium channel, and long-term and short-term memories. The ultimate goal is that these examples will provide an impetus for the opening of new frontiers of research in physiology by taking advantage of the tools developed from recent advances in molecular biology.

  9. Teaching systems biology.

    PubMed

    Alves, R; Vilaprinyo, E; Sorribas, A

    2011-03-01

    Advances in systems biology are increasingly dependent upon the integration of various types of data and different methodologies to reconstruct how cells work at the systemic level. Thus, teams with a varied array of expertise and people with interdisciplinary training are needed. So far this training was thought to be more productive if aimed at the Masters or PhD level. At this level, multiple specialised and in-depth courses on the different subject matters of systems biology are taught to already well-prepared students. This approach is mostly based on the recognition that systems biology requires a wide background that is hard to find in undergraduate students. Nevertheless, and given the importance of the field, the authors argue that exposition of undergraduate students to the methods and paradigms of systems biology would be advantageous. Here they present and discuss a successful experiment in teaching systems biology to third year undergraduate biotechnology students at the University of Lleida in Spain. The authors' experience, together with that from others, argues for the adequateness of teaching systems biology at the undergraduate level. [Includes supplementary material].

  10. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  11. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  12. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  13. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  14. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  15. Setting the Cleaning Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Explains how well-defined cleaning and maintenance standards helped a community school system resolve problems with custodial staff apportionments. Cleaning time, frequency, and cleanliness levels are combined to create a formula that helps economize custodial care. (GR)

  16. ISBD: Standard or Secret?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    The author, a working librarian-programmer, wonders how such a far-reaching recommended standard could have reached this advanced stage of development with so little public notice. (38 references) (Author/NH)

  17. Biological reference materials for extracellular vesicle studies.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, S; van der Pol, E; Böing, A; Yuana, Y; Yliperttula, M; Nieuwland, R; Laitinen, S; Siljander, P R M

    2017-02-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate normal physiological homeostasis and pathological processes by facilitating intercellular communication. Research of EVs in basic science and clinical settings requires both methodological standardization and development of reference materials (RM). Here, we show insights and results of biological RM development for EV studies. We used a three-step approach to find and develop a biological RM. First, a literature search was done to find candidates for biological RMs. Second, a questionnaire was sent to EV researchers querying the preferences for RM and their use. Third, a biological RM was selected, developed, characterized, and evaluated. The responses to the survey demonstrated a clear and recognized need for RM optimized for the calibration of EV measurements. Based on the literature, naturally occurring and produced biological RM, such as virus particles and liposomes, were proposed as RM. However, none of these candidate RMs have properties completely matching those of EVs, such as size and refractive index distribution. Therefore, we evaluated the use of nanoerythrosomes (NanoE), vesicles produced from erythrocytes, as a potential biological RM. The strength of NanoE is their resemblance to EVs. Compared to the erythrocyte-derived EVs (eryEVs), NanoE have similar morphology, a similar refractive index (1.37), larger diameter (70% of the NanoE are over 200nm), and increased positive staining for CD235a and lipids (Di-8-ANEPPS) (58% and 67% in NanoE vs. 21% and 45% in eryEVs, respectively). Altogether, our results highlight the general need to develop and validate new RM with similar physical and biochemical properties as EVs to standardize EV measurements between instruments and laboratories.

  18. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  19. Standardization Today and Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Order for the Whole World) Eberstein, H.-H.: Sicherheitstechnisches Recht und Normen ; in: Peters. 0. H. u. A. Meyna: Handbuch der Si- cherheitstechnik...on the Protection of Labor for the Development and Design Sector) Landis, J. W.: Freie Welt - freier Handel - freie Normen ; in: DIN-Mitteilungen 57...Norm auf die Vielfalt effect of company standard on variety KonformitAt zu nationalen Normen conformity to national standards Konformit6t zu

  20. SAE Standards Support

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.