Science.gov

Sample records for biological testing

  1. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  2. Biomonitoring test procedures and biological criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Lipschultz, M.J.; Foster, W.E.

    1997-10-01

    The Water Environment Federation recently issued a special publication, Biomonitoring in the Water Environment. In this paper, the authors highlight the contents of the chapter 3, Biomonitoring Test Procedures, identify current trends in test procedures and introduce the concept of biological criteria (biocriteria). The book chapter (and this paper) focuses on freshwater and marine chronic and acute toxicity tests used in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits program to identify effluents and receiving waters containing toxic materials in acutely or chronically toxic concentrations. The two major categories of toxicity tests include acute tests and chronic tests. The USEPA chronic tests required in NPDEs permits have been shortened to 7 days by focusing on the most sensitive life-cycle stages; these tests are often referred to as short-term chronic tests. The type of test(s) required depend on NPDES permit requirements, objectives of the test, available resources, requirements of the test organisms, and effluent characteristics such as variability in flow or toxicity. The permit writer will determine the requirements for toxicity test(s) by considering such factors as dilution, effluent variability, and exposure variability. Whether the required test is acute or chronic, the objective of the test is to estimate the safe or no effect concentration which is defined as the concentration which will permit normal propagation of fish and other aquatic life in the receiving waters. In this paper, the authors review the types of toxicity tests, the commonly used test organisms, and the uses of toxicity test data. In addition, they briefly describe research on new methods and the use of biological criteria.

  3. [Biological tests of sol-gel biomaterials].

    PubMed

    Ulatowska-Jarza, A; Podbielska, H; Szymonowicz, M; Staniszewska-Kuś, J; Paluch, D

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the sol-gel based biomaterials are extendedly investigated in emphasis on theirs medical applications. In this respect it is important to investigate the influence of sol-gel matrices on biological systems. The results of laboratory and biological testing of water extracts of sol-gels are presented in this work. It was proved that it is possible to construct the sol-gels that are not cytotoxic for which the haemolytic reactions fulfils the foreseen norms. This can be achieved by heating the materials in certain temperatures (higher than 350 degrees C). This effect can also be reached by suitably long aging (minimum 6 months).

  4. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Gopal P; Jacobs, Travis W; Watts, Mark D; Ghayoomie, S Vahid; Larson, Stephen D; Gerkin, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models. PMID:27635225

  5. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mark D.; Ghayoomie, S. Vahid; Larson, Stephen D.; Gerkin, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models. PMID:27635225

  6. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mark D.; Ghayoomie, S. Vahid; Larson, Stephen D.; Gerkin, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  7. The developmental toxicity testing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Hazelden, Keith P

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of biologic drugs, as compared with small molecules, confer significant advantages for both the drug developer and the prospective patients. The necessity for, and the timing of, developmental toxicity testing in the preclinical program must be considered. Choice of an appropriate test system is of particular importance, one that shows pharmacodynamic activity comparable to man. Where the conventional rodent/non-rodent species show such functional cross-reactivity, those species can be used in developmental testing, but often the only relevant species will be a nonhuman primate, in which case an extended study design (the ePPND) should be the default. Such an approach provides appropriate toxicity screening while reducing animal usage.

  8. Raise Test Scores: Integrate Biology and Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Jeffrey D.; Feinstein, Sheryl

    This paper presents the results of research that compared the academic achievement of high school students enrolled in an integrated Advanced Placement Biology/Advanced Placement Calculus course with students enrolled in traditional Advanced Placement Biology and Advanced Placement Calculus courses. Study subjects included high school students…

  9. Statistics and Hypothesis Testing in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maret, Timothy J.; Ziemba, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that early in their education students be taught to use basic statistical tests as rigorous methods of comparing experimental results with scientific hypotheses. Stresses that students learn how to use statistical tests in hypothesis-testing by applying them in actual hypothesis-testing situations. To illustrate, uses questions such as…

  10. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  11. Comparison of agriculture biology and general biology testing outcomes in Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despain, Deric Walter

    Agriculture education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students. Prior to 1996, agriculture education was not considered adequate to prepare Utah high school students to meet state biology requirements. The appropriateness of making that equalizing decision in 1996 was not tested until this 2014 study, comparing student test scores on the state biology test for general biology and agriculture biology students. The 2008-2012 data were collected from the Utah Department of Education Data and Statistics, utilizing a descriptive comparative post-test only analysis. As seen in this study, not only did B/AS students tend to score lower than their General Biology counterparts, in multiple cases this difference was significant (p ≤ .05). This contrary finding challenges the theoretical foundation of this study. As a result of this study three implications were made; (a) the Utah CRT-Biology test is not a reliable gauge of academic achievement in agriculture biology, (b) agriculture students in the sample population have not been taught with rigorous biology standards, and (c) biology standards taught in agricultural biology classes are not aligned with content tested by the biology portion of the Utah CRT-Biology test standards. The results of this study indicate to stakeholders that there is a gap occurring within the B/AS education, and the need to reevaluate the biology curriculum delivery to its population may possibly be in need of immediate action.

  12. Biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Kostant, George H.

    1956-01-01

    The frequency of biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis depends on a number of factors, including the individual immunological response, the number and type of serological tests performed, and the stage of the disease producing such reactions; the relative importance of such factors is discussed. The author also considers in detail the diseases or conditions giving rise to acute or chronic biologically false positive reactions. A variety of verification tests exists for differentiating the true syphilitic reaction from the biologically false positive reaction, but none is so accurate as the Treponema pallidum immobilization and immune adherence tests, which the author considers should be used when others have proved inconclusive. In the final section of his paper, he indicates the steps to be followed in attempting to distinguish between latent syphilis and biologically false positive reactions in persons with positive serological tests but no anamnestic or clinical evidence of syphilis. PMID:13329848

  13. Biologic concentration testing in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Byron P; Sandborn, William J; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-TNF medications have revolutionized the care of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, despite an initial robust effect, loss of response is common and long-term results are disappointing. Much of this lack of durability may be due to inadequate dose optimization, and recent studies suggest a correlation between serum drug concentrations and clinical outcomes. Currently, in clinical practice, measurement of drug concentrations and antibodies to drug are typically performed only when a patient presents with active inflammatory bowel disease symptoms or during a potential immune-mediated reaction to anti-TNF ("reactive" setting). However, proactive monitoring of anti-TNF concentrations with titration to a therapeutic window (i.e., therapeutic concentration monitoring) represents a new strategy with many potential clinical benefits including prevention of immunogenicity, less need for IFX rescue therapy, and greater durability of IFX treatment. This review will cover the salient features of anti-TNF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and provide a rational approach for the use of anti-TNF concentration testing in both the reactive and proactive settings. PMID:25590953

  14. UNDERSTANDINGS OF BSCS BIOLOGY STUDENTS AS DETERMINED BY INSTRUCTIONAL TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, JAMES T.

    EIGHT INSTRUCTIONAL TESTS SPANNED THE CURRICULUM OF ONE YEAR OF BIOLOGY STUDY. THE FIRST CONCERNED THE NATURE OF SCIENCE INCLUDED 4 AREAS OF EMPHASIS--THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF HYPOTHESIS, THE IDEA OF CONTROLS IN EXPERIMENTS, INTERPRETATION OF GRAPHED DATA, AND THE NATURE OF DATA. THE SECOND TEST WAS DESIGNED TO SHOW AN UNDERSTANDING OF…

  15. Translating biological parameters into clinically useful diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-08-01

    Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.

  16. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  17. A new biological test of water toxicity-yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae conductometric test.

    PubMed

    Dolezalova, Jaroslava; Rumlova, Lubomira

    2014-11-01

    This new biological test of water toxicity is based on monitoring of specific conductivity changes of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspension as a result of yeast fermentation activity inhibition in toxic conditions. The test was verified on ten substances with various mechanisms of toxic effect and the results were compared with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2) and with the results of the S. cerevisiae lethal test (Rumlova and Dolezalova, 2012). The new biological test - S. cerevisiae conductometric test - is an express method developed primarily for field conditions. It is applicable in case of need of immediate information about water toxicity. Fast completion is an advantage of this test (time necessary for test completion is about 60min), the test is simple and the test organism - dried instant yeast - belongs among its biggest advantages because of its long-term storage life and broad availability.

  18. Testing of Synthetic Biological Membranes for Forward Osmosis Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Mancinelli, Rocco; Kawashima, Brian; Trieu, Serena; Brozell, Adrian; Rosenberg, Kevan

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available forward osmosis membranes have been extensively tested for human space flight wastewater treatment. Despite the improvements achieved in the last decades, there is still a challenge to produce reliable membranes with anti-fouling properties, chemical resistance, and high flux and selectivity. Synthetic biological membranes that mimic the ones present in nature, which underwent millions of years of evolution, represent a potential solution for further development and progress in membrane technology. Biomimetic forward osmosis membranes based on a polymeric support filter and coated with surfactant multilayers have been engineered to investigate how different manufacturing processes impact the performance and structure of the membrane. However, initial results of the first generation prototype membranes tests reveal a high scatter in the data, due to the current testing apparatus set up. The testing apparatus has been upgraded to improve data collection, reduce errors, and to allow higher control of the testing process.

  19. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R; Sousa, J P; Canhoto, C

    2008-11-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6ton/ha or 12ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and growth tests showed that application of composts were beneficial for both plants. Composts did not affect earthworm's mass increase or reproduction, but the highest sludge amendment revealed negative effects on both parameters. Only the amendment of composts at the highest dose originated an impairment of springtails reproductive output. We suggest that bioassays using different test species may be an additional tool to evaluate effects of amendment of organic wastes in soil. Biological tests are sensitive to pollutants at low concentrations and to interactions undetected by routine chemical analysis.

  20. Wave basin model tests of technical-biological bank protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sloped embankments of inland waterways are usually protected from erosion and other negative im-pacts of ship-induced hydraulic loads by technical revetments consisting of riprap. Concerning the dimensioning of such bank protection there are several design rules available, e.g. the "Principles for the Design of Bank and Bottom Protection for Inland Waterways" or the Code of Practice "Use of Standard Construction Methods for Bank and Bottom Protection on Waterways" issued by the BAW (Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute). Since the European Water Framework Directive has been put into action special emphasis was put on natural banks. Therefore the application of technical-biological bank protection is favoured. Currently design principles for technical-biological bank protection on inland waterways are missing. The existing experiences mainly refer to flowing waters with no or low ship-induced hydraulic loads on the banks. Since 2004 the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute has been tracking the re-search and development project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" in company with the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The investigation to date includes the ex-amination of waterway sections where technical- biological bank protection is applied locally. For the development of design rules for technical-biological bank protection investigations shall be carried out in a next step, considering the mechanics and resilience of technical-biological bank protection with special attention to ship-induced hydraulic loads. The presentation gives a short introduction into hydraulic loads at inland waterways and their bank protection. More in detail model tests of a willow brush mattress as a technical-biological bank protec-tion in a wave basin are explained. Within the scope of these tests the brush mattresses were ex-posed to wave impacts to determine their resilience towards hydraulic loads. Since the

  1. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  2. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  3. Prediction and Testing of Biological Networks Underlying Intestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mariadason, John M.; Wang, Donghai; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Chance, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer progresses through an accumulation of somatic mutations, some of which reside in so-called “driver” genes that provide a growth advantage to the tumor. To identify points of intersection between driver gene pathways, we implemented a network analysis framework using protein interactions to predict likely connections – both precedented and novel – between key driver genes in cancer. We applied the framework to find significant connections between two genes, Apc and Cdkn1a (p21), known to be synergistic in tumorigenesis in mouse models. We then assessed the functional coherence of the resulting Apc-Cdkn1a network by engineering in vivo single node perturbations of the network: mouse models mutated individually at Apc (Apc1638N+/−) or Cdkn1a (Cdkn1a−/−), followed by measurements of protein and gene expression changes in intestinal epithelial tissue. We hypothesized that if the predicted network is biologically coherent (functional), then the predicted nodes should associate more specifically with dysregulated genes and proteins than stochastically selected genes and proteins. The predicted Apc-Cdkn1a network was significantly perturbed at the mRNA-level by both single gene knockouts, and the predictions were also strongly supported based on physical proximity and mRNA coexpression of proteomic targets. These results support the functional coherence of the proposed Apc-Cdkn1a network and also demonstrate how network-based predictions can be statistically tested using high-throughput biological data. PMID:20824133

  4. Membrane characteristics for biological blast overpressure testing using blast simulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Venkata; Kemper, Andrew R; Rizel, Dave V; Duma, Stefan M; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70–210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70–210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators. PMID:25405432

  5. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary F.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Resource recovery and recycling waste streams to usable water via biological water processors is a plausible component of an integrated water purification system. Biological processing as a pretreatment can reduce the load of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds entering physiochemical systems downstream. Aerated hollow fiber membrane bioreactors, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration.

  6. Optomechanical tests of hydrated biological tissues subjected to laser shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N

    2008-03-31

    The mechanical properties of a matrix are studied upon changing the size and shape of biological tissues during dehydration caused by weak laser-induced heating. The cartilage deformation, dehydration dynamics, and hydraulic conductivity are measured upon laser heating. The hydrated state and the shape of samples of separated fascias and cartilaginous tissues were controlled by using computer-aided processing of tissue images in polarised light. (laser biology)

  7. Vestigial Biological Structures: A Classroom-Applicable Test of Creationist Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senter, Phil; Ambrocio, Zenis; Andrade, Julia B.; Foust, Katanya K.; Gaston, Jasmine E.; Lewis, Ryshonda P.; Liniewski, Rachel M.; Ragin, Bobby A.; Robinson, Khanna L.; Stanley, Shane G.

    2015-01-01

    Lists of vestigial biological structures in biology textbooks are so short that some young-Earth creationist authors claim that scientists have lost confidence in the existence of vestigial structures and can no longer identify any verifiable ones. We tested these hypotheses with a method that is easily adapted to biology classes. We used online…

  8. Video and HTML: Testing Online Tutorial Formats with Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cindy L.; Friehs, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared two common types of online information literacy tutorials: a streaming media tutorial using animation and narration and a text-based tutorial with static images. Nine sections of an undergraduate biology lab class (234 students total) were instructed by a librarian on how to use the BIOSIS Previews database. Three sections…

  9. Persisting Misconceptions: Using Pre- and Post-Tests to Identify Biological Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazario, Gladys M.; Burrowes, Patricia A.; Rodriguez, Julio

    2002-01-01

    Explains a research project conducted at the University of Puerto Rico among students taking biology to develop and test a constructivist learning environment and identify students' misconceptions in biology. Lists the questions on which students showed misconceptions during the pre- and post-tests. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

  10. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  11. Testing systems for biologic markers of genotoxic exposure and effect

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1986-11-19

    Societal interest in genotoxicity stems from two concerns: the fear of carcinogenesis secondary to somatic mutation; and the fear of birth defects and decreasing genetic fitness secondary to heritable mutation. There is a pressing need to identify agents that can cause these effects, to understand the underlying dose-response relationships, to identify exposed populations, and to estimate both the magnitude of exposure and the risk of adverse health effects in such populations. Biologic markers refer either to evidence in surrogate organisms, or to the expressions of exposure and effect in human populations. 21 refs.

  12. LASER BIOLOGY: Optomechanical tests of hydrated biological tissues subjected to laser shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omel'chenko, A. I.; Sobol', E. N.

    2008-03-01

    The mechanical properties of a matrix are studied upon changing the size and shape of biological tissues during dehydration caused by weak laser-induced heating. The cartilage deformation, dehydration dynamics, and hydraulic conductivity are measured upon laser heating. The hydrated state and the shape of samples of separated fascias and cartilaginous tissues were controlled by using computer-aided processing of tissue images in polarised light.

  13. Reaction times to weak test lights. [psychophysics biological model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.; Ahumada, P.; Welsh, D.

    1984-01-01

    Maloney and Wandell (1984) describe a model of the response of a single visual channel to weak test lights. The initial channel response is a linearly filtered version of the stimulus. The filter output is randomly sampled over time. Each time a sample occurs there is some probability increasing with the magnitude of the sampled response - that a discrete detection event is generated. Maloney and Wandell derive the statistics of the detection events. In this paper a test is conducted of the hypothesis that the reaction time responses to the presence of a weak test light are initiated at the first detection event. This makes it possible to extend the application of the model to lights that are slightly above threshold, but still within the linear operating range of the visual system. A parameter-free prediction of the model proposed by Maloney and Wandell for lights detected by this statistic is tested. The data are in agreement with the prediction.

  14. Australian Biology Test Item Bank, Years 11 and 12. Volume II: Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Sewell, Jeffrey J., Ed.

    This document consists of test items which are applicable to biology courses throughout Australia (irrespective of course materials used); assess key concepts within course statement (for both core and optional studies); assess a wide range of cognitive processes; and are relevant to current biological concepts. These items are arranged under…

  15. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  16. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge…

  17. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  18. Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This experiment describes the isolation and biological testing of eugenol and neutral compounds from commercially available clove oil. By coupling the chemical separation of the components of clove oil (an experiment described in many introductory organic laboratory textbooks) with a simple antibiotic test, the students "discover" the biologically active compound in clove oil. This experiment models one of the primary methods used in the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents.

  19. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary E.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Frances, Someliz; Wheller, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors, such as aerated membrane type bioreactors have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration. Several challenges remain before these types of bioreactors can be used in space settings, including transporting the bioreactors with their microbial communities to space, whether that be the International Space Station or beyond, or procedures for safing the systems and placing them into dormant state for later start-up. Little information is available on such operations as it is not common practice for terrestrial systems. This study explored several dormancy processes for established bioreactors to determine optimal storage and recovery conditions. Procedures focused on complete isolation of the microbial communities from an operational standpoint and observing the effects of: 1) storage temperature, and 2) storage with or without the reactor bulk fluid. The first consideration was tested from a microbial integrity and power consumption standpoint; both room temperature (25 C) and cold (4 C) storage conditions were studied. The second consideration was explored; again, for microbial integrity as well as plausible real-world scenarios of how terrestrially established bioreactors would be transported to microgravity and stored for periods of time between operations. Biofilms were stored without the reactor bulk fluid to simulate transport of established biofilms into microgravity, while biofilms stored with the reactor bulk fluid simulated the most simplistic storage condition to implement operations for extended periods of nonuse. Dormancy condition did not have an influence on recovery in initial studies with immature biofilms (48 days old), however, a lengthy recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy period to steady state operation within 4 days (approximately 1 residence cycle

  20. Dormancy and Recovery Testing for Biological Wastewater Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummerick, Mary E.; Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Spencer, LaShelle; Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Frances, Someliz; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors, such as the aerated hollow fiber membrane type, have been proposed and studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams for space exploration. Several challenges remain to be resolved before these types of bioreactors can be used in space settings, including transporting the bioreactors with intact and active biofilms, whether that be to the International Space Station or beyond, or procedures for safing the systems and placing them into a dormant state for later start-up. Little information is available on such operations as it is not common practice for terrestrial systems. This study explored several dormancy processes for established bioreactors to determine optimal storage and recovery conditions. Procedures focused on complete isolation of the microbial communities from an operational standpoint and observing the effects of: 1) storage temperature, and 2) storage with or without the reactor bulk fluid. The first consideration was tested from a microbial integrity and power consumption standpoint; both ambient temperature (25 C) and cold (4 C) storage conditions were studied. The second consideration was explored; again, for microbial integrity as well as plausible real-world scenarios of how terrestrially established bioreactors would be transported to microgravity and stored for periods of time between operations. Biofilms were stored without the reactor bulk fluid to simulate transport of established biofilms into microgravity, while biofilms stored with the reactor bulk fluid simulated the most simplistic storage condition to implement operations for extended periods of nonuse. Dormancy condition did not have an influence on recovery in initial studies with immature biofilms (48 days old), however a lengthy recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy period to steady state operation within 4 days (approx. 1

  1. Using biological data to test climate change refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, T. L.; Maher, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of refugia has been discussed from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to address how populations persisted during periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, several studies have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify locations that are buffered from climate change effects so as to favor greater persistence of valued resources relative to other areas. Refugia are now being discussed among natural resource agencies as a potential adaptation option in the face of anthropogenic climate change. Using downscaled climate data, we identified hypothetical refugial meadows in the Sierra Nevada and then tested them using survey and genetic data from Belding's ground squirrel (Urocitellus beldingi) populations. We predicted that refugial meadows would show higher genetic diversity, higher rates of occupancy and lower rates of extirpation over time. At each step of the research, we worked with managers to ensure the largest impact. Although no panacea, identifying climate change refugia could be an important strategy for prioritizing habitats for management intervention in order to conserve populations. This research was supported by the California LCC, the Northeast Climate Science Center, and NSF.

  2. Quality in molecular biology testing for inherited thrombophilia disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Peter C; Goodeve, Anne C; Beauchamp, Nicholas J

    2012-09-01

    As the understanding of the genetic basis of the inherited thrombophilias has increased over recent years, their routine diagnostic genetic analysis has also matured. This review considers methods used to test for the factor V (F5) Leiden mutation and prothrombin 20210A (F2 c.*97G>A) allele, and analysis of the SERPINC1, PROC, and PROS1 genes in cases of antithrombin, protein C (PC), and protein S (PS) deficiency, respectively. Issues relating to quality are explored, highlighting where analytical and sample handling errors may occur. Detection of the factor V Leiden mutation and the prothrombin c.*97G>A allele are best performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis as this relatively simple technique allows their discrimination from rare variants of neighboring nucleotides; not possible using the more time-consuming restriction digestion assays. With the advent of low-cost and high-throughput sequence analysis, direct sequencing has become the first-line method to provide a definitive diagnosis of inherited, rather than acquired, deficiencies. Large cohort studies have shown that antithrombin and PC mutations are identified in between 61 and 87% of patients, whereas the detection rate in PS deficiency is substantially lower in around 40% of patients. Large gene deletions make up between 7 and 10% of PS and antithrombin mutations and only 1% of PC mutations, but it is suggested that dosage analysis techniques such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification should be used for all three genes as part of routine analysis to ensure mutations are not missed. Best practice guidelines are available from EuroGentest covering a wide variety of the issues raised in this review and all laboratories should participate in appropriate external quality assurance schemes to ensure they continue to offer high quality service.

  3. Testing with Feedback Yields Potent, but Piecewise, Learning of History and Biology Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Steven C.; Gopal, Arpita; Rickard, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Does correctly answering a test question about a multiterm fact enhance memory for the entire fact? We explored that issue in 4 experiments. Subjects first studied Advanced Placement History or Biology facts. Half of those facts were then restudied, whereas the remainder were tested using "5 W" (i.e., "who, what, when, where",…

  4. Collaborative Testing Improves Performance but Not Content Retention in a Large-Enrollment Introductory Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leight, Hayley; Saunders, Cheston; Calkins, Robin; Withers, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative testing has been shown to improve performance but not always content retention. In this study, we investigated whether collaborative testing could improve both performance and content retention in a large, introductory biology course. Students were semirandomly divided into two groups based on their performances on exam 1. Each group…

  5. 77 FR 22282 - Draft Guidelines on Biologics Quality Monitoring: Testing for the Detection of Mycoplasma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Guidelines on Biologics Quality Monitoring: Testing for... master seed/cell testing in veterinary vaccines regulated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection... veterinary vaccines regulated by the APHIS under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (VSTA), we are requesting...

  6. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  7. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  8. Using Open-Book Tests to Strengthen the Study Skills of Community-College Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The author observed that students enrolled in first-year college biology courses often had weak study skills. This longitudinal study examined the use of open-book tests to encourage reading and to assess the improvement of college students' study skills. There was a statistically significant improvement from the initial test to the final test…

  9. Establishing construct validity of the Biology I Subject Area Testing program in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippoff, Christy Michelle Hollis

    Science education has undergone many revisions since it was permanently embedded in the country's educational curriculum at the end of the 19th century. Some of these revisions occurred as a direct result of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). This legislation placed more accountability on schools than ever before by requiring that all students pass a series of standardized tests (USDE, 2010). High schools in Mississippi require four areas of standardized testing: English II, Algebra I, U.S. History, and Biology I (Wroten, 2008). The focus of this study is the Biology I Subject Area Test. In an effort to determine the validity of that test, this study explores the importance of the Mississippi Biology I content standards according to the importance ratings and frequency of use ratings by science professionals in Mississippi. The science professionals surveyed for this study were high school science teachers, college science professors and scientists in their professional settings. The science professionals' importance ratings were compared to the importance ratings placed on the content strands by the Mississippi Biology I Subject Area Test. To further determine the test's validity, it is also compared to the National Science Education Standards.

  10. A Knowledge Base for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zande, Paul; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Brekelmans, Mieke; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2011-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of genomics will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who teach genetics in secondary education. This study reports on the first results of a research project aimed at enhancing biology teacher knowledge for teaching genetics in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of such a situated learning approach. What content knowledge do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This study describes the required content knowledge by exploring the educational practice and clinical genetic practices. Nine experienced teachers and 12 respondents representing the clinical genetic practices (clients, medical professionals, and medical ethicists) were interviewed about the biological concepts and ethical, legal, and social aspects (ELSA) of testing they considered relevant to empowering students as future health care clients. The ELSA suggested by the respondents were complemented by suggestions found in the literature on genetic counselling. The findings revealed that the required teacher knowledge consists of multiple layers that are embedded in specific genetic test situations: on the one hand, the knowledge of concepts represented by the curricular framework and some additional concepts (e.g. multifactorial and polygenic disorder) and, on the other hand, more knowledge of ELSA and generic characteristics of genetic test practice (uncertainty, complexity, probability, and morality). Suggestions regarding how to translate these characteristics, concepts, and ELSA into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  11. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  12. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    PubMed Central

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  13. 76 FR 36019 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... November 20, 1973 (38 FR 32048), we reorganized and republished the biologics regulations, which included... requirements. On March 11, 1976 (41 FR 10427) and March 2, 1979 (44 FR 11754), we updated Sec. 610.12 to clarify the procedures for repeat testing. On April 18, 1984 (49 FR 15186), we amended Sec. 610.12...

  14. Sound and Faulty Arguments Generated by Preservice Biology Teachers When Testing Hypotheses Involving Unobservable Entities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the responses of a sample of preservice biology teachers enrolled in a teaching methods course to a casual question about why water rose in a jar inverted over a burning candle placed in a pan of water by formulating and testing six hypotheses. (Contains 43 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. Gender Differences in Caribbean Students' Performance on a Test of Errors in Biological Labelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the performance of 11th-grade students from Barbados, Belize, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Trinidad (n=1216) on an Errors in Biological Labeling Test (EBLT). Concludes that performance was low in six categories of errors, and that girls performed significantly better on each category of error than did boys. Contains 15…

  16. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk. PMID:20205024

  17. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  18. A new approach for biological online testing of stack gas condensate from municipal waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Dorothea; Fomin, Anette

    2002-01-01

    A biological testing system for the monitoring of stack gas condensates of municipal waste incinerators has been developed using Euglena gracilis as a test organism. The motility, velocity and cellular form of the organisms were the endpoints, calculated by an image analysis system. All endpoints showed statistically significant changes in a short time when organisms were exposed to samples collected during combustion situations with increased pollutant concentrations. The velocity of the organisms proved to be the most appropriate endpoint. A semi-continuous system with E. gracilis for monitoring stack gas condensate is proposed, which could result in an online system for testing stack gas condensates in the future.

  19. Personalized Genetic Testing as a Tool for Integrating Ethics Instruction into Biology Courses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tenny R.; Anderson, Misti Ault

    2014-01-01

    Personalized genetic testing (PGT) has been used by some educational institutions as a pedagogical tool for teaching human genetics. While work has been done that examines the potential for PGT to improve students’ interest and understanding of the science involved in genetic testing, there has been less dialogue about how this method might be useful for integrating ethical and societal issues surrounding genetic testing into classroom discussions. Citing the importance of integrating ethics into the biology classroom, we argue that PGT can be an effective educational tool for integrating ethics and science education, and discuss relevant ethical considerations for instructors using this approach. PMID:25574278

  20. Development and testing of hyperbaric atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy for biological applications.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, D P; McNally, H A; Dean, J B

    2012-05-01

    A commercially available atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscope were installed and tested inside a custom-designed hyperbaric chamber to provide the capability to study the effects of hyperbaric gases on biological preparations, including cellular mechanism of oxidative stress. In this report, we list details of installing and testing atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy inside a hyperbaric chamber. The pressure vessel was designed to accommodate a variety of imaging equipment and ensures full functionality at ambient and hyperbaric conditions (≤85 psi). Electrical, gas and fluid lines were installed to enable remote operation of instrumentation under hyperbaric conditions, and to maintain viable biological samples with gas-equilibrated superfusate and/or drugs. Systems were installed for vibration isolation and temperature regulation to maintain atomic force microscopy performance during compression and decompression. Results of atomic force microscopy testing demonstrate sub-nanometre resolution at hyperbaric pressure in dry scans and fluid scans, in both contact mode and tapping mode. Noise levels were less when measurements were taken under hyperbaric pressure with air, helium (He) and nitrogen (N(2) ). Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy measurements were made on a variety of living cell cultures exposed to hyperbaric gases (He, N(2) , O(2) , air). In summary, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were installed and tested for use at hyperbaric pressures and enables the study of cellular and molecular effects of hyperbaric gases and pressure per se in biological preparations.

  1. Expertise for Teaching Biology Situated in the Context of Genetic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Zande, Paul; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-07-01

    Contemporary genomics research will impact the daily practice of biology teachers who want to teach up-to-date genetics in secondary education. This article reports on a research project aimed at enhancing biology teachers' expertise for teaching genetics situated in the context of genetic testing. The increasing body of scientific knowledge concerning genetic testing and the related consequences for decision-making indicate the societal relevance of an educational approach based on situated learning. What expertise do biology teachers need for teaching genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing? This article describes the required expertise by exploring the educational practice. Nine experienced teachers were interviewed about the pedagogical content, moral and interpersonal expertise areas concerning how to teach genetics in the personal health context of genetic testing, and the lessons of five of them were observed. The findings showed that the required teacher expertise encompasses specific pedagogical content expertise, interpersonal expertise and a preference for teacher roles and teaching approaches for the moral aspects of teaching in this context. A need for further development of teaching and learning activities for (reflection on) moral reasoning came to the fore. Suggestions regarding how to apply this expertise into context-based genetics education are discussed.

  2. BEO-Life, a Test and Refurbishment Support for Biological Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeln, I.; Hueser, D.; Reese, C.; Schoenfeld, R.

    Since the ISS commenced its operational phase, the need of ground based test and refurbishment support, facilitating the utilisation of the station and especially its facilities for biological research, becomes increasingly important.. The onboard biological research facilities (e.g. BIOLAB) are designed and built for a life time of 10 years, requiring the regular exchange of the integrated life support systems. The exact conditioning of the atmosphere in these systems plays an important role for the scientific outcome. The composition of the air (O2, N2 and CO2) as well as the humidity and the temperature inside the experiment chambers containing the plants and cell-cultures needs to be adjustable for various types of experiments. Since the various ingredients for a life support system are consumables, which consumption depends on the number of performed experiments, the life support systems needs to be refurbished from time to time. Our contribution to this challenge is BEO- Life, which offers a unique test, refurbishment and qualification environment for maintenance and re-supply for life support systems of the ISS onboard biological facilities. BEO-Life provides the ground support for all these tasks, such as tests, maintenance, verification and procedures. To fulfil the demanding requirements for the automatic and stable conditioning of the life support system, a complex arrangement of pumps, valves, sensors and an electronic system including software with exact control algorithms is provided. Beside the refurbishment activities, BEO-Life will support preliminary ground-based investigations of scientists before utilisation of the ISS biological research facilities, too. In conclusion, we offer a novel service element for the ground-based maintenance of biological research facilities onboard the ISS. This service can be easily adapted to the needs of users for preparatory work.

  3. [Testing the sterilisation effect of autoclaves by means of biological indicators (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Werner, H P; Kindt, R; Borneff, J

    1975-07-01

    Because of the great number of failures with sterilization-programs it seems to be necessary to check up the effect of sterilization not only by the annual official tests but also continuously with biological indicators. Marketable indicators have not to be tested necessarily at present. Therefore six different types of indicators were examined experimentally and under practice-conditions. As to be seen in table 1 samples of the same charge didn't show great differences, in spite of this germ-counts of several charges differed considerably. Reductions of germ-counts after sterilization in the autoclave at 123,5 degrees C (fig. 1) and at 134 degrees C (fig 2), as well as with hot air at 120-125 degrees C (fig 3) and 133-138 degrees C (fig 4) demonstrate the heat-resistance. The individual biological indicators differ in killing-time and times of survival (table 2). Our tests demonstrate that only single biological indicators (table 4) will grant satisfying results in continuous checking of sterilization process. PMID:811008

  4. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge.

  5. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge. PMID:26786893

  6. Sound and faulty arguments generated by preservice biology teachers when testing hypotheses involving unobservable entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2002-03-01

    A sample of preservice biology teachers (biology majors) enrolled in a teaching methods course formulated and attempted to test six hypotheses to answer a causal question about why water rose in a jar inverted over a burning candle placed in a pan of water. The students submitted a lab report in which arguments and evidence for testing each hypothesis were presented in an if/then/therefore hypothetico-predictive form. Analysis of written arguments revealed considerable success when students were able to manipulate observable hypothesized causes. However, when the hypothesized causes were unobservable, such that they could be only indirectly tested, performance dropped, as shown by use of three types of faulty arguments: (a) arguments that had missing or confused elements, (b) arguments whose predictions did not follow from hypotheses and planned tests, and (c) arguments that failed to consider alternative hypotheses. Science is an enterprise in which unobservable theoretical entities and processes (e.g., atoms, genes, osmosis, and photosynthesis) are often used to explain observable phenomena. Consequently, if it is assumed that effective teaching requires prior understanding, then it follows that these future teachers have yet to develop adequate hypothesis-testing skills and sufficient awareness of the nature of science to teach science in the inquiry mode advocated by reform guidelines.

  7. Insects as test systems for assessing the potential role of microgravity in biological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernós, I.; Carratalá, M.; González-Jurado, J.; Valverde, J. R.; Calleja, M.; Domingo, A.; Vinós, J.; Cervera, M.; Marco, R.

    Gravity and radiation are undoubtedly the two major environmental factors altered in space. Gravity is a weak force, which creates a permanent potential field acting on the mass of biological systems and their cellular components, strongly reduced in space flights. Developmental systems, particularly at very early stages, provide the larger cellular compartments known, where the effects of alterations in the size of the gravity vector on living organisms can be more effectively tested. The insects, one of the more highly evolved classes of animals in which early development occurs in a syncytial embryo, are systems particularly well suited to test these effects and the specific developmental mechanisms affected. Furthermore, they share some basic features such as small size, short life cycles, relatively high radio-resistance, etc. and show a diversity of developmental strategies and tempos advantageous in experiments of this type in space. Drosophila melanogaster, the current biological paradigm to study development, with so much genetic and evolutionary background available, is clearly the reference organism for these studies. The current evidence on the effects of the physical parameters altered in space flights on insect development indicate a surprising correlation between effects seen on the fast developing and relatively small Drosophila embryo and the more slowly developing and large Carausius morosus system. In relation to the issue of the importance of developmental and environmental constraints in biological evolution, still the missing link in current evolutionary thinking, insects and space facilities for long-term experiments could provide useful experimental settings where to critically assess how development and evolution may be interconnected. Finally, it has to be pointed out that since there are experimental data indicating a possible synergism between microgravity and space radiation, possible effects of space radiation should be taken into

  8. Detecting Change in Biological Rhythms: A Multivariate Permutation Test Approach to Fourier-Transformed Data

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Salomon, Ronald M.; Waller, Niels G.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment-related changes in neurobiological rhythms are of increasing interest to psychologists, psychiatrists, and biological rhythms researchers. New methods for analyzing change in rhythms are needed, as most common methods disregard the rich complexity of biological processes. Large time series data sets reflect the intricacies of underlying neurobiological processes, but can be difficult to analyze. We propose the use of Fourier methods with multivariate permutation test (MPT) methods for analyzing change in rhythms from time series data. To validate the use of MPT for Fourier-transformed data, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared statistical power and family-wise error for MPT to Bonferroni-corrected and uncorrected methods. Results show that MPT provides greater statistical power than Bonferroni-corrected tests, while appropriately controlling family-wise error. We applied this method to human, pre-and post-treatment, serially-sampled neurotransmitter data to confirm the utility of this method using real data. Together, Fourier with MPT methods provides a statistically powerful approach for detecting change in biological rhythms from time series data. PMID:19212840

  9. METHODS FOR USING 3-D ULTRASOUND SPECKLE TRACKING IN BIAXIAL MECHANICAL TESTING OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE SAMPLES

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Park, Dae Woo; Dutta, Debaditya; Simon, Marc; Kim, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Being multilayered and anisotropic, biological tissues such as cardiac and arterial walls are structurally complex, making full assessment and understanding of their mechanical behavior challenging. Current standard mechanical testing uses surface markers to track tissue deformations and does not provide deformation data below the surface. In the study described here, we found that combining mechanical testing with 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking could overcome this limitation. Rat myocardium was tested with a biaxial tester and was concurrently scanned with high-frequency ultrasound in three dimensions. The strain energy function was computed from stresses and strains using an iterative non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Because the strain energy function consists of terms for the base matrix and for embedded fibers, spatially varying fiber orientation was also computed by curve fitting. Using finite-element simulations, we first validated the accuracy of the non-linear curve-fitting algorithm. Next, we compared experimentally measured rat myocardium strain energy function values with those in the literature and found a matching order of magnitude. Finally, we retained samples after the experiments for fiber orientation quantification using histology and found that the results satisfactorily matched those computed in the experiments. We conclude that 3-D ultrasound speckle tracking can be a useful addition to traditional mechanical testing of biological tissues and may provide the benefit of enabling fiber orientation computation. PMID:25616585

  10. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. [Plasma antioxidant activity--a test for impaired biological functions of endoecology, exotrophy, and inflammation reactions].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Krylin, V V; Dmitriev, V A; Iashin, Ia I

    2010-07-01

    The authors discuss the diagnostic value of a test for total serum antioxidant activity determined by an electrochemistry method on a liquid chromatograph (without a column), by using an amperometric detector, as well as the composition of the endogenously synthesized hydrophilic and hydrophobic acceptors of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Uric acid is a major hydrophilic acceptor of ROS; monoenic oleic fatty acid acts as its major lipophilic acceptor. The constant determined by the authors for of 03 oleic acid oxidation during automatic titration in the organic medium is an order of magnitude higher than that for alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and linoleic fatty acid; its concentration is also an order of magnitude higher. In oxidative stress, the adrenal steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone initiates oleic acid synthesis via expression of palmitoyl elongase and steatoryl desaturase. In early steps of phylogenesis in primates, spontaneous mutation resulted in ascorbic acid synthesis gene knockout; phylogenetically, further other mutation knocked out the gene encoding the synthesis of uricase and the conversion of uric acid to alantoin. In primates, uric acid became not only a catabolite of purine bases in vivo, but also the major endogenous hydrophilic acceptor of ROS. This philogenetic order makes it clear why the epithelium in the proximal nephron tubule entirely reabsorbs uric acid (a catabolite?) from primary urine and then secretes it again to urine depending on the impairment of biological functions of endoecology (the intercellular medium being contaminated with biological rubbish), the activation of a biological inflammatory reaction, the cellular production of ROS, and the reduction in serum total antioxidant activity. With each biological reaction, there was an increase in the blood content of uric acid as a hydrophilic acceptor of ROS, by actively lowering its secretion into urine. Uric acid is a diagnostic test of inflammation, or rather compensatory

  12. Ergometer error and biological variation in power output in a performance test with three cycle ergometers.

    PubMed

    Paton, C D; Hopkins, W G

    2006-06-01

    When physical performance is monitored with an ergometer, random error arising from the ergometer combines with biological variation from the subject to limit the precision of estimation of performance changes. We report here the contributions of ergometer error and biological variation to the error of measurement in a performance test with two popular cycle ergometers (air-braked Kingcycle, mobile SRM crankset) and a relatively new inexpensive mobile ergometer (PowerTap hub). Eleven well-trained male cyclists performed a familiarization trial followed by three 5-min time trials within 2 wk on a racing cycle fitted with the SRM and PowerTap and mounted on the Kingcycle. Mean power output in each trial was recorded with all ergometers simultaneously. A novel analysis using mixed modelling of log-transformed mean power provided estimates of the standard error of measurement as a coefficient of variation and its components arising from the ergometer and the cyclists. The usual errors of measurement were: Kingcycle 2.2 %, PowerTap 1.5 %, and SRM 1.6 % (90 % confidence limits +/- 1.3). The components of these errors arising purely from the ergometers and the cyclists were: Kingcycle 1.8 %, PowerTap 0.9 %, SRM 1.1 %, and cyclists 1.2 % (+/- 1.5). Thus, ergometer errors and biological variation made substantial contributions to the usual error of measurement. Use of the best ergometers and of test protocols that reduce biological variation would improve monitoring of the small changes that matter to elite athletes.

  13. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  14. Assessment of a multi-assay biological diagnostic test for mood disorders in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Yamamori, Hidenaga; Ishima, Tamaki; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Kudo, Noriko; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Kenji; Takeda, Masatoshi; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-01-26

    The current diagnostic tests for mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), have limitations. Inflammatory markers, growth factors, and oxidative stress markers are involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. A multi-assay biological diagnostic test combining these biomarkers might improve diagnostic efficiency. The plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and myeloperoxidase were measured in 40 MDD patients, 40 BD patients and 40 controls in a Japanese population. We also investigated the plasma levels of these markers in 40 patients with schizophrenia to determine the utility of these markers in differential diagnosis. The plasma levels of sTNFR2 were significantly higher in BD and schizophrenia patients than in controls. The plasma levels of EGF and myeloperoxidase were significantly higher in patients with BD than in controls. The correct classification rate obtained from discriminant analysis with sTNFR2 and EGF between controls and mood disorders was 69.2%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 62.5% and 82.5%, respectively. The correct classification rate obtained from discriminant analysis with sTNFR2 and EGF between controls and BD was 85.0%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77.6% and 92.5%, respectively. Our results suggest that sTNFR2 and EGF could be biological markers of BD. Further studies are needed to determine the utility of these markers in diagnostic tests for mood disorders. PMID:26687272

  15. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  16. Molecular and biological diagnostic tests for monitoring benzimidazole resistance in human soil-transmitted helminths.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Aïssatou; Schwenkenbecher, Jan M; Kaplan, Ray M; Prichard, Roger K

    2013-06-01

    In endemic countries with soil-transmitted helminths mass drug administration with albendazole or mebendazole are being implemented as a control strategy. However, it is well known in veterinary helminths that the use of the same benzimidazole drugs can place selection on the β-tubulin gene, leading to resistance. Given the concern that resistance could arise in human soil-transmitted helminths, there is an urgent need to develop accurate diagnostic tools for monitoring resistance. In this study, we developed molecular assays to detect putative resistance genetic changes in Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, and we optimized an egg hatch assay for the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and applied it to Necator americanus. Both assays were tested on field samples. The molecular assays demonstrated their reproducibility and capacity to detect the presence of worms carrying putative resistance-associated genetic changes. However, further investigations are needed to validate our molecular and biological tests on additional field isolates.

  17. Electrophoresis tests on STS-3 and ground control experiments - A basis for future biological sample selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Static zone electrophoresis is an electrokinetic method of separating macromolecules and small particles. However, its application for the isolation of biological cells and concentrated protein solutions is limited by sedimentation and convection. Microgravity eliminates or reduces sedimentation, floatation, and density-driven convection arising from either Joule heating or concentration differences. The advantages of such an environment were first demonstrated in space during the Apollo 14 and 16 missions. In 1975 the Electrophoresis Technology Experiment (MA-011) was conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flight. In 1979 a project was initiated to repeat the separations of human kidney cells. One of the major objectives of the Electrophoresis Equipment Verification Tests (EEVT) on STS-3 was to repeat and thereby validate the first successful electrophoretic separation of human kidney cells. Attention is given to the EEVT apparatus, the preflight electrophoresis, and inflight operational results.

  18. Support for the revocation of general safety test regulations in biologics license applications.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dana M; Thorn, Jennifer M; Arch-Douglas, Katherine; Sperry, Justin B; Thompson, Bruce; Davis, Heather L; McCluskie, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently removed the requirement for a General Safety Test (GST) for biologics in the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR 610.11). The GST, as well as abnormal toxicity (European Pharmacopeia) and innocuity tests (World Health Organization), were designed to test for extraneous toxic contaminants on each product lot intended for human use. Tests require one-week observations for general health and weight following injection of specified volumes of product batches into guinea pigs and mice. At the volumes specified, dose-related toxicity may result when the product is pharmacologically active in rodents. With vaccines, required doses may be > 3 logs higher than intended human dose on a weight-adjusted basis and if an immune modulatory adjuvant is included, systemic immune hyperactivation may cause toxicity. Herein, using the CpG/alum adjuvant combination we evaluated the different test protocols and showed their unsuitability for this adjuvant combination. PMID:26996102

  19. A new biological test utilising the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the rapid detection of toxic substances in water.

    PubMed

    Rumlova, Lubomira; Dolezalova, Jaroslava

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluates the toxic effects of five substances (atropine, fenitrothion, potassium cyanide, mercuric chloride and lead nitrate) on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It describes a new biological toxicity test based on inhibition of S. cerevisiae viability and compares it with two standard toxicity tests based on Daphnia magna mobility inhibition (EN ISO 6341) and Vibrio fischeri bioluminiscence inhibition (EN ISO 11348-2). The new biological test -S. cerevisiae lethal test - is cheaper and 24 times faster than the D. magna test. The test speed is comparable with the V. fischeri test but the new test is more sensitive for some substances. The test indicates reliably the presence of all used toxicants in water in concentrations which are significantly lower than the concentration in toxic or lethal doses for man. Therefore, this new toxicity test could be proposed for rapid detection of toxic substances in water.

  20. [Tests of biological indicators in controling sterilisation processes of autoclaves (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Holstein, N

    1975-07-01

    For the control of sterilisation processes in autoclaves several biological indicators were examined and compared with native spore samples. The biological indicators were STERIKON (Merck, Darmstadt), KILIT (BBL, USA); the ampulated native spore samples came from Mainz and Berlin, furthermore Bac. subtilis was used on arenaceous quartz. To receive more accurate results and better possibilities for standardization, indicators were not tested in autoclaves but in ultrathermostates. The effect of heat on the viability of ampulated test spores was ascertained by the count of colony formating units on count plates. With two of the tested indicators, KILIT and STERIKON, success of the germicidal process can also be seen by the change of color of the contents of the ampules. Investigations showed ampulated wet spore samples to be totally inefficient, because of their low resistance level, but also suspensios of Bac. subtilis did not meet requirements. Tests of KILIT indicated equally unsatisfactory low levels of heat resistance. Only KTERIKON met the requirements and equalled native spore samples. Since the producer lowered the heat resistance, which was too high initially, by reducing the sowing of spores to 10(2)-10(3) per ml medium of the ampules, the germicidal curve became almost ideal. It has to be mentioned that STERIKON-ampules can only be recommended to ampule-producing-industries. For the control of medicaments in ampules a replacement of native spore samples by STERIKON will only be possible, after the producer has standardized the optimal heat resistance and prevented its decrease while being stored. At present native spore samples are still indispensable - also because they can be widely employed. PMID:811007

  1. In silico model-based inference: a contemporary approach for hypothesis testing in network biology

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Inductive inference plays a central role in the study of biological systems where one aims to increase their understanding of the system by reasoning backwards from uncertain observations to identify causal relationships among components of the system. These causal relationships are postulated from prior knowledge as a hypothesis or simply a model. Experiments are designed to test the model. Inferential statistics are used to establish a level of confidence in how well our postulated model explains the acquired data. This iterative process, commonly referred to as the scientific method, either improves our confidence in a model or suggests that we revisit our prior knowledge to develop a new model. Advances in technology impact how we use prior knowledge and data to formulate models of biological networks and how we observe cellular behavior. However, the approach for model-based inference has remained largely unchanged since Fisher, Neyman and Pearson developed the ideas in the early 1900’s that gave rise to what is now known as classical statistical hypothesis (model) testing. Here, I will summarize conventional methods for model-based inference and suggest a contemporary approach to aid in our quest to discover how cells dynamically interpret and transmit information for therapeutic aims that integrates ideas drawn from high performance computing, Bayesian statistics, and chemical kinetics. PMID:25139179

  2. Chaste: A test-driven approach to software development for biological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt-Francis, Joe; Pathmanathan, Pras; Bernabeu, Miguel O.; Bordas, Rafel; Cooper, Jonathan; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Mirams, Gary R.; Murray, Philip; Osborne, James M.; Walter, Alex; Chapman, S. Jon; Garny, Alan; van Leeuwen, Ingeborg M. M.; Maini, Philip K.; Rodríguez, Blanca; Waters, Sarah L.; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Byrne, Helen M.; Gavaghan, David J.

    2009-12-01

    Chaste ('Cancer, heart and soft-tissue environment') is a software library and a set of test suites for computational simulations in the domain of biology. Current functionality has arisen from modelling in the fields of cancer, cardiac physiology and soft-tissue mechanics. It is released under the LGPL 2.1 licence. Chaste has been developed using agile programming methods. The project began in 2005 when it was reasoned that the modelling of a variety of physiological phenomena required both a generic mathematical modelling framework, and a generic computational/simulation framework. The Chaste project evolved from the Integrative Biology (IB) e-Science Project, an inter-institutional project aimed at developing a suitable IT infrastructure to support physiome-level computational modelling, with a primary focus on cardiac and cancer modelling. Program summaryProgram title: Chaste Catalogue identifier: AEFD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: LGPL 2.1 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 407 321 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 004 554 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Operating system: Unix Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized using MPI. RAM:<90 Megabytes for two of the scenarios described in Section 6 of the manuscript (Monodomain re-entry on a slab or Cylindrical crypt simulation). Up to 16 Gigabytes (distributed across processors) for full resolution bidomain cardiac simulation. Classification: 3. External routines: Boost, CodeSynthesis XSD, CxxTest, HDF5, METIS, MPI, PETSc, Triangle, Xerces Nature of problem: Chaste may be used for solving coupled ODE and PDE systems arising from modelling biological systems. Use of Chaste in two application areas are described in this paper: cardiac electrophysiology and

  3. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    PubMed

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale. PMID:27180100

  4. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    PubMed

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale.

  5. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  6. The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system: a 12 months test of an artificial aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Ludwig, C h; Paassen, U; Voeste, D

    1999-01-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three months is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological "mechanical" filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalana glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A sample data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  7. A test of biological trait analysis with nematodes and an anthropogenic stressor.

    PubMed

    Mitwally, Hanan M; Fleeger, John W

    2016-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are fundamentally altered by nutrient enrichment, and effective monitoring tools are needed to detect biological responses especially in the early stages of eutrophication. We tested the utility of biological trait analysis (BTA) to quantify the temporal responses of nematodes inhabiting salt marsh creeks that were experimentally enriched with nutrients for 6 years. Feeding, body shape, and tail shape traits were characterized on >6000 nematodes from annual samples from enriched and non-enriched sites. Here, we ask if trait combinations are more effective than single traits in detecting the magnitude and rate of change. We also sought to identify combinations of traits that best distinguish natural from nutrient-induced variation. BTA revealed that feeding, body shape, and all traits combined equally detected the response to nutrient enrichment. Compared to single traits however, BTAs were more sensitive to temporal trends and better distinguished natural variation from the response to nutrient enrichment. Tail shape traits (that might respond to altered sediment texture or geochemistry) were not affected by enrichment, and feeding traits yielded the greatest difference between enriched and reference communities indicating that changes in food resources drove responses. Feeding traits provided the highest quality information content in our study, and the use of feeding traits alone may adequately identify anthropogenic effects in many studies. However, we caution that body shape, tail shape, and feeding traits were strongly interrelated at our study site, and a diversity of trait groups may increase the information content of BTAs in more diverse habitats.

  8. A test of biological trait analysis with nematodes and an anthropogenic stressor.

    PubMed

    Mitwally, Hanan M; Fleeger, John W

    2016-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are fundamentally altered by nutrient enrichment, and effective monitoring tools are needed to detect biological responses especially in the early stages of eutrophication. We tested the utility of biological trait analysis (BTA) to quantify the temporal responses of nematodes inhabiting salt marsh creeks that were experimentally enriched with nutrients for 6 years. Feeding, body shape, and tail shape traits were characterized on >6000 nematodes from annual samples from enriched and non-enriched sites. Here, we ask if trait combinations are more effective than single traits in detecting the magnitude and rate of change. We also sought to identify combinations of traits that best distinguish natural from nutrient-induced variation. BTA revealed that feeding, body shape, and all traits combined equally detected the response to nutrient enrichment. Compared to single traits however, BTAs were more sensitive to temporal trends and better distinguished natural variation from the response to nutrient enrichment. Tail shape traits (that might respond to altered sediment texture or geochemistry) were not affected by enrichment, and feeding traits yielded the greatest difference between enriched and reference communities indicating that changes in food resources drove responses. Feeding traits provided the highest quality information content in our study, and the use of feeding traits alone may adequately identify anthropogenic effects in many studies. However, we caution that body shape, tail shape, and feeding traits were strongly interrelated at our study site, and a diversity of trait groups may increase the information content of BTAs in more diverse habitats. PMID:26846290

  9. Novel Biological Approaches for Testing the Contributions of Single DSBs and DSB Clusters to the Biological Effects of High LET Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Veronika; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-01-01

    The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides, and frequently comprise base damages and single-strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB "complexity." The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB clusters, comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then "tested" by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e., the "a priori" prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling - including the role of DSB clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and describe the

  10. Impact of hydrogen peroxide oxygen transfer tests on the performance of the biological nutrient removal process.

    PubMed

    Mahendraker, V; Mavinic, D S; Rabinowitz, B

    2002-02-01

    Knowledge of in-process oxygen transfer is essential to the optimum design and operation of aeration systems in activated sludge processes. In this study, non-steady state H2O2 oxygen transfer tests were performed in a laboratory scale, University of Cape Town configuration biological nutrient removal process (BNR) to measure the in-process oxygen transfer rates. Given the small quantity (about 1 ml @30% concentration) of H2O2 used in the aerobic reactor with a mixed liquor volume of 161 (total system working volume of 33.65 l), no effect on the process performance itself was expected. However, the process performance data obtained indicated results to the contrary. Use of H2O2 in measuring process oxygen transfer rates may not be suitable for BNR processes, as all the major process performance indicators (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal by the system and carbon uptake and phosphorus release in the anaerobic zone) were negatively affected. Evidence in thiswork leads to the conclusion that external addition of H2O2 leads to excessive production of the hydroxyl radical. Since microorganisms do not have enzyme systems capable of acting upon this additional reactive radical, it resulted in loss of process performance. It is also possible that H2O2 could have upset the normal aerobic respiration process by introducing oxidative stress conditions on the catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes that deal with other oxygen radicals generated as part of the overall process of reducing oxygen to water. Any test that interferes with the system in which the test is being performed is suspect. Therefore, in light of these results, the H2O2 method to test in-process oxygen transfer should be re-evaluated.

  11. Novel Biological Approaches for Testing the Contributions of Single DSBs and DSB Clusters to the Biological Effects of High LET Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mladenova, Veronika; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-01-01

    The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides, and frequently comprise base damages and single-strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB “complexity.” The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB clusters, comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then “tested” by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e., the “a priori” prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling – including the role of DSB clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and

  12. Dosimetric and biological results from the Bacillus subtilis Biostack experiment with the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

    PubMed

    Facius, R; Bucker, H; Horneck, G; Reitz, G; Schafer, M

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis experiment has been completed. The biological and the physical results for this part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Biostack experiment are given. This comprises dosimetric data for the cosmic radiation at that orbit as well as biological findings from two types of plastic detectors. Further, the frequency distributions of the physical quantities atomic number, energy and energy loss of the heavy ions within the sample of spores hit are presented. The biological hazard presented by cosmic HZE-particles has been much underestimated.

  13. Dosimetric and biological results from the Bacillus subtilis Biostack experiment with the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.

    PubMed

    Facius, R; Bucker, H; Horneck, G; Reitz, G; Schafer, M

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis experiment has been completed. The biological and the physical results for this part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Biostack experiment are given. This comprises dosimetric data for the cosmic radiation at that orbit as well as biological findings from two types of plastic detectors. Further, the frequency distributions of the physical quantities atomic number, energy and energy loss of the heavy ions within the sample of spores hit are presented. The biological hazard presented by cosmic HZE-particles has been much underestimated. PMID:12001965

  14. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Methods Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject’s mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. Results In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model

  15. Examples of testing global identifiability of biological and biomedical models with the DAISY software.

    PubMed

    Saccomani, Maria Pia; Audoly, Stefania; Bellu, Giuseppina; D'Angiò, Leontina

    2010-04-01

    DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems) is a recently developed computer algebra software tool which can be used to automatically check global identifiability of (linear and) nonlinear dynamic models described by differential equations involving polynomial or rational functions. Global identifiability is a fundamental prerequisite for model identification which is important not only for biological or medical systems but also for many physical and engineering systems derived from first principles. Lack of identifiability implies that the parameter estimation techniques may not fail but any obtained numerical estimates will be meaningless. The software does not require understanding of the underlying mathematical principles and can be used by researchers in applied fields with a minimum of mathematical background. We illustrate the DAISY software by checking the a priori global identifiability of two benchmark nonlinear models taken from the literature. The analysis of these two examples includes comparison with other methods and demonstrates how identifiability analysis is simplified by this tool. Thus we illustrate the identifiability analysis of other two examples, by including discussion of some specific aspects related to the role of observability and knowledge of initial conditions in testing identifiability and to the computational complexity of the software. The main focus of this paper is not on the description of the mathematical background of the algorithm, which has been presented elsewhere, but on illustrating its use and on some of its more interesting features. DAISY is available on the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/ approximately pia/.

  16. Examples of Testing Global Identifiability of Biological and Biomedical Models with the DAISY Software

    PubMed Central

    Saccomani, Maria Pia; Audoly, Stefania; Bellu, Giuseppina; D’Angiò, Leontina

    2010-01-01

    DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems) is a recently developed computer algebra software tool which can be used to automatically check global identifiability of (linear and) nonlinear dynamic models described by differential equations involving polynomial or rational functions. Global identifiability is a fundamental prerequisite for model identification which is important not only for biological or medical systems but also for many physical and engineering systems derived from first principles. Lack of identifiability implies that the parameter estimation techniques may not fail but any obtained numerical estimates will be meaningless. The software does not require understanding of the underlying mathematical principles and can be used by researchers in applied fields with a minimum of mathematical background. We illustrate the DAISY software by checking the a priori global identifiability of two benchmark nonlinear models taken from the literature. The analysis of these two examples includes comparison with other methods and demonstrates how identifiability analysis is simplified by this tool. Thus we illustrate the identifiability analysis of other two examples, by including discussion of some specific aspects related to the role of observability and knowledge of initial conditions in testing identifiability and to the computational complexity of the software. The main focus of this paper is not on the description of the mathematical background of the algorithm, which has been presented elsewhere, but on illustrating its use and on some of its more interesting features. DAISY is available on the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/~pia/. PMID:20185123

  17. Validation of the orthogonal tilt reconstruction method with a biological test sample.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, Preethi; Hernandez-Lopez, Rogelio; Wang, Hong-Wei; Leschziner, Andres E

    2011-07-01

    Electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples (cryo-EM) can yield high resolution structures of macromolecular complexes by accurately determining the orientation of large numbers of experimental views of the sample relative to an existing 3D model. The "initial model problem", the challenge of obtaining these orientations ab initio, remains a major bottleneck in determining the structure of novel macromolecules, chiefly those lacking internal symmetry. We previously proposed a method for the generation of initial models--orthogonal tilt reconstruction (OTR)--that bypasses limitations inherent to the other two existing methods, random conical tilt (RCT) and angular reconstitution (AR). Here we present a validation of OTR with a biological test sample whose structure was previously solved by RCT: the complex between the yeast exosome and the subunit Rrp44. We show that, as originally demonstrated with synthetic data, OTR generates initial models that do not exhibit the "missing cone" artifacts associated with RCT and show an isotropic distribution of information when compared with the known structure. This eliminates the need for further user intervention to solve these artifacts and makes OTR ideal for automation and the analysis of heterogeneous samples. With the former in mind, we propose a set of simple quantitative criteria that can be used, in combination, to select from a large set of initial reconstructions a subset that can be used as reliable references for refinement to higher resolution.

  18. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  19. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CELLRAD)": Hardware and biological system tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F.; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CELLRAD, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CELLRAD in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  20. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  1. A Test of the Relationship between Reading Ability & Standardized Biology Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence suggested that independent reading abilities of students enrolled in biology predicted their performance on the Biology I Graduation End-of-Course Assessment (ECA). An archival study was conducted at one Indiana urban public high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, by examining existing educational assessment data to test…

  2. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  3. A comparative study on characterization of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) toxicity by chemical and biological tests.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Sharma, S; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Kumar, S; Grover, R; Sharma, P K

    2007-08-01

    Toxicity of textile wastewaters (untreated and treated) and their ingredient chemicals was quantified in terms of their chemical characteristics, fish (Gambusia affinis) mortality and end point growth responses of duckweed (Lemna aequinoctialis) in short-term bioassays. Other parameters of fish bioassay were erythrocyte morphology and its counts. Despite of a definite correlation between data of biological tests (LC/EC(50) values) with that of chemical tests, biological tests were found to be relatively more sensitive to both wastewaters and ingredient chemicals. Amongst all the examined parameters of test organisms, fish RBCs (morphology and counts) sensitivity to pollutants in the wastewaters was usually maximum and therefore, their study should be included in the routine fish bioassay. Other advantage of biological test such as on Lemna is even detection of eutrophic potential of wastewaters, as noted at their higher dilutions. The ingredient chemicals (major) contributing maximum toxicity to textile dye wastewater were, acids (HCl and H(2)SO(4)), alkali (Na(2)O SiO(2)), salt (NaNO(2)) and heavy metal (Cu), whereas dyes (4) were relatively less toxic. PMID:17583772

  4. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation. PMID:23530370

  5. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  6. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    PubMed

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  7. 77 FR 26162 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... clarify and update the sterility test requirements. On March 11, 1976 (41 FR 10427) and March 2, 1979 (44... provide greater consistency with the test methods of USP XXI. Finally, on September 15, 1997 (62 FR 48174... CGMP, and is supported by sterility testing using validated and verified test methods,'' (76 FR...

  8. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  9. Testing Effect and Complex Comprehension in a Large Introductory Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagliarulo, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional undergraduate biology courses are content intensive, requiring students to understand and remember large amounts of information in short periods of time. Yet most students maintain little of the material encountered during their education. Poor knowledge retention is a main cause of academic failure and high undergraduate attrition…

  10. The Use of Application Test, a Novel Type of Problem-solving Exercise as a Tool of Teaching and Assessment of Competence in Medical Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef; Tigyi, Andras

    1987-01-01

    A new type of multiple-choice test was developed and used in the teaching and assessment of knowledge of medical biology at a university in Hungary. The test includes experimental data and requires students to interpret data and to draw conclusions from results. A description of the test, experiences with the test, and one test are included. (RH)

  11. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-05-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5-12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples.

  12. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Biological Test Systems During the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5–12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples. Key Words: Space radiation—Dosimetry—Passive radiation detectors—Thermoluminescence—EXPOSE-E. Astrobiology 12, 387–392. PMID:22680685

  13. Mortality follow-up of veterans who participated in military chemical and biological warfare agent testing between 1962 and 1972.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Between 1962 and 1972, several thousand U.S. Navy personnel participated in Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). These tests potentially exposed participants to either active chemical or biological warfare agents or their simulants. This study examined mortality risk associated with participating in SHAD tests by comparing the cause-specific mortality of 4927 SHAD veterans to that of 10,927 other Navy veterans. Compared to other Navy veterans, SHAD veterans had an increased risk of overall mortality, which was due primarily to heart disease deaths.

  14. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. I - Scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R. J.; Kok, B.; Martin, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    We describe an approach for the remote detection and characterization of life in planetary soil samples. A mass spectrometer is used as the central sensor to monitor changes in the gas phase in eleven test cells filled with soil. Many biological assays, ranging from general 'in situ' assays to specific metabolic processes (such as photosynthesis, respiration, denitrification, etc.) can be performed by appropriate additions to the test cell via attached preloaded injector capsules. The system is also compatible with a number of chemical assays such as the analysis of atmospheric composition (both chemical and isotopic), the status of soil water, and the determination of compounds of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the soil.

  15. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    PubMed

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  16. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, Phillip M.; Vesecky, Thompson B.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user.

  17. Instrument for controlling the application of mechanical loads to biological and bicompatible test subjects

    DOEpatents

    Lintilhac, P.M.; Vesecky, T.B.

    1995-09-19

    An apparatus and methods are disclosed facilitating the application of forces and measurement of dimensions of a test subject. In one arrangement the test subject is coupled to a forcing frame and controlled forces applied thereto. Force applied to the test subject is measured and controlled. A dimensional characteristic of the test subject, such as growth, is measured by a linear variable differential transformer. The growth measurement data can be used to control the force applied. The transducer module receives force and dimensional data from the forcing frame. The transducer module is a separate, microprocessor-based unit that communicates the test data to a controller unit that controls the application of force to the test subject and receives the test data from the transducer module for force control, storage, and/or communication to the user. 8 figs.

  18. Protozoan parasites in group-living primates: testing the biological island hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Bowman, Dwight D; Ghai, Ria R; Gogarten, Jan F; Goldberg, Tony L; Rothman, Jessica M; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Walsh, Chesley

    2012-06-01

    A series of articles by W.J. Freeland published in the 1970s proposed that social organization and behavioral processes were heavily influenced by parasitic infections, which led to a number of intriguing hypotheses concerning how natural selection might act on social factors because of the benefits of avoiding parasite infections. For example, Freeland [1979] showed that all individuals within a given group harbored identical gastrointestinal protozoan faunas, which led him to postulate that social groups were akin to "biological islands" and suggest how this isolation could select specific types of ranging and dispersal patterns. Here, we reexamine the biological island hypothesis by quantifying the protozoan faunas of the same primate species examined by Freeland in the same location; our results do not support this hypothesis. In contrast, we quantified two general changes in protozoan parasite community of primates in the study area of Kibale National Park, Uganda, over the nearly 35 years between sample collections: (1) the colobines found free of parasites in the early 1970s are now infected with numerous intestinal protozoan parasites and (2) groups are no longer biological islands in terms of their protozoan parasites. Whatever the ultimate explanation for these changes, our findings have implications for studies proposing selective forces shaping primate behavior and social organization.

  19. Biological testing of sediment for the Olympia Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, 1988: Geoduck, amphipod, and echinoderm bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.; Antrim, L.D.

    1989-05-01

    The Olympia Harbor Navigation Improvement Project requires the dredging of approximately 330,000 cubic yards (cy) of sediment from the harbor entrance channel and 205,185 cy from the turning basin. Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis (PSDDA) partial characterization studies were used to plan a full sediment characterization in which chemical analyses and biological testing of sediments evaluated the suitability of the dredged material for unconfined, open-water disposal. The US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), Seattle District, contracted with NOAA/NMFS, Environmental Conservation Division, to perform the chemical analysis and Microtox bioassay tests, and with the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim to perform flow-through solid-phase bioassays utilizing juvenile (8 to 10 mm) geoduck clams, Panopea generosa, and static solid phase bioassays using the phoxocephalid amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius, developing embryos and gametes of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the larvae of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. When the results of the biological tests were evaluated under PSDDA guidelines, it was found that all the tested sediment treatments from Olympia Harbor are suitable for unconfined open-water disposal. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Castano, A. . Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. )

    1994-10-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

  1. Planar biaxial testing of soft biological tissue using rakes: A critical analysis of protocol and fitting process.

    PubMed

    Fehervary, Heleen; Smoljkić, Marija; Vander Sloten, Jos; Famaey, Nele

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical characterization of soft biological tissue is becoming more and more prevalent. Despite the growing use of planar biaxial testing for soft tissue characterization, testing conditions and subsequent data analysis have not been standardized and vary widely. This also influences the quality of the result of the parameter fitting. Moreover, the testing conditions and data analysis are often not or incompletely reported, which impedes the proper comparison of parameters obtained from different studies. With a focus on planar biaxial tests using rakes, this paper investigates varying testing conditions and varying data analysis methods and their effect on the quality of the parameter fitting results. By means of a series of finite element simulations, aspects such as number of rakes, rakes׳ width, loading protocol, constitutive model, material stiffness and anisotropy are evaluated based on the degree of homogeneity of the stress field, and on the correlation between the experimentally obtained stress and the stress derived from the constitutive model. When calculating the aforementioned stresses, different definitions of the section width and deformation gradient are used in literature, each of which are looked into. Apart from this degree of homogeneity and correlation, also the effect on the quality of the parameter fitting result is evaluated. The results show that inhomogeneities can be reduced to a minimum for wise choices of testing conditions and analysis methods, but never completely eliminated. Therefore, a new parameter optimization procedure is proposed that corrects for the inhomogeneities in the stress field and induces significant improvements to the fitting results. Recommendations are made for best practice in rake-based planar biaxial testing of soft biological tissues and subsequent parameter fitting, and guidelines are formulated for reporting thereof in publications.

  2. Experimental Work in Biology: Book 1, Food Tests; Book 2, Enzymes; Book 3, Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackean, D. G.

    Laboratory experiments are presented in these first three manuals of a six-volume series for use at the 12- to 16-year-old, or British CSE, level. On the subject of food tests, 17 exercises are prepared in connection with Biuret reactions, starch and emulsion tests, Millon's and Benedict's reagents, reagent sensitivity, and calorific values and…

  3. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  4. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be obtained from bioassays in lieu of chemical tests. (2) Water column effects. (i) Sediments... locations within the sediment. An elutriate test may be used to predict the effect on water quality due to release of contaminants from the sediment to the water column. However, in the case of fill...

  5. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be obtained from bioassays in lieu of chemical tests. (2) Water column effects. (i) Sediments... locations within the sediment. An elutriate test may be used to predict the effect on water quality due to release of contaminants from the sediment to the water column. However, in the case of fill...

  6. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be obtained from bioassays in lieu of chemical tests. (2) Water column effects. (i) Sediments... locations within the sediment. An elutriate test may be used to predict the effect on water quality due to release of contaminants from the sediment to the water column. However, in the case of fill...

  7. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  8. Effect of chemical and biological surfactants on activated sludge of MBR system: microscopic analysis and foam test.

    PubMed

    Capodici, Marco; Di Bella, Gaetano; Nicosia, Salvatore; Torregrossa, Michele

    2015-02-01

    A bench-scale MBR unit was operated, under stressing condition, with the aim of stimulating the onset of foaming in the activated sludge. Possible synergies between synthetic surfactants in the wastewater and biological surfactants (Extra-Cellular Polymeric Substances, EPSs) were investigated by changing C/N ratio. The growth of filamentous bacteria was also discussed. The MBR unit provided satisfactory overall carbon removal overall efficiencies: in particular, synthetic surfactants were removed with efficiency higher than 90% and 95% for non-ionic and ionic surfactants, respectively. Lab investigation suggested also the importance to reduce synthetic surfactants presence entering into mixed liquor: otherwise, their presence can significantly worsen the natural foaming caused by biological surfactants (EPSs) produced by bacteria. Finally, a new analytic method based on "ink test" has been proposed as a useful tool to achieve a valuation of EPSs bound fraction.

  9. Radiotoxicity of gadolinium-148 and radium-223 in mouse testes: Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.W.; Goddu, S.M.; Narra, V.R.

    1997-03-01

    The biological effects of radionuclides that emit {alpha} particles are of considerable interest in view of their potential for therapy and their presence in the environment. The present work is a continuation of our ongoing effort to study the radiotoxicity of {alpha}-particle emitters in vivo using the survival of murine testicular sperm heads as the biological end point. Specifically, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of very low-energy {alpha} particles (3.2 MeV) emitted by {sup 148}Gd is investigated and determined to be 7.4 {+-} 2.4 when compared to the effects of acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for {sup 210}Po and {sup 212}Pb in equilibrium with its daughters, is used to revise and extend the range of validity of our previous RBE-energy relationship for {alpha} particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides. The new empirical relationship is given by RBE{sub {alpha}} = 9.14 - 0.510 E{sub {alpha}}, where 3 < E{sub {alpha}} < 9 MeV. The validity of this empirical relationship is tested by determining the RBE of the prolific {alpha}-particle emitter {sup 223}Ra (in equilibrium with its daughters) experimentally in the same biological model and comparing the value obtained experimentally with the predicted value. The resulting RBE values are 5.4 {+-} 0.9 and 5.6, respectively. This close agreement strongly supports the adequacy of the empirical RBE-E{sub {alpha}} relationship to predict the biological effects of {alpha}-particle emitters in vivo. 42 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Radiotoxicity of Gadolinium-148 and Radium-223 in Mouse Testes: Relative Biological Effectiveness of Alpha-Particle Emitters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Roger W.; Goddu, S. Murty; Narra, Venkat R.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Schenter, Robert E.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects of radionuclides that emit α particles are of considerable interest in view of their potential for therapy and their presence in the environment. The present work is a continuation of our ongoing effort to study the radiotoxicity of α-particle emitters in vivo using the survival of murine testicular sperm heads as the biological end point. Specifically, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of very low-energy α particles (3.2 MeV) emitted by 148Gd is investigated and determined to be 7.4 ± 2.4 when compared to the effects of acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po and 212Pb in equilibrium with its daughters, is used to revise and extend the range of validity of our previous RBE–energy relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides. The new empirical relationship is given by RBEα = 9.14 − 0.510 Eα, where 3 < Eα < 9 MeV. The validity of this empirical relationship is tested by determining the RBE of the prolific α-particle emitter 223Ra (in equilibrium with its daughters) experimentally in the same biological model and comparing the value obtained experimentally with the predicted value. The resulting RBE values are 5.4 ± 0.9 and 5.6, respectively. This close agreement strongly supports the adequacy of the empirical RBE-Eα relationship to predict the biological effects of α-particle emitters in Vivo. PMID:9052681

  11. Single and multiple streamer DBD micro-discharges for testing inactivation of biologically contaminated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prukner, Vaclav; Dolezalova, Eva; Simek, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Highly reactive environment produced by atmospheric-pressure, non-equilibrium plasmas generated by surface dielectric barrier discharges (SDBDs) may be used for inactivation of biologically contaminated surfaces. We investigated decontamination efficiency of reactive environment produced by single/multiple surface streamer micro-discharge driven by amplitude-modulated AC power in coplanar electrode geometry on biologically contaminated surface by Escherichia coli. The discharges were fed by synthetic air with water vapor admixtures at atmospheric pressure, time of treatment was set from 10 second to 10 minutes, diameters of used SDBD electrodes (single and multiple streamer) and homogeneously contaminated disc samples were equal (25 mm), the distance between the electrode and contaminated surface was 2 mm. Both a conventional cultivation and fluorescent method LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability kit were applied to estimate counts of bacteria after the plasma treatment. Inactivation was effective and bacteria partly lost ability to grow and became injured and viable/active but non-cultivable (VBNC/ABNC). Work was supported by the MEYS under Project LD13010, VES13 COST CZ (COST Action MP 1101).

  12. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  13. Biological and analytical variations of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests and the activity of coagulation factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Shou, Weiling; Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Zhang, Yujuan; Huang, Chunmei; Cui, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To accurately estimate longitudinal changes in individuals, it is important to take into consideration the biological variability of the measurement. The few studies available on the biological variations of coagulation parameters are mostly outdated. We confirmed the published results using modern, fully automated methods. Furthermore, we added data for additional coagulation parameters. At 8:00 am, 12:00 pm, and 4:00 pm on days 1, 3, and 5, venous blood was collected from 31 healthy volunteers. A total of 16 parameters related to coagulation screening tests as well as the activity of coagulation factors were analyzed; these included prothrombin time, fibrinogen (Fbg), activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time activity, activated partial thromboplastin time ratio, fibrin(-ogen) degradation products, as well as the activity of factor II, factor V, factor VII, factor VIII, factor IX, and factor X. All intraindividual coefficients of variation (CVI) values for the parameters of the screening tests (except Fbg) were less than 5%. Conversely, the CVI values for the activity of coagulation factors were all greater than 5%. In addition, we calculated the reference change value to determine whether a significant difference exists between two test results from the same individual.

  14. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  15. Solubilization of poorly soluble lichen metabolites for biological testing on cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kristmundsdóttir, Thórdís; Jónsdóttir, Elsa; Ogmundsdóttir, Helga M; Ingólfsdóttir, Kristín

    2005-04-01

    The depside atranorin and depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, isolated from the lichens Stereocaulon alpinum and Cetraria islandica, respectively, were chosen as prototypes for poorly soluble natural compounds in an effort to facilitate testing in pharmacological models. Solubilizing agents previously identified as being non-toxic towards a malignant leukemic (K-562) cell line and suitable for testing of anti-proliferative activity of the dibenzofuran lichen metabolite (+)-usnic acid were used in solubilization studies of the depside and depsidone. Cyclodextrin derivatives were found to be most suitable for solubilizing the lichen compounds, the greatest rise in solubility being witnessed for fumarprotocetraric acid, increasing almost 300-fold from 0.03 mg/ml in water to 8.98 mg/ml in 10% 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD). Subsequently, the lichen compounds, including (+)-usnic acid, were solubilized in 10% HPbetaCD and tested for effects on three malignant human cell lines; T-47D (breast), Panc-1 (pancreas) and PC-3 (prostate) in a standard proliferation assay. Atranorin and fumarprotocetraric acid did not exhibit anti-proliferative effects but usnic acid was active against all test cell lines with EC50 values of 4.3-8.2 microg/ml. The non-toxic solubilizing agents used in this study could prove useful for pharmacological testing of other poorly soluble natural products. PMID:15784343

  16. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potential effects on the water column and on communities of aquatic organisms. (1) Evaluation of chemical... further analyses and how the results of the analyses will be of value in evaluating potential... be obtained from bioassays in lieu of chemical tests. (2) Water column effects. (i)...

  17. 40 CFR 230.61 - Chemical, biological, and physical evaluation and testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... potential effects on the water column and on communities of aquatic organisms. (1) Evaluation of chemical... further analyses and how the results of the analyses will be of value in evaluating potential... be obtained from bioassays in lieu of chemical tests. (2) Water column effects. (i)...

  18. Development and testing of new biologically-based polymers as advanced biocompatible contact lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2000-06-01

    Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity, and

  19. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  20. Determining Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Diffusion" through the Free Word-Association Test and the Drawing-Writing Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gülay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate student biology teachers' cognitive structures related to "diffusion" through the free word-association test and the drawing-writing technique. As the research design of the study, the qualitative research method was applied. The data were collected from 44 student biology teachers. The free…

  1. Effects of activated carbon amended sediment on biological responses in Chironomus riparius multi-generation testing.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Inna; Abel, Sebastian; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-11-15

    The biological effects of activated carbon (AC) amendments in sediments were studied with the midge Chironomus riparius. The effects on larvae growth were studied using three different AC particles sizes (PAC: 90% <63μm, MAC: ø 63-200μm and GAC: ø 420-1700μm). The long- term effects of MAC were studied in an emergence experiment over two generations (P, F1), together with larvae growth experiment over three generations (P, F1, F2). Retarded growth and development of the larvae were observed in the two smallest particle sizes (PAC and MAC), as well as morphological changes in the gut wall microvilli layer studied from transmission electron micrographs. In addition, at high AC treatments the larvae reaching fourth instar stage were of a smaller size compared to the controls. With PAC treatment AC amendment dosages higher than 1% of sediment dry weight induced mortality. In the emergence experiment there was an indication of a delay in F1 generation emergence. Male dry weight (dw) in P generation was significantly reduced in the 2.5% MAC treatment. The effects of AC amendments were more obvious in the C. riparius larvae compared to the effects seen in emerging adults exposed to AC-amended sediment during the larval stage. PMID:27450330

  2. Testing Foundations of Biological Scaling Theory Using Automated Measurements of Vascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Mitchell G; Ennis, Daniel B; Savage, Van M

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have long sought to understand how vascular networks supply blood and oxygen to cells throughout the body. Recent work focuses on principles that constrain how vessel size changes through branching generations from the aorta to capillaries and uses scaling exponents to quantify these changes. Prominent scaling theories predict that combinations of these exponents explain how metabolic, growth, and other biological rates vary with body size. Nevertheless, direct measurements of individual vessel segments have been limited because existing techniques for measuring vasculature are invasive, time consuming, and technically difficult. We developed software that extracts the length, radius, and connectivity of in vivo vessels from contrast-enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Using data from 20 human subjects, we calculated scaling exponents by four methods—two derived from local properties of branching junctions and two from whole-network properties. Although these methods are often used interchangeably in the literature, we do not find general agreement between these methods, particularly for vessel lengths. Measurements for length of vessels also diverge from theoretical values, but those for radius show stronger agreement. Our results demonstrate that vascular network models cannot ignore certain complexities of real vascular systems and indicate the need to discover new principles regarding vessel lengths. PMID:26317654

  3. The Acid Test for Biological Science: STAP Cells, Trust, and Replication.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Cheryl

    2016-02-01

    In January 2014, a letter and original research article were published in Nature describing a process whereby somatic mouse cells could be converted into stem cells by subjecting them to stress. These "stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency" (STAP) cells were shown to be capable of contributing to all cell types of a developing embryo, and extra-embryonic tissues. The lead author of the publications, Haruko Obokata, became an overnight celebrity in Japan, where she was dubbed the new face of Japanese science. However, in the weeks that followed publication of the research, issues arose. Other laboratories and researchers (including authors on the original papers) found that they were unable to replicate Obokata et al.'s work. Closer scrutiny of the papers by the scientific community also suggested that there was manipulation of images that had been published, and Obokata was accused of misconduct. Those who should have been supervising her work (also her co-authors on the publications) were also heavily criticised. The STAP cell saga of 2014 is used as an example to highlight the importance of trust and replication in twenty-first century biological science. The role of trust in the scientific community is highlighted, and the effects on interactions between science and the public examined. Similarly, this essay aims to highlight the importance of replication, and how this is understood by researchers, the media, and the public. The expected behaviour of scientists in the twenty-first century is now more closely scrutinised.

  4. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Y.E.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  5. Biological process design and pilot testing for a carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Givens, S.W.; Brown, E.V. ); Gelman, S.R. ); Grady, C.P.L. Jr. ); Skedsvold, D.A. )

    1991-05-01

    In response to a new NPDES permit incorporating Organic Chemical, Plastic, and Synthetic Fiber (OCPSF) effluent limits for BOD (carbonaceous and nitrogenous), TSS, and priority pollutants, a treatability study was conducted to establish design criteria for a new process wastewater treatment plant for DSM Chemicals North America, Inc. The permit also requires partial removal of total nitrogen. Based on the discharge criteria, a two-stage biological process configuration was selected. The configuration consisted of an anoxic followed by an aerobic reactor with mixed liquor recirculation. To establish design criteria, a two-phase study was conducted. The first phase involved determining wastewater characteristics and kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients. These values were used as input to Simulation of Single-Sludge Processes (SSSP), a computer model that was used to evaluate potential process configurations. In the second phase, a pilot-scale system was operated to verify performance. With a volume distribution of 40% anoxic and 60% aerobic and recirculation ratio of 2, BOD, COD, and total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 99, 88, and 80% were obtained, respectively. Approximately 84% of the biodegradable COD was removed through denitrification.

  6. Effects of activated carbon amended sediment on biological responses in Chironomus riparius multi-generation testing.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Inna; Abel, Sebastian; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-11-15

    The biological effects of activated carbon (AC) amendments in sediments were studied with the midge Chironomus riparius. The effects on larvae growth were studied using three different AC particles sizes (PAC: 90% <63μm, MAC: ø 63-200μm and GAC: ø 420-1700μm). The long- term effects of MAC were studied in an emergence experiment over two generations (P, F1), together with larvae growth experiment over three generations (P, F1, F2). Retarded growth and development of the larvae were observed in the two smallest particle sizes (PAC and MAC), as well as morphological changes in the gut wall microvilli layer studied from transmission electron micrographs. In addition, at high AC treatments the larvae reaching fourth instar stage were of a smaller size compared to the controls. With PAC treatment AC amendment dosages higher than 1% of sediment dry weight induced mortality. In the emergence experiment there was an indication of a delay in F1 generation emergence. Male dry weight (dw) in P generation was significantly reduced in the 2.5% MAC treatment. The effects of AC amendments were more obvious in the C. riparius larvae compared to the effects seen in emerging adults exposed to AC-amended sediment during the larval stage.

  7. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.; Knight, P.J.

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  8. Testing evolutionary hypotheses about human biological adaptation using cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona; Holden, Clare

    2003-09-01

    Physiological data from a range of human populations living in different environments can provide valuable information for testing evolutionary hypotheses about human adaptation. By taking into account the effects of population history, phylogenetic comparative methods can help us determine whether variation results from selection due to particular environmental variables. These selective forces could even be due to cultural traits-which means that gene-culture co-evolution may be occurring. In this paper, we outline two examples of the use of these approaches to test adaptive hypotheses that explain global variation in two physiological traits: the first is lactose digestion capacity in adults, and the second is population sex-ratio at birth. We show that lower than average sex ratio at birth is associated with high fertility, and argue that global variation in sex ratio at birth has evolved as a response to the high physiological costs of producing boys in high fertility populations. PMID:14527632

  9. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  10. ``Test kit'' for detection of biologically important anions: A salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N/-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F- and AcO- ions over several tested anions such as HPO4-, Cl, Br, I, NO3-, NO2-, HSO4-, HSO3-, and ClO4- in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with 1H NMR titration results in d6-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F- and AcO- ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F- and AcO- ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (˜1 eqv.) and H-bonding (˜1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  11. System development and early biological tests in NASA's biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Dreschel, T. W.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Strayer, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center was constructed to conduct large scale plant growth studies for NASA's CELSS program. Over the past four years, physical systems and computer control software have been continually upgraded and the degree of atmospheric leakage from the chamber has decreased from about 40 to 5 percent of the total volume per day. Early tests conducted with a limited degree of closure showed that total crop (wheat) growth from the best trays was within 80 percent of reported optimal yields for similar light levels. Yields from subsequent tests under more tightly closed conditions have not been as good--up to only 65 percent of optimal yields. Yields appear to have decreased with increasing closure, yet potential problems exist in cultural techniques and further studies are warranted. With the ability to tightly seal the chamber, quantitative data were gathered on CO2 and water exchange rates. Results showed that stand photosynthesis and transpiration reached a peak near 25 days after planting, soon after full vegetative ground cover was established. In the final phase of testing when atmospheric closure was the highest, ethylene gas levels in the chamber rose from about 10 to nearly 120 ppb. Evidence suggests that the ethylene originated from the wheat plants themselves and may have caused an epinastic rolling of the leaves, but no apparent detrimental effects on whole plant function.

  12. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Testing of Biological Ascertainment for Mendelian Randomization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Santiago; Gaunt, Tom R.

    2009-01-01

    Mendelian randomization (MR) permits causal inference between exposures and a disease. It can be compared with randomized controlled trials. Whereas in a randomized controlled trial the randomization occurs at entry into the trial, in MR the randomization occurs during gamete formation and conception. Several factors, including time since conception and sampling variation, are relevant to the interpretation of an MR test. Particularly important is consideration of the “missingness” of genotypes that can be originated by chance, genotyping errors, or clinical ascertainment. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is a genetic approach that permits evaluation of missingness. In this paper, the authors demonstrate evidence of nonconformity with HWE in real data. They also perform simulations to characterize the sensitivity of HWE tests to missingness. Unresolved missingness could lead to a false rejection of causality in an MR investigation of trait-disease association. These results indicate that large-scale studies, very high quality genotyping data, and detailed knowledge of the life-course genetics of the alleles/genotypes studied will largely mitigate this risk. The authors also present a Web program (http://www.oege.org/software/hwe-mr-calc.shtml) for estimating possible missingness and an approach to evaluating missingness under different genetic models. PMID:19126586

  13. Host range testing and biology of Abia sericea (Cimbicidae), a candidate for biological control of invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp., Dipsacaceae) are widespread in the USA, being present in 43 states and listed as noxious in five. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (L.) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. The host range, biology, and life history of this ins...

  14. Testing the effectiveness of problem-based learning with learning-disabled students in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, Claudia Patrizia

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) with learning-disabled (LD) students. Twenty-four students (12 dyads) classified as LD and attending a school for the learning-disabled participated in the study. Students engaged in either a computer-based environment involving BioWorld, a hospital simulation designed to teach biology students problem-solving skills, or a paper-and-pencil version based on the computer program. A hybrid model of learning was adopted whereby students were provided with direct instruction on the digestive system prior to participating in a problem-solving activity. Students worked in dyads and solved three problems involving the digestive system in either a computerized or a paper-and-pencil condition. The experimenter acted as a coach to assist students throughout the problem-solving process. A follow-up study was conducted, one month later, to measure the long-term learning gains. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze three types of data: process data, outcome data, and follow-up data. Results from the process data showed that all students engaged in effective collaboration and became more systematic in their problem solving over time. Findings from the outcome and follow-up data showed that students in both treatment conditions, made both learning and motivational gains and that these benefits were still evident one month later. Overall, results demonstrated that the computer facilitated students' problem solving and scientific reasoning skills. Some differences were noted in students' collaboration and the amount of assistance required from the coach in both conditions. Thus, PBL is an effective learning approach with LD students in science, regardless of the type of learning environment. These results have implications for teaching science to LD students, as well as for future designs of educational software for this population.

  15. Trait-Based Representation of Biological Nitrification: Model Development, Testing, and Predicted Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2012-01-01

    Trait-based microbial models show clear promise as tools to represent the diversity and activity of microorganisms across ecosystem gradients. These models parameterize specific traits that determine the relative fitness of an “organism” in a given environment, and represent the complexity of biological systems across temporal and spatial scales. In this study we introduce a microbial community trait-based modeling framework (MicroTrait) focused on nitrification (MicroTrait-N) that represents the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) using traits related to enzyme kinetics and physiological properties. We used this model to predict nitrifier diversity, ammonia (NH3) oxidation rates, and nitrous oxide (N2O) production across pH, temperature, and substrate gradients. Predicted nitrifier diversity was predominantly determined by temperature and substrate availability, the latter was strongly influenced by pH. The model predicted that transient N2O production rates are maximized by a decoupling of the AOB and NOB communities, resulting in an accumulation and detoxification of nitrite to N2O by AOB. However, cumulative N2O production (over 6 month simulations) is maximized in a system where the relationship between AOB and NOB is maintained. When the reactions uncouple, the AOB become unstable and biomass declines rapidly, resulting in decreased NH3 oxidation and N2O production. We evaluated this model against site level chemical datasets from the interior of Alaska and accurately simulated NH3 oxidation rates and the relative ratio of AOA:AOB biomass. The predicted community structure and activity indicate (a) parameterization of a small number of traits may be sufficient to broadly characterize nitrifying community structure and (b) changing decadal trends in climate and edaphic conditions could impact nitrification rates in ways that are not captured by extant biogeochemical models. PMID

  16. Biological induced corrosion of materials II: New test methods and experiences from mir station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klintworth, R.; Reher, H. J.; Viktorov, A. N.; Bohle, D.

    1999-09-01

    During previous long-term manned missions, more than 100 species of microorganisms have been identified on surfaces of materials (bacteria and fungi). Among them were potentially pathogenic ones (saprophytes) which are capable of active growth on artificial substrates, as well as technophilic bacteria and fungi causing damages (destruction and degradation) to various materials (metals and polymers), resulting in failures and disruptions in the functioning of equipment and hardware. Aboard a space vehicle some microclimatic parameters are optimal for microorganism growth: the atmospheric fluid condensate with its specific composition, chemical and/or antropogenic contaminants (human metobolic products, etc.) all are stimulating factors for the development of bacteria and mould fungi on materials of the interior and equipment of an orbital station during its operational phase(s). Especially Russian long-term missions (SALJUT, MIR) have demonstrated that uncontrolled interactions of microorganisms with materials will ultimately lead to the appearence of technological and medical risks, significantly influencing safety and reliability characteristics of individual as well as whole systems and/ or subsystems. For a first conclusion, it could be summarized, that countermeasures and anti-strategies focussing on Microbial Contamination Management (MCM) for the International Space Station (ISS, next long-term manned mission) at least require a new materials test approach. Our respective concept includes a combined age-ing/biocorrosion test sequence. It is represented here, as well as current status of MCM program, e.g. continuous monitoring (microbiological analyses), long-term disinfection, frequent cleaning methods, mathematical modeling of ISS, etc.

  17. Photodegradation of fluorene in aqueous solution: Identification and biological activity testing of degradation products.

    PubMed

    Kinani, Said; Souissi, Yasmine; Kinani, Aziz; Vujović, Svetlana; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Bouchonnet, Stéphane

    2016-04-15

    Degradation of fluorene under UV-vis irradiation in water was investigated and structural elucidation of the main photoproducts was achieved using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six photoproducts were structurally identified, mainly on the basis of electron ionization mass spectra interpretation. The main generated transformation products are hydroxy derivatives. Some secondary photoproducts including fluorenone, hydroxy fluorenone, 2-biphenyl carboxylic acid, biphenylene, methanol fluorene congeners and hydroxy fluorene dimers were also observed. A photodegradation pathway was suggested on the basis of the chemical structures of photoproducts. Fluorene as well as its main photoproducts for which chemical standards were commercially available were tested for their ability to elicit cytotoxic, estrogenic and dioxin-like activity by using in vitro cell-based bioassays. None of the tested compounds was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 μM. However, 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene exerted significant estrogenic and dioxin-like activity on a concentration range of 3-30 μM, while fluorene and 9-hydroxyfluorene were weakly or not active, respectively, in our assays. This supports the view that photodegradation processes can generate by-products of higher toxicological concern than the parent compound and strengthens the need to further identify transformation products in the aquatic environment.

  18. Relationships among sediment chemistry, toxicity testing, and biology: What can large-scale monitoring teach us?

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Malaeb, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuarine Resources has collected sediments from over 1,000 varying locations in the estuaries of the United States. At each of these sites, sediments are analyzed for bulk chemistry, tested for toxicity to Ampelisca abdita, and enumerated regarding benthic community structure and abundance. In addition, tissue residues have been examined for selected fish and shellfish species and toxicity testing has been completed at selected sites for alternative species. The statistical and ecological relationships among these indicators have been examined with regard to how they can used to identify the overall ecological condition of a site, an estuary, or populations of estuaries. Comparisons of these relationships among different regions of the country show major differences in the modes of exposure and response being prevalent in the Southeast and Gulf Coasts as compared to the Mid-Atlantic and West Coasts. While the extent of sediment contamination in the Southeast and Gulf estuaries appears to be similar to that of the Mid-Atlantic and California Coasts, the degree of contamination at contaminated sites is much greater in Mid-Atlantic estuaries. An examination of the primary contaminants suggests that the primary sources of contamination in the Mid-Atlantic are industrial and urban while the Southeast and Gulf estuaries are dominated by agricultural contaminants.

  19. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  20. Herpes murine model as a biological assay to test dialyzable leukocyte extracts activity.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines.

  1. Field scale testing of a hyperfiltration unit for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, D.P.; Thomas, R.L.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical analyses and biological response data were used to assess the efficacy of a field-scale hyperfiltration unit in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds from creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water recovered from the former American Creosote Works in Escambia County, Pensacola, Florida. The hyperfiltration unit consisted of 4 modules containing porous stainless steel tubes which were coated with a formed-in-place zirconium hydrous oxide-polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membrane. A 5-fold concentration of the feedwater (80% volume reduction) with up to 97% removal of high molecular weight PAHs was achieved during pre-demonstration and field-demonstration runs of the hyperfiltration unit. Toxicological and teratogenic data for embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina, indicated that 100, 10 and 1% solutions of the ground water sample used in the pre-demonstration run caused statistically significant (p < or - 0.05) biological responses when compared to controls. Permeates from both runs, diluted to 1%, met the pre-condition of non-toxic responses in 48h tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Meeting this requirement allowed for discharge of diluted permeate into the county's sanitary sewerage collector system.

  2. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  3. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository.

  4. A mathematical model for the interpretation of nuclear bomb test derived 14C incorporation in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Samuel; Frisén, Jonas; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-04-01

    Human tissues continually replace dying cells with newborn cells. However, the rate of renewal varies by orders of magnitudes between blood cells, which are renewed every day and neurons, for which renewal is non-existent or limited to specific regions of the brain. Between those extreme are many tissues that turnover on a time scale of years, although no direct measurements have been done. We present here a mathematical method to estimate cell turnover in slowly renewing biological systems. Age distribution of DNA can be estimated from the integration of radiocarbon derived from nuclear bomb-testing during the cold war (1955-1963). For slowly renewing tissues, this method provides a better estimate of the average age of the tissue than direct estimates from the bomb-curve. Moreover, death, birth and turnover rates can be estimated. We highlight this method with data from human fat cells.

  5. DNA Fingerprinting To Improve Data Collection Efficiency and Yield in a Host-Specificity Test of a Weed Biological Control Candidate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An open-field test was conducted in southern France to assess the host-specificity of Ceratapion basicorne, a candidate for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis; YST). Test plants were infested by naturally occurring populations of C. basicorne but were also exposed to s...

  6. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  7. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  8. Thermal Design, Test and Analysis of PharmaSat, a Small Class D Spacecraft with a Biological Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz-Aguado, Millan F.; VanOutryve, Cassandra; Ghassemiah, Shakib; Beasley, Christopher; Schooley, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Small spacecraft have been increasing in popularity because of their low cost, short turnaround and relative efficiency. In the past, small spacecraft have been primarily used for technology demonstrations, but advances in technology have made the miniaturization of space science possible [1,2]. PharmaSat is a low cost, small three cube size spacecraft, with a biological experiment on board, built at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Ames Research Center. The thermal design of small spacecraft presents challenges as their smaller surface areas translate into power and thermal constraints. The spacecraft is thermally designed to run colder in the Low Earth Orbit space environment, and heated to reach the temperatures required by the science payload. The limited power supply obtained from the solar panels on small surfaces creates a constraint in the power used to heat the payload to required temperatures. The pressurized payload is isolated with low thermally conductance paths from the large ambient temperature changes. The thermal design consists of different optical properties of section surfaces, Multi Layer Insulation (MLI), low thermal conductance materials, flexible heaters and thermal spreaders. The payload temperature is controlled with temperature sensors and flexible heaters. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and testing were used to aid the thermal design of the spacecraft. Various tests were conducted to verify the thermal design. An infrared imager was used on the electronic boards to find large heat sources and eliminate any possible temperature runaways. The spacecraft was tested in a thermal vacuum chamber to optimize the thermal and power analysis and qualify the thermal design of the spacecraft for the mission.

  9. Fabrication techniques for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices and their applications for biological testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yanyan; Si, Jin; Li, Zhiyang

    2016-03-15

    Paper is increasingly recognized as a user-friendly and ubiquitous substrate for construction of microfluidic devices. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) provide an alternative technology for development of affordable, portable, disposable and low-cost diagnostic tools for improving point of care testing (POCT) and disease screening in the developing world, especially in those countries with no- or low-infrastructure and limited trained medical and health professionals. We in this review present fabrication techniques for microfluidic devices and their respective applications for biological detection as reported to date. These include: (i) fabrication techniques: examples of devices fabricated by using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) methods; (ii) detection application: biochemical, immunological and molecular detection by incorporating efficient detection methods such as, colorimetric detection, electrochemical detection, fluorescence detection, chemiluminescence (CL) detection, electrochemiluninescence (ECL) detection, photoelectrochemi (PEC) detection and so on. In addition, main advantages, disadvantages and future trends for the devices are also discussed in this review.

  10. Analysis of eight oil spill dispersants using rapid, in vitro tests for endocrine and other biological activity.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard S; Martin, Matthew T; Reif, David M; Houck, Keith A; Knudsen, Thomas B; Rotroff, Daniel M; Xia, Menghang; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Shinn, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

    2010-08-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill has led to the use of >1 M gallons of oil spill dispersants, which are mixtures of surfactants and solvents. Because of this large scale use there is a critical need to understand the potential for toxicity of the currently used dispersant and potential alternatives, especially given the limited toxicity testing information that is available. In particular, some dispersants contain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), which can degrade to nonylphenol (NP), a known endocrine disruptor. Given the urgent need to generate toxicity data, we carried out a series of in vitro high-throughput assays on eight commercial dispersants. These assays focused on the estrogen and androgen receptors (ER and AR), but also included a larger battery of assays probing other biological pathways. Cytotoxicity in mammalian cells was also quantified. No activity was seen in any AR assay. Two dispersants showed a weak ER signal in one assay (EC50 of 16 ppm for Nokomis 3-F4 and 25 ppm for ZI-400). NPs and NPEs also had a weak signal in this same ER assay. Note that Corexit 9500, the currently used product, does not contain NPEs and did not show any ER activity. Cytotoxicity values for six of the dispersants were statistically indistinguishable, with median LC50 values approximately 100 ppm. Two dispersants, JD 2000 and SAF-RON GOLD, were significantly less cytotoxic than the others with LC50 values approaching or exceeding 1000 ppm. PMID:20602530

  11. Analysis of eight oil spill dispersants using rapid, in vitro tests for endocrine and other biological activity.

    PubMed

    Judson, Richard S; Martin, Matthew T; Reif, David M; Houck, Keith A; Knudsen, Thomas B; Rotroff, Daniel M; Xia, Menghang; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Shinn, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Kavlock, Robert J; Dix, David J

    2010-08-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill has led to the use of >1 M gallons of oil spill dispersants, which are mixtures of surfactants and solvents. Because of this large scale use there is a critical need to understand the potential for toxicity of the currently used dispersant and potential alternatives, especially given the limited toxicity testing information that is available. In particular, some dispersants contain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), which can degrade to nonylphenol (NP), a known endocrine disruptor. Given the urgent need to generate toxicity data, we carried out a series of in vitro high-throughput assays on eight commercial dispersants. These assays focused on the estrogen and androgen receptors (ER and AR), but also included a larger battery of assays probing other biological pathways. Cytotoxicity in mammalian cells was also quantified. No activity was seen in any AR assay. Two dispersants showed a weak ER signal in one assay (EC50 of 16 ppm for Nokomis 3-F4 and 25 ppm for ZI-400). NPs and NPEs also had a weak signal in this same ER assay. Note that Corexit 9500, the currently used product, does not contain NPEs and did not show any ER activity. Cytotoxicity values for six of the dispersants were statistically indistinguishable, with median LC50 values approximately 100 ppm. Two dispersants, JD 2000 and SAF-RON GOLD, were significantly less cytotoxic than the others with LC50 values approaching or exceeding 1000 ppm.

  12. Analysis of Eight Oil Spill Dispersants Using Rapid, In Vitro Tests for Endocrine and Other Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Richard S.; Martin, Matthew T.; Reif, David M.; Houck, Keith A.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Xia, Menghang; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Huang, Ruili; Shinn, Paul; Austin, Christopher P.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Dix, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill has led to the use of >1 M gallons of oil spill dispersants, which are mixtures of surfactants and solvents. Because of this large scale use there is a critical need to understand the potential for toxicity of the currently used dispersant and potential alternatives, especially given the limited toxicity testing information that is available. In particular, some dispersants contain nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), which can degrade to nonylphenol (NP), a known endocrine disruptor. Given the urgent need to generate toxicity data, we carried out a series of in vitro high-throughput assays on eight commercial dispersants. These assays focused on the estrogen and androgen receptors (ER and AR), but also included a larger battery of assays probing other biological pathways. Cytotoxicity in mammalian cells was also quantified. No activity was seen in any AR assay. Two dispersants showed a weak ER signal in one assay (EC50 of 16 ppm for Nokomis 3-F4 and 25 ppm for ZI-400). NPs and NPEs also had a weak signal in this same ER assay. Note that Corexit 9500, the currently used product, does not contain NPEs and did not show any ER activity. Cytotoxicity values for six of the dispersants were statistically indistinguishable, with median LC50 values ∼100 ppm. Two dispersants, JD 2000, SAF-RON GOLD, were significantly less cytotoxic than the others with LC50 values approaching or exceeding 1000 ppm. PMID:20602530

  13. Physics Characterization of TLD-600 and TLD-700 and Acceptance Testing of New XRAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanan

    2: Acceptance testing of new X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator. Purpose: An X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator was recently installed at Duke University to serve as a key device for cellular radiobiology research. The purpose of this study is to perform acceptance testing on the new irradiator for operator radiation safety and irradiation specifications. Methods: The acceptance testing included tests of the following components: (1) Leakage radiation survey, (2) Half-value layer (beam quality), (3) Uniformity, (4) KVp accuracy, (5) Exposure at varying mA (linearity of mA), (6) Exposure at varying kVp, (7) Inverse square measurements, (8) Field size measurement, (9) Exposure constancy. The irradiation parameters for each components of first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 were: Leakage radiation survey (none, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 200s), Beam quality (40cm, 50-140 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 1 mA, 10s, none), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 15s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 50-150 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 10 mA, 15s, none), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 2-18 mA, 15s, none), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 1mA, 30s, none), Field size measurement (40cm, 160 kVp, 10 mA, 15s, none), Exposure constancy (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 20s, none). The irradiation parameters for each components for each components of second round of acceptance testing performed on November 18, 2012 were: Beam quality (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), Variation of kVp (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 1-18 mA, 30s, F1), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1). Results: The first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 failed due to the fact that the measured exposure along the X-axis was significantly non-uniform; the exposure greatly decreases going in the left direction, which is a clear

  14. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  15. Assessing Students' Abilities in Processes of Scientific Inquiry in Biology Using a Paper-and-Pencil Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Kathrin Helena; Nehring, Andreas; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe, categorise and analyse students' (aged 14-16) processes of scientific inquiry in biology and chemistry education. Therefore, a theoretical structure for scientific inquiry for both biology and chemistry, the VerE model, was developed. This model consists of nine epistemological acts, which combine…

  16. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring College Biology Students' Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis after a Course of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic test for measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion. Three general steps were used: (1) defining the content boundaries; (2) collecting information on students' misconceptions; and (3) instrument development. The split half reliability was 0.74, difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and the…

  17. Biological testing and chemical analysis of process materials from an integrated two stage coal liquefaction: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Buhl, P.; Moroni, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    Samples for chemical characterization and biological testing were obtained from ITSL runs 3LCF7, 3LCF8 and 3LCF9. Chemical analysis of these materials showed that SCT products were composed of fewer compounds than analogous materials from Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processes. Major components in the SCT materials were three-, four-, five- and six-ring neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Methyl(C/sub 1/) and C/sub 2/ homologs of these compounds were present in relatively low concentrations, compared to their non-alkylated homologs. Organic nitrogen was primarily in the form of tertiary polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and carbazoles. Little or no amino PAH (APAH) or cyano PAH were detected in samples taken during normal PDU operations, however, mutagenic APAH were produced during off-normal operation. Microbial mutagenicity appeared to be due mainly to the presence of APAH which were probably formed in the LC finer due to failure of the catalyst to promote deamination following carbon-nitrogen bond scission of nitrogen-containing hydroaromatics. This failure was observed for the off-normal runs where it was likely that the catalyst had been deactivated. Carcinogenic activity of ITSL materials as assessed by (tumors per animal) in the initiation/promotion mouse skin painting assay was slightly reduced for materials produced with good catalyst under normal operation compared to those collected during recycle of the LC Finer feed. Initiation activity of the latter samples did not appear to be significantly different from that of other coal derived materials with comparable boiling ranges. The observed initiation activity was not unexpected, considering analytical data which showed the presence of four-, five- and six-ring PAH in ITSL materials.

  18. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring college biology students' understanding of diffusion and osmosis after a course of instruction. The development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development. Misconception data were collected from interviews and multiple-choice questions with free response answers. The data were used to develop 12 two-tier multiple choice items in which the first tier examined content knowledge and the second examined understanding of that knowledge. The conceptual knowledge examined was the particulate and random nature of matter, concentration and tonicity, the influence of life forces on diffusion and osmosis, membranes, kinetic energy of matter, the process of diffusion, and the process of osmosis. The diagnostic instrument was administered to 240 students (123 non-biology majors and 117 biology majors) enrolled in a college freshman biology laboratory course. The students had completed a unit on diffusion and osmosis. The content taught was carefully defined by propositional knowledge statements, and was the same content that defined the content boundaries of the test. The split-half reliability was .74. Difficulty indices ranged from 0.23 to 0.95, and discrimination indices ranged from 0.21 to 0.65. Each item was analyzed to determine student understanding of, and identify misconceptions about, diffusion and osmosis.Received: 18 June 1993; Revised: 16 February 1994;

  19. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, Paul E.; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Barker, Christopher A.; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G.; Dicker, Adam P.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Graves, Edward E.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hei, Tom K.; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Kirsch, David G.; Kozak, Kevin R.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Marples, Brian; and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  20. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  1. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  4. Otoconia as test masses in biological accelerometers: what can we learn about their formation from evolutionary studies and from work in microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Donovan, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews previous findings and introduces new material about otolith end organs that help us to understand their functioning and development. In particular, we consider the end organs as biological accelerometers. The otoconia are dealt with as test masses whose substructure and evolutionary trend toward calcite may prove significant in understanding formation requirements. Space-flight helps illuminate the influence of gravity, while right-left asymmetry is suggested by study of certain rat strains.

  5. Concepts and Tests for the Remote-Controlled Dismantling of the Biological Shield and Form work of the KNK Reactor - 13425

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Sylvia; Graf, Anja; Petrick, Holger; Rothschmitt, Stefan; Klute, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The compact sodium-cooled nuclear reactor facility Karlsruhe (KNK), a prototype Fast Breeder, is currently in an advanced stage of dismantling. Complete dismantling is based on 10 partial licensing steps. In the frame of the 9. decommissioning permit, which is currently ongoing, the dismantling of the biological shield is foreseen. The biological shield consists of heavy reinforced concrete with built-in steel fitments, such as form-work of the reactor tank, pipe sleeves, ventilation channels, and measuring devices. Due to the activation of the inner part of the biological shield, dismantling has to be done remote-controlled. During a comprehensive basic design phase a practical dismantling strategy was developed. Necessary equipment and tools were defined. Preliminary tests revealed that hot wire plasma cutting is the most favorable cutting technology due to the geometrical boundary conditions, the varying distance between cutter and material, and the heavy concrete behind the steel form-work. The cutting devices will be operated remotely via a carrier system with an industrial manipulator. The carrier system has expandable claws to adjust to the varying diameter of the reactor shaft during dismantling progress. For design approval of this prototype development, interaction between manipulator and hot wire plasma cutting was tested in a real configuration. For the demolition of the concrete structure, an excavator with appropriate tools, such as a hydraulic hammer, was selected. Other mechanical cutting devices, such as a grinder or rope saw, were eliminated because of concrete containing steel spheres added to increase the shielding factor of the heavy concrete. Dismantling of the biological shield will be done in a ring-wise manner due to static reasons. During the demolition process, the excavator is positioned on its tripod in three concrete recesses made prior to the dismantling of the separate concrete rings. The excavator and the manipulator carrier system

  6. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters. PMID:22988627

  7. Testing for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  8. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  9. Non-invasive tests in animal models and humans: a new paradigm for assessing efficacy of biologics including prebiotics and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Butler, R N

    2008-01-01

    Newer biological agents that are designed to have multiple effects on a host require better ways to determine both their safety and toxicity. Indeed ecologically potent factors such as agents that can alter the gut milieu and change host responses are now being realized as a viable alternative to more focused pharmaceuticals. Even in the pharmaceutical arena there is a growing awareness of the preventative and therapeutic potential of alternative agents. Probiotics and prebiotics amongst other agents fall into this category and can have both direct and indirect effects on the pathogenesis and progress of disease. This review details some of the new approaches using non-invasive tests to enable firstly a better definition of a stressed through to a damaged gastrointestinal mucosa. They constitute ways to apply dynamic function testing in animal models and humans to provide reference points to which other measurements can be related e.g. altered circulating cytokines, altered gene expression. As such this phenotypic scaffold, alone and combined with newer molecular parameters, will improve our understanding of the interaction of luminal factors within the alimentary tract and the impact that these have on physiologically challenged mucosa and in disease both at the gastrointestinal level and also in remote organs. Practically, the dynamic function tests, primarily breath tests, can now be used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators of the efficacy of new biologics such as probiotics and prebiotics that in part elicit their effects by altering the ecology of particular regions of the intestine. PMID:18537657

  10. The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

  11. Simplified pulse reactor for real-time long-term in vitro testing of biological heart valves.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Martina; Sammler, Günther; Schmauder, Michael; Fritze, Olaf; Huber, Agnes J; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Ditze, Günter; Stock, Ulrich A

    2010-05-01

    Long-term function of biological heart valve prostheses (BHV) is limited by structural deterioration leading to failure with associated arterial hypertension. The objective of this work was development of an easy to handle real-time pulse reactor for evaluation of biological and tissue engineered heart valves under different pressures and long-term conditions. The pulse reactor was made of medical grade materials for placement in a 37 degrees C incubator. Heart valves were mounted in a housing disc moving horizontally in culture medium within a cylindrical culture reservoir. The microprocessor-controlled system was driven by pressure resulting in a cardiac-like cycle enabling competent opening and closing of the leaflets with adjustable pulse rates and pressures between 0.25 to 2 Hz and up to 180/80 mmHg, respectively. A custom-made imaging system with an integrated high-speed camera and image processing software allow calculation of effective orifice areas during cardiac cycle. This simple pulse reactor design allows reproducible generation of patient-like pressure conditions and data collection during long-term experiments.

  12. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. II - Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. P.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    A system has been under development which is designed to seek remotely for clues to life in planetary soil samples. The basic approach is a set of experiments, all having a common sensor, a gas analysis mass spectrometer which monitors gas composition in the head spaces above sealed, temperature controlled soil samples. Versatility is obtained with up to three preloaded, sealed fluid injector capsules for each of eleven soil test cells. Tests results with an engineering model has demonstrated performance capability of subsystem components such as soil distribution, gas sampling valves, injector mechanisms, temperature control, and test cell seal.

  13. Collaborative study for the establishment of two European Pharmacopoeia Biological Reference Preparations for serological potency testing of tetanus vaccines for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Lensing, H H; Behr-Gross, M E; Daas, A; Spieser, J M

    2002-01-01

    The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) has organised an international collaborative study, divided into two phases, aimed at producing and establishing two suitable reference sera for serological potency testing of tetanus vaccines for veterinary use for batch consistency demonstration. In phase I pools of sera were produced by immunising guinea pigs and rabbits with tetanus toxoid using the immunisation schedule prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) for potency testing of tenanus vaccines for veterinary use. Following aliquoting and freeze-drying, characterization of the materials by immunochemical and biological assays enabled us to conclude that the sera should be suitable reference materials in respect of in-vitro assay methods for Clostridium (C.) tetani. The candidate (c) Ph. Eur. Biological Reference Preparations (BRP) were calibrated by Toxin Binding Inhibition test (ToBI) in phase II of the study by a large group of laboratories, including both manufacturers and official medicines control laboratories (OMCL). The activity of the proposed reference sera was determined by comparison with the existing equine monovalent World Health Organization (WHO) International Standard (IS). This study enabled us to provide a definitive value for the antitoxin activity of the reference preparations in respect of their anti-tetanus antibody content.

  14. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  15. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (< 5%). These results suggest that the likelihood of significant nontarget impacts is low, and the establishment of T. radiata in southern California for the classical biological control of D. citri poses negligible environmental risk. PMID:24665694

  16. The relative utility of health-related fitness tests and skilled motor performance tests as measures of biological age in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Tanaka, K; Nakagaichi, M; Nakadomo, F; Watanabe, K; Takeshima, N; Hiyama, T; Chodzko-Zaiko, W

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of a study in which we compared 2 different approaches to the computation of biological age (BA) in a sample of 322 Japanese men (age range 20 to 79 years). In the first approach, 4 commonly used measures of health-related fitness (VO2peak, trunk flexion from a standing position, body fat, and grip strength) were reduced to a single BA score (HRF Age) using principal component analysis. In contrast, in the second approach, 3 commonly used measures of skilled motor performance and agility (vertical jump, stepping side-to-side, and balancing on one leg with eyes closed) were reduced to a single BA score (SMP Age) using similar multivariate procedures. The criterion-related validity of both of the BA measures was examined by assessing each measure's ability to discriminate between healthy and active groups of subjects. This was achieved by classifying the original subject pool into regularly active (ACT; n = 108) and healthy (HLTH; n = 169) subgroups on the basis of self-reported activity levels. Analyses revealed that HRF Age was a more powerful discriminator between the two activity groups than SMP Age. While HRF Age of HLTH subjects was very close to their chronological age (CA), in the ACT group, HRF Age was on average 15 years less than their CA (P < 0.05). In a separate analysis, we assessed the HRF Age of patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes (PAT; n = 45). The HRF Age of these subjects averaged 10 years above their CA. Our data suggest that commonly used measures of health-related fitness can be usefully employed as indices of BA which differentiate between individuals of similar ages but differing health and physical activity status. In contrast, measures of skilled motor performance were found to be less valuable measures of BA. The implication of our findings for future experimental design in exercise and aging research is discussed.

  17. Biological Science: An Ecological Approach. BSCS Green Version. Teacher's Resource Book and Test Item Bank. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This book consists of four sections: (1) "Supplemental Materials"; (2) "Supplemental Investigations"; (3) "Test Item Bank"; and (4) "Blackline Masters." The first section provides additional background material related to selected chapters and investigations in the student book. Included are a periodic table of the elements, genetics problems and…

  18. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (13th, Laramie, Wyoming, June 11-15, 1991). Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Testing Issues of Foraging and Flocking Behavior" (C. C.…

  19. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Corrie S; Bell, Charles D

    2013-08-01

    Ants are one of the most ecologically and numerically dominant group of terrestrial organisms with most species diversity currently found in tropical climates. Several explanations for the disparity of biological diversity in the tropics compared to temperate regions have been proposed including that the tropics may act as a "museum" where older lineages persist through evolutionary time or as a "cradle" where new species continue to be generated. We infer the molecular phylogenetic relationships of 295 ant specimens including members of all 21 extant subfamilies to explore the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of the ants. By constraining the topology and age of the root node while using 45 fossils as minimum constraints, we converge on an age of 139-158 Mya for the modern ants. Further diversification analyses identified 10 periods with a significant change in the tempo of diversification of the ants, although these shifts did not appear to correspond to ancestral biogeographic range shifts. Likelihood-based historical biogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Neotropics were important in early ant diversification (e.g., Cretaceous). This finding coupled with the extremely high-current species diversity suggests that the Neotropics have acted as both a museum and cradle for ant diversity.

  20. A specific method for measurement of equine active myeloperoxidase in biological samples and in in vitro tests.

    PubMed

    Franck, Thierry; Kohnen, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Grulke, S; Deby, C; Serteyn, D

    2006-07-01

    An original method called SIEFED (specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection) was developed for the specific detection of the activity of equine myeloperoxidase (MPO). The method consists of the extraction of MPO from aqueous solutions by immobilized anti-MPO antibodies followed by washing (to eliminate proteins and interfering molecules) and measurement of MPO activity using a detection system containing a fluorogenic substrate, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite as reaction enhancer. The SIEFED technique was applied to study active MPO in horse biological fluids and the effects of 2 polyphenolic molecules, curcumin and resveratrol, on MPO activity. The detection limit of the SIEFED was 0.23 mU/ml. The SIEFED exhibited good precision with intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation below 10% and 20%, respectively, for MPO activities ranging from 0.25 to 6.4 mU/ml. The activity of MPO was generally higher than 1 mU/ml in the fluids collected from horses with inflammatory diseases. Curcumin and resveratrol exerted a dose-dependent inhibition on MPO activity and, as they were removed before the enzymatic detection of MPO, the results suggest a direct drug-nzyme interaction or an enzyme structure modification by the drug. The SIEFED is a new tool that would be useful for specific detection of active MPO in complex media and for selection of MPO activity modulators.

  1. Amphibian embryos as a biological test for environmental pollutants in leachates, industrial effluents, surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, F.D.; Tarlato, M.

    1995-12-31

    Test of early life stages are very sensitive to toxic effects and moreover a good predictive correlation between embryo-larval survival and independent ecological parameters such as species richness and diversity have been established. The main purpose of this preliminary study is to report that Bufo arenarum embryos are very sensitive to contaminants from a variety of sources such as leachates, industrial effluents, surface and ground water. The toxicity of 30 samples (five from each category plus controls of surface and ground water from reference places) was evaluated during a 14 day renewal toxicity test at 20 C, conducted with 10 embryos (by triplicate) from stage 23--25 onwards using six concentrations (V/V) of each sample of Holtfreter`s solution. For industrial effluents and leachates the results range from a concentration of 0.6% resulting in 24hs LC100 up to a sample which exert 20% of lethality after 14 days of treatment. The survival of controls and in samples from reference places was over 90% for 7 days and over 80% for 14 days. The results with Bufo arenarum embryos confirm that a 7 day Short-term Chronic Toxicity Test is appropriate for toxicity screening of industrial effluents (as it was established by EPA for whole effluent toxicity test for aquatic life protection performed with other species) as well as for leachates. On the other hand, for freshwater (surface and ground), it is convenient to extend the exposure period until 14 days in order to record situations of low, but significant levels of toxicity, which could be of particular value for surface as well as ground water quality criteria.

  2. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas. PMID:27313496

  3. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas. PMID:27313496

  4. A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems.

    PubMed

    Daneshian, Mardas; Botana, Luis M; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Buckland, Gemma; Campàs, Mònica; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickey, Robert W; Diogène, Jorge; Fessard, Valérie; Hartung, Thomas; Humpage, Andrew; Leist, Marcel; Molgó, Jordi; Quilliam, Michael A; Rovida, Costanza; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Tubaro, Aurelia; Wagner, Kristina; Zoller, Otmar; Dietrich, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic food accounts for over 40% of global animal food products, and the potential contamination with toxins of algal origin--marine biotoxins--poses a health threat for consumers. The gold standards to assess toxins in aquatic food have traditionally been in vivo methods, i.e., the mouse as well as the rat bioassay. Besides ethical concerns, there is also a need for more reliable test methods because of low inter-species comparability, high intra-species variability, the high number of false positive and negative results as well as questionable extrapolation of quantitative risk to humans. For this reason, a transatlantic group of experts in the field of marine biotoxins was convened from academia and regulatory safety authorities to discuss future approaches to marine biotoxin testing. In this report they provide a background on the toxin classes, on their chemical characterization, the epidemiology, on risk assessment and management, as well as on their assumed mode of action. Most importantly, physiological functional assays such as in vitro bioassays and also analytical techniques, e.g., liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS), as substitutes for the rodent bioassay are reviewed. This forms the basis for recommendations on methodologies for hazard monitoring and risk assessment, establishment of causality of intoxications in human cases, a roadmap for research and development of human-relevant functional assays, as well as new approaches for a consumer directed safety concept. PMID:24173170

  5. Assessing the biological relevance of exposing freshwater organisms to atrazine and molinate in environmentally realistic exposure test systems.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Yin Latt; St J Warne, Michael; Lim, Richard P

    2008-02-01

    Assessing the toxicity of chemicals in treated laboratory water may not accurately represent the toxicity of chemicals in natural aquatic systems. In natural water, dissolved organic matter, suspended particulate matter, and sediment play key roles in the sorption of contaminants from the water. Our previously published series of papers illustrated that the presence of sediment in aquatic toxicity testing systems significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the bioavailability of the herbicides atrazine and molinate to five Australian freshwater organisms. It is not clear whether the reduced bioavailability means that the trigger values (TVs) in the current Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines, which are calculated using toxicity data from water-only toxicity tests, provide appropriate environmental protection. Several new sets of TVs were derived in the present study and were compared to each other and to the current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate. The current Australian and New Zealand TVs for atrazine and molinate provided appropriate protection to Australian freshwater species. Australian freshwater species have a sensitivity distribution similar to those of overseas species to atrazine and molinate.

  6. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  7. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  8. Thermal Performance of Biological Substance Systems in Vitro Under Static and Dynamic Conditions at the Cryogenic Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, James E.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A unique research program, including a comprehensive study of thermal performance at cryogenic vacuum insulation systems, was performed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The main goal was to develop a new soft vacuum system (from 1 torr to 10 torr) that provides an intermediate level of performance (k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K). Liquid nitrogen boil-off methods were used to test conventional materials, novel materials, and certain combinations. The test articles included combinations of aluminum foil, fiberglass paper, polyester fabric, silica aerogel composite blanket, fumed silica, silica aerogel powder, and syntactic foam. A new LCI system was developed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. This system performs exceptionally well at soft vacuum levels and nearly as good as an MLI at high vacuum levels. Apparent thermal conductivities for the LCI range from 2 mW/m-K at soft vacuum to 0.1 mW/m-K at high vacuum. Several cryostats were designed, constructed, and calibrated by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at KSC NASA as part of this research program. The cryostat test apparatus is a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter system for direct measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity at a fixed vacuum level between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 760 torr. The apparatus is also used for transient measurements of temperature profiles. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems has been a targeted area of research for a number of years. Improved methods of characterization, testing, and evaluation of complex biological substance systems for cryosurgery and cryobiology are the focus of this paper.

  9. Effects of Activated Carbon on PCB Bioaccumulation and Biological Responses of Chironomus riparius in Full Life Cycle Test.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Inna; Abel, Sebastian; Waissi, Greta; Väänänen, Kristiina; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2016-05-17

    The nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius was used to study the remediation potential and secondary effects of activated carbon (AC, ø 63-200 μm) in PCB contaminated sediments. AC amendments efficiently reduced PCB bioavailability determined by Chironomus riparius bioaccumulation tests and passive samplers. PCBs were shown to transfer from larvae to adults. Lower PCB concentrations were observed in adult midges emerging from AC amended compared to unamended sediments. Increased reproduction, survival, larval growth and gut wall microvilli length were observed with low AC dose (0.5% sediment dw) compared to unamended sediment, indicating an improved success of larvae in the sediment with low organic carbon content. On the other hand, higher AC doses (2.5% sediment dw) caused adverse effects on emergence and larval development. In addition, morphological changes in the gut wall microvilli layer were observed. This study showed that the secondary effects of AC amendments are dependent on the dose and the sediment characteristics. Metamorphic species, such as C. riparius, may act as a vector for organic pollutants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and according to this study the AC amendments may reduce this transport. PMID:27100921

  10. Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

    2003-04-22

    Kin-recognition systems have been hypothesized to exist in humans, and adaptively to regulate altruism and incest avoidance among close genetic kin. This latter function allows the architecture of the kin recognition system to be mapped by quantitatively matching individual variation in opposition to incest to individual variation in developmental parameters, such as family structure and co-residence patterns. Methodological difficulties that appear when subjects are asked to disclose incestuous inclinations can be circumvented by measuring their opposition to incest in third parties, i.e. morality. This method allows a direct test of Westermarck's original hypothesis that childhood co-residence with an opposite-sex individual predicts the strength of moral sentiments regarding third-party sibling incest. Results support Westermarck's hypothesis and the model of kin recognition that it implies. Co-residence duration objectively predicts genetic relatedness, making it a reliable cue to kinship. Co-residence duration predicts the strength of opposition to incest, even after controlling for relatedness and even when co-residing individuals are genetically unrelated. This undercuts kin-recognition models requiring matching to self (through, for example, major histocompatibility complex or phenotypic markers). Subjects' beliefs about relatedness had no effect after controlling for co-residence, indicating that systems regulating kin-relevant behaviours are non-conscious, and calibrated by co-residence, not belief.

  11. Effects of degraded sensory input on memory for speech: behavioral data and a test of biologically constrained computational models.

    PubMed

    Piquado, Tepring; Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2010-12-13

    Poor hearing acuity reduces memory for spoken words, even when the words are presented with enough clarity for correct recognition. An "effortful hypothesis" suggests that the perceptual effort needed for recognition draws from resources that would otherwise be available for encoding the word in memory. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a behavioral task requiring immediate free recall of word-lists, some of which contained an acoustically masked word that was just above perceptual threshold. Results show that masking a word reduces the recall of that word and words prior to it, as well as weakening the linking associations between the masked and prior words. In contrast, recall probabilities of words following the masked word are not affected. To account for this effect we conducted computational simulations testing two classes of models: Associative Linking Models and Short-Term Memory Buffer Models. Only a model that integrated both contextual linking and buffer components matched all of the effects of masking observed in our behavioral data. In this Linking-Buffer Model, the masked word disrupts a short-term memory buffer, causing associative links of words in the buffer to be weakened, affecting memory for the masked word and the word prior to it, while allowing links of words following the masked word to be spared. We suggest that these data account for the so-called "effortful hypothesis", where distorted input has a detrimental impact on prior information stored in short-term memory.

  12. Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products.

  13. Biological Experiment and Clinical Tests on Mammotropic Action Of Muyingle — A New Type of Healthfood Prepared from Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ba-fan; Hao, Lin-hua; Liu, Xiang-dong

    1996-12-01

    Muyingle is a new type of health food prepared from marine organisms. The mammotropic action of Muyingle was investigated by studying its effect on mammary glands and pituitary glands of lactating mice and the survival rate of suckling mice. The results showed that the mammotropic action of Muyingle was very effective. The survival rates of suckling mice were 92.90% for the treated group and 0 for the control group ( p<0.01). The weights of mammary gland were 163 ± 51.1mg/10g (weight of mouse) for the treated group and 98.5 ± 18.4 mg/10 g for the control group ( p<0.01). Histological examinations suggested that mammary glands from the treated group were at the secreting stages, while those from the control group were at the resting stages. Clinical tests also demonstrated that Muyingle was highly effective in promoting lactation and improving the quality of the puerpera's milk. The efficiency was up to 86.7%.

  14. Optical high-resolution analysis of rotational movement: testing circular spatial filter velocimetry (CSFV) with rotating biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1–100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.

  15. Optical high-resolution analysis of rotational movement: testing circular spatial filter velocimetry (CSFV) with rotating biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeper, M.; Schmidt, R.; Kostbade, R.; Damaschke, N.; Gimsa, J.

    2016-07-01

    Circular spatial filtering velocimetry (CSFV) was tested during the microscopic registration of the individual rotations of baker’s yeast cells. Their frequency-dependent rotation (electrorotation; ER) was induced in rotating electric fields, which were generated in a glass chip chamber with four electrodes (600 μm tip-to-tip distance). The electrodes were driven with sinusoidal quadrature signals of 5 or 8 V PP with frequencies up to 3 MHz. The observed cell rotation was of the order of 1-100 s per revolution. At each measuring frequency, the independent rotations of up to 20 cells were simultaneously recorded with a high-speed camera. CSFV was software-implemented using circular spatial filters with harmonic gratings. ER was proportional to the phase shift between the values of the spatial filtering signal of consecutive frames. ER spectra obtained by CSFV from the rotation velocities at different ER-field frequencies agreed well with manual measurements and theoretical spectra. Oscillations in the rotation velocity of a single cell in the elliptically polarized field near an electrode, which were resolved by CSFV, could not be visually discerned. ER step responses after field-on were recorded at 2500 frames per second. Analysis proved the high temporal resolution of CSFV and revealed a largely linear torque-friction relation during the acceleration phase of ER. Future applications of CSFV will allow for the simple and cheap automated high-resolution analysis of rotational movements where mechanical detection has too low a resolution or is not possible, e.g. in polluted environments or for gas and fluid vortices, microscopic objects, etc.

  16. [Viral safety of biologicals: evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) assay and development of concentration method of HCV for sensitive detection by NAT].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2010-02-01

    The most important issue for the safety of biological products and blood products derived from human sources is how to prevent transmission of infectious agents. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence. HCV is mainly transmitted by exposure to blood and highly infectious during the early window period with extremely low viral loads. Therefore it is important to develop more sensitive detection methods for HCV. In the case of blood products, both serological test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) are required to detect HCV. Since NAT is highly sensitive, establishment of a new standard is required for validation of NAT assay. NAT guideline and establishment of the standard for HCV RNA and HCV genotype panel is introduced in this review. On the other hand, to enhance the sensitivity of virus detection by NAT, a novel viral concentration method using polyethyleneimine (PEI)-conjugated magnetic beads (PEI beads) was developed. PEI beads concentration method is applicable to a wide range of viruses including HCV. Studies using the national standard for HCV RNA, HCV genotype panel and seroconversion panel, suggest that virus concentration method using PEI-beads is useful for improvement of the sensitivity of HCV detection by NAT and applicable to donor screening for HCV.

  17. Solubility properties in polymers and biological media. 7. An analysis of toxicant properties that influence inhibition of bioluminescence in photobacterium phosphoreum (the Microtox test)

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, M.J.; Doherty, R.M.; Veith, G.D.; Taft, R.W.; Abraham, M.H.

    1986-07-01

    Inhibition of bioluminescence in Photobacterium phosphoreum (the Microtox test) has been proposed as a cost-effective prescreening procedure to eliminate the relatively more innocuous chemicals from testing programs for toxicities of organic chemicals to fish. The biological response, as a function of toxicant properties, is given by log EC/sub 50/ (in ..mu..molL) = 7.61 - 4.11 anti V100 - 1.54 ..pi..* + 3.94..beta.. - 1.51..cap alpha../sub m/ n = 38, r = 0.987, SD = 0.28 where anti V is the solute molar volume and ..pi..*, ..beta.., and ..cap alpha../sub m/ are the solvatochromic parameters that measure dipolaritypolarizability, hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity, and hydrogen-bond donor acidity of the solute (toxicant). The above equation applies to compounds that act by a nonreactive toxicity mechanism, and it is suggested that for certain compounds, which are outliers relative to the above equation, reactive toxicity properties mask the effects of the nonreactive mechanism. The above equation is compared with a correlation of log EC/sub 50/ with octanolwater partition coefficients. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Using biological and physico-chemical test methods to assess the role of concrete mixture design in resistance to microbially induced corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Mitchell Wayne

    Concrete is the most widely used material for construction of wastewater collection, storage, and treatment infrastructure. The chemical and physical characteristics of hydrated portland cement make it susceptible to degradation under highly acidic conditions. As a result, some concrete wastewater infrastructure may be susceptible to a multi-stage degradation process known as microbially induced corrosion, or MIC. MIC begins with the production of aqueous hydrogen sulfide (H2S(aq)) by anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria present below the waterline. H2S(aq) partitions to the gas phase where it is oxidized to sulfuric acid by the aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus that resides on concrete surfaces above the waterline. Sulfuric acid then attacks the cement paste portion of the concrete matrix through decalcification of calcium hydroxide and calcium silica hydrate coupled with the formation of expansive corrosion products. The attack proceeds inward resulting in reduced service life and potential failure of the concrete structure. There are several challenges associated with assessing a concrete's susceptibility to MIC. First, no standard laboratory tests exist to assess concrete resistance to MIC. Straightforward reproduction of MIC in the laboratory is complicated by the use of microorganisms and hydrogen sulfide gas. Physico-chemical tests simulating MIC by immersing concrete specimens in sulfuric acid offer a convenient alternative, but do not accurately capture the damage mechanisms associated with biological corrosion. Comparison of results between research studies is difficult due to discrepancies that can arise in experimental methods even if current ASTM standards are followed. This thesis presents two experimental methods to evaluate concrete resistance to MIC: one biological and one physico-chemical. Efforts are made to address the critical aspects of each testing method currently absent in the literature. The first method presented is a new test

  19. Thinking Like a Wolf, a Sheep, or a Firefly: Learning Biology through Constructing and Testing Computational Theories--An Embodied Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilensky, Uri; Reisman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Biological phenomena can be investigated at multiple levels, from the molecular to the cellular to the organismic to the ecological. In typical biology instruction, these levels have been segregated. Yet, it is by examining the connections between such levels that many phenomena in biology, and complex systems in general, are best explained. We…

  20. ["Replacement Methods to Animal Testing" as the incentive topic of the German Ministry of Education and Research. Selected results on biological drugs].

    PubMed

    Diekmann, W; Hansper, M

    2001-01-01

    Since 1980, BMBF, in co-operation with the appointed project representative BEO (Biology, Energy, Environment), supports research projects with the central goal of the reduction of animal testing. Beginning with the announcement about promoting "Projects in Replacement Methods to Animal Testing" in 1984, a separate incentive topic of research was fostered within the framework of the biotechnological program of the German Federal Government. It is being updated continuously by current reports. The BMBF incentive topic represents the largest and longest running support activity in the field world-wide. During a time-span of 20 years, about 14 million German Marks (approx. 7 millions per annum) were provided, supporting about 230 projects. To date, all applications judged favourably in regard to contributing to potential and substantial savings could also be funded. The incentive topic is being realised in accordance with the 3R principle, following Russel and Burch. Primary attention is given to tests with high levels of stress or involving large numbers of animals. At present, special attention is given to the development and validation of alternatives to animal testing which are required by law. Emphasis is also put on joint projects by testing and regulation authorities together with industrial users in order to broaden the application of these methods and to aid in accelerating the amendment of respective legal regulations. The BMBF continues to adhere to the objectives of the emphasised support and will furnish funding at the present level in the future. Also, together with representatives of testing- and regulating authorities, of industry, science, respective federal authorities and animal protection, the BMBF has developed a new concept to expand funded activities in the future to include animal testing in basic research in a target-fashioned structure. This will be published shortly through a new public announcement. As a complement to the present

  1. Comparison of the effects block and traditional schedules have on the number of students who are proficient on the Biology End-of-Course Test in forty public high schools in the state of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, Tonia Anita

    This study examined the difference between the number of overall students, African-American students, and students with disabilities on a semester 4 x 4 block schedule who were proficient on the North Carolina Biology End-of-Course Test and the number of the same group of students on a traditional 45-50 minute yearlong schedule who were proficient on the NC Biology End-of-Course Test in the state of North Carolina during the 2009--2010 school year. A causal-comparative design was used and three null hypotheses were tested using chi-square analysis. Archival data was used. The results showed that there was a significant association between the number of the overall students and African-American students who were proficient on the NC Biology EOC Test when taught biology on a 4 x 4 semester block versus a traditional schedule. However, no statistically significant relationship existed between the number of students with disabilities who were educated on 4 x 4 semester block schedule and those students with disabilities who were educated on a six or seven period traditional schedule in biology. Suggestions for further research are included.

  2. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  3. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California.

  4. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC.

  5. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (<14%). Based on the results of this study, we conclude that D. aligarhensis has a narrow host range and exhibits a high level of host specificity, as it shows a significant attack preference for the target pest, D. citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California. PMID:26470214

  6. A bioreactor test system to mimic the biological and mechanical environment of oral soft tissues and to evaluate substitutes for connective tissue grafts.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Stephanie H; Wohlwend, Lorenz; Uebersax, Lorenz; von Mentlen, Roger; Thoma, Daniel S; Jung, Ronald E; Görlach, Christoph; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2010-12-15

    Gingival cells of the oral connective tissue are exposed to complex mechanical forces during mastication, speech, tooth movement and orthodontic treatments. Especially during wound healing following surgical procedures, internal and external forces may occur, creating pressure upon the newly formed tissue. This clinical situation has to be considered when developing biomaterials to augment soft tissue in the oral cavity. In order to pre-evaluate a collagen sponge intended to serve as a substitute for autogenous connective tissue grafts (CTGs), a dynamic bioreactor system was developed. Pressure and shear forces can be applied in this bioreactor in addition to a constant medium perfusion to cell-material constructs. Three-dimensional volume changes and stiffness of the matrices were analyzed. In addition, cell responses such as cell vitality and extracellular matrix (ECM) production were investigated. The number of metabolic active cells constantly increased under fully dynamic culture conditions. The sponges remained elastic even after mechanical forces were applied for 14 days. Analysis of collagen type I and fibronectin revealed a statistically significant accumulation of these ECM molecules (P < 0.05-0.001) when compared to static cultures. An increased expression of tenascin-c, indicating tissue remodeling processes, was observed under dynamic conditions only. The results indicate that the tested in vitro cell culture system was able to mimic both the biological and mechanical environments of the clinical situation in a healing wound.

  7. Multilevel correlations in the biological phosphorus removal process: From bacterial enrichment to conductivity-based metabolic batch tests and polyphosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Maillard, Julien; Brovelli, Alessandro; Chabrelie, Alexandre; May, Jonathan; Holliger, Christof

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater relies on the preferential selection of active polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) in the underlying bacterial community continuum. Efficient management of the bacterial resource requires understanding of population dynamics as well as availability of bioanalytical methods for rapid and regular assessment of relative abundances of active PAOs and their glycogen-accumulating competitors (GAO). A systems approach was adopted here toward the investigation of multilevel correlations from the EBPR bioprocess to the bacterial community, metabolic, and enzymatic levels. Two anaerobic-aerobic sequencing-batch reactors were operated to enrich activated sludge in PAOs and GAOs affiliating with "Candidati Accumulibacter and Competibacter phosphates", respectively. Bacterial selection was optimized by dynamic control of the organic loading rate and the anaerobic contact time. The distinct core bacteriomes mainly comprised populations related to the classes Betaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, and Chloroflexi in the PAO enrichment and of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Sphingobacteria in the GAO enrichment. An anaerobic metabolic batch test based on electrical conductivity evolution and a polyphosphatase enzymatic assay were developed for rapid and low-cost assessment of the active PAO fraction and dephosphatation potential of activated sludge. Linear correlations were obtained between the PAO fraction, biomass specific rate of conductivity increase under anaerobic conditions, and polyphosphate-hydrolyzing activity of PAO/GAO mixtures. The correlations between PAO/GAO ratios, metabolic activities, and conductivity profiles were confirmed by simulations with a mathematical model developed in the aqueous geochemistry software PHREEQC. PMID:24975745

  8. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  9. Collaborative study for establishment of a European Pharmacopoei Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for B19 virus DNA testing of plasma pools by nucleic acid amplification technique.

    PubMed

    Nübling, C M; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the collaborative study was to calibrate the B19 DNA content of a candidate Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) that is intended to be used for the validation of the analytical procedure, as threshold control and/or as quantitative reference material in the Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique (NAT) test of plasma pools for detection of B19 contamination. The candidate BRP was calibrated against the 1st International Standard for B19 DNA NAT assays. According to the European Pharmacopoeia monograph Human anti-D immunoglobulin, the threshold control needs to have a titre of 10( 4) IU/ml of B19 virus DNA. The lyophilised candidate BRP was prepared from 0.5 ml aliquots of a plasma pool spiked with B19 virus. The B19 virus originated from a "B19 virus window phase" blood donation (anti-B19 negative, B19-DNA high titre positive) and was diluted in a plasma pool tested negative by both serological and NAT assays for Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 to obtain a B19-DNA concentration level in the range of 10( 6) copies/ml. The residual water content of the lyophilised candidate BRP was determined as 0.98 +/- 0.65% (mean +/- relative standard deviation). Sixteen laboratories (Official Medicine Control Laboratories, manufacturers of plasma derivatives, NAT test laboratories and NAT kit manufacturers) from nine countries participated. Participants were requested to test the candidate BRP and the International Standard (99/800) in four independent test runs on different days using their in-house qualitative and/or quantitative NAT methods. Sixteen laboratories reported results. Thirteen laboratories reported results from qualitative assays and 5 laboratories reported results from quantitative assays. Two laboratories reported results from both types of assay. For the qualitative assays a weighted combined potency of 5.64 log( 10) IU/ml with 95 per cent confidence limits of +/- 0.17 log( 10) which corresponds to 67 to 150

  10. Monitoring human impacts on sandy shore ecosystems: a test of ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) as biological indicators on an urban beach.

    PubMed

    Lucrezi, Serena; Schlacher, Thomas A; Walker, Simon

    2009-05-01

    Sandy beaches comprise one of the most important coastal resources worldwide, providing habitats to threatened vertebrates, supporting underappreciated invertebrate biodiversity, and delivering crucial ecosystem services and economic benefits to mankind. Monitoring of the natural resource condition of sandy beaches and assessments of the ecological impacts of human disturbance are, however, rare on sandy shores. Because a crucial step in developing beach monitoring is to identify and test biological indicators, we evaluated the utility of using population densities of ghost crabs (genus Ocypode) to measure how beach biota respond to human pressures. Densities of crabs--estimated via burrow counts--were quantified at two sites exposed to high and low levels of human disturbance on an urban beach in eastern Australia. Human disturbance consisted of pedestrian trampling and shoreline armouring which led to the loss of dune habitat. Overall, crab numbers were halved in disturbed areas, but contrasts between impact and control sites were not necessarily consistent over time and varied between different levels of the shore: stronger and more consistent effect sizes were recorded on the upper shore than further seawards. In addition to lowering crab densities, human disturbance also caused shifts in intertidal distributions, with a greater proportion of individuals occurring lower on the shore in the impacted beach sections. The number of visible burrow openings also changed in response to weather conditions (temperature and wind). We demonstrate that spatial contrasts of burrow counts are broadly useful to indicate the existence of a human-induced disturbance effect on urban beaches; we also highlight a number of critical, hitherto unknown, issues in the application of this monitoring technique; these encompass three broad dimensions: (1) a need for standardised protocols; (2) unresolved causal links between observed patterns and putative pressures; and (3) uncertainties

  11. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  13. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  14. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  15. Workshop Introduction: Systems Biology and Biological Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we consider the future of toxicity testing, the importance of applying biological models to this problem is clear. Modeling efforts exist along a continuum with respect to the level of organization (e.g. cell, tissue, organism) linked to the resolution of the model. Generally,...

  16. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  17. "What if We Were in a Test Tube?" Students' Gendered Meaning Making during a Biology Lesson about the Basic Facts of the Human Genitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was…

  18. Laboratory and open-field tests on Abia sericea (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) - a candidate for biological control of teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are widespread in the USA (43 states) and listed as noxious in five states. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (Linné, 1758) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. Abia sericea lays its eggs under the epidermis of the leaves of Di...

  19. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  20. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  1. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  2. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  3. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.

    2009-04-01

    The persisting and heavy rainstorms from 20th to 22nd August in 2005 resulted in loss of human lives and tremendous damage on infrastructure all over Switzerland. Many of the measures taken hitherto to protect against such natural hazards were stressed to their limits or even beyond due to water saturation of the soils and extreme discharges of the torrents. This particular configuration offered the possibility to investigate the reliability of technical and biological measures taken within the scope of slope stabilisation, torrent and gully control. In the context of a joint project the ancient sliding area "Schwandrübi" in Dallenwil (Switzerland) providing joint technical and biological measures was chosen to address aspects concerning the reliability of technical supporting structures, the development of biological measures in the course of time and their performance under the extreme impact as well as the effects of biological measures on the stability of slopes. During 1981 and 1982 joint technical and biological measures had been taken on a large scale with minor follow-ups shortly after to stabilise the "Schwandrübi". The underlying strategy was based on several pilot surveys as thorough soil analysis, e.g. grain size distribution and determination of the angle of internal friction (Φ') related to the porosity (n) and the dry unit weight (γ), respectively. Basically, the spatial arrangement of the gabions was in accordance with the theoretical guidelines. However, based on the angle of internal friction (Φ') determined on the loose moraine soil material, it was not possible to meet the soil mechanical criterion of inclination between the constructions in all cases. Regardless of the extreme impact during the rainstorm (~100-year event), no serious damage occurred neither on the roughly 25-year old gabions nor on the torrent control structures. The recalculated peak discharge in the outlet channel was ~60 m3s-1 superimposed by high bed load

  4. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  5. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries. PMID:25985756

  6. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  7. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  8. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  9. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  10. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  11. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume VII : Evaluation of the Compliance Testing Framework for RPA Improvement as Stated in the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John R.; Ngouenet, Roger F.

    2001-05-01

    Using the pre-2000 reach survival probabilities reported in the 2000 FCRPS Biological Opinion (BO) for three selected stocks: yearling and sub-yearling chinook and steelhead, power curves were constructed for each of the two statistical hypothesis tests suggested in the BO. These power calculation results were interpreted in terms of the ability of the statistical tests to correctly identify the true states of recovery (i.e., fail or succeed in fulfilling RPA expectations). The proposed one-sided tests have a moderate to low probability of correctly assessing the true status of the recovery by the years 2005 and 2008. The relatively poor odds of making the correct decision with the BO proposed Tests 1 and 2 suggest alternative decision rules need to be investigated and developed for assessing RPA compliance. Therefore, we propose to immediately examine alternative decision rules that might maximize the likelihood of correct decisions while minimizing the prospect of incorrect decisions. The Bayesian analysis will incorporate scientific/biological knowledge/expertise.

  12. Adverse Outcome Pathways and Systems Biology as Conceptual Approaches to Support Development of 21st Century Test Methods and Extrapolation Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed paradigm for “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century” supports the development of mechanistically-based, high-throughput in vitro assays as a potential cost effective and scientifically-sound alternative to some whole animal hazard testing. To accomplish this long-term...

  13. Stereo-specific glucose consumption may be used to distinguish between chemical and biological reactivity on Mars: a preliminary test on Earth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Henry J; Saccomanno, Vienna; Hedlund, Brian; McKay, Christopher P

    2009-06-01

    Two alternative hypotheses explain the degradation of organics in the Viking Labeled Release experiment on Mars. Either martian soil contains live indigenous microorganisms or it is sterile but chemically reactive. These two possibilities could be distinguished by the use of pure preparations of glucose isomers. In the laboratory, selected eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaea consumed only D-glucose, not L-glucose, while permanganate oxidized both isomers. On Mars, selective consumption of either D- or L-glucose would constitute evidence for biological activity. PMID:19566424

  14. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  15. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  16. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent research is reviewed from books, international committees and symposia which describes the usefulness of biological monitoring for exposure to such compounds as organometallic chemicals, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The types of analyses include the following measurements: the concentration of the chemical in various biological media such as blood, urine, and expired air; the concentration of metabolites of the individual chemical in the same media; and determination of nonadverse biological changes resulting from the reaction of the organism to exposure. A main goal of such monitoring is to ensure that the current or past levels of worker exposure are safe, so that such exposure does not involve an unacceptable health risk. It considers routes other than absorption by the lungs and is a good method for evaluating individual exposures.

  17. Biological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  18. Biology Course Innovations: Remedial Science and Biology-at-Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Leonard F.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the objectives of remedial science instruction and provides a comparison of remedial and general biology courses in terms of hours of instruction, course credits, text assignments, tests, and laboratory exercises. Describes a biology-at-home course, which provides a laboratory kit, course syllabus, and study guide. (JP)

  19. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  20. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  1. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  2. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  3. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  4. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  5. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  6. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  7. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  8. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  9. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  10. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  11. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  12. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  13. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  15. HER2 discordance between primary breast cancer and its paired metastasis: tumor biology or test artefact? Insights through meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Macaskill, Petra; Balleine, Rosemary L; Bilous, Michael; Pegram, Mark D

    2011-10-01

    The proto-oncogene, HER2, has prognostic and predictive relevance in invasive breast cancer (IBC). HER2 testing of primary IBC guides treatment selection and is assumed to reflect HER2 status of associated metastases, although HER2 discordance between IBC and metastasis has been reported. Systematic review and meta-analysis of HER2 status in IBC and its paired loco-regional or distant metastasis were done. Quality appraisal considered whether (within-subject) testing conditions were maintained for paired primary and metastasis. Random effects logistic regression models were used to estimate pooled within-subject HER2 discordant proportions and to examine study-level covariates, including tumor-related and testing-related variables, potentially associated with HER2 discordance differences across (between) studies. Modelled paired HER2 data for primary and metastatic cancer (2520 subjects, 26 studies) showed a pooled HER2 discordance of 5.5% (3.6-8.5%). Sensitivity analysis, excluding the only study not maintaining same conditions for paired testing, gave a pooled estimate of 5.2% (3.5-7.8%). Pooled discordant proportion was not associated with differences between studies in test type, test scoring or interpretation criteria, subjects' median age, study time-frame, or HER2 positivity in primary cancer (all P > 0.05). However, type of metastasis was significantly associated with estimated HER2 discordance (P = 0.0017): studies of primary tumor paired with distant metastases had higher discordance [11.5% (6.9-18.6%)] than studies of primary paired with lymph node metastases only [4.1% (2.4-7.2%)], or those paired with nodal or various metastases [3.3% (2.0-5.6%)]; P < 0.01. HER2 discordant proportion was higher where paired metastases were metachronous relative to synchronous to primary IBC (P = 0.0024). Sensitivity analysis provided weak evidence (P = 0.074) that discordance in the direction of change from HER2-negative primary cancer to HER2-positive paired

  16. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (7th, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 3-7, 1985; 8th, Ithaca, New York, June 16-20, 1986). Volume 7/8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; Hauta, P. Lynn, Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceeding volume contains 12 papers: "Experimental Design and Testing: Hatching and Development in…

  17. Testing the coherence between occupational exposure limits for inhalation and their biological limit values with a generalized PBPK-model: the case of 2-propanol and acetone.

    PubMed

    Huizer, Daan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van Rooij, Joost G M; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-08-01

    The coherence between occupational exposure limits (OELs) and their corresponding biological limit values (BLVs) was evaluated for 2-propanol and acetone. A generic human PBPK model was used to predict internal concentrations after inhalation exposure at the level of the OEL. The fraction of workers with predicted internal concentrations lower than the BLV, i.e. the 'false negatives', was taken as a measure for incoherence. The impact of variability and uncertainty in input parameters was separated by means of nested Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the exposure scenario considered, the median fraction of the population for which the limit values were incoherent ranged from 2% to 45%. Parameter importance analysis showed that body weight was the main factor contributing to interindividual variability in blood and urine concentrations and that the metabolic parameters Vmax and Km were the most important sources of uncertainty. This study demonstrates that the OELs and BLVs for 2-propanol and acetone are not fully coherent, i.e. enforcement of BLVs may result in OELs being violated. In order to assess the acceptability of this "incoherence", a maximum population fraction at risk of exceeding the OEL should be specified as well as a minimum level of certainty in predicting this fraction.

  18. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  19. Ancestral state reconstructions require biological evidence to test evolutionary hypotheses: A case study examining the evolution of reproductive mode in squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Oliver W; Blackburn, Daniel G; Brandley, Matthew C; Van Dyke, James U; Whittington, Camilla M; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    To understand evolutionary transformations it is necessary to identify the character states of extinct ancestors. Ancestral character state reconstruction is inherently difficult because it requires an accurate phylogeny, character state data, and a statistical model of transition rates and is fundamentally constrained by missing data such as extinct taxa. We argue that model based ancestral character state reconstruction should be used to generate hypotheses but should not be considered an analytical endpoint. Using the evolution of viviparity and reversals to oviparity in squamates as a case study, we show how anatomical, physiological, and ecological data can be used to evaluate hypotheses about evolutionary transitions. The evolution of squamate viviparity requires changes to the timing of reproductive events and the successive loss of features responsible for building an eggshell. A reversal to oviparity requires that those lost traits re-evolve. We argue that the re-evolution of oviparity is inherently more difficult than the reverse. We outline how the inviability of intermediate phenotypes might present physiological barriers to reversals from viviparity to oviparity. Finally, we show that ecological data supports an oviparous ancestral state for squamates and multiple transitions to viviparity. In summary, we conclude that the first squamates were oviparous, that frequent transitions to viviparity have occurred, and that reversals to oviparity in viviparous lineages either have not occurred or are exceedingly rare. As this evidence supports conclusions that differ from previous ancestral state reconstructions, our paper highlights the importance of incorporating biological evidence to evaluate model-generated hypotheses.

  20. Implementation of a minimal set of biological tests to assess the ecotoxic effects of effluents from land-based marine fish farms.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A

    2012-04-01

    Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms.

  1. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 1. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly Fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia Virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (Ribavirin, Selenazofurin, Carbocyclic-3-deaza-adenosine, Adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  2. Research in drug development against viral diseases of military importance (biological testing). Volume 2. Final report, 15 November 1985-31 January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, W.M.; Arnett, G.; Brazier, A.D.; Hollingshead, M.G.; Kirsi, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the efficacy of candidate antiviral compounds against a spectrum of viruses of military importance. This program involves (a) primary testing of chemical compounds and natural products for antiviral efficacy in vitro using standard CPE-inhibition assays, (b) primary testing of compounds for antiviral efficacy in vivo in animal model systems, and (c) secondary evaluation of the active candidate antiviral compounds. The target viruses for in vitro testing are Vaccinia Virus (VV), Adenovirus (AD2), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Punta Toro Virus (PT), Sandfly fever Virus (SF), Yellow Fever Virus (YF), Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus (VE), Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Pichinde Virus (PIC), Hantaan Virus (HTN), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The in vivo systems are Pichinde Virus infection of hamsters, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Vaccinia virus infections of mice. Approximately 10,000 compounds have been received for in vitro evaluation and over 66,000 assays have been performed on this contract. Compounds have been identified in nearly all virus systems that have confirmed antiviral activity equal or exceeding that of the various positive control compounds (ribavirin, selenazofurin, carbocyclic-3-aza-adenosine, adenosine dialdehyde, Ara-A, ddC and AZT). Many of these compounds represent potent and selective new antiviral agents.

  3. IKK Biology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Xia, Yifeng; Parker, Aaron S.; Verma, Inder M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex is the master regulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The activation of the IKK complex is a tightly regulated, highly stimulus-specific, and target-specific event that is essential for the plethora of functions attributed to NF-κB. More recently, NF-κB independent roles of IKK members have brought increased complexity to its biological function. This review highlights some of the major advances in the studies of the process of IKK activation and the biological roles of IKK family members, with a focus on NF-κB independent functions. Understanding these complex processes is essential for targeting IKK for therapeutics. PMID:22435559

  4. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  5. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  6. Cross-institute evaluations of inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct testing of aerosol and blood samples containing biological warfare agent DNA.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Rachwal, Phillip A; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W; Weller, Simon A

    2014-02-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples-which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR.

  7. Cross-Institute Evaluations of Inhibitor-Resistant PCR Reagents for Direct Testing of Aerosol and Blood Samples Containing Biological Warfare Agent DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, Timothy D.; Rachwal, Phillip A.; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples—which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR. PMID:24334660

  8. A Novel Chordoma Xenograft Allows In Vivo Drug Testing and Reveals the Importance of NF-κB Signaling in Chordoma Biology

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Matteo M.; Awad, Ola; Wilky, Breelyn A.; Goldstein, Seth D.; Huang, Ruili; Walker, Robert L.; Shah, Preeti; Katuri, Varalakshmi; Gul, Naheed; Zhu, Yuelin J.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Paz-Priel, Ido; Meltzer, Paul S.; Austin, Christopher P.; Xia, Menghang; Loeb, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone malignancy that arises in the skull base, spine and sacrum and originates from remnants of the notochord. These tumors are typically resistant to conventional chemotherapy, and to date there are no FDA-approved agents to treat chordoma. The lack of in vivo models of chordoma has impeded the development of new therapies for this tumor. Primary tumor from a sacral chordoma was xenografted into NOD/SCID/IL-2R γ-null mice. The xenograft is serially transplantable and was characterized by both gene expression analysis and whole genome SNP genotyping. The NIH Chemical Genomics Center performed high-throughput screening of 2,816 compounds using two established chordoma cell lines, U-CH1 and U-CH2B. The screen yielded several compounds that showed activity and two, sunitinib and bortezomib, were tested in the xenograft. Both agents slowed the growth of the xenograft tumor. Sensitivity to an inhibitor of IκB, as well as inhibition of an NF-κB gene expression signature demonstrated the importance of NF-κB signaling for chordoma growth. This serially transplantable chordoma xenograft is thus a practical model to study chordomas and perform in vivo preclinical drug testing. PMID:24223206

  9. Prospective Testing and Redesign of a Temporal Biomarker Based Risk Model for Patients With Septic Shock: Implications for Septic Shock Biology

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hector R.; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z.; Anas, Nick; Allen, Geoffrey L.; Thomas, Neal J.; Bigham, Michael T.; Weiss, Scott L.; Fitzgerald, Julie; Checchia, Paul A.; Meyer, Keith; Quasney, Michael; Hall, Mark; Gedeit, Rainer; Freishtat, Robert J.; Nowak, Jeffrey; Raj, Shekhar S.; Gertz, Shira; Howard, Kelli; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Frank, Erin; Hart, Kimberly W.; Lindsell, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The temporal version of the pediatric sepsis biomarker risk model (tPERSEVERE) estimates the risk of a complicated course in children with septic shock based on biomarker changes from days 1 to 3 of septic shock. We validated tPERSEVERE performance in a prospective cohort, with an a priori plan to redesign tPERSEVERE if it did not perform well. Biomarkers were measured in the validation cohort (n = 168) and study subjects were classified according to tPERSEVERE. To redesign tPERSEVERE, the validation cohort and the original derivation cohort (n = 299) were combined and randomly allocated to training (n = 374) and test (n = 93) sets. tPERSEVERE was redesigned using the training set and CART methodology. tPERSEVERE performed poorly in the validation cohort, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58–0.75). Failure analysis revealed potential confounders related to clinical characteristics. The redesigned tPERSEVERE model had an AUC of 0.83 (0.79–0.87) and a sensitivity of 93% (68–97) for estimating the risk of a complicated course. Similar performance was seen in the test set. The classification tree segregated patients into two broad endotypes of septic shock characterized by either excessive inflammation or immune suppression. PMID:26844289

  10. Biological effects of high-LET particles on corn-seed embryos in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project--Biostack III experiment.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D D; Benton, E V; Tran, M; Yang, T; Freeling, M; Craise, L; Tobias, C A

    1977-01-01

    High-LET particle hits in embryos of Zea mays corn seeds, flown as part of Biostack III in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, were determined via plastic nuclear track detectors. Based on etched particle-track measurements, 41 embryos were hit in seed layer 1 which contained 80 seeds, and 49 hits occurred in layer 2 which contained 79 seeds. The mean LET value and range of atomic numbers of recorded hits is, respectively, 210 +/- 57 keV micrometers -1 and 9 < or approximately Z < or approximately 26. Detailed analysis of one particular seed showing marked growth anomalies revealed two hits in the central region of the embryo. These two hits had LET values in the region of 100-150 keV micrometers-1, and Z > or approximately 20.

  11. Multiplexed Engineering in Biology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jameson K; Church, George M

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology is the manufacturing technology of the future. However, engineering biology is complex, and many possible genetic designs must be evaluated to find cells that produce high levels of a desired drug or chemical. Recent advances have enabled the design and construction of billions of genetic variants per day, but evaluation capacity remains limited to thousands of variants per day. Here we evaluate biological engineering through the lens of the design–build–test cycle framework and highlight the role that multiplexing has had in transforming the design and build steps. We describe a multiplexed solution to the ‘test’ step that is enabled by new research. Achieving a multiplexed test step will permit a fully multiplexed engineering cycle and boost the throughput of biobased product development by up to a millionfold.

  12. Biological materials by design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Dimas, Leon; Adler, David; Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-02-19

    In this topical review we discuss recent advances in the use of physical insight into the way biological materials function, to design novel engineered materials 'from scratch', or from the level of fundamental building blocks upwards and by using computational multiscale methods that link chemistry to material function. We present studies that connect advances in multiscale hierarchical material structuring with material synthesis and testing, review case studies of wood and other biological materials, and illustrate how engineered fiber composites and bulk materials are designed, modeled, and then synthesized and tested experimentally. The integration of experiment and simulation in multiscale design opens new avenues to explore the physics of materials from a fundamental perspective, and using complementary strengths from models and empirical techniques. Recent developments in this field illustrate a new paradigm by which complex material functionality is achieved through hierarchical structuring in spite of simple material constituents. PMID:24451343

  13. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  14. Accuracy of self-report, biological tests, collateral reports and clinician ratings in identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Sellers, Brian G; Young, M Scott; Swartz, Marvin S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and (c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the "best" approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment.

  15. Biological actions of nitroarenes in short-term tests on Salmonella, cultured mammalian cells and cultured human tracheal tissues: possible basis for regulatory control.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T; Takayama, S

    1983-01-01

    Pure synthetic nitropyrene compounds were subjected to a mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 with and without S9 mix, a metabolic activation system. Dinitropyrenes were highly mutagenic. Among them, 1,8-dinitropyrene was the most potent mutagen, producing 940,000 revertants of TA 98/micrograms. 1,3,6-Trinitropyrene and 1,3,6,8-tetranitropyrene were also highly mutagenic, producing 708,000 and 221,000 revertants/micrograms, respectively. 1-Nitropyrene was weakly mutagenic. All nitropyrenes were more mutagenic towards TA 98 than TA 100, and all mutagenic activities were abolished by the presence of S9 mix. Di- and trinitropyrenes were demonstrated to be mutagenic to Chinese hamster lung cells without metabolic activation, by using diphtheria toxin resistancy as a marker. The range of mutagenic potential of nitropyrenes was much narrower with cultured mammalian cells than with Salmonella. 1-Nitropyrene was not mutagenic. 1,6-Dinitropyrene and 1-nitropyrene induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in epithelial cells of in vitro cultured human bronchi, as did diol-epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, while benzo[a]pyrene itself was inert. 1-Nitropyrene and 3-nitrofluoranthene produced subcutaneous fibrosarcomas at the loci of injections in the backs of rats. Tumors were found in 47% and 40% of animals with total doses of 40 mg of 1-nitropyrene and 30 mg of 3-nitrofluoranthene, respectively. The biomedical significance of nitroarenes is discussed. PMID:6337823

  16. Accuracy of Self-Report, Biological Tests, Collateral Reports and Clinician Ratings in Identifying Substance Use Disorders among Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Sellers, Brian G.; Young, M. Scott; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges, but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders; b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence; and c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the ‘best’ approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment. PMID:23276310

  17. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species. PMID:26428313

  18. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  19. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  20. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  1. Biological aerosol trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSha, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    In recent history, manmade and natural events have shown us the every-present need for systems to monitor the troposphere for contaminates. These contaminants may take either a chemical or biological form, which determines the methods we use to monitor them. Monitoring the troposphere for biological contaminants is of particular interest to my organization. Whether manmade or natural, contaminants of a biological origin share similar constituents; typically the aromatic amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. All of these proteinaceous compounds autofluorescence when exposed to UV radiation and this established the basis of the laser-induced fluorescence technique we use to detect biological contaminants. This technique can be employed in either point or remote detection schemes and is a valuable tool for discriminating proteinaceous form non-proteinaceous aerosols. For this particular presentation I am going to describe a breadboard point sensor we designed and fabricated to detect proteinaceous aerosols. Previous point sensor designs relied on convoluted flow paths to concentrate the aerosols into a solution. Other systems required precise beam alignment to evenly distribute the energy irradiating the detector elements. Our objective was to build a simple system where beam alignment is not critical, and the flow is straight and laminar. The breadboard system was developed over a nine- month period and its performance assessed at a recent test at Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah. In addition, we have performed chamber experiments in an attempt to establish a baseline for the systems. The results of these efforts are presented here.

  2. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    PubMed

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  3. The Viking biology results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the purposes and the results from the Viking Biology experiments is presented, in the expectation that the lessons learned from this mission will be useful in planning future approaches to the biological exploration of Mars. Since so little was then known about potential micro-environments on Mars, three different experiments were included in the Viking mission, each one based on different assumptions about what Martian organisms might be like. In addition to the Viking Biology Instrument (VBI), important corollary information was obtained from the Viking lander imaging system and from the molecular analysis experiments that were conducted using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument. No biological objects were noted by the lander imaging instrument. The GCMS did not detect any organic compounds. A description of the tests conducted by the Gas Exchange Experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment is given. Results are discussed. Taken as a whole, the Viking data yielded no unequivocal evidence for a Martian biota at either landing site. The results also revealed the presence of one or more reactive oxidants in the surface material and these need to be further characterized, as does the range of micro-environments, before embarking upon future searches for extant life on Mars.

  4. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  5. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials, including "diet poker" (nutrition game); an experiment on enzyme characteristics; demonstrations of yeast anaerobic respiration and color preference in Calliphora larvae; method to extract eugenol from clove oil to show antibiotic properties; and Benedict's test. Includes…

  6. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  7. Biology Cognitive Preferences of Preservice Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yeong-Jing

    1991-01-01

    The Biology Cognitive Preference Inventory (BCPI) for investigating the biology cognitive preference styles of 143 students in the biology teacher education program was developed and validated. The cognitive preferences include factual information or recall, principles, questioning, and applications. Preservice biology teachers exhibited a strong…

  8. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  9. Biological Literacy in a College Biology Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demastes, Sherry; Wandersee, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the proposed definition of biological literacy as the understanding of a small number of pervasive biological principles appropriate to making informed personal and societal decisions. Utilizes the content of a major daily newspaper to adjust biology instruction to focus on this notion of biological literacy. Discusses benefits and…

  10. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E.; Fai, Thomas G.; Podolski, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines. PMID:25368426

  11. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines.

  12. Industrialization of Biology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Douglas C; Ellington, Andrew D

    2015-10-16

    The advancement of synthetic biology over the past decade has contributed substantially to the growing bioeconomy. A recent report by the National Academies highlighted several areas of advancement that will be needed for further expansion of industrial biotechnology, including new focuses on design, feedstocks, processing, organism development, and tools for testing and measurement; more particularly, a focus on expanded chassis and end-to-end design in an effort to move beyond the use of E. coli and S. cerivisiea to organisms better suited to fermentation and production; second, continued efforts in systems biology and high-throughput screening with a focus on more rapid techniques that will provide the needed information for moving to larger scale; and finally, work to accelerate the building of a holacratic community with collaboration and engagement between the relevant government agencies, industry, academia, and the public.

  13. Biologic Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J

    2015-11-01

    Biologic medications, therapeutic proteins that inhibit or modulate proinflammatory immune cells and cytokines, have significantly altered clinicians' ability to effectively treat psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The first widely used biologics have been those targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha. Five agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab) have shown significant benefit in all clinical domains of PsA as well as inhibiting progressive joint destruction. Treatment strategies such as treating PsA early in the disease course, treating to target and tight control, use of background methotrexate to reduce immunogenicity, and various cost-saving strategies are all being tested with biologic medicines for PsA.

  14. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (16th, Atlanta, Georgia, June 7-11, 1994). Volume 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 17 papers on the topics of cell and molecular biology, genetics, and…

  15. Toward verified biological models.

    PubMed

    Sadot, Avital; Fisher, Jasmin; Barak, Dan; Admanit, Yishai; Stern, Michael J; Hubbard, E Jane Albert; Harel, David

    2008-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed a vast accumulation of biological data and data analysis. Many of these data sets represent only a small fraction of the system's behavior, making the visualization of full system behavior difficult. A more complete understanding of a biological system is gained when different types of data (and/or conclusions drawn from the data) are integrated into a larger-scale representation or model of the system. Ideally, this type of model is consistent with all available data about the system, and it is then used to generate additional hypotheses to be tested. Computer-based methods intended to formulate models that integrate various events and to test the consistency of these models with respect to the laboratory-based observations on which they are based are potentially very useful. In addition, in contrast to informal models, the consistency of such formal computer-based models with laboratory data can be tested rigorously by methods of formal verification. We combined two formal modeling approaches in computer science that were originally developed for non-biological system design. One is the inter-object approach using the language of live sequence charts (LSCs) with the Play-Engine tool, and the other is the intra-object approach using the language of statecharts and Rhapsody as the tool. Integration is carried out using InterPlay, a simulation engine coordinator. Using these tools, we constructed a combined model comprising three modules. One module represents the early lineage of the somatic gonad of C. elegans in LSCs, while a second more detailed module in statecharts represents an interaction between two cells within this lineage that determine their developmental outcome. Using the advantages of the tools, we created a third module representing a set of key experimental data using LSCs. We tested the combined statechart-LSC model by showing that the simulations were consistent with the set of experimental LSCs. This small

  16. Toward verified biological models.

    PubMed

    Sadot, Avital; Fisher, Jasmin; Barak, Dan; Admanit, Yishai; Stern, Michael J; Hubbard, E Jane Albert; Harel, David

    2008-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed a vast accumulation of biological data and data analysis. Many of these data sets represent only a small fraction of the system's behavior, making the visualization of full system behavior difficult. A more complete understanding of a biological system is gained when different types of data (and/or conclusions drawn from the data) are integrated into a larger-scale representation or model of the system. Ideally, this type of model is consistent with all available data about the system, and it is then used to generate additional hypotheses to be tested. Computer-based methods intended to formulate models that integrate various events and to test the consistency of these models with respect to the laboratory-based observations on which they are based are potentially very useful. In addition, in contrast to informal models, the consistency of such formal computer-based models with laboratory data can be tested rigorously by methods of formal verification. We combined two formal modeling approaches in computer science that were originally developed for non-biological system design. One is the inter-object approach using the language of live sequence charts (LSCs) with the Play-Engine tool, and the other is the intra-object approach using the language of statecharts and Rhapsody as the tool. Integration is carried out using InterPlay, a simulation engine coordinator. Using these tools, we constructed a combined model comprising three modules. One module represents the early lineage of the somatic gonad of C. elegans in LSCs, while a second more detailed module in statecharts represents an interaction between two cells within this lineage that determine their developmental outcome. Using the advantages of the tools, we created a third module representing a set of key experimental data using LSCs. We tested the combined statechart-LSC model by showing that the simulations were consistent with the set of experimental LSCs. This small

  17. Biological Clocks. Testing Our Internal Timing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail

    1991-01-01

    Presented are seven investigations that examine circadian rhythms. Topics include attention span, body temperature, rhythms found in rodents and spiders, and possible genetic determination of circadian rhythms. Background information on plants and animals is given. (KR)

  18. The effect of a county's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on end-of-course standard of learning tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry and World History and Geography II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Brenda L.

    The Commonwealth of Virginia requires high school students to receive a passing grade in core courses and a passing score on End-of-Course Standards of Learning (EOC SOL) tests to receive verified credits that lead to a Virginia high school diploma. These tests are believed to accurately reflect what students should know and be able to do in order to experience success in their endeavors beyond high school. For some students remediation is required to experience success on EOC SOL tests. This study sought to determine the effect of a County's public high school summer remediation program on student gains on EOC SOL tests in Algebra I, Biology, Chemistry, Geometry, and World History and Geography II. Specifically, the purpose of the study sought to determine the following: (a) If significant gains were made by students who attended the summer remediation program; (b) If significant gains were made by students who did not attend the summer remediation program; (c) If there were differences in gain scores of students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program; and (d) If there were differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to school site, gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. The results of the study indicate that students who attended and those who did not attend the summer remediation program made significant gains. However, the gains for students who attended the summer remediation program were significantly greater than the gains made by students who did not attend. The study also found that there were no significant differences in gain scores among students who attended the summer remediation program related to gender, ethnicity, learning ability group, socioeconomic status, and level of English proficiency. There were significant differences in Algebra I gain scores related to school site. Recommendations for

  19. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  20. Biological Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-09

    The BioPA provides turbine designers with a set of tools that can be used to assess biological risks of turbines during the design phase, before expensive construction begins. The toolset can also be used to assess existing installations under a variety of operating conditions, supplementing data obtained through expensive field testing. The BioPA uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a turbine design to quantify the exposure of passing fish to a set of known injury mechanisms. By appropriate sampling of the fluid domain, the BioPA assigns exposure probabilities to each mechanism. The exposure probabilities are combined with dose-response data from laboratory stress studies of fish to produce a set of biological BioPA Scores. These metrics provide an objective measure that can be used to compare competing turbines or to refine a new design. The BioPA process can be performed during the turbine design phase and is considerably less expensive than prototype-scale field testing.

  1. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  2. Development of the Biology Card Sorting Task to Measure Conceptual Expertise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julia I.; Combs, Elijah D.; Nagami, Paul H.; Alto, Valerie M.; Goh, Henry G.; Gourdet, Muryam A. A.; Hough, Christina M.; Nickell, Ashley E.; Peer, Adrian G.; Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non–biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non–biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise. PMID:24297290

  3. Development of the biology card sorting task to measure conceptual expertise in biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia I; Combs, Elijah D; Nagami, Paul H; Alto, Valerie M; Goh, Henry G; Gourdet, Muryam A A; Hough, Christina M; Nickell, Ashley E; Peer, Adrian G; Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2013-01-01

    There are widespread aspirations to focus undergraduate biology education on teaching students to think conceptually like biologists; however, there is a dearth of assessment tools designed to measure progress from novice to expert biological conceptual thinking. We present the development of a novel assessment tool, the Biology Card Sorting Task, designed to probe how individuals organize their conceptual knowledge of biology. While modeled on tasks from cognitive psychology, this task is unique in its design to test two hypothesized conceptual frameworks for the organization of biological knowledge: 1) a surface feature organization focused on organism type and 2) a deep feature organization focused on fundamental biological concepts. In this initial investigation of the Biology Card Sorting Task, each of six analytical measures showed statistically significant differences when used to compare the card sorting results of putative biological experts (biology faculty) and novices (non-biology major undergraduates). Consistently, biology faculty appeared to sort based on hypothesized deep features, while non-biology majors appeared to sort based on either surface features or nonhypothesized organizational frameworks. Results suggest that this novel task is robust in distinguishing populations of biology experts and biology novices and may be an adaptable tool for tracking emerging biology conceptual expertise.

  4. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (12th, Springfield, Missouri, June 4-8, 1990). Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume includes 13 papers: "Non-Radioactive DNA Hybridization Experiments for the…

  5. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings. Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (11th, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, June 12-16, 1989). Volume 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay" (J. A Johnson);…

  6. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 8-12, 1993). Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 18 papers: "Human DNA Fingerprinting by Polymerase Chain Reaction" (M. V.…

  7. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (5th, Clemson, South Carolina, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; And Others

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains eight papers: "Bacterial Transformation" (M. J. Ernest & N. J. Rosenbaum);…

  8. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (14th, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 2-6, 1992). Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve undergraduate biology laboratory experiences by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 11 papers: "A Practical Guide to the Use of Cellular Slime Molds for…

  9. The Microcomputer/Biology "Interface."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tocci, Salvatore

    1981-01-01

    Describes ways that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is used in a high school biology course, including: (1) mastery of specific objectives; (2) CAI as a self-check; (3) computer games; (4) laboratory simulations; (5) genetics instruction; (6) writing programs; and (7) remedial assistance and testing. (CS)

  10. When cell biology meets theory

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Cell biologists now have tools and knowledge to generate useful quantitative data. But how can we make sense of these data, and are we measuring the correct parameters? Moreover, how can we test hypotheses quantitatively? To answer these questions, the theory of physics is required and is essential to the future of quantitative cell biology. PMID:26416957

  11. When cell biology meets theory.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos; Roux, Aurélien

    2015-09-28

    Cell biologists now have tools and knowledge to generate useful quantitative data. But how can we make sense of these data, and are we measuring the correct parameters? Moreover, how can we test hypotheses quantitatively? To answer these questions, the theory of physics is required and is essential to the future of quantitative cell biology.

  12. Integrating quantitative thinking into an introductory biology course improves students' mathematical reasoning in biological contexts.

    PubMed

    Hester, Susan; Buxner, Sanlyn; Elfring, Lisa; Nagy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Recent calls for improving undergraduate biology education have emphasized the importance of students learning to apply quantitative skills to biological problems. Motivated by students' apparent inability to transfer their existing quantitative skills to biological contexts, we designed and taught an introductory molecular and cell biology course in which we integrated application of prerequisite mathematical skills with biology content and reasoning throughout all aspects of the course. In this paper, we describe the principles of our course design and present illustrative examples of course materials integrating mathematics and biology. We also designed an outcome assessment made up of items testing students' understanding of biology concepts and their ability to apply mathematical skills in biological contexts and administered it as a pre/postcourse test to students in the experimental section and other sections of the same course. Precourse results confirmed students' inability to spontaneously transfer their prerequisite mathematics skills to biological problems. Pre/postcourse outcome assessment comparisons showed that, compared with students in other sections, students in the experimental section made greater gains on integrated math/biology items. They also made comparable gains on biology items, indicating that integrating quantitative skills into an introductory biology course does not have a deleterious effect on students' biology learning.

  13. Integrating quantitative thinking into an introductory biology course improves students' mathematical reasoning in biological contexts.

    PubMed

    Hester, Susan; Buxner, Sanlyn; Elfring, Lisa; Nagy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Recent calls for improving undergraduate biology education have emphasized the importance of students learning to apply quantitative skills to biological problems. Motivated by students' apparent inability to transfer their existing quantitative skills to biological contexts, we designed and taught an introductory molecular and cell biology course in which we integrated application of prerequisite mathematical skills with biology content and reasoning throughout all aspects of the course. In this paper, we describe the principles of our course design and present illustrative examples of course materials integrating mathematics and biology. We also designed an outcome assessment made up of items testing students' understanding of biology concepts and their ability to apply mathematical skills in biological contexts and administered it as a pre/postcourse test to students in the experimental section and other sections of the same course. Precourse results confirmed students' inability to spontaneously transfer their prerequisite mathematics skills to biological problems. Pre/postcourse outcome assessment comparisons showed that, compared with students in other sections, students in the experimental section made greater gains on integrated math/biology items. They also made comparable gains on biology items, indicating that integrating quantitative skills into an introductory biology course does not have a deleterious effect on students' biology learning. PMID:24591504

  14. Integrating Quantitative Thinking into an Introductory Biology Course Improves Students’ Mathematical Reasoning in Biological Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Susan; Buxner, Sanlyn; Elfring, Lisa; Nagy, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Recent calls for improving undergraduate biology education have emphasized the importance of students learning to apply quantitative skills to biological problems. Motivated by students’ apparent inability to transfer their existing quantitative skills to biological contexts, we designed and taught an introductory molecular and cell biology course in which we integrated application of prerequisite mathematical skills with biology content and reasoning throughout all aspects of the course. In this paper, we describe the principles of our course design and present illustrative examples of course materials integrating mathematics and biology. We also designed an outcome assessment made up of items testing students’ understanding of biology concepts and their ability to apply mathematical skills in biological contexts and administered it as a pre/postcourse test to students in the experimental section and other sections of the same course. Precourse results confirmed students’ inability to spontaneously transfer their prerequisite mathematics skills to biological problems. Pre/postcourse outcome assessment comparisons showed that, compared with students in other sections, students in the experimental section made greater gains on integrated math/biology items. They also made comparable gains on biology items, indicating that integrating quantitative skills into an introductory biology course does not have a deleterious effect on students’ biology learning. PMID:24591504

  15. Biological conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  16. Learning Biology by Designing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    According to a century-old tradition in biological thinking, organisms can be considered as being optimally designed. In modern biology this idea still has great heuristic value. In evolutionary biology a so-called design heuristic has been formulated which provides guidance to researchers in the generation of knowledge about biological systems.…

  17. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    PubMed

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  18. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  19. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    PubMed

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs. PMID:24766840

  20. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  3. What is Systems Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology is increasingly popular, but to many biologists it remains unclear what this new discipline actually encompasses. This brief personal perspective starts by outlining the asthetic qualities that motivate systems biologists, discusses which activities do not belong to the core of systems biology, and finally explores the crucial link with synthetic biology. It concludes by attempting to define systems biology as the research endeavor that aims at providing the scientific foundation for successful synthetic biology. PMID:21423352

  4. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be performed using...

  5. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be...

  6. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with applicable standard requirement potency tests provided in 9 CFR part 113. If the culture of... the date of isolation. (vii) Number of doses of autogenous biologic requested and vaccination...

  7. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with applicable standard requirement potency tests provided in 9 CFR part 113. If the culture of... the date of isolation. (vii) Number of doses of autogenous biologic requested and vaccination...

  8. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable standard requirement potency tests provided in 9 CFR part 113. If the culture of microorganisms... the date of isolation. (vii) Number of doses of autogenous biologic requested and vaccination...

  9. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with applicable standard requirement potency tests provided in 9 CFR part 113. If the culture of... the date of isolation. (vii) Number of doses of autogenous biologic requested and vaccination...

  10. 9 CFR 113.113 - Autogenous biologics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with applicable standard requirement potency tests provided in 9 CFR part 113. If the culture of... the date of isolation. (vii) Number of doses of autogenous biologic requested and vaccination...

  11. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed…

  12. How to compare biologic drugs.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Xavier; Esplugues, Juan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    This consensus document reviews the evidence on the evaluation of biological drugs. The main conclusions of the group are: a) the current evidence on biological comparisons is based on indirect comparisons and is generally unreliable and with important methodological limitations. Therefore, b) it is considered necessary to amend the regulatory directives in the sense of strongly favoring randomized non-inferiority studies comparing face to face the new biological treatment with current standards, avoiding trials versus placebo, c) A key element in this process will be determined by consensus among regulatory agencies, scientific societies, the pharmaceutical industry and health authorities regarding the clinical differences that should be considered relevant in each of the conditions tested. PMID:25043229

  13. Radiometry in medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Kie-Bong; Choi, Eui Y.

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.

  14. Experimental test of new theoretical models for the electrokinetic properties of biological membranes. The effect of UO/sup 2 + +/ and tetracaine on the electrophoretic mobility of bilayer membranes and human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquale, L.; Winiski, A.; Oliva, C.; Vaio, G.; McLaughlin, S.

    1986-12-01

    For a large smooth particle with charges at the surface, the electrophoretic mobility is proportional to the zeta potential, which is related to the charge density by the Gouy-Chapman theory of the diffuse double layer. This classical model adequately describes the dependence of the electrophoretic mobility of phospholipid vesicles on charge density and salt concentration, but it is not applicable to most biological cells, for which new theoretical models have been developed. We tested these new models experimentally by measuring the effect of UO/sup 2 + +/ on the electrophoretic mobility of model membranes and human erythrocytes in 0.15 M NaCl at pH 5. We used UO/sup 2 + +/ for these studies because it should adsorb specifically to the bilayer surface of the erythrocyte and should not change the density of fixed charges in the glycocalyx. Our experiments demonstrate that it forms high-affinity complexes with the phosphate groups of several phospholipids in a bilayer but does not bind significantly to sialic acid residues. As observed previously, UO/sup 2 + +/ adsorbs strongly to egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles: 0.1 mM UO/sup 2 + +/ changes the zeta potential of PC vesicles from 0 to +40 mV. It also has a large effect on the electrophoretic mobility of vesicles formed from mixtures of PC and the negative phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS): 0.1 mM UO/sup 2 + +/ changes the zeta potential of PC/PS vesicles (10 mol % PS) from -13 to +37 mV. In contrast, UO/sup 2 + +/ has only a small effect on the electrophoretic mobility of either vesicles formed from mixtures of PC and the negative ganglioside GM1 or erythrocytes: 0.1 mM UO/sup 2 + +/ changes the apparent zeta potential of PC/GM1 vesicles (17 mol % GM1) from -11 to +5 mV and the apparent zeta potential of erythrocytes from -12 to -4 mV.

  15. Systems Biology and immune aging.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, José-Enrique; Herrera, Guadalupe; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; de Oyanguren, Francisco Sala; Díaz, Laura; Gomes, Angela; Balaguer, Susana; Callaghan, Robert C

    2014-11-01

    Many alterations of innate and adaptive immunity are common in the aging population, which reflect a deterioration of the immune system, and have lead to the terms "immune aging" or "immunosenescence". Systems Biology aims to the comprehensive knowledge of the structure, dynamics, control and design that define a given biological system. Systems Biology benefits from the continuous advances in the omics sciences, based on high-throughput and high-content technologies, as well as on bioinformatic tools for data mining and integration. The Systems Biology approach is becoming gradually used to propose and to test comprehensive models of aging, both at the level of the immune system and the whole organism. In this way, immune aging may be described by a dynamic view of the states and interactions of every individual cell and molecule of the immune system and their role in the context of aging and longevity. This mini-review presents a panoramics of the current strategies, tools and challenges for applying Systems Biology to immune aging.

  16. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  17. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  19. Resetting Biological Clocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Arthur T.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  20. Biology Today: Questions & Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student questions as tools of instruction and as indicators of student misconceptions. Suggests different ways in which students may gain an understanding of biological concepts through discussion of popular movies and biological problems. (CW)

  1. Biology is simple.

    PubMed

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  2. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  3. EPR, Biology, and Consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    It seems that Darwin, in his concluding remark (1859, p490) ruled out the possibility of cosmic connection to evolution based on the fixed law of gravity, known then. More recent Dirac’s Large Number Hypothesis as described in http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040 v1 raises a possibility that the universal constant of gravity is decreasing and all coupling constants are increasing with time, so reported by some observations. Deeper investigation of the connection between evolution and the variation of the universal constant of gravity seems worthwhile to see if it impacts the passage of time in a stronger (gravitational according to the spirit of the above archive) field and affects the aging process, and explains locality and causality in random evolutionary mutations. If there is no physical locality and causality consistent with the special theory of relativity, there must be some spiritual locality and causality at superluminal speeds to explain the implicit hidden variables. Then there is a question of how to test spiritual locality and causality. Psychic effects and dream signals look promising, if they exist and can be tested with space age technology. This is neither about religion nor about Einstein’s orthodoxy in light of the spirit of EPR. This is about frontiers of science of the new millennium: biology, and consciousness.

  4. Biological feasibility of measles eradication.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Strebel, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial.

  5. Teaching biology with model organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, Dolores A.

    The purpose of this study is to identify and use model organisms that represent each of the kingdoms biologists use to classify organisms, while experiencing the process of science through guided inquiry. The model organisms will be the basis for studying the four high school life science core ideas as identified by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): LS1-From molecules to organisms, LS2-Ecosystems, LS3- Heredity, and LS4- Biological Evolution. NGSS also have identified four categories of science and engineering practices which include developing and using models and planning and carrying out investigations. The living organisms will be utilized to increase student interest and knowledge within the discipline of Biology. Pre-test and posttest analysis utilizing student t-test analysis supported the hypothesis. This study shows increased student learning as a result of using living organisms as models for classification and working in an inquiry-based learning environment.

  6. Biology of Elderly Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, A. Hind; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes age-related changes in central nervous system pertinent to biology of suicide. Reviews postmortem biological studies of brains of suicides and suicide attempters. As suicide attempts in elderly are characterized by violence, discusses biological studies of impulsive violence. Describes data on effect of degenerative diseases on serotonin…

  7. History of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienschein, Jane

    1985-01-01

    Examines the history of biology in the United States by considering: (1) general trends about the nature of American biology; (2) sources of information; (3) biographies; (4) biological institutions; and (5) disciplinary studies. Indicates that the field is dominated by internalists who focus on particular persons and topics. (JN)

  8. Biology Myth-Killers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  9. BIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENNEBERG, ERIC H.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOLOGY AND LANGUAGE IS EXPLORED IN THIS VOLUME. THE AUTHOR BELIEVES THAT "LANGUAGE IS THE MANIFESTATION OF SPECIES-SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROPENSITIES. IT IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES THAT MAKE A HUMAN TYPE OF COGNITION POSSIBLE." IN ATTEMPTING TO "REINSTATE THE CONCEPT OF THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF…

  10. Importing biological materials.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P

    2001-05-01

    This overview discusses critical issues regarding importing of restricted biological materials along with criteria for handling these materials. Guidelines for importing non-restricted biological materials are also covered. Recommendations are given for packaging biological materials for export, and finally, the necessary steps for obtaining an import permit application are outlined. PMID:18429071

  11. Chemistry and Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  12. Biology and the Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Emphasizes the social implications of biological knowledge and discusses two main government roles in biology: (1) a creative and supportive role, including support of education and research, (2) control, regulation and protection related to the applications of biological knowledge. Public control is considered necessary in areas such as food and…

  13. Mythology in Introductory Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Argues that introductory courses in college biology do a poor job of encouraging students to enter a career in biology. Cites examples of poorly written textbooks and treatments of various aspects of biology including basic definitions, cells and their operations, the mechanics of life, the nervous system, evolution and sex. (TW)

  14. General Biology Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Scott; Watthews, Thomas

    This syllabus has been developed as an alternative to Regents biology and is intended for the average student who could benefit from an introductory biology course. It is divided into seven major units dealing with, respectively: (1) similarities among living things; (2) human biology (focusing on nutrition, transport, respiration, excretion, and…

  15. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  16. Biology Educators and the History of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Laddie J.; Bicak, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Both teachers and learners can benefit from looking at the history of scientific discovery and science teaching. Discusses the history of curriculum change in biology education and the thought processes of historically prominent biologists. (Author/WRM)

  17. Controversial Issues within Biology: Enriching Biology Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a senior high school biology lesson concerned with organ transplantation. Discusses the teacher's rationale and techniques for using controversial issues in science teaching. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/WRM)

  18. Modern Biological Theories of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in molecular biology and genetics, the mysteries that control human lifespan are yet to be unraveled. Many theories, which fall into two main categories: programmed and error theories, have been proposed to explain the process of aging, but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. These theories may interact with each other in a complex way. By understanding and testing the existing and new aging theories, it may be possible to promote successful aging. PMID:21132086

  19. Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Suzanne W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Living organisms are used as biological pest control agents in (i) classical biological control, primarily for permanent control of introduced perennial weed pests or introduced pests of perennial crops; (ii) augmentative biological control, for temporary control of native or introduced pests of annual crops grown in monoculture; and (iii) conservative or natural control, in which the agroecosystem is managed to maximize the effect of native or introduced biological control agents. The effectiveness of biological control can be improved if it is based on adequate ecological information and theory, and if it is integrated with other pest management practices.

  20. Computational systems chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  1. Microfluidics: reframing biological enquiry.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Todd A; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2015-09-01

    The underlying physical properties of microfluidic tools have led to new biological insights through the development of microsystems that can manipulate, mimic and measure biology at a resolution that has not been possible with macroscale tools. Microsystems readily handle sub-microlitre volumes, precisely route predictable laminar fluid flows and match both perturbations and measurements to the length scales and timescales of biological systems. The advent of fabrication techniques that do not require highly specialized engineering facilities is fuelling the broad dissemination of microfluidic systems and their adaptation to specific biological questions. We describe how our understanding of molecular and cell biology is being and will continue to be advanced by precision microfluidic approaches and posit that microfluidic tools - in conjunction with advanced imaging, bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches - will transform biology into a precision science.

  2. Biological Dialogues: How to Teach Your Students to Learn Fluency in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, S. Randolph; Cook, David L.; May, Marilyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Biology courses have thousands of words to learn in order to intelligently discuss the subject and take tests over the material. Biological fluency is an important goal for students, and practical methods based on constructivist pedagogies can be employed to promote it. We present a method in which pairs of students write dialogues from…

  3. IQ Predicts Biological Motion Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2012-01-01

    Biological motion is easily perceived by neurotypical observers when encoded in point-light displays. Some but not all relevant research shows significant deficits in biological motion perception among those with ASD, especially with respect to emotional displays. We tested adults with and without ASD on the perception of masked biological motion…

  4. Bridging Physics and Biology Using Resistance and Axons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    When teaching physics, it is often difficult to get biology-oriented students to see the relevance of physics. A complaint often heard is that biology students are required to take physics for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as part of a "weeding out" process, but that they don't feel like they need physics for biology.…

  5. Electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    A program to develop an engineering model of an electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals is summarized. An extensive mathematical modeling study and numerous ground based tests were included. Focus was placed on developing an actual electrophoretic separator of the continuous flow type, configured and suitable for flight testing as a space processing applications rocket payload.

  6. Developments in the Tools and Methodologies of Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Kelwick, Richard; MacDonald, James T.; Webb, Alexander J.; Freemont, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is principally concerned with the rational design and engineering of biologically based parts, devices, or systems. However, biological systems are generally complex and unpredictable, and are therefore, intrinsically difficult to engineer. In order to address these fundamental challenges, synthetic biology is aiming to unify a “body of knowledge” from several foundational scientific fields, within the context of a set of engineering principles. This shift in perspective is enabling synthetic biologists to address complexity, such that robust biological systems can be designed, assembled, and tested as part of a biological design cycle. The design cycle takes a forward-design approach in which a biological system is specified, modeled, analyzed, assembled, and its functionality tested. At each stage of the design cycle, an expanding repertoire of tools is being developed. In this review, we highlight several of these tools in terms of their applications and benefits to the synthetic biology community. PMID:25505788

  7. [Natural biological risks and military biological risks].

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Attree, O; Mage, R; Tournier, J N; Quesnel-Hellmann, A

    2000-01-01

    The Iraqi biological program, the activities of sect Aum in Japan and the extensive endemicity of plague prove the existence of military, terrorist and natural biological risks. Among the agents of natural risk (viruses, bacteria.), plague is induced by modification of the ecosystem. Present since 1921 in the high plateau of Madagaskar, the disease evolves under two modes, endemic (natural) or epidemic (urban). Since the control of endemicity is impossible, the decrease of incidence will be obtained by the control of the animal reservoir. The military risk is part of the history of armed conquests. Anthrax and botulinum toxins, are the most toxic agents, banned by the Convention of London (1972). In 1995, 4 years after the end of Gulf war, UNSCOM obtained from authorities the inventory of Iraqi biological program, with details on the militarization of toxins and spores. These furtive weapons, are produced with limited technological skills, often in dual manufactures and are difficult to control.

  8. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  9. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  10. Biological tracer method

    DOEpatents

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M.; Palumbo, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  11. Engineering scalable biological systems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast and mammalian systems. However, significant challenges in the construction, probing, modulation and debugging of synthetic biological systems must be addressed in order to achieve scalable higher-complexity biological circuits. Furthermore, concomitant efforts to evaluate the safety and biocontainment of engineered organisms and address public and regulatory concerns will be necessary to ensure that technological advances are translated into real-world solutions. PMID:21468204

  12. 9 CFR 113.2 - Testing aids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comparison with serials of biological products under test. (c) Standard Test Reagent is a serum, antitoxin... not for direct comparison with serials of biological products under test. (d) Seed cultures are small... specified in the Standard Requirements and in each filed Outline of Production where such test is...

  13. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  14. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  15. Biological detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  16. Metadata Activities in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; HUTCHISON, VIVIAN; Frame, Mike; Palanisamy, Giri

    2010-01-01

    The National Biological Information Infrastructure program has advanced the biological sciences ability to standardize, share, integrate and synthesize data by making the metadata program a core of its activities. Through strategic partnerships, a series of crosswalks for the main biological metadata specifications have enabled data providers and international clearinghouses to aggregate and disseminate tens of thousands of metadata sets describing petabytes of data records. New efforts at the National Biological Information Infrastructure are focusing on better metadata creation and curation tools, semantic mediation for data discovery and other curious initiatives.

  17. Metabonomics and systems biology.

    PubMed

    De Preter, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Systems biology represents an integrative research strategy that studies the interactions between DNA, mRNA, protein, and metabolite level in an organism, thereby including the interactions with the physical environment and other organisms. The application of metabonomics, or the quantitative study of metabolites in biological systems, in systems biology is currently an emerging area of research, which can contribute to the discovery of (disease) signatures, drug targeting and design, and the further elucidation of basic and more complex biochemical principles. This chapter covers the contribution of metabonomics in advancing our understanding in systems biology.

  18. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  19. Chemical space and biology.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Christopher M

    2004-12-16

    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  20. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  1. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  2. Secondary & College Biology Students' Misconceptions About Diffusion & Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    1995-01-01

    Tests on diffusion and osmosis given to (n=116) secondary biology students, (n=123) nonbiology majors, and (n=117) biology majors found that, even after instruction, students continue to have misconceptions about these ideas. Appendix includes diffusion and osmosis test. (MKR)

  3. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia.

    PubMed

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Rupek, Paul; Lappe, Markus; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral ("what") and a dorsal ("where") visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: perception of biological motion might be impaired when "non-biological" motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots ("Shape-from-Motion"), recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  4. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  5. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  6. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  7. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  8. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  9. Biological monitors of pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, M.

    1990-02-01

    This article discusses the use of biological monitors to assess the biological consequences of toxicants in the environment, such as bioavailability, synergism, and bioaccumulation through the food web. Among the organisms discussed are fly larvae, worms, bees, shellfish, fishes, birds (starlings, owls, hawks, songbirds) and mammals (rabbits, field mice, shrews).

  10. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  11. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  12. Biologic Patterns of Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Carl V.; Linn, Richard T.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of Rasch analysis to elucidate biological patterns of disability present in the functional ability of persons undergoing medical rehabilitation. Uses two measures, one for inpatients and one for outpatients, to illustrate the approach and provides examples of some biological patterns of disability associated with specific types…

  13. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  14. Human Biology: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Education is a process of adapting to change, and the rate of change is especially rapid in science today. This curriculum in human biology is an alternative to the New York State courses in general and Regents biology, and it has been designed to focus on change from the standpoint of the urban student. It is designed to provide students with…

  15. Sourcebook for Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Donald L.; And Others

    This is a reference book of curriculum and multimedia materials, equipment and supplies, professional references, and auxiliary resource material. This sourcebook attempts to meet the needs of the classroom biology teacher and is a direct response to the many questions and concerns of both biology teachers and those preparing to become teachers.…

  16. Biology Bulletins "Revisited"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audet, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In October 1981, an article appeared in "The American Biology Teacher" with the catchy title, "Bio-Bull." In it, author, Dale Carlson, described a powerful form of communication that he employed successfully in his community college classes. Each week students received what he called a "Bio-Bull" that included current biological topics,…

  17. Towards a Liberal Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, P. M. C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the purpose of a university biology department and the organization of its curriculum in terms of perceived crises in British biology. Concludes that reform becomes a project of crucial importance, not only to the social and technological development of civilized societies, but to the survival of the human species. (Author/AL)

  18. Biology 100-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

    This publication is the course guide book for a one-semester, non-laboratory junior college course in biology. Included for each topic are lesson objectives, learning materials, and discussion ideas for seminar groups. Topics include the organization of life, heredity, reproduction, the meaning of biology to modern man, and homeostasis and…

  19. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  20. Biological sample collector

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  1. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  2. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  3. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  4. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  5. Noise in biological circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael L; Allen, Michael S.; Cox, Chris D.; Dar, Roy D.; Karig, David K; McCollum, James M.; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and reviewmany of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology.

  6. A summary of chemical and biological testing of proposed disposal of sediment from Richmond Harbor relative to the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Karle, L.M.; Gruendell, B.D.; Pinza, M.R.

    1993-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers was authorized to dredge Richmond Harbor to accomodate large, deep-draft vessels. An ecological evaluation of the Harbor sediments was performed describing the physical characteristics, toxic substances, effects on aquatic organisms,and potential for bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants. The objective of this report is to compare the sediment chemistry, acute toxicity, and bioaccumulation results of the Richmond Harbor sediments to each of the reference areas; i.e., the Deep Off-Shelf Reference Area, the Bay Farm Borrow Area, and the Alcatraz Environs Reference Area. This report will enable the US Army Corps of Engineers to determine whether disposal at a reference area is appropriate for all or part of the dredged material from Richmond Harbor. Chemical analyses were performed on 30 sediment samples; 28 of those samples were then combined to form 7 composites. The seven composites plus sediment from two additional stations received both chemical and biological evaluations.

  7. What State Tests Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Glenn W.

    What the Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) test actually tests and the consequences of these tests for funding decisions were studied with a random sample of 100 school districts in the Cook County suburbs of Chicago. Eighth-grade IGAP scores for reading were obtained from the state report card, a document prepared by each school district…

  8. Biological patterns: Novel indicators for pharmacological assays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1991-01-01

    Variable gravity testing using the KC-135 demonstrated clearly that biological pattern formation was definitely shown to result from gravity alone, and not from oxygen gradients in solution. Motile pattern formation of spermatozoa are driven by alternate mechanisms, and apparently not affected by short-term changes in gravity. The chemical effects found appear to be secondary to the primary effect of gravity. Cryopreservation may be the remedy to the problem of 'spare' or 'standing order' biological samples for testing of space lab investigations, but further studies are necessary.

  9. Evolutionary Design in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Kay C.

    Much progress has been achieved in recent years in molecular biology and genetics. The sheer volume of data in the form of biological sequences has been enormous and efficient methods for dealing with these huge amounts of data are needed. In addition, the data alone does not provide information on the workings of biological systems; hence much research effort has focused on designing mathematical and computational models to address problems from molecular biology. Often, the terms bioinformatics and computational biology are used to refer to the research fields concerning themselves with designing solutions to molecular problems in biology. However, there is a slight distinction between bioinformatics and computational biology: the former is concerned with managing the enormous amounts of biological data and extracting information from it, while the latter is more concerned with the design and development of new algorithms to address problems such as protein or RNA folding. However, the boundary is blurry, and there is no consistent usage of the terms. We will use the term bioinformatics to encompass both fields. To cover all areas of research in bioinformatics is beyond the scope of this section and we refer the interested reader to [2] for a general introduction. A large part of what bioinformatics is concerned about is evolution and function of biological systems on a molecular level. Evolutionary computation and evolutionary design are concerned with developing computational systems that "mimic" certain aspects of natural evolution (mutation, crossover, selection, fitness). Much of the inner workings of natural evolutionary systems have been copied, sometimes in modified format into evolutionary computation systems. Artificial neural networks mimic the functioning of simple brain cell clusters. Fuzzy systems are concerned with the "fuzzyness" in decision making, similar to a human expert. These three computational paradigms fall into the category of

  10. Chemical aspects of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic biology as a broad and novel field has also a chemical branch: whereas synthetic biology generally has to do with bioengineering of new forms of life (generally bacteria) which do not exist in nature, 'chemical synthetic biology' is concerned with the synthesis of chemical structures such as proteins, nucleic acids, vesicular forms, and other which do not exist in nature. Three examples of this 'chemical synthetic biology' approach are given in this article. The first example deals with the synthesis of proteins that do not exist in nature, and dubbed as 'the never born proteins' (NBPs). This research is related to the question why and how the protein structures existing in our world have been selected out, with the underlying question whether they have something very particular from the structural or thermodynamic point of view (for example, the folding). The NBPs are produced in the laboratory by the modern molecular biology technique, the phage display, so as to produce a very large library of proteins having no homology with known proteins. The second example of chemical synthetic biology has also to do with the laboratory synthesis of proteins, but, this time, adopting a prebiotic synthetic procedure, the fragment condensation of short peptides, where short means that they have a length that can be obtained by prebiotic methods; for example, from the condensation of N-carboxy anhydrides. The scheme is illustrated and discussed, being based on the fragment condensation catalyzed by peptides endowed with proteolitic activity. Selection during chain growth is determined by solubility under the contingent environmental conditions, i.e., the peptides which result insoluble are eliminated from further growth. The scheme is tested preliminarily with a synthetic chemical fragment-condensation method and brings to the synthesis of a 44-residues-long protein, which has no homology with known proteins, and which has a stable tertiary folding. Finally, the third

  11. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C.; Sonntag, T.L.; Denault, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  12. The Biology Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medve, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the first Biology Olympics for high school teams which took place at Slippery Rock State College, Pennsylvania. Individual events are described as well as the visitation day program for nonparticipants. (SA)

  13. Recapturing Quantitative Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernezny, Ken; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

  14. [Systems biology of cancer].

    PubMed

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  15. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  16. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  17. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  18. Microbiology in Introductory Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callery, Michael L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a microbiology unit developed for an introductory college biology course in which the identity of an unknown bacterium is determined. Also described is an interactive taxonomy computer program which aids in the identity of the unknown organism. (CS)

  19. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  20. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  1. The Biology of Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  2. Vibrations, quanta and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2013-07-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme - the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  3. Adding Math to Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Describes a teaching method in which students learn about evolutionary biology through the use of mathematics. Uses the concept of biostatistics, the mathematical analysis of the variation in nature, to understand evolution. (SAH)

  4. Electron transfer in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. J. P.

    Electron transfer is one of the key reactions of biology not just in catalysis of oxidation/reduction reactions but in the conversion of sources of energy such as light to usable form for chemical transformations. There are then two intriguing problems. What is the nature of the matrix in which electrons flow in a biological cell after the initial charge separation due for example to the absorption of light. Here we are examining biological structures similar to man's electronic wires and the construction must be of low resistance in what are apparently insulators - organic polymers. It has been found that the electronic conduction system is largely made from metallo-proteins associated with lipid membranes. We understand much about these biological wires today. The second problem concerns the conversion of the energy captured from the light into usable chemical form. The major synthetic step in the production of biological polymers, including proteins, DNA, RNA, polysaccharides and fats, is condensation, i.e. the removal of water in the formation of amides, esters and so on. Now these condensation reactions are driven in biology by using a drying agent in water, namely the anhydride, pyrophosphate, in a special compound ATP, adenosine triphosphate. The central problem is to discover exactly how the flow of electrons can be related to the synthesis of (bound) pyrophosphate. (In a thermodynamic sense pyrophosphate is a water soluble kinetically stable drying agent comparable with solid P2O5.) In the biological systems the connection between these different classes of reaction, electron transfer and condensation, is known to be via the production of an energized gradient of protons across the biological membrane which arises from the flow of electrons across the same membrane in the electron transport wires of biology. However we do not understand thoroughly the steps which lead from electron flow in a membrane to proton gradients in that membrane, i.e. electron

  5. Systems cell biology.

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  6. Systems cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Fred D.; Ratushny, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology. PMID:25225336

  7. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  8. Applicability of computational systems biology in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kongsbak, Kristine; Hadrup, Niels; Audouze, Karine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-07-01

    Systems biology as a research field has emerged within the last few decades. Systems biology, often defined as the antithesis of the reductionist approach, integrates information about individual components of a biological system. In integrative systems biology, large data sets from various sources and databases are used to model and predict effects of chemicals on, for instance, human health. In toxicology, computational systems biology enables identification of important pathways and molecules from large data sets; tasks that can be extremely laborious when performed by a classical literature search. However, computational systems biology offers more advantages than providing a high-throughput literature search; it may form the basis for establishment of hypotheses on potential links between environmental chemicals and human diseases, which would be very difficult to establish experimentally. This is possible due to the existence of comprehensive databases containing information on networks of human protein-protein interactions and protein-disease associations. Experimentally determined targets of the specific chemical of interest can be fed into these networks to obtain additional information that can be used to establish hypotheses on links between the chemical and human diseases. Such information can also be applied for designing more intelligent animal/cell experiments that can test the established hypotheses. Here, we describe how and why to apply an integrative systems biology method in the hypothesis-generating phase of toxicological research.

  9. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-10

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  10. Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex - NPTEC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex, or NPTEC, is the world's largest facility for open air testing of hazardous toxic materials and biological simulants. NPTEC is used for testing, experimentation, and training for technologies that require the release of toxic chemicals or biological simulants into the environment.

  11. Dimensions of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Wikswo, J

    2006-01-01

    Systems biology, possibly the latest sub-discipline of biology, has arisen as a result of the shockwave of genomic and proteomic data that has appeared in the past few years. However, despite ubiquitous initiatives that carry this label, there is no precise definition of systems biology other than the implication of a new, all-encompassing, multidisciplinary endeavor. Here we propose that systems biology is more than the integration of biology with methods of the physical and computational sciences, and also more than the expansion of the single-pathway approach to embracing genome-scale networks. It is the discipline that specifically addresses the fundamental properties of the complexity that living systems represent. To facilitate the discussion, we dissect and project the multifaceted systems complexity of living organisms into five dimensions: (1) molecular complexity; (2) structural complexity; (3) temporal complexity; (4) abstraction and emergence; and (5) algorithmic complexity. This "five-dimensional space" may provide a framework for comparing, classifying, and complementing the vast diversity of existing systems biology programs and their goals, and will also give a glimpse of the magnitude of the scientific problems associated with unraveling the ultimate mysteries of life.

  12. Tuning the dials of Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Arpino, James A. J.; Hancock, Edward J.; Anderson, James; Barahona, Mauricio; Stan, Guy-Bart V.; Polizzi, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is the ‘Engineering of Biology’ – it aims to use a forward-engineering design cycle based on specifications, modelling, analysis, experimental implementation, testing and validation to modify natural or design new, synthetic biology systems so that they behave in a predictable fashion. Motivated by the need for truly plug-and-play synthetic biological components, we present a comprehensive review of ways in which the various parts of a biological system can be modified systematically. In particular, we review the list of ‘dials’ that are available to the designer and discuss how they can be modelled, tuned and implemented. The dials are categorized according to whether they operate at the global, transcriptional, translational or post-translational level and the resolution that they operate at. We end this review with a discussion on the relative advantages and disadvantages of some dials over others. PMID:23704788

  13. Autonomous Biological System (ABS) experiments.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, T K; Anderson, G A; Poynter, J E; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1998-12-01

    Three space flight experiments have been conducted to test and demonstrate the use of a passively controlled, materially closed, bioregenerative life support system in space. The Autonomous Biological System (ABS) provides an experimental environment for long term growth and breeding of aquatic plants and animals. The ABS is completely materially closed, isolated from human life support systems and cabin atmosphere contaminants, and requires little need for astronaut intervention. Testing of the ABS marked several firsts: the first aquatic angiosperms to be grown in space; the first higher organisms (aquatic invertebrate animals) to complete their life cycles in space; the first completely bioregenerative life support system in space; and, among the first gravitational ecology experiments. As an introduction this paper describes the ABS, its flight performance, advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Gonorrhea Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gonorrhoeae Culture; Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram Stain; Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe Related tests: Chlamydia Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  15. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2013-10-15

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  16. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  17. Rapid classification of biological components

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2006-01-24

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  18. Rapid classification of biological components

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens of the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  19. The Changing Image of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Paul DeHart

    2001-01-01

    Defines the changes in the nature of biology during the past 50 years and relates biology to science education. Argues that biology curriculum should focus on human beings and the realities of life and living. (YDS)

  20. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  1. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. IV. 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolysed plasma and urine after test-chamber exposure of humans to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Brorson, T; Skarping, G; Sangö, C

    1991-01-01

    Two men were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres at three different air concentrations (ca. 25, 50 and 70 micrograms/m3). The TDI atmospheres were generated by a gas-phase permeation method, and the exposures were performed in an 8-m3 stainless-steel test chamber. The effective exposure period was 4 h. The isomeric composition of the air in the test chamber was 30% 2,4-TDI and 70% 2,6-TDI. The concentration of TDI in air of the test chamber was determined by an HPLC method using the 9-(N-methyl-amino-methyl)-anthracene reagent and by a continuous-monitoring filter-tape instrument. Following the hydrolysis of plasma and urine, the related amines, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA), were determined as pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives by capillary gas chromatography using selected ion monitoring (SIM) in the electron-impact mode. In plasma, 2,4- and 2,6-TDA showed a rapid-phase elimination half-time of ca. 2-5 h, and that for the slow phase was greater than 6 days. A connection was observed between concentrations of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in air and the levels of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA in plasma. The cumulated amount of 2,4-TDA excreted in the urine over 24 h was ca. 15%-19% of the estimated inhaled dose of 2,4-TDI, and that of 2,6-TDA was ca. 17%-23% of the inhaled dose of 2,6-TDI. A connection was found between the cumulated (24-h) urinary excretion of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA and the air concentration of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in the test chamber.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1660449

  2. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nine. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 1.] Tests M1-M13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of the first 13 tests are provided. Skills to be tested include: (1) reading a table; (2) using a biological key; (3) identifying chemical symbols; (4) identifying parts of a human body; (5) reading a line graph; (6) identifying electronic and…

  3. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed "misconceptions," among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists…

  4. The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    PubMed

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.

  5. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Boyman, O; Kaegi, C; Akdis, M; Bavbek, S; Bossios, A; Chatzipetrou, A; Eiwegger, T; Firinu, D; Harr, T; Knol, E; Matucci, A; Palomares, O; Schmidt-Weber, C; Simon, H-U; Steiner, U C; Vultaggio, A; Akdis, C A; Spertini, F

    2015-07-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-mediated disorders. Biologicals have also been tested in allergic disorders. These include agents targeting IgE; T helper 2 (Th2)-type and Th2-promoting cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-31, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); chemokine receptor CCR4; and lymphocyte surface and adhesion molecules, including CD2, CD11a, CD20, CD25, CD52, and OX40 ligand. In this task force paper of the Interest Group on Biologicals of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, we review biologicals that are currently available or tested for the use in various allergic and urticarial pathologies, by providing an overview on their state of development, area of use, adverse events, and future research directions.

  6. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Boyman, O; Kaegi, C; Akdis, M; Bavbek, S; Bossios, A; Chatzipetrou, A; Eiwegger, T; Firinu, D; Harr, T; Knol, E; Matucci, A; Palomares, O; Schmidt-Weber, C; Simon, H-U; Steiner, U C; Vultaggio, A; Akdis, C A; Spertini, F

    2015-07-01

    Biologic agents (also termed biologicals or biologics) are therapeutics that are synthesized by living organisms and directed against a specific determinant, for example, a cytokine or receptor. In inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, biologicals have revolutionized the treatment of several immune-mediated disorders. Biologicals have also been tested in allergic disorders. These include agents targeting IgE; T helper 2 (Th2)-type and Th2-promoting cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-31, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP); pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF); chemokine receptor CCR4; and lymphocyte surface and adhesion molecules, including CD2, CD11a, CD20, CD25, CD52, and OX40 ligand. In this task force paper of the Interest Group on Biologicals of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, we review biologicals that are currently available or tested for the use in various allergic and urticarial pathologies, by providing an overview on their state of development, area of use, adverse events, and future research directions. PMID:25819018

  7. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  8. Pagan Biology at the Halloween Hop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Send your pupils into the autumn term half-term holiday with a task that requires them to explore more about the biology associated with Halloween. This article offers a fun approach, with a pub quiz format based on bats, skeletons, pumpkins and witches, that is suitable for lessons following the end-of-topic test, for STEM clubs or for PTA…

  9. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  10. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  11. Information Complexity and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  12. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  13. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are

  14. [RANKL Biology ~Beyond the bone biology~].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2016-08-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL),a transmembrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor(TNF) superfamily cytokine, currently provides a paradigm that enables the molecular understanding of the linkage among bone metabolism, organization of lymphoid tissues, establishment of the thymic microenviroment, thermoregulation, metabolic regulation, mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. Here we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of RANKL biology by focusing on the investigation of RANKL expressing cells/organs, signaling and related diseases in the context of the newly established interdisciplinary field of osteonetwork. The elucidation of both physiological and pathological RANKL function will provide a scientific basis for future therapeutic approaches to several RANKL-related diseases. PMID:27461496

  15. Computational Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Samudrala, Ram; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Montogomery, Kristina; Ireton, Renee

    2009-05-01

    Computational systems biology is the term that we use to describe computational methods to identify, infer, model, and store relationships between the molecules, pathways, and cells (“systems”) involved in a living organism. Based on this definition, the field of computational systems biology has been in existence for some time. However, the recent confluence of high throughput methodology for biological data gathering, genome-scale sequencing and computational processing power has driven a reinvention and expansion of this field. The expansions include not only modeling of small metabolic{Ishii, 2004 #1129; Ekins, 2006 #1601; Lafaye, 2005 #1744} and signaling systems{Stevenson-Paulik, 2006 #1742; Lafaye, 2005 #1744} but also modeling of the relationships between biological components in very large systems, incluyding whole cells and organisms {Ideker, 2001 #1124; Pe'er, 2001 #1172; Pilpel, 2001 #393; Ideker, 2002 #327; Kelley, 2003 #1117; Shannon, 2003 #1116; Ideker, 2004 #1111}{Schadt, 2003 #475; Schadt, 2006 #1661}{McDermott, 2002 #878; McDermott, 2005 #1271}. Generally these models provide a general overview of one or more aspects of these systems and leave the determination of details to experimentalists focused on smaller subsystems. The promise of such approaches is that they will elucidate patterns, relationships and general features that are not evident from examining specific components or subsystems. These predictions are either interesting in and of themselves (for example, the identification of an evolutionary pattern), or are interesting and valuable to researchers working on a particular problem (for example highlight a previously unknown functional pathway). Two events have occurred to bring about the field computational systems biology to the forefront. One is the advent of high throughput methods that have generated large amounts of information about particular systems in the form of genetic studies, gene expression analyses (both protein and

  16. Noise in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    2014-02-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling.

  17. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  18. Modeling complexity in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louzoun, Yoram; Solomon, Sorin; Atlan, Henri; Cohen, Irun. R.

    2001-08-01

    Biological systems, unlike physical or chemical systems, are characterized by the very inhomogeneous distribution of their components. The immune system, in particular, is notable for self-organizing its structure. Classically, the dynamics of natural systems have been described using differential equations. But, differential equation models fail to account for the emergence of large-scale inhomogeneities and for the influence of inhomogeneity on the overall dynamics of biological systems. Here, we show that a microscopic simulation methodology enables us to model the emergence of large-scale objects and to extend the scope of mathematical modeling in biology. We take a simple example from immunology and illustrate that the methods of classical differential equations and microscopic simulation generate contradictory results. Microscopic simulations generate a more faithful approximation of the reality of the immune system.

  19. Noise in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Tsimring, Lev S.

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evolution, providing selective advantage in dynamic environments, enhancing intracellular transport of biomolecules and increasing information capacity of signaling pathways. This short review covers the recent progress in understanding mechanisms and effects of fluctuations in biological systems of different scales and the basic approaches to their mathematical modeling. PMID:24444693

  20. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577

  1. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  2. The biology of personality.

    PubMed

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  3. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  4. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  5. Digital biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-01

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  6. Biological switches and clocks

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Albert, Reka; Goldbeter, Albert; Ruoff, Peter; Sible, Jill

    2008-01-01

    To introduce this special issue on biological switches and clocks, we review the historical development of mathematical models of bistability and oscillations in chemical reaction networks. In the 1960s and 1970s, these models were limited to well-studied biochemical examples, such as glycolytic oscillations and cyclic AMP signalling. After the molecular genetics revolution of the 1980s, the field of molecular cell biology was thrown wide open to mathematical modellers. We review recent advances in modelling the gene–protein interaction networks that control circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression, signal processing and the design of synthetic gene networks. PMID:18522926

  7. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  8. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  9. The Biological Sciences Collaboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Lansing, Carina S.

    2004-06-24

    Developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Biological Sciences Collaboratory (BSC) enables distributed biologists to carry out a full range of collaborative research activities. In contrast to more traditional tool-centric collaboratories, BSC enables the sharing of scientific data and analyses through diverse capabilities such as a data portal, project workspaces, analysis notes, data pedigree tracking, electronic laboratory notebooks, data translation services, external data source access and integration, and collaborative analysis. Overall, BSC strives to effectively capture and support the scientific context in which collaborations in biology takes place.

  10. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2000-03-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  11. The Biological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1996-09-01

    Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Plurality of worlds and the decline of anthropocentrism; 3. The solar system: the limits of observation; 4. Solar systems beyond: the limits of theory; 5. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 6. The UFO controversy: on perception and deception; 7. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 8. SETI: the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence; 9. The convergence of disciplines: birth of a new science; 10. The meaning of life; Summary and conclusion: the biological universe and the limits of science.

  12. [Cybernetics and biology].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  13. Biological Motion Primes the Animate/Inanimate Distinction in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Crivello, Cristina; Wright, Kristyn

    2015-01-01

    Given that biological motion is both detected and preferred early in life, we tested the hypothesis that biological motion might be instrumental to infants’ differentiation of animate and inanimate categories. Infants were primed with either point-light displays of realistic biological motion, random motion, or schematic biological motion of an unfamiliar shape. After being habituated to these displays, 12-month-old infants categorized animals and vehicles as well as furniture and vehicles with the sequential touching task. The findings indicated that infants primed with point-light displays of realistic biological motion showed better categorization of animates than those exposed to random or schematic biological motion. These results suggest that human biological motion might be one of the motion cues that provide the building blocks for infants’ concept of animacy. PMID:25659077

  14. Biological motion primes the animate/inanimate distinction in infancy.

    PubMed

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Crivello, Cristina; Wright, Kristyn

    2015-01-01

    Given that biological motion is both detected and preferred early in life, we tested the hypothesis that biological motion might be instrumental to infants' differentiation of animate and inanimate categories. Infants were primed with either point-light displays of realistic biological motion, random motion, or schematic biological motion of an unfamiliar shape. After being habituated to these displays, 12-month-old infants categorized animals and vehicles as well as furniture and vehicles with the sequential touching task. The findings indicated that infants primed with point-light displays of realistic biological motion showed better categorization of animates than those exposed to random or schematic biological motion. These results suggest that human biological motion might be one of the motion cues that provide the building blocks for infants' concept of animacy. PMID:25659077

  15. Quantitative cell biology: the essential role of theory.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jonathon

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative biology is a hot area, as evidenced by the recent establishment of institutes, graduate programs, and conferences with that name. But what is quantitative biology? What should it be? And how can it contribute to solving the big questions in biology? The past decade has seen very rapid development of quantitative experimental techniques, especially at the single-molecule and single-cell levels. In this essay, I argue that quantitative biology is much more than just the quantitation of these experimental results. Instead, it should be the application of the scientific method by which measurement is directed toward testing theories. In this view, quantitative biology is the recognition that theory and models play critical roles in biology, as they do in physics and engineering. By tying together experiment and theory, quantitative biology promises a deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms, when the theory works, or to new discoveries, when it does not.

  16. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  17. Biomedical synthetic biology: an overview for physicians.

    PubMed

    Keret, Ophir

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic bioiogy is a ,relatively new fieild of bologlcal research and development that focases on the engineering of genetic molecular machlnes wIth a specific predefined function. Plainly put the newly engineered organism functions as a machine. It can process information. manufature, heal and even diagnose. We just have to engineer It to do so. The famous quote "Biology Is the nanotechnology that works" is currently being put to the test on a worldwide scale. The application of these machines Is theoretically boundless. In laboratories worldwide synthetic biology technologies are being rationally designed to assist in diagnosis or disrupt disease mechnisms. In the not too distant future they are expected to reach the clinical setting. This new field should be distinguished from classic genetic engineering. The latter researches naturalfy found DNA segments via cloning. It is weakly associated with engineering. Synthetic biology focuses on the engineering of molecular biological machines for the benefit of mankind. This is done via synthetic (computer printed) DNA sequences, man-designed or altered in silico. In this article I will briefly introduce synthetic biology, elaborate on the BiobrickFoundation as an independent fast-growing synthetic biology-sharing movement, and report on selected developing applications for medicine.

  18. Current Trends in Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wivagg, Daniel E.; Moore, Randy

    1987-01-01

    This newsletter reports on the status of biology education in the United States. It states that biology has entered its "golden age" because of the emergence of biotechnology, ecology, agricultural productivity, and human biology as major societal issues. This report discusses the status of the informal national curriculum of biology, involving…

  19. Biology=Sinh Vat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Nguyen Manh, Ed.

    This volume contains 32 biology self-study learning packets designed primarily for Indochinese students in grades 9 to 12. The materials could be used by "English as a Second Language" teachers who may/may not speak one of the Indochinese languages, or by mainstream teachers who have a number of low-English-proficiency Indochinese students in…

  20. Who's Who in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1983-01-01

    Provides top-rated programs (by university) in biochemistry, botany, cellular/molecular biology, microbiology, physiology, and zoology. Overall scores included with each program were obtained from 1,848 biologists who were asked to rate programs in terms of faculty quality and their effectiveness in educating graduate students. (Author/JN)