Science.gov

Sample records for biologiques apres contamination

  1. On-site treatment of creosote and pentachlorophenal sludges and contaminated soil. Research report, Jan 88-Apr 90

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, G.D.; Borazjani, H.; Pope, D.F.; Strobel, D.A.; McFarland, L.K.

    1991-05-01

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. The study was conducted in three phases: (1) Characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. Data generated in phases 1 and 2 were discussed in a previous EPA Report (EPA/-600/2-88-055). The report provides review of data generated during phases 1 and 2 plus discussion of data generated during the two-year field evaluation study. Results from the three-phase study indicated that creosote contaminants, i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, and PCP are subject to degradation in soil systems; loading rates and previous exposure of site soil to particular contaminants were identified as important factors in determining rates of transformation for a particular site. Although populations of PAH and PCP acclimated organisms increased markedly when these compounds were applied to test soils, no correlation was found between microbial population levels and transformation rates for specific compounds of concern. Migration of compounds of interest was negligible except in a highly sandy soil from one of the eight sites for which column leaching studies were conducted.

  2. Ionisation en couche K et effet biologique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Hoir, A.; Herve Du Penhoat, M. A.; Champion, C.; Fayard, B.; Touati, A.; Abel, F.; Politis, M. F.; Despiney-Bailly, I.; Sabatier, L.; Chetioui, A.

    1998-04-01

    Initial steps of radiation action mechanism on biological targets are still undnown. The strong correlation observed between inactivation cross sections by heavy ions and K-vacancy production cross sections has drawn the attention on this process. Although quite minor in the energy deposition of these particles, the K-ionization process gives rise to quite efficient ionization clusters. Values of K-ionization biological effectivenesses extracted from measured relative biological efficiencies of ultra soft X-rays support the idea of a major -may be a dominant- contribution of the K-vacancy process to the biological effect of heavy ions. Les étapes initiales des mécanismes d'effet biologique des radiations sont encore mal connues. La forte corrélation observée entre sections efficaces d'inactivation par ions lourds et sections efficaces d'ionisation K a attiré l'attention sur ce processus. Bien que de faible probabilité, l'ionisation K engendre des grappes d'ionisation très efficaces. Les valeurs de rendement létal extraites des efficacités biologiques relatives mesurées pour les rayonnements X ultra-mous suggèrent une contribution majeure -peut-être dominante- de l'ionisation K à l'effet biologique des ions.

  3. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  4. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  5. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  6. Apports de la spéciation biologique en dosimétrie interne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, F.; Ansoborlo, E.; Chazel, V.; Hengé-Napoli, M. H.; Houpert, P.

    1998-04-01

    Speciation studies consist in the determination of the molecular characteristics of the elements. The research currently carried out in that field is aimed at describing the intracellular deposit of the radionuclides and the complexation mechanisms which determine their behaviour. Such studies are developed in order to contribute towards the solution of two major problems in the field of internal dosimetry: the realistic assessment of the dose received by the target cells and the therapeutic removal of neptunium or uranium after internal contamination. The work presented thereafter resumes the main results obtained in that field. La spéciation est l',étude des caract,ristiques moléculaires des ,éléments radioactifs. Un des axes majeurs développé, dans ce domaine cherche à? décrire les mécanismes de complexation et de dépt des radionucléides dans les cellules. Ces ,études sont effectuées pour tenter d'élucider deux problèmes majeurs de la dosimétrie interne: l'estimation réaliste des doses reçues par les cellules cibles après contamination interne et amélioration des thérapeutiques proposées après incorporation accidentelle. Le présent rapport fait le point sur les derniers travaux réalisés, sur le Np et résume les principales avancées dans ce domaine.

  7. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  8. Inactivation of aprE Gene in Bacillus subtilis 168 by Homologus Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Soleymani, Safoura; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Soleimani, Narjes; Moazen, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most important producers of high quality industrial enzymes is the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis (B. Subtilis). One major limitation that hinders the wide application of B. subtilis is the secretion of high levels of extracellular proteases which degrade the secreted foreign proteins. In this study, homologus recombination technique was used to knock out its protease gene, aprE. Methods The internal segment of the pro-sequence of aprE gene of B. subtilis 168 with a length of 80 bps and its complementary sequence were synthesized and ligated into pUB110 at EcoR1 and XbaI restriction sites. Competent cells of B. subtilis 168 were prepared and transformed by electroporation using Bio Rad gene pulser as explained in the methods section. Transformants carrying the recombinant plasmid were selected for resistance to neomycin. The success of homologous recombination was checked by PCR amplification of the neomycin gene which was part of the vector and did not exist in the genome of B. subtilis 168. The protease activity was measured using the Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit based on the proteolytic hydrolysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled casein-substrate. Results The results demonstrated that aprE gene would not be able to produce further active subtilisin E. The reduction of protease activity also confirmed the efficacy of the induced mutation in this gene. Conclusion It will therefore be a major challenge for future research to identify and modulate quality control systems of B. subtilis which limit the production of high quality protease- sensitive products such as lipase. PMID:25215183

  9. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. 1, 1939 (l) INT.- STAIRWAY, 4th FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH - M.I.T., Rogers Building, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, 1934 JACOB R. GIDDIS AND JOEL A. CUMBACK, MOUNTAIN VIEW CEMETERY, COLUMBIA - Grave Stones, Mountain View Cemetery, Bigler Street, Columbia, Tuolumne County, CA

  11. Revision of testing criteria for air cleaning unit of renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPPS.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    2011-07-01

    Designing Air Cleaning Units (ACU) of an Engineered Safety Feature and normal atmosphere clean-up system at the renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPP, and fuel cycle facilities in Korea, is required to meet the standards of ASME AG-1 (1997), ASME N509/N510 (1989) and KEPIC-MH (2001) to enhance the removal efficiency of aerosols and particulates from the effluents. The revised ACU testing criteria are allowed to use alternative challenge agents of the dioctyl phthalate and Refrigerant-11 for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and adsorption banks. The operability testing time of engineered safety feature (ESF) trains was changed from 10 h to 15 min. The activated carbon in adsorption banks should undergo laboratory tests at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity 95 %. The removal criteria of methyl iodide should be over 99.5 % for ESF and 99 % for normal systems. This paper provides the background of the changed criteria for designing and testing of the ACU system in nuclear facilities.

  12. Sondes radicalaires pour l'imagerie RPE et PDN stables dans les fluides biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiberteau, T.; Marx, L.; Rassat, A.; Grucker, D.

    1999-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and dynamic nuclear polarisation are two techniques that allow the detection of free radicals. They can also be used for in vivo studies for oximetry in blood or tissues. One of the main problems for the development of these techniques is the need of free radicals that are stable in biological media. We present in this communication a study by EPR and DNP of two free radicals that can be suitable for in vivo applications. La résonance paramagnétique électronique et la polarisation dynamique nucléaire sont deux techniques qui permettent de détecter les radicaux libres dans divers systèmes. Elles peuvent également être utilisées in vivo et permettre ainsi de mesurer la concentration en oxygène dans le sang ou dans les tissus. Un des problèmes de ces techniques est l'utilisation de sondes radicalaires suffisamment stables dans les milieux biologiques. Nous présentons une étude comparative par RPE et PDN de deux radicaux libres de type nitroxydes dérivés de l'isoindoline. Un des radicaux possédant quatre groupements éthyle semble être intéressant pour le développement de la RPE et la PDN in vivo.

  13. Implementation and Analysis for APR1400 Soft Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid advancement of digital technology, the definite technical advantages of digital control system compared to analog control system are accelerating the implementation of advanced distributed digital control system in the nuclear power plant. One of the major advantages of digital control system is the capability of Soft Control System. The design of Soft Control System for Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) plant of Man-Machine Interface System (MMIS) is based on full digital technologies to enhance reliability, operability and maintainability. Computer-based compact workstation has been adopted in the APR1400 Main Control Room (MCR) to provide convenient working environment. This paper introduces the approaches and methodologies of Soft Control System for the Advanced Control Room (ACR). This paper also explains major design features for operation and display of the Soft Control System and its implementation to cope with regulatory requirements. (authors)

  14. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lehner, John R.; Mubayi, Vinod; Pratt, W. Trevor; Kim, Do Sam; Cho, Yong Jin; Cho, Sang Jin; Kim, In Goo

    2012-02-17

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E&C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal [Ref. 1]. The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E&C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report [Ref. 2] that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E&C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  15. Leucémie aiguë myéloblastique et translocation (8;16) (p11;p13), premier cas marocain d'une entité clinico- biologique distinct

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, Adiba; Lemchaheb, Mouna; Had, Nezha; Dehbi, Hind; Benchekroun, Said; Quessar, Asma

    2015-01-01

    La cytogénétique constitue un outil indispensable pour le diagnostic et le pronostic de la leucémie aigue myéloïde (LAM). La t(8;16)(p11;p13) est rare au cours de cette pathologie. Nous décrivons le cas d'une patiente de 22 ans, admise pour un syndrome d'insuffisance médullaire complet associé à une altération de l’état général. L'examen clinique initial montrait un purpura ecchymotique diffus et des adénopathies latérocérvicales centimétriques bilatérales. L'hémogramme avait montré une anémie à 7,6g /dl normochrome normocytaire, des globules blancs à 87,8×109/L, 15% de polynucléaires neutrophiles, 60% de blastes, 24% de lymphocytes, 1% de Monocytes et 65×109/L de plaquettes. Le myélogramme avait objectivé une LAM1. Sur l'immunophenotypage les marqueurs positifs étaient le CD33 (99%), le CD15 (73%), le CD38 (95%) et l'HLA-DR (88%), les marqueurs monocytoïdes CD14 et CD64 étaient positifs, le CD34, les marqueurs lymphopïdes, la MPO (26%) et le CD13 (2%) étaient négatifs. Le caryotype avait montré: t(8,16)(p11, p13) add16 (20/20). L'inversion du chromosome 16 recherchée par FISH était négative. Le traitement avait consisté en 2 cures d'induction et 2 cures de consolidation selon le protocole national de traitement des LAM (Cytarabine, daunorubicine, etoposide), la rémission complète avait été obtenue en fin d'induction I, maintenue 9 mois suivie d'une rechute; Vu l'absence de possibilité d'une allogreffe, un traitement palliatif a été instauré, la malade est décédée de sa maladie un mois après la rechute. Notre cas se présente comme les cas décrits dans la littérature avec des données clinico- biologiques particulières. PMID:26327984

  16. Etude de la flore bactérienne contaminant les téléphones mobiles avant et après la désinfection: comparaison entre les professionnels soignants de l'hôpital militaire d'instruction Mohammed V de Rabat et les témoins

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Moustanfii, Wafaa; Chadli, Meryem; Sekhsokh, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre travail était évaluer la contamination microbienne des téléphones mobiles utilisés par les personnels soignants des différents services de l'hôpital militaire d'instructions Mohammed V de Rabat et la comparer à celui d'une population témoin et aussi démontrer l'efficacité des solutions hydroalcoolique dans la désinfection de ces téléphones mobiles. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée sur une période de 9 mois entre septembre 2010 et juin 2011, dans le service de bactériologie de l'hôpital militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V. Résultats L’étude bactériologique a été faite sur 240 téléphones mobiles dont 50% provenaient de personnels de sante. Le taux de contamination bactérienne de tous les téléphones mobiles était de 100%. Les cultures des bactéries isolées au niveau des téléphones mobiles du personnel médical étaient plus polymorphes que celles de la population témoin (p=0,028). Parmi 437 bactéries isolées: 223(51%) provenaient de téléphones de personnels de santé et 214(49%) de téléphones de la population témoin avec une différence qui n’était pas statistiquement significative(p>0,05) sauf pour les isolats de Staphylocoque à coagulase négative et Staphylococcus aureus. Les bactéries isolées étaient représentées par: Staphylocoque à coagulase (57,7%), Staphylococcus aureus (18,1%), Corynebacterium sp (18,8%), Bacillus sp (2,3%) et autres (2,2%). La différence entre la prévalence des bactéries isolées selon les services et les fonctions des personnels de santé n’était pas statistiquement significative (p>0,05). La désinfection des téléphones portables par la solution hydroalcoolique a réduit à 99,5% le nombre des colonies. Conclusion Ce travail montre que les téléphones portables pourraient jouer un rôle dans la transmission des infections nosocomiales et communautaires. Dans le cadre de prévention de ces risques, il faut

  17. Complications métaboliques après transplantation rénale à partir du donneur vivant: expérience du CHU Ibn Sina de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouram, Hala; Benamar, Loubna; Ouzeddoune, Naima; Bayahia, Rabia; Ezaitouni, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    La transplantation rénale (TR) constitue le traitement de choix de l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale. Les complications métaboliques après TR (diabète, dyslipidémie, hyperuricémie, obésité), en grande partie liées au traitement immunosuppresseur, deviennent une préoccupation car elles constituent un facteur de risque de morbimortalité et de perte fonctionnelle du greffon. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer la fréquence de ces anomalies après TR. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective incluant tous les patients ayant bénéficié d'une première TR par donneur vivant (DV) de Juin 1998 à Décembre 2010. Nous avons recensé les données démographiques propres au receveur, le traitement immunosuppresseur après TR. Les paramètres clinico-biologiques recueillis sont (index de masse corporel (IMC), glycémie à jeun, hémoglobine glyquée, CT, C-HDL, C-LDL, TG, acide urique). Soixante dix patients ont été colligés, l’âge moyen est de 36.3 + /-9.6 ans (21 à 62) avec un sex ratio de 0.5. Quinze patients (21.4%) étaient hypertendus avant la TR et 2.9% avaient une néphropathie diabétiques. L’âge moyen du donneur est de 47.5 + /-10.2 ans (20-65). Le traitement immunosuppresseur pendant la phase d'induction était une trithérapie associant corticostéroïdes, anticalcineurines chez tous les patients et mycophénolate mofétil chez 68.6% et azathioprine dans 31.4% des cas. L'IMC moyen était de 24.1 + /-4.0 (16.9 à 37), 33% des patients étaient considérés en surpoids dont 21.8% en obésité. L'hypercholestérolémie, a été retrouvée chez 25 patients soit 36%. Presque la moitié des patients (48.5%) avaient une hyperuricémie. Quatre patients ont développé un diabète après TR soit 6% des cas. La perte du greffon a été notée chez 12 patients et 2 patients sont décédés dont un avec un greffon fonctionnel. En analyse univariée, l'hyperuricémie et la dyslipidémie ont été considérées comme facteur de risque de perte

  18. Calcul par simulation des paramètres dosimétriques pour le noyau cellulaire après irradiation α in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Foll, L.; Bailly, I.; Fritsch, P.

    1998-04-01

    Determination of absorbed dose in biological targets after high LET α particules irradiation needs heavy calculations. A softwave has been developed in order to allow everyone to calculate hit probability and absorbed dose. It is particularly adapted to the study of cell cultures irradiated with electrodeposited source or α-beam accelerator. It is based first, on a random generator of α-track homogeneously distributed in 4π, second, on the evaluation of energy loss in the different media along the track and then on a statistical analysis of the results. This method is accurate and low time consuming. The target is either modelised by an ellipsoid or represented by its 3D shape recorded using confocal microscopy. Des calculs dosimétriques complexes sont nécessaires pour l'évaluation des doses délivrées dans des cibles biologiques après irradiation par des particules α de haut TEL. Un logiciel a été développé pour rendre facilement accessible le calcul de la probabilité pour atteindre la cible et de la dose absorbée. il est particulièrement adapté à l'étude des cultures cellulaires irradiées par des sources électrodéposées de radionucléides ou des accélérateurs de particules. Il repose sur un générateur de traces aléatoires, sur une approximation de la perte d'énergie dans les différents milieux traversés et sur une exploitation statistique des résultats obtenus. Cette méthode s'avère précise et rapide. La cible est modélisée par un ellipsoïde ou représentée par son image 3D obtenue en microscopie confocale.

  19. 53. Neg. No. F69, Apr 21, 1930, EXTERIOROFFICE BUILDING, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Neg. No. F-69, Apr 21, 1930, EXTERIOR-OFFICE BUILDING, WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDES, OPENING DAY - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 48 CFR 1552.235-76 - Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)(APR 1996) (a) The Project Officer (PO) or his/her designee, after a written determination by the... General Counsel for Information Law or his/her designee; and (iii) return the CBI to the PO or...

  1. 82. Neg. No. F66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Neg. No. F-66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM LINE AND GLASS DEPARTMENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 83. Neg. No. F53, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Neg. No. F-53, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BACK TRIM LINE - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  4. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  5. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  6. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  7. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  8. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  9. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  10. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  11. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  12. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  13. 86. Neg. No. F64, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Neg. No. F-64, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY STORAGE CONVEYOR - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 79. Neg. No. F61A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Neg. No. F-61A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY CONSTRUCTION - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 85. Neg. No. F51, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. Neg. No. F-51, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY AND CUSHION LINE - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  17. Reliability enhancement of APR + diverse protection system regarding common cause failures

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Y. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR +) nuclear power plant design has been developed on the basis of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) to further enhance safety and economics. For the mitigation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) as well as Common Cause Failures (CCF) within the Plant Protection System (PPS) and the Emergency Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS), several design improvement features have been implemented for the Diverse Protection System (DPS) of the APR + plant. As compared to the APR1400 DPS design, the APR + DPS has been designed to provide the Safety Injection Actuation Signal (SIAS) considering a large break LOCA accident concurrent with the CCF. Additionally several design improvement features, such as channel structure with redundant processing modules, and changes of system communication methods and auto-system test methods, are introduced to enhance the functional reliability of the DPS. Therefore, it is expected that the APR + DPS can provide an enhanced safety and reliability regarding possible CCF in the safety-grade I and C systems as well as the DPS itself. (authors)

  18. Reduction of hexachloroethane and carbon tetrachloride at surfaces of biotite, vermiculite, pyrite, and marcasite. Book chapter Apr 88-Apr 90

    SciTech Connect

    Kriegman-King, M.R.; Reinhard, M.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater resources by halogenated compounds spurred the formation of a national program to clean up hazardous waste sites across the United States. Compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CTET), chloroform (CF), and hexachloroethane (HCA) are a few of the chemicals which have been proposed to be 'characteristic' hazardous wastes to be included in the toxic contaminant leachate potential (TCLP) test. Consequently, chemical and biological transformation pathways are being studied to aid in understanding the fate of these contaminants in groundwater environments and to apply the processes occurring naturally in groundwater environments to remediation technologies. Environmental factors significantly affect the transformation rates and the pathways of halogenated aliphatic compounds. The authors have studied the transformation of tetrachloromethane (CTET), and hexachloroethane (HCA) in homogenous and heterogenous systems designed to simulate groundwater and sediment conditions. The laboratory studies were aimed at (1) identifying the sediment components which may act as reducing components and (2) quantifying the environmental factors which govern the transformation rates. Both model and natural systems were studied. Their data indicate that the humic acid fraction in combination with sulfide and Fe(2+) may promote transformation rates. Similarly, surfaces of sheet silicates, such as biotite and vermiculite, were found to promote degradation of CTET and perchloroethylene, respectively.

  19. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot.

    PubMed

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  20. 2nd Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Tanelli, S.; Haddad, Z.; Im, E.

    2012-01-01

    Dual-frequency operation with Ku-band (13.4 GHz) and Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Geometry and frequencies chosen to simulate GPM radar. Measures reflectivity at co- and cross-polarizations, and Doppler. Range resolution is approx. 60 m. Horizontal resolution at surface is approx. 1 km. Reflectivity calibration is within 1.5 dB, based on 10 deg sigmaO at Ku-band and Mie scattering calculations in light rain at Ka-band. LDR measurements are OK to near -20 dB; LDR lower than this is likely contaminated by system cross-polarization isolation. Velocity is motion-corrected total Doppler, including particle fall speed. Aliasing can be seen in some places; can usually be dealiased with an algorithm. .

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of Dichelobacter nodosus proteases AprV2/B2, AprV5/B5 and BprV/B in clinical material from European sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Stäuble, Anna; Steiner, Adrian; Normand, Lea; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

    2014-01-10

    Dichelobacter nodosus, the etiological agent of ovine footrot, exists both as virulent and as benign strains, which differ in virulence mainly due to subtle differences in the three subtilisin-like proteases AprV2, AprV5 and BprV found in virulent, and AprB2, AprB5 and BprB in benign strains of D. nodosus. Our objective was a molecular genetic epidemiological analysis of the genes of these proteases by direct sequence analysis from clinical material of sheep from herds with and without history of footrot from 4 different European countries. The data reveal the two proteases known as virulent AprV2 and benign AprB2 to correlate fully to the clinical status of the individuals or the footrot history of the herd. In samples taken from affected herds, the aprV2 gene was found as a single allele whereas in samples from unaffected herds several alleles with minor modifications of the aprB2 gene were detected. The different alleles of aprB2 were related to the herds. The aprV5 and aprB5 genes were found in the form of several alleles scattered without distinction between affected and non-affected herds. However, all different alleles of aprV5 and aprB5 encode the same amino acid sequences, indicating the existence of a single protease isoenzyme 5 in both benign and virulent strains. The genes of the basic proteases BprV and BprB also exist as various alleles. However, differences found in samples from affected versus non-affected herds do not reflect the currently known epitopes that are attributed to differences in biochemical activity. The data of the study confirm the prominent role of AprV2 in the virulence of D. nodosus and shed a new light on the presence of the other protease genes and their allelic variants in clinical samples.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effect of herbal medicines (APR) in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, HAN-SEOK; SEO, HYE SOOK; KIM, SOON RE; CHOI, YOUN KYUNG; SHIN, YONG-CHEOL; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a mixture of medicinal plants [Angelica gigas Nakai, Panax ginseng and Rhus verniciflua Stokes (APR)] on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Cells were treated with APR and LPS at various concentrations and indicated times. WST assay, trypan blue assay and quantification of activated cells demonstrated that APR suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. APR induced G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and necrosis factor κB (NF-κB). APR also suppressed nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS) and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (Cox-2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression induced by LPS. Furthermore, APR decreased LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as induced PARP and caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting that APR causes apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study indicated that APR may be advantageous in treating inflammatory disease. PMID:24626965

  3. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.235-79 - Release of contractor confidential business information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Release of contractor confidential business information (APR 1996). 1552.235-79 Section 1552.235-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations... pursuant to a request filed under the Freedom of Information Act. (f) The Contractor agrees to include...

  8. 54. Neg. No. F110P, Apr 24, 1931, EXTERIORPRESSED STEEL BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Neg. No. F-110P, Apr 24, 1931, EXTERIOR-PRESSED STEEL BUILDING, NORTH AND EAST SIDES, WAREHOUSE IN BACKGROUND, RAILROAD SPUR IN FOREGROUND, BONDERITE TANK AT LEFT - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 23 - Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... failure, transmit signals, actuate fuel controls or power levers on operating engines, including power... power lever position; and (c) That shown to be free of hazardous engine response characteristics when...; (3) Prevent deactivation of the APR by manual adjustment of the power levers following an...

  10. Privacy Impact Assessment for the TRIO Programs Annual Performance Report (APR) System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The TRIO Programs Annual Performance Report (APR) System collects individual student records on individuals served by the following Federal TRIO Programs: Upward Bound (which includes regular Upward Bound (UB), Upward Bound Math-Science (UBMS), and Veterans Upward Bound (VUB)); Student Support Services (SSS); and the Ronald E. McNair Post…

  11. Student Access to Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) Coursework: Principals' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Placement[R] (AP[R]) courses provide high school students an opportunity to be exposed to the rigors of college while they are still in high school. Since school policies play a role in the opportunities for students to pursue these courses, educational leaders must be aware of the ways in which their personal beliefs and school practices…

  12. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  13. Categorizing Ice Crystals Using Airborne APR-2 and HVPS Observations during GCPEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M., III; Bennartz, R.; Turk, F. J.; Tanelli, S.; Sy, O. O.; Bansemer, A.; Kuo, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Current and planned millimeter-wave passive and active satellite sensors are proposed for future low Earth-orbiting satellite platforms. For accurate modeling and sensor simulation of ice clouds at these wavelengths, realistic particle shapes and size distributions (PSD) need to be used. During the Jan-Feb 2012 Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) near Toronto, Canada, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) dual-frequency (Ku/Ka-band) Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) flew onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft. Coordinated flights were carried out with the Univ. of North Dakota Citation aircraft carrying the High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer (HVPS-3), to collect cloud PSD and particle imagery. Selected flights enabled collection of coincident sampling volumes from the APR-2 and the HVPS. This unique dataset enables the scattering properties of the frozen hydrometeors to be modeled using the HVPS-provided particle distributions, and compared with APR-2 observations. The wide variety of fractal-like particle shapes measured in the HVPS data were separated into size bins and presented as 2 dimensional histograms with bins defined by Aspect (As) and Area (Ar) ratio. Individual histograms were previously characterized by the mean As and Ar values, ignoring the preferential linear trend between As and Ar visible for data points within most particle sizes. To facilitate the scattering models, we attempted to partition particles by shape within four size-invariant As and Ar categories. The four unique PSD, created by particle shape segregation, were then used to forward model the Ku and Ka- band radar reflectivities to locate the particle characteristics that provided the best agreement with actual APR-2 observations. In future work, these PSD will be used for passive microwave satellite sensor simulations of cold season precipitation and compared to actual satellite observations.

  14. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot

    PubMed Central

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot. PMID:27136552

  15. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration.

  16. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kushlna, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

  17. “Improved” but Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A.; Quick, Robert E.; Montano, Silvia M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Mock, Charles N.; Carrasco, A. Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. PMID:26195455

  18. "Improved" But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A; Quick, Robert E; Montano, Silvia M; Tilley, Drake H; Mock, Charles N; Carrasco, A Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-09-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted.

  19. Après-Coup in French Psychoanalysis: The Long Afterlife of Nachträglichkeit: The First Hundred Years, 1893 to 1993.

    PubMed

    House, Jonathan; Slotnick, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Après-coup finds its origins in Freud's earliest psychoanalytic writings, but it was only half a century ago that French psychoanalysts rediscovered, clarified, and developed the concept and so brought it recognition as an essential Freudian concept. Because the history of après-coup is embedded in the French reading of Freud, this article will give an account of that reading in relation to après-coup.

  20. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  1. The X-ray crystal structure of APR-B, an atypical adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase from Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clare E M; Hughes, Richard K; McManus, Michael T; Lawson, David M; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-11-15

    Sulfonucleotide reductases catalyse the first reductive step of sulfate assimilation. Their substrate specificities generally correlate with the requirement for a [Fe4S4] cluster, where adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductases possess a cluster and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductases do not. The exception is the APR-B isoform of APS reductase from the moss Physcomitrella patens, which lacks a cluster. The crystal structure of APR-B, the first for a plant sulfonucleotide reductase, is consistent with a preference for APS. Structural conservation with bacterial APS reductase rules out a structural role for the cluster, but supports the contention that it enhances the activity of conventional APS reductases.

  2. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  3. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1M74 is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1M74 and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1M74 as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1M74, was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1M74 IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1M74 could induce anti Na-APR-1M74 IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1wt-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1M74 as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1M74 which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a “toolbox” that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1M74 as it proceeds through the

  4. Molecular analysis of the distribution and phylogeny of dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase-encoding genes (aprBA) among sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-10-01

    Dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (AprBA) is a key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway. Homologues have been found in photo- and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP), in which they are postulated to operate in the reverse direction, oxidizing sulfite to APS. Newly developed PCR assays allowed the amplification of 92-93 % (2.1-2.3 kb) of the APS reductase locus aprBA. PCR-based screening of 116 taxonomically divergent SOP reference strains revealed a distribution of aprBA restricted to photo- and chemotrophs with strict anaerobic or at least facultative anaerobic lifestyles, including Chlorobiaceae, Chromatiaceae, Thiobacillus, Thiothrix and invertebrate symbionts. In the AprBA-based tree, the SOP diverge into two distantly related phylogenetic lineages, Apr lineages I and II, with the proteins of lineage II (Chlorobiaceae and others) in closer affiliation to the enzymes of the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). This clustering is discordant with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) phylogeny and indicates putative lateral aprBA gene transfer from SRP to the respective SOB lineages. In support of lateral gene transfer (LGT), several beta- and gammaproteobacterial species harbour both aprBA homologues, the DsrAB-congruent 'authentic' and the SRP-related, LGT-derived gene loci, while some relatives possess exclusively the SRP-related apr genes as a possible result of resident gene displacement by the xenologue. The two-gene state might be an intermediate in the replacement of the resident essential gene. Collected genome data demonstrate the correlation between the AprBA tree topology and the composition/arrangement of the apr gene loci (occurrence of qmoABC or aprM genes) from SRP and SOP of lineages I and II. The putative functional role of the SRP-related APS reductases in photo- and chemotrophic SOP is discussed.

  5. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

  6. Le paludisme congénital maladie à Plasmodium falciparum: aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, biologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Fousséni; Minodier, Philippe; Sawadogo, Oumarou; Sanon, Harouna; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme reste un problème majeur de santé publique en Afrique subsaharienne. Le but de l’étude était d’étudier le paludisme congénital maladie et les objectifs étaient de déterminer la prévalence du paludisme congénital maladie, de décrire sa présentation clinique et biologique, et de calculer son taux de mortalité. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective cas-témoins sur une période de 10 années (de Juin 1999 à Mai 2009) était menée dans l'Unité de Néonatologie de la Clinique El Fateh-Suka. Etaient inclus tous les nouveau-nés âgés de moins de sept jours hospitalisés qui avaient une recherche documentée du Plasmodium par la goutte épaisse et le frottis sanguin. Résultats La fréquence du paludisme congénital maladie était 170/697 (24,4%). Parmi les facteurs maternels, un nombre de grossesses ≥ 2 était associé au paludisme congénital maladie (OR = 1,93; IC95% [1,03-3,63]; p = 0,04). Aucun facteur propre au nouveau-né n’était associé à la maladie. La fréquence de la fièvre était 48,3%, les autres signes cliniques évoquaient une infection néonatale. Plasmodium falciparum était la seule espèce parasitaire en cause. Les décès survenaient dans 55% des cas dans les 24 heures suivant l'admission et le taux de létalité était de 20/170 (11,8%). Conclusion La prévalence du paludisme congénital maladie est élevée dans notre Unité et les facteurs de risque de la maladie sont difficiles à cerner. Parce que les symptômes ne sont pas spécifiques, la recherche de Plasmodium doit être systématique chez tout nouveau-né malade en zone d'endémie palustre. PMID:25368736

  7. Contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  8. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  9. Chemical immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd by phosphate materials and calcium carbonate in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoyong; Su, Xiaojuan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Zhu, Yifei; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-08-01

    Soil contamination with toxic metals has increasingly become a global concern over the past few decades. Phosphate and carbonate compounds are good passivation materials for Pb immobilization, while the effect of phosphate and carbonate on the immobilization of multiple heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cd) in contaminated soils was seldom investigated. In this study, bone meal (BM), phosphate rock (PR), oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), super phosphate (SP), and calcium carbonate (CC) were added to the contaminated soils to evaluate the effect of phosphate materials and calcium carbonate on the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd. The results showed that the pH of the treated soils increased 1.3-2.7, except SP which decreased 0.5 at most. Compared to the control treatment, all phosphates and calcium carbonate added to the polluted soils increased the fraction of residual metals, and the application of APR, PR, BM, and CC significantly reduced exchangeable and carbonate-bound fraction metals. PR and APR were the most effective for the immobilization of Pb, Cu, and Cd in the soils among these materials. Moreover, the concentrations of all metals in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachate decreased with increasing amounts of amendments, and the concentrations of Pb in the TCLP leachate for soils treated with PR and APR were below the nonhazardous regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1) (US Environmental Protection Agency). Based on our results, phosphate rock and oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock are effective in the immobilization of multiple metals by reducing their mobility in the co-contaminated soils.

  10. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2015-07-01

    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  11. The structure of two subgenomic RNAs from human influenza virus A/PR/8/34.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, G; Fields, S; Ratti, G

    1981-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two subgenomic RNA segments from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 have been determined by cloning viral cDNA into the vector M13mp7. Sequence analysis was facilitated by a re-cloning strategy which takes advantage of both wild-type and amber derivatives of the M13 vector. The RNA species (444 and 480 nucleotides) contain the 5' and 3' termini of segment 1 and therefore derive by simple internal deletions of this segment. However, these species are not exact copies of the terminal regions of the progenitor segment but contain a few base changes. These differences suggest that after these RNAs have arisen, their sequences can drift, presumably reflecting a lower selective pressure than on the standard RNA segments. PMID:7335495

  12. Groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, Y. . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1986-01-01

    The subject of these conference proceedings is the groundwater contamination. It is by nature multifarious - dealing with detection and monitoring, prevention, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of contaminated groundwater - it intrinsically encompasses myriad disciplines, and it involves all levels of government. Also, the subject of groundwater contamination is complex because decisions concerning groundwater pollution control that are scientifically sound, technologically within the state of the art, economically feasible, politically tractable, legally sustainable, socially acceptable, morally accountable, and organizationally implementable must be grounded on appropriate information and intelligence bases in their respective areas - science, technology, economics, politics, the law, society, ethics, and management. Indeed, the human health effects (e.g., cancer, damage to the central nervous system, liver and kidney damage) and non-health effects (economic hardship to industry, agriculture, households, and municipalities; environmental impacts; social impacts) necessitate that we, as a society, address in a somber way the following variations of the same question: How safe is safe enough How clean is safe enough The enormous cost - in billions of dollars over the next decade - that various studies project for the prevention, detection and monitoring, abatement and containment, and correction and restoration of groundwater contamination make an answer to these questions even more urgent. There are sixteen papers in these proceedings.

  13. Use case driven approach to develop simulation model for PCS of APR1400 simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Wook, Kim; Hong Soo, Kim; Hyeon Tae, Kang; Byung Hwan, Bae

    2006-07-01

    The full-scope simulator is being developed to evaluate specific design feature and to support the iterative design and validation in the Man-Machine Interface System (MMIS) design of Advanced Power Reactor (APR) 1400. The simulator consists of process model, control logic model, and MMI for the APR1400 as well as the Power Control System (PCS). In this paper, a use case driven approach is proposed to develop a simulation model for PCS. In this approach, a system is considered from the point of view of its users. User's view of the system is based on interactions with the system and the resultant responses. In use case driven approach, we initially consider the system as a black box and look at its interactions with the users. From these interactions, use cases of the system are identified. Then the system is modeled using these use cases as functions. Lower levels expand the functionalities of each of these use cases. Hence, starting from the topmost level view of the system, we proceeded down to the lowest level (the internal view of the system). The model of the system thus developed is use case driven. This paper will introduce the functionality of the PCS simulation model, including a requirement analysis based on use case and the validation result of development of PCS model. The PCS simulation model using use case will be first used during the full-scope simulator development for nuclear power plant and will be supplied to Shin-Kori 3 and 4 plant. The use case based simulation model development can be useful for the design and implementation of simulation models. (authors)

  14. The Experience of Staging Nijinsky's "L'Apres-Midi d'un Faune" in a Higher Education Dance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This study documented the experiences of staging Vaslav Nijinsky's "L'Apres-midi d'un Faune" in a higher education dance program. The ballet was staged from Labanotation. Research questions focused on teaching and learning pedagogy, characterization of the process over time, experiences of the participants and teaching approaches. The project…

  15. 78 FR 47051 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas, 943-A, Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability, and 943A-PR, Registro De La Obligacion Contributiva Del Patrono Agricola. DATES: Written comments... Para La Declarcion Anual De La Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas (Form...

  16. 75 FR 44847 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms 943, 943-PR, 943-A, and 943A-PR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Contribucion Federal Del Patrono De Empleados Agricolas, 943-A, Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability, and 943A-PR, Registro De La Obligacion Contributiva Del Patrono Agricola. DATES: Written comments... Agricolas (Form 943-PR), Agricultural Employer's Record of Federal Tax Liability (Form 943-A), and...

  17. Prenatal transportation alters the acute phase response (APR) of bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the acute phase response (APR) to a postnatal Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day...

  18. Mimicking acute and chronic stress exposure in naive beef steers alters the acute phase response (APR) associated with vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the APR associated with vaccination in naïve beef steers. Steers (n=32; 209 +/- 8 kg) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) Chronic stress (CHR), 0.5 mg/kg body weight dexamethasone...

  19. The Relationship between AP[R] Exam Performance and College Outcomes. Research Report No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Xiong, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between students' Advanced Placement Program[R] (AP[R]) performance in AP English Language, Biology, Calculus, and U.S. History, and their subsequent college success. For each AP Exam studied, students were divided into three groups according to their AP Exam performance (no AP Exam taken, score of 1 or 2,…

  20. Isolation of ara-lac gene fusions in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 by using transducing bacteriophage Mu d (Apr lac).

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Heffernan, L; Wilcox, G

    1980-09-01

    A specialized Mu transducing phage containing a gene encoding ampicillin resistance and the lac structural genes without the lac promotor [Mu d(apr lac)] has been constructed and used to create gene fusions in Escherichia coli (M. J. Cadadaban and S. N. Cohen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:4530--4533, 1979). Transposition of the Mu d(Apr lac) phage to chromosomal sites can result in lac expression being controlled by a chromosomal promoter. We have constructed an Escherichia coli K-12 strain in which the Mu d(Apr lac) phage is integrated into an F factor. The F+::Mu d(Apr lac) was then transferred by conjugation into a Salmonella typhimurium strain that was sensitive to L-arabinose. Strains containing gene fusions were selected as L-arabinose-resistant colonies after partial induction of the phage. Two classes of ara-lac fusion strains were isolated: (i) araC-lac fusions in which the expression of beta-galactosidase synthesis was constitutuve and not inducible by L-arabinose; and ((ii) fusion of the lac genes to the ara structural genes in which the expression of beta-galatosidase synthesis was induced 263-fold by L-arabinose.

  1. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  2. Contaminant hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. Contaminant Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied contaminant studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of Contaminant Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.

  3. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  4. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation.

  5. Purification and characterization of a small size protease from Bacillus sp. APR-4.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Bhalla, T C

    2004-05-01

    A thermostable extracellular protease of Bacillus sp. APR-4 was purified by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatographic methods and its properties were studied. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 21,000 U/mg of protein and gave single band on SDS/PAGE with a molecular mass of 16.9 KDa. This protease had an optimal pH of 9 and exhibited its highest activity at 60 degrees C. The enzyme activity was inhibited by EDTA, suggesting the presence of metal residue at the active site. Ca2+ (5 mM) had stabilising effect on the activity of protease, but Cu2+ (5 mM) had inhibitory effect. The enzyme exhibited highest specificity towards casein (1%) and had a Km of 26.3 mg/ml and a Vmax of 47.6 U/mg with casein as a substrate. The stability of this enzyme was evaluated in the presence of some organic solvents and the enzyme was stable in methanol, petroleum ether and ethanol. Detergents (Wheel, Farishta) had stimulatory effect on the activity of this enzyme.

  6. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  7. Anti-Influenza Activity of Betulinic Acid from Zizyphus jujuba on Influenza A/PR/8 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun-Hye; Song, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Kyo Bin; Sung, Sang Hyun; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Yang, Heejung

    2015-01-01

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Jujube tree (Zizyphus jujuba Mill), has been known for a wide range of biological and medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antinociceptive, and anticancer activities. In the study, we investigated the antiviral activity on influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line and C57BL/6 mice. Betulinic acid showed the anti-influenza viral activity at a concentration of 50 μM without a significant cytotoxicity in influenza A/PR/8 virus infected A549 cells. Also, betulinic acid significantly attenuated pulmonary pathology including increased necrosis, numbers of inflammatory cells and pulmonary edema induced by influenza A/PR/8 virus infection compared with vehicle- or oseltamivir-treated mice in vivo model. The down-regulation of IFN-γ level, which is critical for innate and adaptive immunity in viral infection, after treating of betulinic acid in mouse lung. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that betulinic acid can be the potential therapeutic agent for virus infection via anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26157551

  8. Facteurs déterminants le regret après ligature tubaire

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Houssine; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Samouh, Naïma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La ligature tubaire peut générer regret. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier le vécu après la stérilisation ainsi que le regret et ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective chez 52 femmes stérilisées entre 2004 et 2010. Résultats Vingt cinq (48%) femmes avaient regretté la réalisation de la ligature tubaire. La moyenne d’âge était de 40,5 ans. Le temps consacré aux explications était très court dans tous les cas. Trois quart des femmes n’était pas au courant des complications de la ligature tubaire. Le regret était dû au facteur religieux (23%), aux algies pelviennes (11,5%), au désir d'autres enfants (9,6%) ou à la prise de connaissance d'autres moyens contraceptifs (3,9%). Conclusion Un certains nombre de facteurs de risque de regret de la ligature tubaire sont retrouvés dans la littérature, comme dans notre série, dont l’âge, le désir de procréer, l'information incomplète, le délai de réflexion et le facteur religieux. PMID:25309644

  9. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding: observations from the Alberta pregnancy outcomes and nutrition (APrON) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing evidence that supports the importance of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding, few Canadian mothers adhere to this, and early weaning onto solids is a common practice. This study assessed infant feeding transitions during the first 6 months postpartum and factors that predicted exclusive breastfeeding to 3 and 6 months. Methods This prospective cohort study was part of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study (APrON). From an initial sample of 600 pregnant women recruited from Edmonton and Calgary, 402 mothers provided complete details at 3 months postpartum; 300 stayed on to provide information at 6 months postpartum. During pregnancy and at 3 and 6 months postpartum, data on maternal and infant socio-demographic, behavior, and feeding were collected. Results Even though there was a high rate of “ever having breastfed” (98.6%), exclusive breastfeeding rates for 3 and 6 months were 54.0% and 15.3%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, the study showed that mothers who held post-graduate university degrees were 3.76 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months than those without a university degree (95% CI: 1.30-10.92; p = 0.015). In addition, mother of previous children were more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.52; p = 0.031). Mothers who were in the highest quartile of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were 4.29 and 5.40 times more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 3 months (95% CI: 1.31-14.08; p-trend < 0.001) and 6 months (95% CI: 2.75-10.60; P-trend < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in Alberta is considerably below national and international breastfeeding recommendations. Professional advice that focuses on prenatal maternal knowledge, attitudes, and misperceptions may promote adherence to World Health Organization breastfeeding guidelines. Knowing that exclusive breastfeeding

  10. Suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein

    PubMed Central

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Geneviève; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir aux médecins de famille un résumé des recommandations fondées sur les données probantes pour guider les soins aux survivantes traitées pour le cancer du sein. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE entre 2000 et 2016 à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines et survivorship care plans, en se concentrant sur la revue des lignes directrices publiées récemment par les organismes nationaux de cancérologie. Les données étaient de niveaux I à III. Message principal Les soins aux survivantes comportent 4 facettes : surveillance et dépistage, prise en charge des effets à long terme, promotion de la santé et coordination des soins. La surveillance des récidives ne se traduit que par une mammographie annuelle, et le dépistage d’autres cancers doit suivre les lignes directrices basées sur la population. La prise en charge des effets à long terme du cancer et de son traitement aborde des problèmes courants tels la douleur, la fatigue, le lymphœdème, la détresse et les effets indésirables des médicaments, de même que les préoccupations à long terme comme la santé du cœur et des os. La promotion de la santé met en relief les bienfaits de l’activité chez les survivantes du cancer, avec l’accent mis sur l’activité physique. Les soins aux survivantes sont de meilleure qualité lorsque divers services et professionnels de la santé participent aux soins, et le médecin de famille joue un rôle important dans la coordination des soins. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont de plus en plus souvent les principaux fournisseurs de soins de suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein doit être considéré comme une affection médicale chronique, même chez les femmes en rémission, et les patientes profitent de la même approche que celle utilisée pour les autres affections chroniques en

  11. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP. PMID:25905574

  12. Processing of High Resolution, Multiparametric Radar Data for the Airborne Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar APR-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, Simone; Meagher, Jonathan P.; Durden, Stephen L.; Im, Eastwood

    2004-01-01

    Following the successful Precipitation Radar (PR) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, a new airborne, 14/35 GHz rain profiling radar, known as Airborne Precipitation Radar - 2 (APR-2), has been developed as a prototype for an advanced, dual-frequency spaceborne radar for a future spaceborne precipitation measurement mission. . This airborne instrument is capable of making simultaneous measurements of rainfall parameters, including co-pol and cross-pol rain reflectivities and vertical Doppler velocities, at 14 and 35 GHz. furthermore, it also features several advanced technologies for performance improvement, including real-time data processing, low-sidelobe dual-frequency pulse compression, and dual-frequency scanning antenna. Since August 2001, APR-2 has been deployed on the NASA P3 and DC8 aircrafts in four experiments including CAMEX-4 and the Wakasa Bay Experiment. Raw radar data are first processed to obtain reflectivity, LDR (linear depolarization ratio), and Doppler velocity measurements. The dataset is then processed iteratively to accurately estimate the true aircraft navigation parameters and to classify the surface return. These intermediate products are then used to refine reflectivity and LDR calibrations (by analyzing clear air ocean surface returns), and to correct Doppler measurements for the aircraft motion. Finally, the the melting layer of precipitation is detected and its boundaries and characteristics are identifIed at the APR-2 range resolution of 30m. The resulting 3D dataset will be used for validation of other airborne and spaceborne instruments, development of multiparametric rain/snow retrieval algorithms and melting layer characterization and statistics.

  13. Multi-analytical characterisation of D'Aprés Cormon by José Veloso Salgado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardeira, A. M.; Longelin, S.; Costa, S.; Candeias, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.

    2014-07-01

    This case study reveals the analytical characterisation carried out on 'D'Aprés Cormon' (1891) by Veloso Salgado, a copy of 'Caïn' (1880) by Fernando Cormon, belonging nowadays to Musée d'Orsay. Infrared Reflectography made in situ revealed underdrawing grid that was used to transpose the original painting to a smaller scale, pictorial style, execution method and retouched/restored areas. In situ EDXRF analysis together with Raman microscopy allowed the identification of gypsum, lead white, titanium white, yellow ochre, vermilion, ultramarine and lamp black. These results provide valuable information about the Salgado's palette and his production technique.

  14. Spacecraft contamination experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borson, E. N.

    1989-01-01

    Effective contamination control must encompass all aspects of ground and flight from design of the system through the end of mission life. Design systems are needed to minimize sensitivity to contamination, ease of cleaning, and contaminant production. Facilities and procedures are critical to maintaining cleanliness during ground operations. Flight operations should be planned so as to minimize contamination. More data from flights are required to assess the adequacy of designs and operations. Standards and specifications should include contamination control requirements.

  15. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  16. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  17. Characterisation of the Thermostable Protease AprX in Strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Impact on the Shelf-life of Dairy Products: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; Lucchini, Rosaria; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-09-20

    Bacterial proteases are involved in food spoilage and shelf-life reduction. Among the bacterial proteases, a predominant role in spoilage of dairy products seems to be played by the thermostable metallo-protease AprX, which is produced by various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Differences in AprX enzyme activity among different strains were highlighted, but the most proteolytic strains were not identified. In this study, the presence of the aprX gene was evaluated in 69 strains isolated from food matrices and 18 reference strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group, which had been previously typed by the multi locus sequence typing method. Subsequently, a subset of reference strains was inoculated in ultra-high temperature milk, and the expression of the aprX gene was evaluated at 22 and 6°C. On the same milk samples, the proteolytic activity was then evaluated through Azocasein and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assays. Finally, to assess the applicability of the former assay directly on dairy products the proteolityc activity was tested on industrial ricotta samples using the Azocasein assay. These results demonstrate the spread of aprX gene in most strains tested and the applicability of Azocasein assay to monitor the proteolytic activity in dairy products.

  18. Characterisation of the Thermostable Protease AprX in Strains of Pseudomonas Fluorescens and Impact on the Shelf-life of Dairy Products: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Andreani, Nadia Andrea; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; Lucchini, Rosaria; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial proteases are involved in food spoilage and shelf-life reduction. Among the bacterial proteases, a predominant role in spoilage of dairy products seems to be played by the thermostable metallo-protease AprX, which is produced by various strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Differences in AprX enzyme activity among different strains were highlighted, but the most proteolytic strains were not identified. In this study, the presence of the aprX gene was evaluated in 69 strains isolated from food matrices and 18 reference strains belonging to the P. fluorescens group, which had been previously typed by the multi locus sequence typing method. Subsequently, a subset of reference strains was inoculated in ultra-high temperature milk, and the expression of the aprX gene was evaluated at 22 and 6°C. On the same milk samples, the proteolytic activity was then evaluated through Azocasein and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid solution assays. Finally, to assess the applicability of the former assay directly on dairy products the proteolityc activity was tested on industrial ricotta samples using the Azocasein assay. These results demonstrate the spread of aprX gene in most strains tested and the applicability of Azocasein assay to monitor the proteolytic activity in dairy products. PMID:28217561

  19. Sulphur flux through the sulphate assimilation pathway is differently controlled by adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase under stress and in transgenic poplar plants overexpressing gamma-ECS, SO, or APR.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Ursula; Haensch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R; Kopriva, Stanislav; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herschbach, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    Sulphate assimilation provides reduced sulphur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and numerous other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. The key step in the pathway is the reduction of activated sulphate, adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS), to sulphite catalysed by APS reductase (APR). In the present study, [(35)S]sulphur flux from external sulphate into glutathione (GSH) and proteins was analysed to check whether APR controls the flux through the sulphate assimilation pathway in poplar roots under some stress conditions and in transgenic poplars. (i) O-Acetylserine (OAS) induced APR activity and the sulphur flux into GSH. (ii) The herbicide Acetochlor induced APR activity and results in a decline of GSH. Thereby the sulphur flux into GSH or protein remained unaffected. (iii) Cd treatment increased APR activity without any changes in sulphur flux but lowered sulphate uptake. Several transgenic poplar plants that were manipulated in sulphur metabolism were also analysed. (i) Transgenic poplar plants that overexpressed the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) gene, the enzyme catalysing the key step in GSH formation, showed an increase in sulphur flux into GSH and sulphate uptake when gamma-ECS was targeted to the cytosol, while no changes in sulphur flux were observed when gamma-ECS was targeted to plastids. (ii) No effect on sulphur flux was observed when the sulphite oxidase (SO) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, which catalyses the back reaction of APR, that is the reaction from sulphite to sulphate, was overexpressed. (iii) When Lemna minor APR was overexpressed in poplar, APR activity increased as expected, but no changes in sulphur flux were observed. For all of these experiments the flux control coefficient for APR was calculated. APR as a controlling step in sulphate assimilation seems obvious under OAS treatment, in gamma-ECS and SO overexpressing poplars. A possible loss of control under certain conditions, that is Cd treatment

  20. Méningite après rachianesthésie

    PubMed Central

    Mouchrif, Issam; Berdaii, Adnane; Labib, Ismail; Harrandou, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Les méningites sont des complications rares mais graves des anesthésies péridurales et des rachianesthésies. Les méningites bactériennes sont essentiellement dues à des cocci à Gram positif, ce qui sous-entend une contamination exogène pouvant être le témoin d'une faute d'asepsie. L’évolution est le plus souvent favorable sous traitement, mais au prix d'un accroissement des dépenses de santé et parfois d'importantes séquelles neurologiques. Nous présentons un cas de méningite bactérienne au décours d'une rachianesthésie effectué pour césarienne. PMID:27642477

  1. Method development study for APR cartridge evaluation in fire overhaul exposures.

    PubMed

    Anthony, T Renée; Joggerst, Philip; James, Leonard; Burgess, Jefferey L; Leonard, Stephen S; Shogren, Elizabeth S

    2007-11-01

    In the US, firefighters do not typically wear respiratory protection during overhaul activities, although fitting multi-gas or chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear cartridges to supplied air respirator facepieces has been proposed to reduce exposures. This work developed a method to evaluate the effectiveness of respirator cartridges in smoke that represents overhaul exposures to residential fires. Chamber and penetration concentrations were measured for 91 contaminants, including aldehydes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons and methyl isothiocyanate, along with total and respirable particulates. These laboratory tests generated concentrations in the range of field-reported exposures from overhaul activities. With limited tests, no styrene, benzene, acrolein or particulates were detected in air filtered by the respirator cartridge, yet other compounds were detected penetrating the respirator. Because of the complexity of smoke, an exposure index was determined for challenge and filtered air to determine the relative risk of the aggregate exposure to respiratory irritants. The primary contributors to the irritant exposure index in air filtered by the respirator were formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, with total hydrocarbons contributing only 1% to the irritant index. Respirator cartridges were adequate to minimize firefighter exposures to aggregate respiratory irritants if the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ceiling limit for formaldehyde is used (0.3 ppm) but not if National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Recommended Exposure Limit (NIOSH REL) (0.1 ppm) is used, where three of five concentrations in filtered air exceeded the NIOSH REL. Respirator certification allows 1 ppm of formaldehyde to pass through it when challenged at 100 ppm, which may not adequately protect workers to current short-term exposure/ceiling limits. The method developed here recommends specific contaminants to measure in future work

  2. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  3. Carcinoïde primitif du rein métastasant après 12 ans

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Lahmar, Ahlem; Gharbi, Lassad; Slama, Sana Ben; Bouraoui, Saadia; Chatti, Samia; Regaya, Sabeh Mzabi

    2016-01-01

    Les carcinoïdes primitifs du rein sont rares avec une centaine de cas rapportés dans la littérature. Sur le plan histologique, il s'agit d'une tumeur bien différenciée dont la morphologie rejoint souvent celle des carcinoïdes dans les autres localisations. Nous rapportons un cas de carcinoïde primitif du rein survenant chez un homme de 41 ans, découvert à la suite de métastases hépatiques. La tumeur était particulière par son architecture tubulo-papillaire, suggérant à tort le diagnostic de carcinome papillaire du rein. Ce diagnostic a été redressé 12 ans après, à la suite de l'apparition d'autres métastases hépatiques, osseuses et pulmonaires. PMID:27217899

  4. Evaluating soil contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.

    1990-07-01

    The compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  5. 78 FR 14155 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Model LJ-200-1A10 Airplane; Use of Automatic Power Reserve (APR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Power Reserve (APR), an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS), for Go-Around Performance... airplane will have novel or unusual design features associated with utilizing go-around performance credit...: Federal eRegulations Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/ and follow the online instructions...

  6. Synthesis of Key Points from the OSEP Early Childhood Transition FAQ (SPP/APR Indicators C-8, B-11 and B-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorf, M.; Henson, J.; Lucas, A.; Whaley, K.

    2010-01-01

    This document is a synthesis of the key points provided in the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Early Childhood Transition FAQs: SPP/APR indicators C-8 and B-12 released on December 1, 2009. It was developed to assist states with the implementation of effective transition policies and practices. The following is included: (1) Transition…

  7. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L for the red soil at P:Pb molar ratio 4.0. Water-soluble Pb could not be detected and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L at all treatments applied to the yellow-brown soil. BCR results indicated that APR was most effective, although a slight enhancement of water-soluble phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability.

  8. Organic contaminants in mountains.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Wania, Frank

    2005-01-15

    The study of organic contaminants at high altitudes is motivated by the potential risk that they pose to humans living in, or depending on resources derived from, mountains and to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in alpine areas. Mountains are also ideal settings to study contaminant transport and behavior along gradients of climate and surface cover. Information on organic contaminants in mountains is compiled from the literature and synthesized, with a focus on atmospheric transport and deposition, contaminant dynamics in alpine lakes and aquatic organisms, and concentration differences with altitude. Diurnal mountain winds, in connection with enhanced deposition at higher elevations caused by low temperatures and high precipitation rates, conspire to make mid-latitude mountains become convergence zones for selected persistent organic chemicals. In particular, the more volatile constituents of contaminant mixtures seem to become enriched, relative to the less volatile constituents at higher altitudes. For selected contaminants, concentration inversions (i.e., concentrations that increase with elevation) have been observed. A notable difference between cold trapping in high latitudes and high altitudes is the likely importance of precipitation. High rates of snow deposition in mid- and high-latitude mountains may lead to a large contaminant release during snowmelt. Regions above the tree line often have little capacity to retain the released contaminants, suggesting the potential for a highly dynamic contaminant fate situation during the snow-free season with significant revolatilization and runoff. The chemical and environmental factors that control the orographic cold trapping of organic contaminants should be examined further by measuring and comparatively interpreting concentration gradients along several mountain slopes with widely different characteristics. Future efforts should further focus on the bioaccumulation and potential effects of contaminants in

  9. Le don après un décès d'origine cardiocirculatoire au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shemie, Sam D.; Baker, Andrew J.; Knoll, Greg; Wall, William; Rocker, Graeme; Howes, Daniel; Davidson, Janet; Pagliarello, Joe; Chambers-Evans, Jane; Cockfield, Sandra; Farrell, Catherine; Glannon, Walter; Gourlay, William; Grant, David; Langevin, Stéphan; Wheelock, Brian; Young, Kimberly; Dossetor, John

    2006-01-01

    Résumé Ces recommandations sont le fruit d'un processus multidisciplinaire national ayant duré un an et visant à déterminer si et comment l'on pourrait procéder au don d'organes après un décès d'origine cardiocirculatoire («don après le décès cardiocirculatoire», ou DDC) au Canada. Le forum national organisé en février 2005 a permis aux participants de discuter et d'élaborer des recommandations sur les principes, interventions et pratiques se rapportant au DDC. Les aspects éthiques et juridiques ont été abordés dans les discussions. À la fin du Forum, la majorité des participants ont été favorables à l'implantation de programmes de DDC au Canada. Les participants du Forum ont également convenu qu'il fallait formuler et prôner des valeurs fondamentales pour orienter l'élaboration de programmes et de protocoles basés sur le cadre médical, éthique et juridique établi lors de cette réunion. Même si la possibilité d'un don d'organes et de tissus doit faire partie intégrante des soins de fin de vie, il faut insister sur le fait que le devoir de diligence envers les patients mourants et leurs familles doit demeurer la priorité des équipes soignantes. La complexité et les répercussions profondes du décès sont reconnues et doivent être respectées, de même que les différences personnelles, ethnoculturelles et religieuses face à la mort et au don d'organes. Les décisions d'arrêter le traitement de maintien des fonctions vitales, la prise en charge des derniers moments de la vie et le diagnostic de décès selon des critères cardiocirculatoires doivent être distincts et indépendants des processus de don et transplantation. Ce rapport contient des recommandations destinées aux gestionnaires de program, aux autorités sanitaires régionales et aux instances appelés à élaborer les protocoles de DDC. Les programmes doivent être conçus en fonction des éléments suivants : direction et planification locales, éducation et

  10. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  11. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  12. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  13. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter; Hemberger, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the tube, (b) passing a solvent through the tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the tube. Further, a chromatographic apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the tube is disclosed.

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  16. SMEAT atmosphere trace contaminants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schornick, J. L.; Heinrich, C. T.; Garcia, G. S., Jr.; Verostko, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The atmosphere trace contaminant analysis support provided for the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT) which was conducted from July 26 through September 20, 1972, at the JSC Crew Systems Division facility is discussed. Sample acquisition techniques and analytical instrumentation methodology utilized for identification and quantification of the trace contaminants are described. Emphasis is placed on the contaminants found, their occurrence patterns, and possible sources.

  17. Development of a remediation strategy for surface soils contaminated with energetic materials by thermal processes: Phases 1, 2 and 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    résidus d’explosifs pris à un pas de tir contaminé ont été analysés pour leur contenu en nitroglycérine (NG) avant et après la combustion de certains...were maintained at 4°C until analyzed by HPLC according to an in-house method derived from EPA Method 8330b [14]. All analyses were performed with an...7] http://www.serdp.org/Research/upload/CP-1305. pdf [8] Miles, Kenneth Kinard (1972), The thermal decomposition of RDX, Master’s degree thesis

  18. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  19. Evaluating soil contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. There are several entries for a few of the most thoroughly studied contaminants, but for most of them the information available is meager. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  20. APR-246/PRIMA-1(MET) rescues epidermal differentiation in skin keratinocytes derived from EEC syndrome patients with p63 mutations.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinfeng; van den Bogaard, Ellen H; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn N; Bykov, Vladimir J N; Rinne, Tuula; Zhang, Qiang; Tjabringa, Geuranne S; Gilissen, Christian; van Heeringen, Simon J; Schalkwijk, Joost; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing

    2013-02-05

    p53 and p63 share extensive sequence and structure homology. p53 is frequently mutated in cancer, whereas mutations in p63 cause developmental disorders manifested in ectodermal dysplasia, limb defects, and orofacial clefting. We have established primary adult skin keratinocytes from ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome patients with p63 mutations as an in vitro human model to study the disease mechanism in the skin of EEC patients. We show that these patient keratinocytes cultured either in submerged 2D cultures or in 3D skin equivalents have impaired epidermal differentiation and stratification. Treatment of these patient keratinocytes with the mutant p53-targeting compound APR-246/PRIMA-1(MET) (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis) that has been successfully tested in a phase I/II clinical trial in cancer patients partially but consistently rescued morphological features and gene expression during epidermal stratification in both 2D and 3D models. This rescue coincides with restoration of p63 target-gene expression. Our data show that EEC patient keratinocytes with p63 mutations can be used for characterization of the abnormal molecular circuitry in patient skin and may open possibilities for the design of novel pharmacological treatment strategies for patients with mutant p63-associated developmental abnormalities.

  1. Contaminated water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  2. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  3. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  4. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%.

  5. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  6. Antiviral activity of the plant extracts from Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii against influenza virus A/PR/8/34.

    PubMed

    Won, Ji-Na; Lee, Seo-Yong; Song, Dae-sub; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Currently, two classes of anti-influenza virus drugs, M2 ion-channel inhibitors (amantadin and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), have been used for the treatment of the influenza virus infection. Since the resistance to these drugs has been reported, the development of a new antiviral agent is necessary. In this study, we examined the antiviral efficacy of the plant extracts against the influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. In vitro, the antiviral activities of the plant extracts were investigated using the cell-based screening. Three plant extracts, Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii, were shown to induce a high cell viability rate after the infection with the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. The antiviral activity of the plant extracts also increased as a function of the concentration of the extracts and these extracts significantly reduced the visible cytopathic effect caused by virus infections. Furthermore, the treatment with T. orientalis was shown to have a stronger inhibitory effect than that with A. spathulifolius or P. thunbergii. These results may suggest that T. orientalis has anti-influenza A/PR/8/34 activity.

  7. Contamination vs. Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... 192) Plutonium Radioisotope Brief Toxicological Profile Toxicology FAQs Polonium-210 Q & A: Information about Public Health Issues Related to Polonium-210 Contamination in the United Kingdom Guidance for Public ...

  8. Superfund: Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant environmental problem and contribute to the over 3,200 fish consumption advisories nationwide. The Superfund program cleans up sediment sites that present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment.

  9. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information taken from the arsenic demonstration program projects that have treatment systems removing multiply contaminants from drinking water. The case studies sited in the presentation consist of projects that have arsenic along with either nitrate, ...

  10. Shellfish contamination and spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molluscan shellfish are prone to contamination by fecal and vibrio bacteria, fecal viruses, biotoxins, and chemical pollutants. In this book chapter, the problems and challenges for the shellfish industry are described and discussed. Basic regulatory frameworks, management strategies, critical cont...

  11. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  12. PRIMA-1Met/APR-246 displays high antitumor activity in multiple myeloma by induction of p73 and Noxa.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manujendra N; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Yijun; Reece, Donna; Chang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Targeting p53 by the small-molecule PRIMA-1(Met)/APR-246 has shown promising preclinical activity in various cancer types. However, the mechanism of PRIMA-1(Met)-induced apoptosis is not completely understood and its effect on multiple myeloma cells is unknown. In this study, we evaluated antitumor effect of PRIMA-1(Met) alone or its combination with current antimyeloma agents in multiple myeloma cell lines, patient samples, and a mouse xenograft model. Results of our study showed that PRIMA-1(Met) decreased the viability of multiple myeloma cells irrespective of p53 status, with limited cytotoxicity toward normal hematopoietic cells. Treatment of multiple myeloma cells with PRIMA-1(Met) resulted in induction of apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation, and migration. PRIMA-1(Met) restored wild-type conformation of mutant p53 and induced activation of p73 upregulating Noxa and downregulating Mcl-1 without significant modulation of p53 level. siRNA-mediated silencing of p53 showed a little effect on apoptotic response of PRIMA-1(Met), whereas knockdown of p73 led to substantial attenuation of apoptotic activity in multiple myeloma cells, indicating that PRIMA-1(Met)-induced apoptosis is, at least in part, p73-dependent. Importantly, PRIMA-1(Met) delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma tumor. Furthermore, combined treatment of PRIMA-1(Met) with dexamethasone or doxorubicin displayed synergistic effects in both multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma samples. Consistent with our in vitro observations, cotreatment with PRIMA-1(Met) and dexamethasone resulted in enhanced antitumor activity in vivo. Our study for the first time shows antimyeloma activity of PRIMA-1(Met) and provides the rationale for its clinical evaluation in patients with multiple myeloma, including the high-risk group with p53 mutation/deletion.

  13. Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Garozzo, A; Timpanaro, R; Stivala, A; Bisignano, G; Castro, A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose; terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, and alfa-terpineol were the main active components. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells. None of the test compounds showed virucidal activity nor any protective action for the MDCK cells. Thus, the effect of TTO and its active components on different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus was studied by adding the test compounds at various times after infection. These experiments revealed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within 2h of infection, indicating an interference with an early step of the viral replicative cycle of influenza virus. The influence of the compound on the virus adsorption step, studied by the infective center assay, indicated that TTO did not interfere with cellular attachment of the virus. TTO did not inhibit influenza virus neuraminidase activity, as shown by the experiment measuring the amount of 4-methylumbelliferone, cleaved by the influenza virus neuraminidase from the fluorogenic substrate 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The effect of TTO on acidification of cellular lysosomes was studied by vital staining with acridine orange using bafilomycin A1 as positive control. The treatment of cells with 0.01% (v/v) of TTO at 37°C for 4h before staining inhibited the acridine orange accumulation in acid cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that TTO could inhibit viral uncoating by an interference with acidification of intralysosomal compartment.

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In particular, the invention relates to remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by the injection of nutrients to stimulate growth of pollutant-degrading microorganisms. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  15. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids.

  16. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology.

  17. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  18. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  19. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  20. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Peter D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a composite tube including a polymeric base material selected from the group of polyolefins and polyfluorocarbons and particles of a carbon allotrope material adfixed to the inner wall of the polymeric base material, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube is disclosed.

  1. Lead-210 contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-12-31

    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  2. Surface Characterization and Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive characterization of surface contamination can play an extremely important role in improving quality in manufacturing processes. This area of interest led to the formation of a Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) at Marshall Space Flight Center, which is primarily concerned with critical bondlines and has provided the major focus for activities under this grant. In addition, determining minute levels of contamination on emerging aerospace systems fabricated from composites has also been an area of interest for which the methods being presented here can be used. Important considerations for the inspection methodologies are good sensitivity, large area coverage, robustness, portability and ease of use for normal production personnel. In parallel with the evaluation of detection methods, considerable effort has been made to developing good, uniform contamination films to use as calibration standards. This activity within itself has presented unique challenges. The development of NIR methods for detecting and identifying contaminants has been in progress for several years. Cooperative efforts between the University, NASA, and Thiokol Corporation has shown some useful results for implementation in both laboratory and on-line procedures.

  3. Contaminated soil stabilization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Sampson, A.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-10-01

    Long-term herbicide control along with a shotcrete cover was constructed at the Hanford Site in May 1991. The cover system allows for maintenance-free containment of contaminants by preventing wind and water transport of contaminants from the soil surface, preventing plant uptake of contaminants, and minimizing water infiltration through the soil column. The cover is composed of two parts: a commercial nonwoven geotextile material impregnated with trifluralin, and a >5-centimeter top cover of shotcrete containing polyethylene fibers. The herbicide-impregnated geotextile functions to prevent plant root growth into contaminated soil if any holes or cracks develop in the shotcrete layer. The herbicide component, trifluralin, is mixed into polymer nodules that degrade slowly over many years, thus releasing trifluralin slowly over time. The shotcrete topcover was sprayed using a sludge pump and air compressor to form a hard, impenetrable surface that prevents wind erosion and reduces water infiltration through the contaminated materials underneath. The benefits of the cover system are expected to last 20 to 30 years. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  5. Value contamination avoidance devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endicott, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical redesign methods were used to minimize contamination damage of conventional fluid components and a contamination separator device was developed for long term reusable space vehicles. These were incorporated into an existing 50.8 mm poppet valve and tested for damage tolerance in a full size open loop flow system with gaseous and liquid nitrogen. Cyclic and steady flow conditions were tested with particles of 125 to 420 micrometers aluminum oxide dispersed in the test fluids. Nonflow life tests (100,000 cycles) were made with two valve configurations in gaseous hydrogen. The redesigned valve had an acceptable cycle life and improved tolerance to contamination damage when the primary sealing surfaces were coated with thin coatings of hard plastic (Teflon S and Kynar). Analytical studies and flow testing were completed of four different versions of the separator. overall separation efficiencies in the 55-90% range were measured with these non-optimum configurations.

  6. Contamination sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Felix A. (Inventor); Stern, Susan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A contamination sample collection device has a wooden dowel with a cotton swab at one end, the cotton being covered by a nylon cloth and the wooden dowel being encapsulated by plastic tubing which is heat shrunk onto the dowel and onto a portion of the cotton swab to secure the cotton in place. Another plastic tube is heat shrunk onto the plastic that encapsulates the dowel and a portion of the nylon cloth to secure the nylon cloth in place. The device may thereafter be covered with aluminum foil protector. The device may be used for obtaining samples of contamination in clean room environments.

  7. Space station contamination considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Ehlers, H.; Jacobs, S.

    1986-01-01

    The external induced environment generated by space station activity, or more specifically by gases, particles, and light background is discussed. These contaminant species must be controlled if sensitive systems, such as solar energy collectors or science experiments exposed to the external environment are to function properly. The requirements generally set limits on the level of gas species, matter deposited on surfaces and light background levels over various spectral regions. They also address environment monitoring and contamination controls during manufacturing. Limits on effluent release and system leakages are in turn derived from these requirements.

  8. Contaminate Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert H. (Inventor); Flynn, Kenneth P. (Inventor); Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A contaminate control device for filtering contaminates from a gas such as air is provided. The device includes a housing having a first inlet and a first outlet. An axial flow filter is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the axial flow filter has a second inlet and a second outlet. A second filter disposed about the axial flow filter and is fluidly coupled between the first inlet and the first outlet, the second filter having a third inlet on an inner diameter and a third outlet disposed on an outer diameter. A flow restrictor is fluidly coupled between the second inlet and the first inlet.

  9. Contamination Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  10. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  11. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  12. Contamination effects study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The in-situ optical surface measurement system is a facility designed to study the deleterious effects of particulate materials on the surface reflectivities of optical materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). This arrangement is designed to simulate the on-orbit effects of contamination and degradation of optical surfaces. This simulation is accomplished through the use of non-coherent VUV sources illuminating optical surfaces located in a high vacuum chamber. Several sources of contamination are employed. The reflectivity is measured both at the specular reflection as well as at two scattered positions, forward and reverse. The system components are described and an operating procedure is given.

  13. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  14. ALPHA CONTAMINATION MONITORING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This project was conducted to determine the alpha hazard existing in the vicinity of the missile launch pad following the destruction of a missile ...were used for plutonium particle collection. Because all warhead-carrying missiles were properly launched after Project 2.3 was approved, no alpha contamination data was obtained.

  15. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  16. SAMPLING OF CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical aspect of characterization of the amount and species of contamination of a hazardous waste site is the sampling plan developed for that site. f the sampling plan is not thoroughly conceptualized before sampling takes place, then certain critical aspects of the limits o...

  17. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  18. Contaminants of Emerging Concerns

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  19. Hazard identification for contaminants.

    PubMed

    Iscan, Mümtaz

    2004-12-15

    In recent years, the recognition of generation of large quantities of toxicants and their by-products due to the industrial and/or cultural activities and transport and their persistence in the environment and biological activities brings out the necessity and importance of their assessment of risk they pose to the ecosystems (e.g. aquatic environment-coastal waters, rivers, lakes and ground water). Indeed, understanding the impacts of contaminants on the environment, including the organisms which live in it, is rather complicated. Nevertheless, the need for protection of the scarce natural resources in the environment and wiser use of them brings the necessity and importance of focusing more attention to the issue. Accordingly the process of ecological risk assessment (ERA) has evolved rapidly since the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a framework for ecological risk assessment in 1992. The ecological risk assessment involves three stages in a continuous process: (1) problem formulation (problem identification-hazard identification), (2) the analysis of exposure and effects and (3) risk characterisation. Risk management follows the risk characterisation. Of these stages, problem identification is the most critical one which establishes the direction and scope of the ecological risk assessment. The stage involves identifying the actual environmental value(s) to be protected (assessment endpoints) and selecting ways in which these can be measured and evaluated (measurement endpoints). The accuracy of the risk estimation is largely based on the availability of the key information about the contaminant characteristics, ecosystem at risk and ecological effects and the less uncertainty associated with them. The key information required during this phase of the risk assessment process are as follows: (a) potential/actual contaminant of concern, (b) source of contaminant; current and historic use, (c) mode of action of the contaminant, (d) contaminant

  20. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  1. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-11-16

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a

  2. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  3. Groundwater contamination downstream of a contaminant penetration site. I. Extension-expansion of the contaminant plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the possible use of boundary layer (BL) approach for the analysis and evaluation of contaminant transport in groundwater due to contaminant penetration into the groundwater aquifer through a site of limited size. The contaminant penetration may occur through either the upper (surface) or lower (bedrock) boundary of the aquifer. Two general cases of contaminant penetration mechanisms are considered: (1) the contaminant is transferred through an interface between a contaminating and freshwater fluid phases, and (2) the contaminant arrives at groundwater by leakage and percolation. For the purpose of BL evaluation the contaminant plume is divided into three different sections: (1) the penetration section, (2) the extension-expansion section, and (3) the spearhead section. In each section a different BL method approach yields simple analytical expressions for the description of the contaminant plume migration and contaminant transport. Previous studies of the BL method can be directly applied to the evaluation of contaminant transport at the contaminant penetration section. The present study extends those studies and concerns the contaminant transport in the two other sections, which are located downstream of the penetration section. This study shows that the contaminant concentration profiles in sections 2 and 3 incorporate two BLs: (1) an inner BL adjacent to the aquifer bottom or surface boundary, and (2) an outer BL, which develops above or below the inner one. The method developed in the present study has been applied to practical issues concerning salinity penetration into groundwater in south central Kansas.

  4. Using CO2 to Determine Inhaled Contaminant Volumes and Blower Effectiveness in Several Types of Respirators

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Arthur T.; Koh, Frank C.; Scott, William H.; Rehak, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine how much contaminant could be expected to be inhaled when overbreathing several different types of respirators. These included several tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and one air-purifying respirator (APR). CO2 was used as a tracer gas in the ambient air, and several loose-and tight-fitting respirators were tested on the head form of a breathing machine. CO2 concentration in the exhaled breath was monitored as well as CO2 concentration in the ambient air. This concentration ratio was able to give a measurement of protection factor, not for the respirator necessarily, but for the wearer. Flow rates in the filter/blower inlet and breathing machine outlet were also monitored, so blower effectiveness (defined as the blower contribution to inhaled air) could also be determined. Wearer protection factors were found to range from 1.1 for the Racal AirMate loose-fitting PAPR to infinity for the 3M Hood, 3M Breath-Easy PAPR, and SE 400 breath-responsive PAPR. Inhaled contaminant volumes depended on tidal volume but ranged from 2.02 L to 0 L for the same respirators, respectively. Blower effectiveness was about 1.0 for tight-fitting APRs, 0.18 for the Racal, and greater than 1.0 for two of the loose-fitting PAPRs. With blower effectiveness greater than 1.0, some blower flow during the exhalation phase contributes to the subsequent inhalation. Results from this experiment point to different ways to measure respirator efficacy. PMID:21792358

  5. Using CO(2) to determine inhaled contaminant volumes and blower effectiveness in several types of respirators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur T; Koh, Frank C; Scott, William H; Rehak, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine how much contaminant could be expected to be inhaled when overbreathing several different types of respirators. These included several tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) and one air-purifying respirator (APR). CO(2) was used as a tracer gas in the ambient air, and several loose-and tight-fitting respirators were tested on the head form of a breathing machine. CO(2) concentration in the exhaled breath was monitored as well as CO(2) concentration in the ambient air. This concentration ratio was able to give a measurement of protection factor, not for the respirator necessarily, but for the wearer. Flow rates in the filter/blower inlet and breathing machine outlet were also monitored, so blower effectiveness (defined as the blower contribution to inhaled air) could also be determined. Wearer protection factors were found to range from 1.1 for the Racal AirMate loose-fitting PAPR to infinity for the 3M Hood, 3M Breath-Easy PAPR, and SE 400 breath-responsive PAPR. Inhaled contaminant volumes depended on tidal volume but ranged from 2.02  L to 0  L for the same respirators, respectively. Blower effectiveness was about 1.0 for tight-fitting APRs, 0.18 for the Racal, and greater than 1.0 for two of the loose-fitting PAPRs. With blower effectiveness greater than 1.0, some blower flow during the exhalation phase contributes to the subsequent inhalation. Results from this experiment point to different ways to measure respirator efficacy.

  6. Peut-on réaliser une analgésie péridurale après un blood patch récent?

    PubMed Central

    Chkoura, Khalid; Kechna, Hicham; Loutid, Jaouad; Ouzad, Omar; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Hannafi, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Le blood patch constitue le traitement de référence du syndrome post ponction lombaire. Son efficacité a été démontrée par plusieurs essais randomisés comparant le BPE aux mesures conservatrices et au placebo. Il consiste en l'injection d'une quantité de sang autologue dans l'espace péridurale afin d'obturer la brèche dure-mérienne. La réalisation d'une analgésie péridurale après antécédent de blood patch est possible, malgré la persistance de questions sur les délais de retour à la normal de l'espace péridurale. Nous rapportons un cas où une analgésie péridurale a été réalisée avec succès trois semaines après un blood patch. PMID:26600909

  7. Application of the response surface methodology for optimizing the activity of an aprE-driven gene expression system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    El-Helow, E R; Abdel-Fattah, Y R; Ghanem, K M; Mohamad, E A

    2000-10-01

    The major targets for improvement of recombinant expression systems in microbial cells are gene dosage, transcriptional control machinery and, to some extent, translation. Here we show that optimization of fermentation conditions by applying statistically designed, multifactorial experiments offers an additional method for potential enhancement of gene expression systems. A chromosomally encoded fusion between the Bacillus subtilis aprE regulatory region and the E. coli lacZ gene carried by the B. subtilis host cells was used. The 2 x SG sporulation medium was used as a basal medium. Among the 11 fermentation factors we examined, the most significant variables influencing beta-galactosidase expression were statistically elucidated for optimization and included peptone, MgSO4.7H2O, and KCl. The optimum concentrations of these variables were predicted by using a second-order polynomial model fitted to the results obtained by applying the Box-Behnken design, a response surface method. Calculated optimum concentrations were predicted to confer a maximum yield of 2,423.5 beta-galactosidase specific activity units. A verification experiment performed under optimal conditions yielded 96% of the predicted specific activity value with an increase by a factor of almost 5 compared with the results obtained under basal conditions.

  8. Space station trace contaminant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcutt, T.

    1985-01-01

    Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

  9. CONTAMINANTS IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit River has experienced over a century of heavy contaminant discharges from industry and municipalities. The sources of contaminants vary, and include non-point sources, combined sewer overflows, point sources, tributaries, sediments, and upstream inputs. ---
    Demonst...

  10. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    MedlinePlus

    ... a plate or speck of wheat flour on manufacturing equipment," says Rachel Begun, MS, RDN. Cross-contamination — ... contamination." Gluten-containing ingredients can show up as additives or appear under different names, so it's important ...

  11. Karst hydrology and chemical contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-water flow in karst aquifers is very different from flow in granular or fractured aquifers. Chemical contamination may be fed directly to a karst aquifer via overland flow to a sinkhole with little or no attenuation and may contaminate downgradient wells, springs, and sinkholes within a few hours or a few days. Contaminants may also become temporarily stored in the epikarstic zone for eventual release to the aquifer. Flood pulses may flush the contaminants to cause transiently higher levels of contamination in the aquifer and discharge points. The convergent nature of flow in karst aquifers may result in contaminants becoming concentrated in conduits. Once contaminants have reached the subsurface conduits, they are likely to be rapidly transported to spring outlets. Traditional aquifer remediation techniques for contaminated aquifers are less applicable to karst aquifers.

  12. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-09-01

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  13. Chandra Contaminant Migration Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; O'Dell, Steve L.

    2014-01-01

    High volatility cleans OBFs and low volatility produces a high build-up at OBF centers; only a narrow (factor of 2 or less) volatility range produces the observed spatial pattern. Simulations predict less accumulation above outer S-array CCDs; this may explain, in part, gratings/imaging C/MnL discrepancies. Simulations produce a change in center accumulation due solely to DH heater ON/OFF temperature change; but a 2nd contaminant and perhaps a change in source rate is also required. Emissivity E may depend on thickness; another model parameter. Additional physics, e.g., surface migration, is not warranted at this time. At t approx. 14 yrs, model produced 0.22 grams of contaminant, 0.085 grams remaining within ACIS cavity; 7 percent (6mg) on OBFs.

  14. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1994-09-06

    A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

  15. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

  16. Purifying contaminated water

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G.

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  17. Photolysis of Spacecraft Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    11. Dow Corning, Diffusion Pump Fluids, Bulletin 05-058 (September 1963). 12. B. L. Sowers, M. W. Williams, R. N. Ham, and E. T. Arakuwa, " Optical ...flanges with the windows extending into the vacuum system. The lamp fluxes at the sample, calibrated by carbon dioxide actinometry,A - 6 were measured to...It has become clear that photochemical reactions, induced by solar vacuum ultraviolet ( VUV ) illumination, play a substantial role in contaminant

  18. Erosion, Contamination, and Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. D.

    2010-05-20

    This paper will summarize studies of carbon impurity sources, contamination, and migration developed through JET methane gas injection experiments. These studies were analyzed using the 2D SOL code EDGE2D/NIMBUS. The code is capable of repeating the JET analysis using the ITER geometry and SOL plasma. This allows assessment of whether the physical processes occurring in JET might also occur in ITER, and thus whether the JET results transfer, in any sense, to the ITER plasmas. Certainly, the ITER choice of wall materials (W and Be) is different than for the present JET C studies. So the present status of these studies is to relate JET carbon behavior to carbon in ITER.JET carbon sources were studied spectroscopically and analyzed with atomic physics models in EDGE2D. The carbon sources are dominated by chemical sputtering at rates which are within a factor-of-two of the published literature. The JET carbon contamination is dominated by main chamber sources which are ionized in the main chamber SOL about 1-2 cm from the separatrix. Contamination occurs from carbon ions which diffuse across the field lines and reach the separatrix before they can parallel transport to the divertor. JET carbon migration was studied by injecting methane composed of {sup 13}C on the last run day before an opening and then analyzing removed tiles to identify migration to those locations. Modeling was accomplished by the same EDGE2D models that were used to describe the carbon sources and contamination. The entire migration process is complicated.

  19. Erosion, Contamination, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, J. D.

    2010-05-01

    This paper will summarize studies of carbon impurity sources, contamination, and migration developed through JET methane gas injection experiments. These studies were analyzed using the 2D SOL code EDGE2D/NIMBUS. The code is capable of repeating the JET analysis using the ITER geometry and SOL plasma. This allows assessment of whether the physical processes occurring in JET might also occur in ITER, and thus whether the JET results transfer, in any sense, to the ITER plasmas. Certainly, the ITER choice of wall materials (W and Be) is different than for the present JET C studies. So the present status of these studies is to relate JET carbon behavior to carbon in ITER. JET carbon sources were studied spectroscopically and analyzed with atomic physics models in EDGE2D. The carbon sources are dominated by chemical sputtering at rates which are within a factor-of-two of the published literature. The JET carbon contamination is dominated by main chamber sources which are ionized in the main chamber SOL about 1-2 cm from the separatrix. Contamination occurs from carbon ions which diffuse across the field lines and reach the separatrix before they can parallel transport to the divertor. JET carbon migration was studied by injecting methane composed of 13C on the last run day before an opening and then analyzing removed tiles to identify migration to those locations. Modeling was accomplished by the same EDGE2D models that were used to describe the carbon sources and contamination. The entire migration process is complicated.

  20. Materials surface contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

  1. Pulsed Plasma Thruster Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Pencil, Eric J.; Carter, Justin; Heminger, Jason; Gatsonis, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) are currently baselined for the Air Force Mightysat II.1 flight in 1999 and are under consideration for a number of other missions for primary propulsion, precision positioning, and attitude control functions. In this work, PPT plumes were characterized to assess their contamination characteristics. Diagnostics included planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes and a large number of collimated quartz contamination sensors. Measurements were made using a LES 8/9 flight PPT at 0.24, 0.39, 0.55, and 1.2 m from the thruster, as well as in the backflow region behind the thruster. Plasma measurements revealed a peak centerline ion density and velocity of approx. 6 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3) and 42,000 m/s, respectively. Optical transmittance measurements of the quartz sensors after 2 x 10(exp 5) pulses showed a rapid decrease in plume contamination with increasing angle from the plume axis, with a barely measurable transmittance decrease in the ultraviolet at 90 deg. No change in optical properties was detected for sensors in the backflow region.

  2. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  3. Space station contamination modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the operation of Space Station Freedom allow the orbit to decay to approximately an altitude of 200 km before reboosting to approximately 450 km. The Space Station will encounter dramatically increasing ambient and induced environmental effects as the orbit decays. Unfortunately, Shuttle docking, which has been of concern as a high contamination period, will likely occur during the time when the station is in the lowest orbit. The combination of ambient and induced environments along with the presence of the docked Shuttle could cause very severe contamination conditions at the lower orbital altitudes prior to Space Station reboost. The purpose here is to determine the effects on the induced external environment of Space Station Freedom with regard to the proposed changes in altitude. The change in the induced environment will be manifest in several parameters. The ambient density buildup in front of ram facing surfaces will change. The source of such contaminants can be outgassing/offgassing surfaces, leakage from the pressurized modules or experiments, purposeful venting, and thruster firings. The third induced environment parameter with altitude dependence is the glow. In order to determine the altitude dependence of the induced environment parameters, researchers used the integrated Spacecraft Environment Model (ISEM) which was developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. The analysis required numerous ISEM runs. The assumptions and limitations for the ISEM runs are described.

  4. Contamination control device

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Robert M.; Cronin, John C.

    1977-01-01

    A contamination control device for use in a gas-insulated transmission bus consisting of a cylindrical center conductor coaxially mounted within a grounded cylindrical enclosure. The contamination control device is electrically connected to the interior surface of the grounded outer shell and positioned along an axial line at the lowest vertical position thereon. The contamination control device comprises an elongated metallic member having a generally curved cross-section in a first plane perpendicular to the axis of the bus and having an arcuate cross-section in a second plane lying along the axis of the bus. Each opposed end of the metallic member and its opposing sides are tapered to form a pair of generally converging and downward sloping surfaces to trap randomly moving conductive particles in the relatively field-free region between the metallic member and the interior surface of the grounded outer shell. The device may have projecting legs to enable the device to be spot welded to the interior of the grounded housing. The control device provides a high capture probability and prevents subsequent release of the charged particles after the capture thereof.

  5. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the

  6. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  7. Real-Time PCR Quantification and Diversity Analysis of the Functional Genes aprA and dsrA of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes in Marine Sediments of the Peru Continental Margin and the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Blazejak, Anna; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are ubiquitous and quantitatively important members in many ecosystems, especially in marine sediments. However their abundance and diversity in subsurface marine sediments is poorly understood. In this study, the abundance and diversity of the functional genes for the enzymes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) of SRP in marine sediments of the Peru continental margin and the Black Sea were analyzed, including samples from the deep biosphere (ODP site 1227). For aprA quantification a Q-PCR assay was designed and evaluated. Depth profiles of the aprA and dsrA copy numbers were almost equal for all sites. Gene copy numbers decreased concomitantly with depth from around 10(8)/g sediment close to the sediment surface to less than 10(5)/g sediment at 5 mbsf. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria were much higher than those of the functional genes at all sediment depths and used to calculate the proportion of SRP to the total Bacteria. The aprA and dsrA copy numbers comprised in average 0.5-1% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria in the sediments up to a depth of ca. 40 mbsf. In the zone without detectable sulfate in the pore water from about 40-121 mbsf (Peru margin ODP site 1227), only dsrA (but not aprA) was detected with copy numbers of less than 10(4)/g sediment, comprising ca. 14% of the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total bacteria. In this zone, sulfate might be provided for SRP by anaerobic sulfide oxidation. Clone libraries of aprA showed that all isolated sequences originate from SRP showing a close relationship to aprA of characterized species or form a new cluster with only distant relation to aprA of isolated SRP. For dsrA a high diversity was detected, even up to 121 m sediment depth in the deep biosphere.

  8. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  9. Monoclinically distorted perovskites, A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd): Rietveld refinement, and dielectric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nibedita; Nath, Masood A.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Thirumal, M.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2015-09-15

    Double perovskite related oxide A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}A=Pr, Gd were synthesized by the solid state reaction method at 1523 K. The structure and microstructure of the compounds were studied by X-ray, SAED and FESEM. Rietveld refinement of the powder X-ray analysis shows that the compounds crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n (a{sup +}b{sup −}b{sup −}) with unit cell parameter √2a{sub p}×√2a{sub p}×2a{sub p} (a=5.5026(1) Å, b=5.6305(1) Å, c=7.8149(1) Å, β=90.02(1)° for Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} and a=5.3621(1) Å, b=5.6565(2) Å, c=7.6779(2) Å and β=90.264(2)° for Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}. Electron diffraction study confirms P2{sub 1}/n symmetry of the oxides. The monoclinic distortion is larger in Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} than Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} which is associated with the tolerance factor and the tilting angle of ZnO{sub 6} and TiO{sub 6} octahedra (ϕ=13.64° for Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} and 16.51° for Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). The compounds are highly ordered. The charge and size difference between B site cations are the driving force for the ordering of the B′O{sub 6} and B″O{sub 6} octahedra. Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} shows a dielectric constant of 27 and dielectric loss of 0.003 while Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} has a dielectric constant of 17 and dielectric loss of 0.005 measured at 1 MHz. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of new double perovskite dielectric material with very low dielectric loss. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new monoclinically distorted double perovskite (Pr{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). • Synthesis of monoclinically distorted double perovskite (Gd{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6}). • Selected area electron diffraction study of A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd). • Study of dielectric properties of A{sub 2}ZnTiO{sub 6} (A=Pr, Gd)

  10. Cinétique de la troponine Ic et valeurs seuils pour le diagnostic d'infarctus du myocarde après chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle

    PubMed Central

    Kallel, Samy; Jarraya, Anwar; Ellouze, Maged; Frikha, Imed; Karoui, Abbdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était d’étudier la cinétique de la Troponine Ic (TnIc) après chirurgie cardiaque sous circulation extracorporelle (CEC) et établir des valeurs seuils de TnIc pour le diagnostic d'infarctus du myocarde (IDM) post opératoire. Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective type cohorte observationnelle. Méthodes Nous avons inclus 37 patients âgés de plus de 18 ans proposés pour chirurgie valvulaire ou pontage aorto coronarien sous CEC. Nous avons suivi la cinétique de TnIc par des dosages immunoenzymatique sur mini-vidas® avant et après la CEC, à H4 et H12 postopératoire puis tous les jours les 4 premiers jours. Le cutoff pour le diagnostic d'IDM post opératoire a été défini comme la valeur moyenne de troponine + deux déviations standards des patients indemnes de complications cardiaques. Résultats Les valeurs de TnIc en préopératoire étaient toutes inférieures au seuil de détection de la méthode de dosage (<0,01µg/l). Les valeurs de TnIc augmentent en postopératoire immédiat pour atteindre un maximum à H4 puis diminuent progressivement pour se normaliser après 4 à 5 jours. Les valeurs seuils ont été déterminées pour H0, H4,H12, H24, H48, H72, H96 et ont été respectivement 1.36, 2.58, 3.1, 3.23, 2.13, 1.53, 1.17 pour la chirurgie coronaire et 3.75, 5.39, 4.22, 3.41, 1.65, 1.3 1.19 pour la chirurgie valvulaire. Conclusion La connaissance de la cinétique de TnIc lors de chirurgie cardiaque non compliquée et la fixation de valeur seuil ou Cutoff permet aux cliniciens de distinguer entre dommage myocardique secondaire à la chirurgie et IDM. PMID:23396754

  11. Biofuel on contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  12. Arctic terrestrial ecosystem contamination.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D J; Tracey, B; Marshall, H; Norstrom, R J

    1992-07-15

    Limited data have been collected on the presence of contaminants in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystem, with the exception of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Although southern and temperate biological systems have largely cleansed themselves of radioactive fallout deposited during the 1950s and 1960s, Arctic environments have not. Lichens accumulate radioactivity more than many other plants because of their large surface area and long life span; the presence and persistence of radioisotopes in the Arctic is of concern because of the lichen----reindeer----human ecosystem. Effective biological half-life of cesium 137 is reckoned to be substantially less than its physical half-life. The database on organochlorines in Canadian Arctic terrestrial mammals and birds is very limited, but indications are that the air/plant/animal contaminant pathway is the major route of these compounds into the terrestrial food chain. For terrestrial herbivores, the most abundant organochlorine is usually hexachlorobenzene followed by hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. PCB accumulation favours the hexachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyl and heptachlorobiphenyl homologous series. The concentrations of the various classes of organochlorine compounds are substantially lower in terrestrial herbivore tissues than in marine mammal tissues. PCBs and DDT are the most abundant residues in peregrine falcons (a terrestrial carnivore) reaching average levels of 9.2 and 10.4 micrograms.g-1, respectively, more than 10 times higher than other organochlorines and higher than in marine mammals, including the polar bear. Contaminants from local sources include metals from mining activities, hydrocarbons and waste drilling fluids from oil and gas exploration and production, wastes from DEW line sites, naturally occurring radionuclides associated with uranium mineralization, and smoke containing SO2 and H2SO4 aerosol from the Smoking Hills at Cape Bathurst, N.W.T.

  13. Balloon Catheter Prevents Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginson, Gregory A.; Bouffard, Marc R.; Hoehicke, Beth S.; King, Bradley D.; Peterson, Sandra L.

    1994-01-01

    Balloon catheter similar to that used in such medical procedures as angioplasty and heart surgery protects small orifices against contamination and blockage by chips generated in machining operations. Includes small, inflatable balloon at end of thin, flexible tube. Contains additional features adapting it to anticontamination service: balloon larger to fit wider channel it must block; made of polyurethane (rather than latex), which does not fragment if bursts; material made thicker to resist abrasion better; and kink-resistant axial wire helps catheter negotiate tight bends.

  14. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  15. The LasB Elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acts in Concert with Alkaline Protease AprA To Prevent Flagellin-Mediated Immune Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Casilag, Fiordiligie; Lorenz, Anne; Krueger, Jonas; Klawonn, Frank; Weiss, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing severe and persistent infections in various eukaryotic hosts. It encodes a wide array of virulence factors and employs several strategies to evade immune detection. In the present study, we screened the Harvard Medical School transposon mutant library of P. aeruginosa PA14 for bacterial factors that modulate interleukin-8 responses in A549 human airway epithelial cells. We found that in addition to the previously identified alkaline protease AprA, the elastase LasB is capable of degrading exogenous flagellin under calcium-replete conditions and prevents flagellin-mediated immune recognition. Our results indicate that the production of two proteases with anti-flagellin activity provides a failsafe mechanism for P. aeruginosa to ensure the maintenance of protease-dependent immune-modulating functions. PMID:26502908

  16. The LasB Elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acts in Concert with Alkaline Protease AprA To Prevent Flagellin-Mediated Immune Recognition.

    PubMed

    Casilag, Fiordiligie; Lorenz, Anne; Krueger, Jonas; Klawonn, Frank; Weiss, Siegfried; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-10-26

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of establishing severe and persistent infections in various eukaryotic hosts. It encodes a wide array of virulence factors and employs several strategies to evade immune detection. In the present study, we screened the Harvard Medical School transposon mutant library of P. aeruginosa PA14 for bacterial factors that modulate interleukin-8 responses in A549 human airway epithelial cells. We found that in addition to the previously identified alkaline protease AprA, the elastase LasB is capable of degrading exogenous flagellin under calcium-replete conditions and prevents flagellin-mediated immune recognition. Our results indicate that the production of two proteases with anti-flagellin activity provides a failsafe mechanism for P. aeruginosa to ensure the maintenance of protease-dependent immune-modulating functions.

  17. The destiny of an unacknowledged trauma: the deferred retroactive effect of après-coup in the hidden Jewish children of wartime Belgium.

    PubMed

    Fohn, Adeline; Heenen-Wolff, Susann

    2011-02-01

    For almost 45 years, the experience of Jewish children who were hidden during World War II was considered to be of little importance, particularly with respect to what had taken place in the concentration camps. Their very history was ignored in the many accounts of the Holocaust. It was only at the end of the 1980s that their experience began to be thought of as potentially traumatic. In this paper, the authors report on their psychoanalytical research project concerning the psychological outcomes of those experiences that had remained concealed for such an extraordinarily long latency period. The results are based on the analysis of 60 accounts and on psychoanalytically-oriented group work. The authors show that the trauma experienced by those hidden children was triggered by the retroactive effect of a deferred action [après-coup].

  18. The SAMPL5 host-guest challenge: computing binding free energies and enthalpies from explicit solvent simulations by the attach-pull-release (APR) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jian; Henriksen, Niel M.; Slochower, David R.; Gilson, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    The absolute binding free energies and binding enthalpies of twelve host-guest systems in the SAMPL5 blind challenge were computed using our attach-pull-release (APR) approach. This method has previously shown good correlations between experimental and calculated binding data in retrospective studies of cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) systems. In the present work, the computed binding free energies for host octa acid (OA or OAH) and tetra-endo-methyl octa-acid (TEMOA or OAMe) with guests are in good agreement with prospective experimental data, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.8 and root-mean-squared error of 1.7 kcal/mol using the TIP3P water model. The binding enthalpy calculations achieve moderate correlations, with R2 of 0.5 and RMSE of 2.5 kcal/mol, for TIP3P water. Calculations using the newly developed OPC water model also show good performance. Furthermore, the present calculations semi-quantitatively capture the experimental trend of enthalpy-entropy compensation observed, and successfully predict guests with the strongest and weakest binding affinity. The most populated binding poses of all twelve systems, based on clustering analysis of 750 ns molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories, were extracted and analyzed. Computational methods using MD simulations and explicit solvent models in a rigorous statistical thermodynamic framework, like APR, can generate reasonable predictions of binding thermodynamics. Especially with continuing improvement in simulation force fields, such methods hold the promise of making substantial contributions to hit identification and lead optimization in the drug discovery process.

  19. Gangrène de la main après injection accidentelle intra artérielle de floxacilline: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Tarik; Aghoutane, El Mohtadi; Fezzazi, Rédouane El

    2016-01-01

    La floxacilline appartient à la classe des pénicillines bêta lactames. Dans notre contexte elle est très utilisée pour lutter contre les infections à germes Gram positif dont le staphylocoque doré. Cependant son utilisation doit être très prudente car elle n’est pas dénuée de complications. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un garçon de 6 ans opéré pour fracture de l’humérus. L’enfant a été mis sous floxacilline injectable après suspicion d’une infection sur matériel 2 mois après son opération. Le lendemain du début de l’antibiothérapie, l’enfant a présenté une ischémie aigue de la main droite. Il nous a alors été adressé pour prise en charge. Les explorations ont objectivé une obstruction de l’artère radiale. Une aponévrotomie de décharge a été réalisée et une héparinothérapie post opératoire a été démarrée. L’évolution a été marquée par une gangrène de toute la main. A travers cette observation nous voulons sensibiliser le personnel soignant sur le risque de survenue de cette complication désastreuse, et les mesures à prendre pour la prévenir. PMID:28293337

  20. Apollo 15 contamination photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of optical contamination in the form of particulates in the vicinity of a spacecraft has been a source of concern for any astronomical experiment that must be performed in sunlight. This concern prompted a photographic photometric experiment on Apollo 15 to measure the brightness of the residual contamination cloud as well as the cloud produced by dumping waste water overboard. An upper limit of 10 to the minus 12.3 power B (B designates the brightness of the solar disc) was placed on the residual cloud at a 90 deg sun angle, which is comparable to the zodiacal light. The brightness of the cloud produced by the waste dump was estimated to be 10 to the minus 9.2 power B. It was observed to decrease rapidly to 10 to the -11.6 power B in minutes, then fluctuate in brightness for at least 25 minutes as additional material left the spacecraft. The cloud was observed to consist of individually resolved particle tracks estimated to be particles ranging from millimeters to centimeters in diameter in addition to a background of unresolved particles with an average diameter of 10.5 microns. Most of the tracks proceeded in straight-line paths from the dump nozzle. Several tracks violated this direction, apparently having been scattered by collisions. A few tracks appeared to have definite curvatures, which are believed to be caused by charged particle interactions.

  1. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  2. Bioslurping LNAPL contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.S.; Bierschenk, J.

    1996-03-01

    Bioslurping is a new technology that combines two remediation methods--bioventing and vacuum-enhanced free product recovery--to provide an integrated solution to light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) contamination. Based on pilot studies and a number of field applications to date, for many sites bioslurping should prove faster, more effective and dramatically less costly than conventional LNAPL remediation techniques. Also, this technology will make it possible to clean up sites that were difficult, if not impossible, to remediate before. When petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, jet or diesel fuel or heating oil are released into soil, they can accumulate as a layer of LNAPL on the water table. LNAPLs are difficult to remediate because they may appear as underground contaminants in any or all of the following four phases: Free phase--drainable LNAPL residing at the water table; Solution phase--LNAPL dissolved in the groundwater and pore water; Non-drainable phase--LNAPL retained in soil within the vadose zone, saturated zone and capillary fringe; Vapor phase--LNAPL volatilized and present within the vadose zone as soil gas.

  3. Molecular contamination modeling with CTSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft instruments and thermal control surfaces are generally highly sensitive to molecular and particulate contamination. Despite best efforts taken during assembly, integration, and test, it is impossible to completely eliminate all sources of contaminants. Contamination transport analysis then becomes of critical importance. It can be used to predict the end of life accumulation on critical surfaces from prescribed source rates. Conversely, given allowable deposition levels, contamination modeling can be used to determine the cleanliness requirements to be met prior to launch. This paper describes a recently developed code for modeling contamination transport. Unlike other tools used by the community, CTSP concurrently traces many simulation particles through small time steps. This allows the code to visualize contaminant partial pressures, and to also include aerodynamic, gravitation, or electrostatic forces. The code is demonstrated by simulating an outgassing characterization test in a bell jar.

  4. The differential relationship between mental contamination and the core dimensions of contact contamination fear.

    PubMed

    Melli, Gabriele; Bulli, Francesco; Carraresi, Claudia; Tarantino, Federica; Gelli, Simona; Poli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Two types of contamination fear are recognized: contact and mental contamination. Contact contamination appears to be motivated both by harm avoidance and disgust avoidance. This study aimed to examine the relationships between disgust propensity, mental contamination and contact contamination while differentiating between harm avoidance and disgust avoidance in contact contamination. 169 OCD patients completed a set of questionnaires assessing mental contamination, contact contamination, disgust propensity, OCD, anxiety and depression. 1) Contact contamination based on disgust avoidance was more strongly associated with mental contamination and disgust propensity than contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 2) mental contamination significantly predicted contact contamination based on disgust avoidance, while it did not predict contact contamination based on harm avoidance; 3) mental contamination had a significant mediational role in the relationship between disgust propensity and contact contamination motivated by disgust avoidance. Mental contamination plays a role in contact contamination fear when disgust is primarily experienced.

  5. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... microbiological contaminants. MCLGs for the following contaminants are as indicated: Contaminant MCLG (1) Giardia lamblia zero (2) Viruses zero (3) Legionella zero (4) Total coliforms (including fecal coliforms...

  6. Mass transport contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical analysis was performed to determine the effects of outgassing and waste dumping on the contamination field around an orbiting spacecraft. The spacecraft was assumed to be spherical in shape with the mass flow emitting uniformly from the spherical surface at a constant rate and in a D'Lambertian spatial distribution. The outflow of gases were assumed to be neutrally charged and of a single species with a molecular weight characteristic of a composite of the actual species involved in the mass flow. The theoretical analysis showed that, for outgassing only, less than 1.5 percent of the outgas products will return to the Skylab spacecraft as a result of intermolecular collisions. When the total mass flow from the spacecraft, including waste dumps and reaction control motor firings, was considered, it was estimated that about 30 percent will return to the spacecraft.

  7. Mars - A contamination potential?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, R. L.; Miller, K. J.; Leschine, S. B.

    1983-01-01

    Three regions on Mars, Solis Lacus, Noachis-Hellespontus, and the Syrtis Major border areas, would appear to have generally less hostile environments than at the Viking lander sites. Significant soil moisture may extend to within about 1 cm of the surface. Water vapor pressures within the pore spaces may be near saturation, and brines may be physically segregated from pockets of relatively pure H2O. Temperatures reach above 0 C during southern spring and summer, with peak temperatures reaching +22 C. These regions should contain fewer oxidants, and primary synthesis of organics may occur. The potential for contamination of these sites by microbes transported from existing spacecraft should be assessed. The adequacy of proposed new planetary protection procedures for possible future United States Mars Surface Sample Return missions should also be assessed in light of these findings.

  8. Fluorescence Reveals Contamination From Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolia, William

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of nearby surfaces from ingredients in some adhesive materials detected by ultraviolet illumination and observation of resulting fluorescence. Identification of contaminants via telltale fluorescence not new; rather, significance lies in method of implementation and potential extension to wider variety of materials and applications.

  9. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  10. MULTIPLE CONTAMINANT ISSUES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides information on the removal of arsenic with either nitrate, uranium, radium, radon and antimony as a co-contaminant. The technologies discussed as having the capability of removing arsenic and one of the other contaminants are reverse osmosis, anion and ...

  11. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  12. Standards for contamination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borson, Eugene N.

    2004-10-01

    Standards are an important component of national and international trade. We depend upon standards to assure that manufactured parts will work together, wherever they are made, and that we speak the same technical language, no matter what language we speak. Understanding is important in order to know when to take exceptions to or tailor the standard to fit the job. Standards that are used in contamination control have increased in numbers over the years as more industries have had to improve their manufacturing processes to enhance reliability or yields of products. Some older standards have been revised to include new technologies, and many new standards have been developed. Some of the new standards were written for specific industries while others apply to many industries. Many government standards have been replaced with standards from nongovernmental standards organizations. This trend has been encouraged by U.S. law that requires the government to use commercial standards where possible. This paper reviews some of the more important standards for the aerospace industry, such as IEST-STD-CC1246 and ISO 14644-1, that have been published in recent years. Benefits, usage, and problems with some standards will be discussed. Some standards are referenced, and websites of some standards organizations are listed.

  13. Space habitat contamination model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1990-01-01

    When one considers the missions that are involved in Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a continuous Lunar Base at which astronauts will perform scientific experiments as well as being the center for Lunar resource exploitation, a human visit to the surface of Mars, and, later, the development of a Mars base, one recognizes that we have entered a new realm of space exploration activity. During the SEI era, human beings who are involved in such missions will be away from Earth for extended periods of time, even for years. For example, the classical Hohmann transfer round trip mission to Mars would involve a flight of 31 months, including the stay time in the vicinity of Mars. Of course, other Mars trips such as the Venus Fly-By mission (22 months) and the Mars Sprint mission (15 months) pose much less taxing problems, but still problems which put human space presence in a domain where human survival has not yet been tested and thoroughly understood. Humans have never before been placed into an isolated, low-gravity, hermetically sealed, contaminant-prone environment for periods well in excess of one year and then been expected to function normally upon return to Earth. This presentation develops a systems model to help analyze the space habitat containment growth problem and to indicate the thresholds of astronaut risk, astronaut operational impairment, and methods of risk mitigation. The model inputs were discussed with toxicology experts at the University of Colorado Health Services Center and the University of Rochester.

  14. OSS-1/contamination monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; Mcintosh, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  15. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  16. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  17. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  18. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  19. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  20. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  1. On-farm contamination of animals with chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Saegerman, C; Pussemier, L; Huyghebaert, A; Scippo, M L; Berkvens, D

    2006-08-01

    Food products should not contain unsafe levels of chemical contaminants. However, it is not possible to monitor each and every one of the many thousands of chemicals that are used in our advanced societies. Chemical contaminants in foodstuffs of animal origin may be classified into three categories: natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins), environmental contaminants linked to industrialisation and/or urbanisation (e.g. dioxins and dioxin-like compounds) and authorised chemical products (e.g. residues of veterinary medical products). Chemical hazards may contaminate foodstuffs of animal origin all the way from farm to fork. Contamination may occur in any of the different production systems, and it is difficult to make comparisons between production systems (e.g. extensive versus intensive farming systems) with regard to food safety. Even when we take into account the latest analytical methods, which can detect ever-smaller quantities of residues, the relative importance of chemical contaminants seems to have declined during recent decades due to improvements in information and prevention. Nonetheless, individual incidents can never be ruled out and may have serious economic, health or social repercussions. Particular attention must be paid to chemical hazards, in order to reduce as much as possible the risks to livestock and to the consumer. Continued monitoring and periodic reassessment of risks posed by these contaminants (at the national level) are needed to detect or anticipate new problems, so that appropriate actions can be taken in the interest of public health. More attention should be paid to the production of detailed information, especially with regard to background data (e.g. the objectives of the monitoring, sampling methods, chemicals to be analysed, analytical methods, detection limits, raw data and specified units), in order to obtain a better basis for risk assessment. Such risk assessment provides control authorities with an effective tool for the

  2. International Space Station External Contamination Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikatarian, Ron; Soares, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    PResentation slides examine external contamination requirements; International Space Station (ISS) external contamination sources; ISS external contamination sensitive surfaces; external contamination control; external contamination control for pre-launch verification; flight experiments and observations; the Space Shuttle Orbiter waste water dump, materials outgassing, active vacuum vents; example of molecular column density profile, modeling and analysis tools; sources of outgassing induced contamination analyzed to date, quiescent sources, observations on optical degradation due to induced external contamination in LEO; examples of typical contaminant and depth profiles; and status of the ISS system, material outgassing, thruster plumes, and optical degradation.

  3. Activation of CK1ε by PP2A/PR61ε is required for the initiation of Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Curto, J; Padilla, M; Villarroel, A; Yang, J; de Herreros, AG; Duñach, M

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling induces the stabilization of β-catenin, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of target promoters. This pathway is initiated by the binding of Wnt ligands to the Frizzled receptor, the association of the LRP5/6 coreceptor and the formation of a complex comprising Dvl-2, Axin and protein kinases CK1α, ε, γ and GSK3. Among these, activation of CK1ε, constitutively bound to LRP5/6 through p120-catenin, is required for the association of the rest of the components. We describe here that CK1ε is activated by the PP2A/PR61ε phosphatase. Binding of Wnt ligands promotes the interaction of LRP5/6-associated CK1ε with Frizzled-bound PR61ε regulatory subunit, facilitating the access of PP2A catalytic subunit to CK1ε and its activation, what enables the recruitment of Dvl-2 to the receptor complex and the initiation of the Wnt pathway. Our results uncover the mechanism of activation of the canonical Wnt pathway by its ligands. PMID:27321178

  4. L'endométriose pariétale cicatricielle après césarienne: une entité rare

    PubMed Central

    El Fahssi, Mohammed; Lomdo, Massama; Bounaim, Ahmed; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Sair, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    L'endométriose de la paroi est une entité clinique rare, dont la physiopathologie demeure imprécise. Elle survient le plus souvent après une intervention chirurgicale gynécologique ou obstétricale. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente présentant une douleur cyclique, au niveau de la cicatrice de césarienne, Avec à l'examen clinique une masse de 5cm localisée au niveau de la fosse iliaque droite. la tomodensitométrie montre une masse de densité tissulaire de 45mm de grand axe. D'où la décision d'excision large de la lésion dont l’étude anatomopathologique confirme le diagnostic d'endométriose pariétale. Les suites postopératoires étaient simples avec un recul de 20 mois sans récidive de la masse ni de la douleur. A travers notre cas, nous insisterons sur les caractéristiques de cette pathologie, ce qui permettra au praticien de comprendre l'intérêt du diagnostic et de la prise en charge précoce de cette affection ainsi que la possibilité de sa prévention au cours de chaque chirurgie gynécologique ou obstétricale. PMID:27642418

  5. Complete Protection against Influenza Virus H1N1 Strain A/PR/8/34 Challenge in Mice Immunized with Non-Adjuvanted Novirhabdovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Ronan N.; Mérour, Emilie; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Novirhabdoviruses like Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are fish-infecting Rhabdoviruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order. By reverse genetics, we previously showed that a recombinant VHSV expressing the West Nile Virus (WNV) E glycoprotein could serve as a vaccine platform against WNV. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of the Novirhabdovirus platform as a vaccine against influenza virus. Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses, rVHSV-HA and rIHNV-HA, expressing at the viral surface the hemagglutinin HA ectodomain were generated and used to immunized mice. We showed that mice immunized with either, rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA, elicited a strong neutralizing antibody response against influenza virus. A complete protection was conferred to the immunized mice when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34 virus. Furthermore we showed that although acting as inert antigen in mice, since naturally inactivated over 20°C, mice immunized with rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA in the absence of adjuvant were also completely protected from a lethal challenge. Novirhabdoviruses platform are of particular interest as vaccines for mammals since they are cost effective to produce, relatively easy to generate and very effective to protect immunized animals. PMID:27711176

  6. Activation of CK1ɛ by PP2A/PR61ɛ is required for the initiation of Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Vinyoles, M; Del Valle-Pérez, B; Curto, J; Padilla, M; Villarroel, A; Yang, J; de Herreros, A G; Duñach, M

    2017-01-19

    Canonical Wnt signaling induces the stabilization of β-catenin, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of target promoters. This pathway is initiated by the binding of Wnt ligands to the Frizzled receptor, the association of the LRP5/6 co-receptor and the formation of a complex comprising Dvl-2, Axin and protein kinases CK1α, ɛ, γ and GSK3. Among these, activation of CK1ɛ, constitutively bound to LRP5/6 through p120-catenin, is required for the association of the rest of the components. We describe here that CK1ɛ is activated by the PP2A/PR61ɛ phosphatase. Binding of Wnt ligands promotes the interaction of LRP5/6-associated CK1ɛ with Frizzled-bound PR61ɛ regulatory subunit, facilitating the access of PP2A catalytic subunit to CK1ɛ and its activation, what enables the recruitment of Dvl-2 to the receptor complex and the initiation of the Wnt pathway. Our results uncover the mechanism of activation of the canonical Wnt pathway by its ligands.

  7. Shuttle payload integration - Contamination aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S.; Leger, L. J.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the development of the Space Shuttle, a payload integration system has been established. This integration system or process encompasses several technical disciplines, one of which is concerned with the control of molecular and particulate contamination. Specific integration procedures and documentation have evolved that reflect the incorporation of payload/Space Transportation System contamination requirements and capabilities. Of the 38 payloads in the payload integration system currently, about 20% are considered sensitive to contamination in that special precautions must be taken to ensure that contamination from the Space Shuttle Orbiter does not impair payload function. Most of these payload requirements have been satisfied by the incorporation of controlled ground operations discipline and installation of a payload bay liner, which isolates the payload from the Orbiter systems. Some payloads, however, provide covers for sensitive payload instrumentation.

  8. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  9. Human Health and Contaminated Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  10. Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant Dinitrotoluene (DNT) including physical and chemical properties;

  11. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  12. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  13. Contaminant Exposure in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manuscript is a critical review of the state of the science for quantifying exposures of terrestrial wildlife species to chemical contamination. It describes the unique aspects of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and threatened and endangered species. Fate and transport of ...

  14. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additives. The studies presented here were carried out to investigate the MP surfaces capability to reduce colonization of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) compared to smooth control surfaces. Methods The MP and smooth surfaces produced in acrylic film were compared for remaining bacterial contamination and colonization following inoculation. Direct sampling of surfaces was carried out after inoculation by immersion, spray, and/or touch methods. Ultimately, a combination assay was developed to assess bacterial contamination after touch transfer inoculation combined with drying (persistence) to mimic common environmental contamination scenarios in the clinic or hospital environment. The combination transfer and persistence assay was then used to test antimicrobial copper beside the MP for the ability to reduce MSSA and MRSA challenge. Results The MP reduced bacterial contamination with log reductions ranging from 87-99% (LR = 0.90-2.18; p < 0.05) compared to smooth control surfaces. The MP was more effective than the 99.9% pure copper alloy C11000 at reducing surface contamination of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) through transfer and persistence of bacteria. The MP reduced MSSA by as much as 97% (LR = 1.54; p < 0.01) and MRSA by as much as 94% (LR = 1.26; p < 0.005) compared to smooth controls. Antimicrobial copper had no significant effect on MSSA contamination, but reduced MRSA contamination by 80% (LR

  15. Groundwater contamination downstream of a contaminant penetration site. II. Horizontal penetration of the contaminant plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Part I of this study (Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W. Groundwater Contamination Downstream of a Contaminant Penetration Site Part 1: Extension-Expansion of the Contaminant Plume. J. of Environmental Science and Health Part A (in press).) addressed cases, in which a comparatively thin contaminated region represented by boundary layers (BLs) developed within the freshwater aquifer close to contaminant penetration site. However, at some distance downstream from the penetration site, the top of the contaminant plume reaches the top or bottom of the aquifer. This is the location of the "attachment point," which comprises the entrance cross section of the domain evaluated by the present part of the study. It is shown that downstream from the entrance cross section, a set of two BLs develop in the aquifer, termed inner and outer BLs. It is assumed that the evaluated domain, in which the contaminant distribution gradually becomes uniform, can be divided into two sections, designated: (a) the restructuring section, and (b) the establishment section. In the restructuring section, the vertical concentration gradient leads to expansion of the inner BL at the expense of the outer BL, and there is almost no transfer of contaminant mass between the two layers. In the establishment section, each of the BLs occupies half of the aquifer thickness, and the vertical concentration gradient leads to transfer of contaminant mass from the inner to the outer BL. By use of BL approximations, changes of salinity distribution in the aquifer are calculated and evaluated. The establishment section ends at the uniformity point, downstream from which the contaminant concentration profile is practically uniform. The length of the restructuring section, as well as that of the establishment section, is approximately proportional to the aquifer thickness squared, and is inversely proportional to the transverse dispersivity. The study provides a convenient set of definitions and terminology that are

  16. Surface characterization and contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    The research activity for this first year has focussed on three distinct activities: (1) the use of an integrating sphere to improve upon the gathering of spectral data from a variety of surfaces; (2) the use of optical fiber spectrometry to determine levels of contamination from tape residues on critical bonding surfaces; and (3) an exploratory activity in the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry for the analysis of thin films of contaminants on critical surfaces has also begun.

  17. Spacecraft external molecular contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Control of contamination on and around spacecraft is required to avoid adverse effects on the performance of instruments and spacecraft systems. Recent work in this area is reviewed and discussed. Specific issues and limitations to be considered as part of the effort to predict contamination effects using modeling techniques are addressed. Significant results of Space Shuttle missions in the field of molecule/surface interactions as well as their implications for space station design and operation are reviewed.

  18. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  19. Organic contaminant amplification during snowmelt.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Wania, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The release of organic contaminants from melting snow poses risks to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and to humans who rely on drinking water and food production from regions that are seasonally snow-covered. Measured and model-predicted spring peak concentrations in waters receiving snowmelt motivate a thorough investigation of organic contaminant behaviour during melting. On the basis of the current understanding of snow metamorphosis, snowmelt hydrology and chemical partitioning in snow, this critical review aims to provide a qualitative picture of the processes involved in the release of organic contaminants from a melting snowpack. The elution sequence of organic substances during snowmelt is strongly dependent on their environmental partitioning properties and the physical properties of the snowpack. Water-soluble organic contaminants can be discharged in greatly elevated concentrations at an early stage of melting, while the bulk of the hydrophobic chemicals attached to particles is often released at the end of the melt period. Melting of a highly metamorphosed and deep snowpack promotes such shock load releases, whereas a shallow snow cover over a relatively warm ground experiencing irregular melting over the winter season is unlikely to generate notable peak releases of organic substances. Meltwater runoff over frozen ground directly transfers contaminant shock loads into receiving water bodies, while permeable soils buffer and dilute the contaminants. A more quantitative understanding of the behaviour of organic contaminants in varying snowmelt scenarios will depend on controlled laboratory studies combined with field investigations. Reliable numerical process descriptions will need to be developed to integrate water quality and contaminant fate models.

  20. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  1. A scaling study of the natural circulation flow of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 for designing a scale-down test facility for design verification

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.; Revankar, S. T.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a scaling study on the steady state natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400 is described, and the scaling criteria for reproducing the same steady state thermalhydraulic characteristics of the natural circulation flow as a prototype core catcher cooling system in the scale-down test facility are derived in terms of the down-comer pipe diameter and orifice resistance. (authors)

  2. Influence of dissimilatory metal reduction on fate of organic and metal contaminants in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Anderson, Robert T.

    Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms have the ability to destroy organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions by oxidizing them to carbon dioxide. Some Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can also reductively dechlorinate chlorinated contaminants. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can reduce a variety of contaminant metals and convert them from soluble forms to forms that are likely to be immobilized in the subsurface. Studies in petroleum-contaminated aquifers have demonstrated that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be effective agents in removing aromatic hydrocarbons from groundwater under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to remove uranium from contaminated groundwaters. The activity of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can be stimulated in several ways to enhance organic contaminant oxidation and metal reduction. Molecular analyses in both field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that microorganisms of the genus Geobacter become dominant members of the microbial community when Fe(III)-reducing conditions develop as the result of organic contamination, or when Fe(III) reduction is artificially stimulated. These results suggest that further understanding of the ecophysiology of Geobacter species would aid in better prediction of the natural attenuation of organic contaminants under anaerobic conditions and in the design of strategies for the bioremediation of subsurface metal contamination. Des micro-organismes simulant la réduction du fer ont la capacité de détruire des polluants organiques dans des conditions anérobies en les oxydant en dioxyde de carbone. Certains micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent aussi dé-chlorer par réduction des polluants chlorés. Des micro-organismes réducteurs de fer peuvent réduire tout un ensemble de métaux polluants et les faire passer de formes solubles à des formes qui sont susceptibles d'être immobilisées dans le milieu

  3. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, J.F.

    1996-10-01

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.

  4. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.

    1996-01-01

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants.

  5. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such...

  6. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stahlberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Follett, Sarah A.; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Fungal PCR-based diagnostic methods are at risk of contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably A. fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. PMID:20638611

  7. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  8. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  9. Contamination Effects on EUV Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, J.

    1999-01-01

    During ground-based assembly and upon exposure to the space environment, optical surfaces accumulate both particles and molecular condensibles, inevitably resulting in degradation of optical instrument performance. Currently, this performance degradation (and the resulting end-of-life instrument performance) cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy using existing software tools. Optical design codes exist to calculate instrument performance, but these codes generally assume uncontaminated optical surfaces. Contamination models exist which predict approximate end-of-life contamination levels, but the optical effects of these contamination levels can not be quantified without detailed information about the optical constants and scattering properties of the contaminant. The problem is particularly pronounced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 300-1,200 A) and far (FUV, 1,200-2,000 A) regimes due to a lack of data and a lack of knowledge of the detailed physical and chemical processes involved. Yet it is in precisely these wavelength regimes that accurate predictions are most important, because EUV/FUV instruments are extremely sensitive to contamination.

  10. Contamination protective coatings: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirich, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    Tailored protective coatings have the potential for tremendous technical and affordability benefits to ground, air and space systems because of their ability to reduce surface contamination, minimize icing, reduce friction, and to reduce corrosion for a wide variety of applications and missions. The thermal and radiation environment of space systems also pose unique challenges to protective coatings because of the space environment's large temperature variations, the plasma environment and solar UV and Xrays. Contamination may accumulate on sensors inhibiting accurate and timely data acquisition and their efficiency can be seriously affected by contamination buildup. For polymeric materials, not all properties are affected to the same degree by radiation but are often localized at a specific molecular bond. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic coating approaches may be important to address specific design requirements. Hydrophilic materials are composed of polar molecules and have been used to defog glass and enable oil spots to be swept away with water. Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar and thus prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents. Hydrophobic molecules often cluster and are difficult to wet with liquids. This paper presents an overview of various types of contamination that adheres to critical air and space surfaces and potential coatings phenomenology that may be used to eliminate contamination.

  11. Many variable region genes are utilized in the antibody response of BALB/c mice to the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Caton, A J; Stark, S E; Kavaler, J; Staudt, L M; Schwartz, D; Gerhard, W

    1991-09-01

    We have examined how many different H chain variable (VH) and kappa-chain variable (Vk) germ-line genes are used in the antibody response to the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin (PR8 HA), and have assessed how the expression of individual VH and/or Vk genes contributes to the generation of specificity for the HA. A panel of 51 hybridoma antibodies that recognize two antigenic regions on the HA were compared for the sequence of their Ig H and L chain V regions. The hybridomas were obtained from 28 individual BALB/c mice that had been immunized with PR8 under a variety of primary and secondary response immunization protocols. The degree and pattern of sequence similarity suggests that 29 different VH genes drawn from seven different VH gene families, and 25 different Vk genes drawn from 12 different Vk gene families were used in this panel. Based on current estimates of the total numbers of VH and Vk genes in the mouse, this suggests that between 2.5 and 10% of the entire VH and Vk germ-line repertoires were used by these hybridomas. Despite this extensive diversity, some V genes were repetitively identified among these hybridomas, and were most often expressed in the context of specific VH/Vk combinations. Because antibodies that used identical VH/Vk combinations also usually displayed similar reactivity patterns with a panel of mutant viruses, this indicates that VH/Vk pairing can be important in establishing the specificity of antibodies for the HA.

  12. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Hye; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Aeri; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyeon Gun; Kim, Jong Geal; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, HyunPyo; Kwon, YongSoo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8) virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8 infection that could be

  13. Coadministration of Hedera helix L. Extract Enabled Mice to Overcome Insufficient Protection against Influenza A/PR/8 Virus Infection under Suboptimal Treatment with Oseltamivir

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Aeri; Lee, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hyeon Gun; Kim, Jong Geal; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, HyunPyo; Kwon, YongSoo; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Several anti-influenza drugs that reduce disease manifestation exist, and although these drugs provide clinical benefits in infected patients, their efficacy is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses. In the current study, we assessed the therapeutic strategy of enhancing the antiviral efficacy of an existing neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir, by coadministering with the leaf extract from Hedera helix L, commonly known as ivy. Ivy extract has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties. In the present study, we investigated its potential antiviral properties against influenza A/PR/8 (PR8) virus in a mouse model with suboptimal oseltamivir that mimics a poor clinical response to antiviral drug treatment. Suboptimal oseltamivir resulted in insufficient protection against PR8 infection. Oral administration of ivy extract with suboptimal oseltamivir increased the antiviral activity of oseltamivir. Ivy extract and its compounds, particularly hedrasaponin F, significantly reduced the cytopathic effect in PR8-infected A549 cells in the presence of oseltamivir. Compared with oseltamivir treatment alone, coadministration of the fraction of ivy extract that contained the highest proportion of hedrasaponin F with oseltamivir decreased pulmonary inflammation in PR8-infected mice. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, were reduced by treatment with oseltamivir and the fraction of ivy extract. Analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchial alveolar of PR8-infected mice revealed that CD11b+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6Cint cells were recruited after virus infection; coadministration of the ivy extract fraction with oseltamivir reduced infiltration of these inflammatory cells. In a model of suboptimal oseltamivir treatment, coadministration of ivy extract fraction that includes hedrasaponin F increased protection against PR8 infection that could be

  14. ECC Water Film Spreading, ECC Water Bypass and Sweep-out Phenomena in the Downcomer with DVI of APR1400 under LBLOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Won; No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Han Kon; Oh, Seung Jong

    2002-07-01

    In the present study, several experiments related to the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in downcomer with DVI under LBLOCA (Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident) were carried out using the experimental facility of plane-channel type scaled down as 1/7 ratio of prototype reactor (APR1400). Especially, phenomena such as ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) water entrainment and mixing in the downcomer were focused in the present study. Water film spreading was studied and compared with the full-scaled experiment and the experiment with a 1/7 scaled cylindrical-type test section to see the scaling effect and its curvature effect. It turns out that the curvature effect is negligible and the present modified linear scaling law is more appropriate than the linear scaling law. The water height and the amount of ECC water bypass by onset of sweep-out were measured from the visual observation of sweep-out in the downcomer. From this test, the onset of continuous sweep-out was used to analyze the water height in the downcomer. The amount of ECC water bypass by sweep-out was measured and compared with the UCB and KfK correlations. It is found that the best fit of the data from the present experiment lies between the predictions by the two correlations. ECC water mixing phenomena in downcomer were observed focusing on the ECC water film behavior. From the air and water mixing tests, it is concluded that ECC water bypass fraction is highly dependent on DVI position rather than gas flow rates and ECC water bypass fraction is less than 10% of injection ECC water. From the steam and water mixing tests, it is concluded that ECC bypass fraction with steam injection is under 1.5% and much less than that with an air injection because of the condensation in the downcomer. (authors)

  15. Folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 status of a group of high socioeconomic status women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Faiqa; Wang, Flora; Jacobs, René L; O'Connor, Deborah L; Bell, Rhonda C; Field, Catherine J

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid supplementation and food fortification policies have improved folate status in North American women of child bearing age. Recent studies have reported the possible inadequacy of vitamin B12 and B6 in the etiology of neural tube defects in folate-fortified populations. The aims of this study were to describe folate status and its relationship to supplementation and to assess vitamin B12 and B6 status in a cohort of pregnant women. Supplement intake data were collected in each trimester from the first cohort (n = 599) of the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study. Red blood cell folate (RBCF) and plasma folate, holotranscobalamin, and pyridoxal 5-phosphate were measured. Overt folate deficiency was rare (3%) but 24% of women in their first trimester had suboptimal RBCF concentration (<906 nmol·L(-1)). The proportion of the cohort in this category declined substantially in second (9%) and third (7%) trimesters. High RBCF (>1360 nmol·L(-1)) was observed in approximately half of the women during each pregnancy trimester. Vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies were rare (<1% of the cohort). Women consuming folic acid supplements above the upper level had significantly higher RBCF and plasma folate concentrations. In conclusion, the prevalence of vitamin B12 and B6 deficiency was very low. A quarter of the women had suboptimal folate status in the first trimester of pregnancy and over half the women had abnormally high RBCF, suggesting that supplementation during pregnancy is not appropriate in a cohort of women considered to be healthy and a low risk for nutritional deficiencies.

  16. Endotoxin contamination of engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Esch, R Keith; Han, Li; Foarde, Karin K; Ensor, David S

    2010-03-01

    Endotoxin has established health impacts and may be a potential confounding factor in toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We aimed to characterize endotoxin contamination for a representative set of carbon-based ENM. The established method for quantifying endotoxin relies on its activity in a complex biochemical assay system. Because of their physical and chemical properties, measurement of endotoxin associated with many ENM presents non-trivial technical challenges. We have made progress in identifying and implementing methods for ENM analysis with respect to endotoxin content, revealing varying levels of endotoxin contamination in the ENM examined here. The physical association of ENM and endotoxin and their shared physiological effects suggest the possibility that contaminating endotoxin may contribute to the toxicity that is ascribed to ENM. We found in this small number of samples that endotoxin levels were not related to type of ENM or surface area but may be introduced randomly during manufacture.

  17. Contaminant Hydrogeology, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James E.

    Groundwater is a valuable resource that has received much attention over the last couple of decades. Extremely large sums of money have been and will be spent on groundwater contamination problems and the public has become increasingly sensitive to groundwater issues. Groundwater contamination has even become the subject of a major Hollywood movie with the recent release of A Civil Action starring John Travolta. The high profile of groundwater contaminant problems, the associated relatively strong job market over the last 20 years, and the general shift toward an environmental emphasis in science and engineering have resulted in a sustained high demand for senior undergraduate courses and graduate programs in hydrogeology Many voice the opinion that we have seen the peak demand for hydrogeologists pass, but the placement of graduates from hydrogeology programs into career-oriented positions has remained very high.

  18. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref.

  19. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2016-07-12

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  20. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  1. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  2. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases. PMID:27611326

  3. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  4. Extraction of contaminants from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Babko-Malyi, S.

    2000-02-22

    A method of treating industrial gases to remove contaminants is disclosed. Ions are generated in stream of injectable gas. These ions are propelled through the contaminated gas as it flows through a collection unit. An electric field is applied to the contaminated gas. The field causes the ions to move through the contaminated gases, producing electrical charges on the contaminants. The electrically charged contaminants are then collected at one side of the electric field. The injectable gas is selected to produce ions which will produce reactions with particular contaminants. The process is thus capable of removing particular contaminants. The process does not depend on diffusion as a transport mechanism and is therefore suitable for removing contaminants which exist in very low concentrations.

  5. Extraction of contaminants from a gas

    SciTech Connect

    Babko-Malyi, Sergei

    2000-01-01

    A method of treating industrial gases to remove contaminants is disclosed. Ions are generated in stream of injectable gas. These ions are propelled through the contaminated gas as it flows through a collection unit. An electric field is applied to the contaminated gas. The field causes the ions to move through the contaminated gases, producing electrical charges on the contaminants. The electrically charged contaminants are then collected at one side of the electric field. The injectable gas is selected to produce ions which will produce reactions with particular contaminants. The process is thus capable of removing particular contaminants. The process does not depend on diffusion as a transport mechanism and is therefore suitable for removing contaminants which exist in very low concentrations.

  6. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  7. Molecular contamination math model support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R.

    1983-01-01

    The operation and features of a preprocessor for the Shuttle/Payload Contamination Evaluation Program Version 2) are described. A preliminary preprocessor for SPACE 2 is developed. Further refinements and enhancements of the preprocessor to insure complete user friendly operation, are recommended.

  8. Beneficial Use Of Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The western portion of the Lake George Branch of the Indian Harbor Canal (IHC) is no longer used for commercial purposes, but contains petroleum contaminated sediments. The IHC is considered an important habitat for many animal species. Several future development projects have ...

  9. Method for treating contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

  10. TREATMENT STUDIES OF CCL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale screening-level treatment data are presented for compounds listed in the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). All of the CCl compounds are predicted to be economically removed by either activated carbon or air stripping technologies. To complete the screening-level treat...

  11. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  12. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  13. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, Bahman; Heestand, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  14. Emerging Contaminants Identification, Concerns, Actions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation serves as a background introduction to a current EPA/ORD study on the characterization and treatment of emerging contaminants (ECs ) in wet-weather flows. It briefly discusses other ongoing work relating to ECs and provides the foundation for prioritizing the c...

  15. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine.

  16. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is written as a resource for state and local watershed managers who have the responsibility of managing pathogen contamination in urban watersheds. In addition it can be an information source for members of the public interested in watershed mitigation efforts aime...

  17. MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a summary of the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) publication entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination, EPA/600/R-03/111 (September 2003). It is available on the internet at http://www.epa.gov/ednnrmrl/repository/water...

  18. Bioassay for assessing marine contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Lapota, D.; Copeland, H.; Mastny, G.; Rosenberger, D.; Duckworth, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Qwiklite bioassay, developed by the laboratory at NCCOSC, is used as a biological tool to gauge the extent of environmental contamination. Some species of marine phytoplankton produce bioluminescence. The Qwiklite bioassay determines acute response and chronic effects of a wide variety of toxicants upon bioluminescent dinotlagellates by measuring their light output after exposure.

  19. HANDBOOK: REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments may pose risks to both human and environmental health. Such sediments may be found in

    large sites, such as the harbors of industrialized ports. However, they are also frequently found in smaller sites, such as streams, lakes, bayous, and rivers. In r...

  20. Lead contamination of urban snow.

    PubMed

    Grandstaff, D E; Myer, G H

    1979-01-01

    Lead content of newly fallen snow in an urban area ranges from 34 to 56 ppb. After falling, snow may incorporate major additional amounts of lead by dry deposition of lead aerosols from local sources. The highest concentration found was 2,700 ppb. Ingestion of lead-contaminated snow might pose a health hazard to inner city children.

  1. Organizational strategies for protection against back contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    The organizational issues pertaining to the prevention of inbound contamination associated with possible Viking missions to Mars are considered. The completed Apollo missions, which returned samples from the moon, provide a convenient base for analysis of inbound contamination issues. Despite concern over the threat of inbound contamination from the moon and efforts to prevent back contamination, the back contamination efforts in the Apollo missions were considered ineffective had these missions encountered living organisms. Several alternatives for consideration in the design of future programs dealing with back contamination are examined and proposed for special consideration.

  2. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  3. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles

  4. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

  5. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  6. Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

  7. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  8. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  9. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  10. Contamination Barrier For Contour-Molding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Release agent prevents molding compound from adhering to or contaminating surface. Cleaning agent, Turco 4215 NCLT, forms barrier preventing silicone molding compound from sticking to surface and leaving contaminating residue. Also see MFS-29243.

  11. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  12. MSFC Skylab contamination control systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Cluster external contamination control evaluation was made throughout the Skylab Mission. This evaluation indicated that contamination control measures instigated during the design, development, and operational phases of this program were adequate to reduce the general contamination environment external to the Cluster below the threshold senstivity levels for experiments and affected subsystems. Launch and orbit contamination control features included eliminating certain vents, rerouting vents for minimum contamination impact, establishing filters, incorporating materials with minimum outgassing characteristics and developing operational constraints and mission rules to minimize contamination effects. Prior to the launch of Skylab, contamination control math models were developed which were used to predict Cluster surface deposition and background brightness levels throughout the mission. The report summarizes the Skylab system and experiment contamination control evaluation. The Cluster systems and experiments evaluated include Induced Atmosphere, Corollary and ATM Experiments, Thermal Control Surfaces, Solar Array Systems, Windows and Star Tracker.

  13. Contaminated land liability issues: legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, V M

    2000-09-01

    Until recently, companies that contaminated land faced little prospect of being prosecuted or having claims made against them for any personal injuries or property damage arising from the contamination. Most companies would have considered it to be inconceivable that they could be required to clean up contamination resulting from an historic disposal, particularly if the disposal had been neither negligent nor unlawful. Current environmental law differs significantly, however, from the law which existed even 10 years ago. This paper examines liabilities arising from contaminated land. First, it discusses the new contaminated land regime and a parallel regime to remediate sites that are contaminated with radioactive substances. Second, it discusses remediation liabilities for water pollution. Such liabilities may well involve the remediation of contaminated land when groundwater is polluted. Finally, the paper examines liabilities for property damage and personal injuries arising from contamination by radioactive substances.

  14. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate in drinking water to protect public health. The Agency sets regulatory ...

  15. Cleanup of contaminated soil -- Unreal risk assumptions: Contaminant degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, A.

    1995-12-31

    Exposure assessments for development of risk-based soil cleanup standards or criteria assume that contaminant mass in soil is infinite and conservative (constant concentration). This assumption is not real for most organic chemicals. Contaminant mass is lost from soil and ground water when organic chemicals degrade. Factors to correct for chemical mass lost by degradation are derived from first-order kinetics for 85 organic chemicals commonly listed by USEPA and state agencies. Soil cleanup criteria, based on constant concentration, are then corrected for contaminant mass lost. For many chemicals, accounting for mass lost yields large correction factors to risk-based soil concentrations. For degradation in ground water and soil, correction factors range from greater than one to several orders of magnitude. The long exposure durations normally used in exposure assessments (25 to 70 years) result in large correction factors to standards even for carcinogenic chemicals with long half-lives. For the ground water pathway, a typical soil criterion for TCE of 1 mg/kg would be corrected to 11 mg/kg. For noncarcinogens, correcting for mass lost means that risk algorithms used to set soil cleanup requirements are inapplicable for many chemicals, especially for long periods of exposure.

  16. Apparatus Removes Organic Contaminants From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John

    1994-01-01

    Catalytic-oxidation apparatus removes low-molecular-weight, polar, nonionizable organic contaminants from wastewater. Wastewater stream, previously treated by multifiltration process, pumped through apparatus for removal of trace organic contaminants. After injection of oxygen, flow preheated and enters catalytic reactor, where organic contaminants broken down into carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide and unused oxygen removed in degasser.

  17. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  18. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  19. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  20. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  1. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  2. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  3. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  4. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for...

  5. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered...

  6. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits...

  7. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  8. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  9. Internal contamination in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poythress, C.

    1985-01-01

    Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

  10. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  11. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... thereafter found not to be adulterated. Contaminated surfaces that are cut shall be removed only by trimming. Contaminated inner surfaces that are not cut may be cleaned by trimming alone, or at an approved reprocessing... vacuuming, washing, and trimming, singly or in combination. All visible specks of contamination must...

  12. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  13. A study on the effect of various design parameters on the natural circulation flow rate of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a study on the effect of various design parameters such as the channel gap width, heat flux distribution, down-comer pipe size and two-phase flow slip ratio on the natural circulation flow rate is performed based on a physical model for a natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of an EU-APR1400, and these effects on the natural circulation flow rate are analyzed and compared with the minimum flow rate required for the safe operation of the system. (authors)

  14. Amélioration de la calcinose tumorale de la main droite après para thyroïdectomie chez un hémodialysé chronique

    PubMed Central

    El Maghraoui, Jaouad; Hammou, Mohamed; Kabbali, Nadia; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Houssaini, Tariq Sqalli

    2016-01-01

    Les calcifications des tissus péri articulaires sont fréquentes chez les insuffisants rénaux chroniques en hémodialyse. Nous rapportons le cas d'un hémodialysé chronique depuis 10 ans qui a présenté une calcinose pseudo tumorale isolé à la main droite nettement améliorée après para thyroïdectomie. A travers cette observation, nous montrons l'impact du para thyroïdectomie sur la calcinose pseudo tumorale. PMID:27583094

  15. Electrorestoration of metal contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.E.; Tondorf, S. )

    1994-11-01

    The removal of metals from contaminated soils using electric fields has been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, yet field trials have yielded anomalous results. Poor performance may be attributed to interaction of the metals with naturally occurring electrolytes, humic substances, and co-disposed wastes. Immobilization of contaminants in a narrow band in the soil, analogous to isoelectric focusing, was reproduced experimentally and simulated with a mathematical model. It was shown that the focusing effect can be eliminated by controlling the pH at the cathode using a water rinse. Immobilization resulting from precipitation with carbonates and codisposed wastes may additionally require chelating agents and control of the redox potential to effect removal. Pourbaix diagrams provide a means for rapidly identifying pH and redox conditions suitable for mobilizing metal wastes. Optimum operating conditions can then be determined using a mathematical model that incorporates the appropriate metal speciation chemistry. 32 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Environmental contaminants in California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

  17. Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

  18. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K geranium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  19. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  20. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  1. Ionic contamination detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    1994-04-01

    The effectiveness of Meter A and B for detecting ionic contamination was evaluated and compared on the following types of samples: (1) copper panels, (2) printed wiring boards with through-hold components (lCs), (3) printed wiring boards with surface-mounted components, and (4) mixed-technology printed wiring boards (both through-hole and surface-mount components). The extraction efficiency of the two meters was calculated

  2. Emerging Contaminant Program: Program Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-07

    applicable Emerging Contaminants (ECs) have no existing peer-reviewed toxicity values or health standards or the existing standards are being re- evaluated ...Assessment Science & Process • Strict Chemical Management – Cradle to grave • Green Chemistry • International, Federal, & State Toxic Substances Laws...assessments in five DoD functional areas, and development of risk management options. The five functional areas are: (1) Environmental, Safety and Health, (2

  3. Arsenic, microbes and contaminated aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The health of tens of millions of people world-wide is at risk from drinking arsenic-contaminated well water. In most cases this arsenic occurs naturally within the sub-surface aquifers, rather than being derived from identifiable point sources of pollution. The mobilization of arsenic into the aqueous phase is the first crucial step in a process that eventually leads to human arsenicosis. Increasing evidence suggests that this is a microbiological phenomenon.

  4. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  5. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  6. Controlling surface contamination at SNO

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.; Garcia, A.; Zlimen, I.

    1993-10-01

    The ability of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector to measure the energy spectrum of the {sup 8}B solar neutrinos will depend on the background radiation arising from uranium and thorium contamination in the bulk material and on the surfaces of the detector. A principle surface contaminant is the ubiquitous dust found in the working nickel mine where the detector will be assembled. The thorium content of mine dust is about 6 ppm, which is a factor of 6 x 10{sup 6} greater than is present in the acrylic material that holds the heavy water. The result of this is that the detector cavity, 6800 feet underground and having a volume of about 9000 cubic meters, must become a dust-free cleanroom. (It will be one of the larger cleanrooms in the world, and certainly the lowest lying.) After an 18 month construction period, the amount of dust present on the surfaces of the detector must be less than 0.4 micrograms/cm{sup 2}. A variety of techniques has been developed to measure these small amounts of surface contamination. These will be described along with the measures planned to achieve the surface cleanliness requirements of the SNO detector.

  7. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Bekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation.

  8. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to

  9. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-02

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets.

  10. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  11. Reducing Sodium Contamination in MOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehaye, R. F.; Feltner, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    Method of removing positive ions from oxides in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors and intergrated circuits ensure freedom from contamination by sodium and other mobile positive ions. Electric field applied during oxide growth to push mobile Na + ions to surface. After cooling from growth temperature, field turned off and Na + contaminated surface layer etched away. New method intended to suplement established methods of minimizing ion contamination, such as scrupulous cleanliness in processing, purging with hydrogen chloride to react with and remove contaminants, and growing extra-thick gate oxide, then etching it to remove large portion of contaminants concentrated near surface.

  12. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  13. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  14. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  15. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  16. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  17. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Ress, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a contamination impact analysis upon the spacelab carrier and the spacelab carrier upon some of its potential payloads are presented. These results are based upon contamination computer modeling techniques developed to predict the induced environment for spacelab and to provide the basis for evaluation of the predicted environment against the current on orbit contamination control criteria as specified for payloads. Those spacelab carrier contamination sources evaluated against the stated contamination control criteria were outgassing/offgassing of the major nonmetallic thermal control coating of the spacelab carriers, spacelab core and experiment module and tunnel cabin atmosphere leakage, avionics bay vent, spacelab condensate vent, random particulate sloughing, and the return flux of the molecular content of these sources from the gas-gas interactions with the ambient orbital environment. It is indicated that the spacelab carrier can meet the intent of the contamination control criteria through incorporating known contamination control practices.

  18. The index of microbial air contamination.

    PubMed

    Pasquarella, C; Pitzurra, O; Savino, A

    2000-12-01

    The standard index of microbial air contamination (IMA) for the measurement of microbial air contamination in environments at risk is described. The method quantifies the microbial flow directly related to the contamination of surfaces coming from microbes that reach critical points by falling on to them. The index of microbial air contamination is based on the count of the microbial fallout on to Petri dishes left open to the air according to the 1/1/1 scheme (for 1h, 1m from the floor, at least 1m away from walls or any obstacle). Classes of contamination and maximum acceptable levels have been established. The index of microbial air contamination has been tested in many different places: in hospitals, in food industries, in art galleries, aboard the MIR space station and also in the open air. It has proved to be a reliable and useful tool for monitoring the microbial surface contamination settling from the air in any environment.

  19. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    PubMed

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  20. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires majeures après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale au CHU Ibn Sina, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Awab, Almahdi; Elahmadi, Brahim; Lamkinsi, Tarik; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'incidence des complications respiratoires postopératoires (CRPO) reste très diversement appréciées selon les critères diagnostiques retenues dans les différentes études, ce qui la fait varier de 5 à plus de 50%. Les CRPO majeurs après chirurgie de l'aorte abdominale sont responsables d'une grande morbi-mortalité pouvant aller jusqu’à 36%, d'une durée d'hospitalisation et d'un coût plus importants. Ainsi dans l'optique d'améliorer notre prise en charge périopératoire de la chirurgie de l'aorte, nous avons décidé de mener une étude pour dresser le profil épidémiologique et déterminer les facteurs de risque des complications respiratoires dans notre contexte Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective du mois de Janvier 2007 au mois de décembre 2011 portant sur l'ensemble des patients opérés pour pathologie aortique au bloc opératoire central de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat, Maroc. Résultats Cent vingt cinq patients ont été inclus dans notre étude, 24 patients ont été opérés pour anévrysme de l'aorte abdominale et 101 patients pour lésion occlusive aortoiliaque. Dans notre série 22 malades soit 17,6% ont présenté une complication respiratoire majeure avec, une reventilation dans 4,8% des cas, une difficulté de sevrage de la ventilation artificielle dans 3,2% des cas, une pneumopathie dans 4% des cas, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aigue (SDRA) dans 4% des cas et une nécessité de fibroaspiration bronchique dans 1,6% des cas. En analyse univariée: l’âge, la présence d'une BPCO avec dyspnée stade 3 ou 4, la présence d'une anomalie à l'EFR préopératoire, la présence d'un stade avancé (III ou IV) de LOAI et la reprise chirurgicale étaient statistiquement associés à la survenue d'une complication respiratoire postopératoire. En analyse multivariée, seule une anomalie à l'EFR en préopératoire constituait un facteur de risque indépendant de survenue d'une complication

  1. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Modeling of LDEF contamination environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Rantanen, Ray; Gordon, Tim

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite was unique in many ways. It was a large structure that was in space for an extended period of time and was stable in orientation relative to the velocity vector. There are obvious and well documented effects of contamination and space environment effects on the LDEF satellite. In order to examine the interaction of LDEF with its environment and the resulting effect on the satellite, the Integrated Spacecraft Environments Model (ISEM) was used to model the LDEF-induced neutral environment at several different times and altitudes during the mission.

  3. Atmospheric contaminant sensor, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B. W.; Stuart, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Design and fabrication of a mass spectrometer system for use as an atmospheric monitor by submarine is reported. The performance design goals are presented. The operation of the system is essentially automatic, providing continuous display of the partial pressures of the principal atmospheric constituents and a pushbutton update display of two freon trace contaminants. The freon update cycle takes 15 or 30 seconds, depending on which are measured. Trouble free, long term, reliable operation, and ease of maintenance are the primary system requirements. The requirement of the freon detection with high sensitivity and high resolution made redesign of the overall analyzer housing and magnet necessary.

  4. Laboratory contamination of blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R C; Savage, M A

    1975-12-01

    A prospective study of the use of a laminar flow cabinet, an exhaust-ventilated safety hood, and the open bench for the microbiological examination of blood is described. Blood samples from 1600 patients were subcultured on the open bench, 2700 in a safety hood, and 2607 in a laminar flow cabinet. Use of the laminar flow cabinet produced a significantly greater level of contamination than the other methods, and it is concluded that the exhaust-ventilated safety hood should be used for this procedure.

  5. Contamination control by a greenhouse for emergency medical treatment of the contaminated patient.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuji; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Akashi, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    In emergency medical treatment of patients contaminated with radioactivity, air contamination control is very important to prevent the secondary contamination of medical staff. In order to optimize design of a greenhouse, a numerical analysis was made by using the Flow Designer software. As a scenario of air contamination, the breathing air of the patient was assumed to be highly contaminated with radioactive gaseous or particulate matter. It was found that air contamination strongly depended on the characteristics of the contaminants. The contamination map of the coarse aerosols with low diffusivity was quite different from those of the fine aerosols and gas. If the setting conditions of air-flow rate of the ventilation and the exhausting position were optimized, secondary contamination of the medical staff standing by the patient is prevented securely by a greenhouse.

  6. Les pyélonephrites aigues de la femme enceinte: place du traitement médical et indications d'un drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure (y'a-t-il des facteurs prédictifs cliniques, biologiques et radiologiques pour rendre le drainage licite?)

    PubMed Central

    El Bahri, Abdessamad; Janane, Abdellatif; Chafiki, Jaouad; Arnaud, Tayiri; Ghadouane, Mohammed; Ameur, Ahmed; Abbar, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Les pyélonéphrites aigues gravidiques (PNAg) sont fréquentes et peuvent avoir des conséquences maternelles et fœtales graves. Le but de notre étude était de déterminer les facteurs prédictifs cliniques, biologiques et radiologiques qui permettent de se limiter au traitement médical ou d'associer un drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure dans la prise en charge des PNAg. Nous rapportons, de façon rétrospective une série de 26 cas dans les services d'Urologie et de Gynécologie de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V de Rabat (Maroc) sur une période allant du 1er Janvier 2010 au 30 Aout 2012. Toutes les patientes avaient une PNAg symptomatique objectivée par l'ECBU et/ou l’échographie rénale. La fréquence de la pyélonéphrite aigue gravidique par rapport aux pyélonéphrites aigues en général a été de 27,95% avec une prédominance chez les primipares de 53,84%. Son pic de fréquence se situe à 73,08% pour les gestantes âgées de 19 à 37 ans ainsi qu'au troisième trimestre (77%) de la grossesse. La triade clinique fièvre, lombalgie, troubles mictionnels et l’échographie rénale sont les éléments importants du diagnostic. L'antibiothérapie probabiliste a été débuté d'emblée et adaptée en fonctions des résultats de l'examen cytobactériologique des urines. Sa durée est de trois à six semaines en fonction de l’évolution clinique. La protéine C réactive est un marqueur de progression de la maladie ou de l'efficacité thérapeutique. Les principaux facteurs prédictifs du drainage de la voie excrétrice supérieure sont: persistance de la symptomatologie clinique, du syndrome infectieux et des anomalies visibles à l’échographie rénale ainsi que l'altération de la fonction rénale. La montée de la sonde JJ est le principal traitement urologique. Le traitement médical repose sur l'antibiothérapie probabiliste qui sera adaptée Ultérieurement en fonction des résultats de l'antibiogramme. Les facteurs pr

  7. Alligators, contaminants and steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M; Moore, Brandon C

    2007-01-01

    Steroids are essential for successful reproduction in all vertebrate species. Over the last several decades, extensive research has indicated that exposure to various environmental pollutants can disrupt steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. Although steroidogenesis is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, it is also modified by various paracrine and autocrine factors. Furthermore, the classical two-cell model of steroidogenesis in the developing ovarian follicle, involving the granulosa and theca cells in mammals, may not be universal. Instead, birds and probably reptiles use the two thecal compartments (theca interna and theca externa) as sites of steroid production. We have documented that embryonic or juvenile exposure to a complex mixture of contaminants from agricultural and storm water runoff leads to altered steroid hormone profiles in American alligators. Our observations suggest that alterations in plasma steroid hormone concentrations are due in part to altered gene expression, modified hepatic biotransformation and altered gonadal steroidogenesis. Future studies must examine the interplay between endocrine and paracrine regulation in the development and expression of gonadal steroidogenesis in individuals exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants at various life stages if we are to fully understand potential detrimental outcomes.

  8. Chemical contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young; Yamauchi, Masanobu; Inoue, Suguru; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    The 21st Century's Center of Excellence (COE) Program "Coastal Marine Environmental Research" in Ehime University, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan, started its activities in October 2002. One of the core projects of the COE Program in Ehime University is "studies on environmental behavior of hazardous chemicals and their toxic effects on wildlife". This core project deals with studies of the local and global distribution of environmental contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, retrospective analysis of such chemicals, their toxicokinetics in humans and wildlife, molecular mechanisms to determine species-specific reactions, and sensitivity of chemically induced effects, and with the development of methodology for risk assessment for the conservation of ecological and species diversity. This presentation describes our recent achievements of this project, including research on contamination by arsenic and organohalogen pollutants in the Mekong River basin and molecular mechanisms of morphologic deformities in dioxin-exposed red seabream (Pagrus major) embryos. We established the Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) in Ehime University in 2004, archiving approximately 100000 cryogenic samples containing tissues of wildlife and humans that have been collected for the past 40 years. The CMES homepage offers details of samples through online database retrieval. The es-BANK facility was in operation by the end of 2005.

  9. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-02-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site.

  10. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    McNab, Jr., Walt W.; Ruiz, Roberto; Pico, Tristan M.

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  11. The possible contamination of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Joe

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo probe, though at present its future is uncertain, would, if not sterilized, represent a good chance of contaminating Jupiter. Most scientists opposed to sterilizing the probe argue that to order the probe sterilized would be the death of the project, since sterilization would entail a reconstruction of the probe, and there are not enough funds to accomplish this. These scientists, however, are ignoring a relatively simple and inexpensive alternative to the traditional heat sterilization method. The main threat of contamination comes from Galileo's exterior surfaces: the shell of the probe and its parachute. The probe innermost components would not represent a threat since the probe is sealed. In light of the fact that only the exterior of Galileo would have to be sterilized, heat would not have to be used as a method of sterilization. Instead, various gas mixtures could be sprayed entirely over the probe and its parachute, gases which would kill any and all bacteria. This idea is more thoroughly examined.

  12. PPCPS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS: AN ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a large, diverse array of contaminants thatcan enter the environment from the combined activities, actions, and behaviors of multitudes of individualsas well as from veterinary and agricultural use (http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/). Excretion, bathing, and disposal of leftover medications are the three primary routes of release from human activities(http://epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf). As trace environmental contaminants in waters,sediments, and sewage sludge, they are largely unregulated in the U.S. The concentrations of individual active ingredients in environmental samples such as surface waters often range from parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion ¿ micrograms to nanograms per liter. Multiple active ingredients and their degradates, however, frequently occur together. The total, combined levels of these substances in a given environmental sample can be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than their individual levels in waters, or up to the mg/kg level in treated sewage sludge (

  13. STS-1 mission contamination evaluation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H.; Miller, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The space transportation system 1 mission will be the first opportunity to assess the induced environment of the orbiter payload bay region. Two tools were developed to aid in this assessment. The shuttle payload contamination evaluation computer program was developed to provide an analytical tool for prediction of the induced molecular contamination environment of the space shuttle orbiter during its onorbit operations. An induced environment contamination monitor was constructed and tested to measure the space shuttle orbiter contamination environment inside the payload bay during ascent and descent and inside and outside the payload bay during the onorbit phase. Measurements are to be performed during the four orbital flight test series. Measurements planned for the first flight are described and predicted environmental data are discussed. The results indicate that the expected data are within the measurement range of the induced environment contamination monitor instruments evaluated, and therefore it is expected that useful contamination environmental data will be available after the first flight.

  14. Rutherford backscattering analysis of contaminants in PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D. E.; Pfeffer, R. L.; Sadler, G. D.

    1997-05-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to understand the sorption and desorption of organic contaminants in the polymer Poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET. Samples were exposed to a range of organics to simulate contamination of PET that can take place in the post-consumer waste stream. From RBS analysis, concentration depth profiles were shown to vary from a monolayer regime surface layer to a saturation level, depending on the contaminant. Heat treatments were also applied to contaminated polymer to simulate thermal processing steps in the recycling of PET. Heating caused a dramatic decrease in contaminants and in some cases a complete removal of contamination was achieved to the limit of RBS detectability.

  15. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-07-15

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

  16. Standardization of surface contamination analysis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion products, oils and greases can potentially degrade material bonding properties. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) utilizes a variety of analytical equipment to detect identify and quantify contamination on metallic and non-metallic substrates. Analysis techniques include FT-IR Microscopy (FT-IR), Near Infrared Optical Fiber Spectrometry (NIR), Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), Ultraviolet Fluorescence (UVF) and Ellipsometry. To insure that consistent qualitative and quantitative information are obtained, standards are required to develop analysis techniques, to establish instrument sensitivity to potential contaminants, and to develop calibration curves. This paper describes techniques for preparing and preserving contamination standards. Calibration of surface contamination analysis systems is discussed, and methods are presented for evaluating the effects of potential contaminants on bonding properties.

  17. Toothbrush contamination: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Frazelle, Michelle R; Munro, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults) and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  18. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  19. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Water-borne pathogen contamination in water resources and related diseases are a major water quality concern throughout the world. Increasing interest in controlling water-borne pathogens in water resources evidenced by a large number of recent publications clearly attests to the need for studies that synthesize knowledge from multiple fields covering comparative aspects of pathogen contamination, and unify them in a single place in order to present and address the problem as a whole. Providing a broader perceptive of pathogen contamination in freshwater (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater) and saline water (estuaries and coastal waters) resources, this review paper attempts to develop the first comprehensive single source of existing information on pathogen contamination in multiple types of water resources. In addition, a comprehensive discussion describes the challenges associated with using indicator organisms. Potential impacts of water resources development on pathogen contamination as well as challenges that lie ahead for addressing pathogen contamination are also discussed. PMID:25006540

  20. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

  1. Terrestrial contamination in Apollo lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1972-01-01

    The contamination prevention procedures adopted for controlling the collection, processing, and analysis of the Apollo lunar samples in order to keep them free of significant levels of terrestrial organic matter are described. The organic contaminants actually found in the samples by the various investigators are summarized. It is shown that the program succeeded in providing investigators with samples containing less than 0.1 ppm total contamination.

  2. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C.; Sung, K.; Corapcioglu, M.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual Ryegrass) in the phytoremediation of the soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and to determine the main mechanisms of target contaminant dissipation. The preliminary tests and laboratory scale tests were conducted to identify the main mechanisms for phytoremediation of the target contaminants, and to apply the technique in green house application under field conditions. The results of microcosm and bioreactor experiments showed that volatilization can be the dominant pathway of the target contaminant mass losses in soils. Toxicity tests, conducted in nutrient solution in the growth room, and in the greenhouse, showed that both Eastern gamagrass and Annual ryegrass could grow without harmful effects at up to 400 ppm each of all three contaminants together. Preliminary greenhouse experimentw were conducted with the 1.5 m long and 0.3 m diameter PVC columns. Soil gas concentrations monitored and microbial biomass in bulk and rhizosphere soil, root properties, and contaminant concentration in soil after 100 days were analyzed. The results showed that the soil gas concentration of contaminants has rapidly decreased especially in the upper soil and the contaminant concentraitons in soil were also significantly decreased to 0.024, 0.228, and 0.002 of C/Co for TCE, PCE and TCA, respectively. Significant plant effects were not found however showed contaminant loss through volatilization and plant contamination by air.

  3. Contamination of optical surfaces. [Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Graham S.; Hall, David F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of molecular contamination on Space Station optical surfaces is examined. In particular, contamination of solar voltaic power sources and optical solar reflectors for thermal control or solar dynamic power generation is addressed. The published Space Station requirements for molecular contamination accretion and for the monitoring of such accretion is discussed in the context of the historical performance of space systems. Specific reference is made to the results from the Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) ML12 experiment.

  4. 1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T. (Compiler); Benner, Steve M. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the presentation charts of talks given at the "1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop," held July 9-10, 1997, in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop was attended by representatives from NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Defense, industry, and universities concerned with the the spacecraft contamination engineering and thermal control coatings. The workshop provided a forum for exchanging new developments in spacecraft contamination and coatings.

  5. Modeling Facilitated Contaminant Transport by Mobile Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Kim, Seunghyun

    1995-01-01

    Introduction of exogenous biocolloids such as genetically engineered bacteria in a bioremediation operation can enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater by reducing the retardation effects. Because of their colloidal size and favorable surface conditions, bacteria are efficient contaminant carriers. In cases where contaminants have a low mobility in porous media because of their high partition with solid matrix, facilitated contaminant transport by mobile bacteria can create high contaminant fluxes. When metabolically active mobile bacteria are present in a subsurface environment, the system can be treated as consisting of three phases: water phase, bacterial phase, and stationary solid matrix phase. In this work a mathematical model based on mass balance equations is developed to describe the facilitated transport and fate of a contaminant and bacteria in a porous medium. Bacterial partition between the bulk solution and the stationary solid matrix and contaminant partition among three phases are represented by expressions in terms of measurable quantities. Solutions were obtained to provide estimates of contaminant and bacterial concentrations. A dimensional analysis of the transport model was utilized to estimate model parameters from the experimental data and to assess the effect of several parameters on model behavior. The model results matched favorably with experimental data of Jenkins and Lion (1993). The presence of mobile bacteria enhances the contaminant transport. However, bacterial consumption of the contaminant, which serves as a bacterial nutrient, can attenuate the contaminant mobility. The work presented in this paper is the first three-phase model to include the effects of substrate metabolism on the fate of groundwater contaminants.

  6. Surface evaluation of UV-degraded contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connatser, Robert; Hadaway, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Three different areas of work were accomplished under this contract: (1) contamination testing and evaluation; (2) UV irradiation testing; and (3) surface evaluation testing. Contamination testing was generally performed in the In-Situ Contamination Effects Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). UV irradiation testing was also performed primarily at MSFC, utilizing facilities there. Finally, the surface evaluation was done at facilities at UAH Center for Applied Optics.

  7. Payload/orbiter contamination control assessment support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Ress, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    The development and use is described of a basic contamination mathematical model of the shuttle orbiter which incorporates specific shuttle orbiter configurations and contamination sources. These configurations and sources were evaluated with respect to known shuttle orbiter operational surface characteristics and specific lines-of-sight which encompass the majority of viewing requirements for shuttle payloads. The results of these evaluations are presented as summary tables for each major source. In addition, contamination minimization studies were conducted and recommendations are made, where applicable, to support the shuttle orbiter design and operational planning for those sources which were identified to present a significant contamination threat.

  8. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework.

  9. Bond Testing for Effects of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaia, James; Evans, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 ATK Thiokol discovered that the smocks and coveralls worn by its operations personnel for safety and contamination control were themselves contaminated with a silicone defoamer and a silicone oil. As a growing list of items have been identified as having this form of contamination, it was desirable to devise a test method to determine if the contamination level detected could cause subsequent processing concerns. The smocks and coveralls could potentially contact bonding surfaces during processing so the test method focused on dry transfer of the silicone from the clothing to the bonding surface.

  10. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.

    2010-03-12

    The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination topography. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.

  11. Contamination monitoring approaches for EUV space optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David C.; Malina, Roger F.; Welsh, Barry J.; Battel, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from contaminant-induced UV optics degradation studies and particulate models are used here to develop end-of-service-life instrument contamination requirements which are very stringent but achievable. The budget is divided into allocations for each phase of hardware processing. Optical and nonoptical hardware are monitored for particulate and molecular contamination during initial cleaning and baking, assembly, test, and calibration phases. The measured contamination levels are compared to the requirements developed for each phase to provide confidence that the required end-of-life levels will be met.

  12. Radiosensibilité comparative des cellules épithéliales de trachée de rats après irradiation alpha in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, C.; Bailly-Despiney, I.; Lagroye, I.; Poncy, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    The main risk in nuclear industry is the internal contamination after inhalation of high LET alpha emitters radionuclides. Main targets of pulmonary carcinogenesis are epithelial respiratory tract cells. An in vitro study was performed in order to determine if a difference in the radiosensitivity occured in epithelial cells from the trachea of two rat strains: Sprague Dawley and Wistar Furth-Fischer F344 after alpha exposure. The cells were irradiated after sedimentation in a specific well. The irradiation was performed using 241Am electrodeposited sources. The irradiation dosecloning efficiency relation was evaluated. A kinetic study of the proliferation and the clonal growth has also been investigated. La contamination interne par inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs alpha de haut TEL est le risque majeur de l'industrie nucléaire. Les cibles principales de la cancérogenèse pulmonaire sont les cellules épithéliales de l'appareil respiratoire. Une étude in vitro a été menée pour déterminer s'il existe une différence de radiosensibilité aux rayonnement alpha, des cellules épithéliales trachéales de deux souches de rats : Sprague Dawley et Wistar Furth-Fischer F344. Les cellules sont irradiées sédimentées au fond d'un puit spécifique à l'aide de sources électrodéposées de 241Am. L'évaluation de la survie cellulaire en fonction de la dose d'irradiation est complétée par un suivi cinétique de la formation et de la prolifération des colonies.

  13. Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kuo-Fu

    1996-11-01

    The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

  14. Du nouveau dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European Biological Control Laboratory and the Association for the Development of Professional Beekeeping are working together to find a biological control solution against varroa mites. In spring 2005 the insect pathology team at EBCL found entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana, on varro...

  15. Where These Contaminants Are Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    The potential for in-factory environmental contamination exists for any food not biocidally treated in its end-use container. Microbes enter the factory environment from a variety of sources including worker's skin, garments, air, and ingredients, among others. Air, water, tools, workers, traffic, and other means transfer microbes in the non-sterile factory environment into niches that are inaccessible for cleaning and sanitation. Within these niches many bacteria can attach themselves to underlying surfaces using cell wall-bound structures given enough time. Bacteria that attach and are allowed to form biofilms can be protected from cleaners and sanitizers. This chapter contains many examples of operating practices and structures that may create growth niches or transmit microbes in the factory environment. Over 30 photographs illustrate these practices.

  16. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  17. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  18. Emerging food contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kantiani, Lina; Llorca, Marta; Sanchís, Josep; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2010-11-01

    Governments throughout the world are intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. These efforts come as a response to an increasing number of food-safety problems and increasing consumer concerns. In addition, the variety of toxic residues in food is continuously increasing as a consequence of industrial development, new agricultural practices, environmental pollution, and climate change. This paper reviews a selection of emerging contaminants in food, including the industrial organic pollutants perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and nanomaterials; the pharmaceutical residues antibiotics and coccidiostats; and emerging groups of marine biotoxins. The main analytical approaches for their detection and quantification in food will be presented and discussed with special emphasis on biological techniques, when these are feasible. In the last section, a summary of recent publications reporting the concentrations of these compounds in food will be presented and discussed.

  19. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  20. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  1. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  2. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  3. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  4. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  5. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  6. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Identification of critical process and contaminants, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid processes, handling procedures, and materials were examined to identify the critical process steps in which contamination is most likely to occur, to identify the particular contaminants associated with these critical steps, and to propose method for the control of these contaminants.

  7. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was

  8. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  9. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, ...

  10. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck...

  11. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level...

  12. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level...

  13. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck...

  14. PRIORITIZATION OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to identify chemical, physical, bacteriological, and viral contaminants, and their sources, which present the greatest health threat in public ground water supplies in the USA; and to classify (prioritize) such contaminants and relative to their...

  15. Skylab atmospheric contamination control. [for outgassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab contamination removal systems, preflight analysis and testing, and flight results are described. Results indicate that the combination of materials selection, the onboard removal devices, and the offgassing tests proved to be an effective means of controlling spacecraft contaminant levels.

  16. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    The 3 UNCLASSIFIED Energy Institute (EI) has published guidance documents and test methods relating to fuel quality measurement using... Energy (11) have conducted laboratory and field evaluations of particle counter technologies for fuel contamination monitoring. Testing has concluded...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  20. COSTS TO REMEDIATE MTBE-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extensive contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has introduced concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to sites with BTEX only contamination. In an attempt to evaluate these costs, cost information for 311 sites wa...

  1. Ambient air contamination: Characterization and detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nulton, C. P.; Silvus, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to characterize and detect sources of ambient air contamination are described. Chemical techniques to identify indoor contaminants are outlined, they include gas chromatography, or colorimetric detection. Organics generated from indoor materials at ambient conditions and upon combustion are characterized. Piezoelectric quartz crystals are used as precision frequency determining elements in electronic oscillators.

  2. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  3. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck...

  4. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level...

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Contamination Sensitivity Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    The following packet is a contamination control training intended for personnel handling or coming to contact with Lunar Reconnaissance Or biter (LRO) flight hardware. This training is being implemented to f amiliarize personnel, coming into contact with LRO hardware, what its contamination sensitivities are and what can be done by all to maint ain its cleanliness levels.

  6. Detecting Contaminated Drinking Water: Harnessing Consumer Complaints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-10

    their causes determined. Chemicals Detected by Consumers Several chemical agents change water quality properties when present. The consumer can...no single device can detect all chemical , biological, and radiological contaminants in the distribution system. The absence of a universal detector...consumers report complaints, (2) a list of chemical and biological contaminants and their physiochemical and aesthetic water quality effects, (3

  7. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Cole, Charles R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  8. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  9. Influence du débit et de la répartition de dose sur l'incidence des cancers pulmonaires après inhalation d'émetteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Morlier, J. P.; Monchaux, G.; Morin, M.

    1998-04-01

    We have discussed experimental results reported on the influence of dose rate and dose distribution on the incidence of lung tumors after inhalation exposure to α emitters. New experiments have been carried out to characterize the range of tumor risk which could vary over more than a factor 20 depending on the α activity of the inhaled particles. Long term effects induced in rats after inhalation of poorly soluble 237NpO2 and industrial PuO2 with a similar granulometry will be compared, the specific activities of which varying within a factor 500. Nous avons rapporté les différentes données expérimentales de cancérogenèse pulmonaire qui montrent une variation du risque d'induction des tumeurs après inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs α selon le débit et la répartition de dose. De nouvelles expérimentations ont été initiées afin de préciser ces variations qui s'étalent sur plus d'un facteur 20. Elles consistent à comparer les effets induits chez le rat après exposition à des aérosols de 237NpO2 et de PuO2 d'origine industrielle peu solubles et de granulométrie analogue dont les activités spécifiques diffèrent d'un facteur 500.

  10. Evaluation of performance impairment by spacecraft contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, I.; Hartman, R. J., Jr.; Mendez, V. M.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contaminants (isolated as off-gases in Skylab and Apollo missions) were evaluated. Specifically, six contaminants were evaluated for their effects on the behavior of juvenile baboons. The concentrations of contaminants were determined through preliminary range-finding studies with laboratory rats. The contaminants evaluated were acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), trichloroethylene (TCE), heptane and Freon 21. When the studies of the individual gases were completed, the baboons were also exposed to a mixture of MEK and TCE. The data obtained revealed alterations in the behavior of baboons exposed to relatively low levels of the contaminants. These findings were presented at the First International Symposium on Voluntary Inhalation of Industrial Solvents in Mexico City, June 21-24, 1976. A preprint of the proceedings is included.

  11. Contamination removal using various solvents and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeppsen, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Critical and non-critical bonding surfaces must be kept free of contamination that may cause potential unbonds. For example, an aft-dome section of a redesigned solid rocket motor that had been contaminated with hydraulic oil did not appear to be sufficiently cleaned when inspected by the optically stimulated electron emission process (Con Scan) after it had been cleaned using a hand double wipe cleaning method. As a result, current and new cleaning methodologies as well as solvent capability in removing various contaminant materials were reviewed and testing was performed. Bonding studies were also done to verify that the cleaning methods used in removing contaminants provide an acceptable bonding surface. The removal of contaminants from a metal surface and the strength of subsequent bonds were tested using the Martin Marietta and double-wipe cleaning methods. Results are reported.

  12. Contamination avoidance devices for poppettype shutoff valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endicott, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of the cycle life is reported of the scal closure of a typical poppet-type shutoff valve in an uncontaminated GH2 environment and then compared this component performance with simulated operation with GN2 and LN2 containing controlled amounts of AL2O3 contaminant particles. The original valve design was tested for contamination damage tolerance characteristics under full-flow and cyclic-operating conditions, redesigned to improve the damage tolerance to contaminants, and then retested. The redesigned valve was found to have acceptable tolerance characteristics under all full-flow conditions and cyclic operation with small (25-75 microns) particulate contamination. The tolerance characteristics of the valve under cyclic conditions with large (75-250 microns) particulate contamination was improved but was not found to be completely satisfactory.

  13. Theoretical contamination of cryogenic satellite telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of contaminant molecules, the deposition rate on key surfaces, and the heat transfer rate were estimated by the use of a zeroth-order approximation. Optical surfaces of infrared telescopes cooled to about 20 K should be considered to be covered with at least several deposition layers of condensible molecules without any contamination controls. The effectiveness of the purge gas method of contamination controls was discussed. This method attempts to drive condensible molecules from the telescope tube by impacts with a purge gas in the telescope tube. For this technique to be sufficiently effective, the pressure of the purge gas must be more than 2 x .000001 torr. The influence caused by interactions of the purged gas with the particulate contaminants was found to slightly increase the resident times of the particulate contaminants within the telescope field of view.

  14. Contamination detection NDE for cleaning process inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, W. J.; Dicristina, V.; Sonnenfroh, D.; Blair, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the joining of multilayer materials, and in welding, the cleanliness of the joining surface may play a large role in the quality of the resulting bond. No non-intrusive techniques are currently available for the rapid measurement of contamination on large or irregularly shaped structures prior to the joining process. An innovative technique for the measurement of contaminant levels in these structures using laser based imaging is presented. The approach uses an ultraviolet excimer laser to illuminate large and/or irregular surface areas. The UV light induces fluorescence and is scattered from the contaminants. The illuminated area is viewed by an image-intensified CCD (charge coupled device) camera interfaced to a PC-based computer. The camera measures the fluorescence and/or scattering from the contaminants for comparison with established standards. Single shot measurements of contamination levels are possible. Hence, the technique may be used for on-line NDE testing during manufacturing processes.

  15. Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shtangeeva, I.; Laiho, J.V-P.; Kahelin, H.; Gobran, G.R.

    2004-03-31

    Recent concerns regarding environmental contamination have necessitated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil and estimate possible ways to decrease the level of soil metal contamination. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that may be used to cleanup contaminated soils. Successful application of phytoremediation, however, depends upon various factors that must be carefully investigated and properly considered for specific site conditions. To efficiently affect the metal removal from contaminated soils we used the ability of plants to accumulate different metals and agricultural practices to improve soil quality and enhance plant biomass. Pot experiments were conducted to study metal transport through bulk soil to the rhizosphere and stimulate transfer of the metals to be more available for plants' form. The aim of the experimental study was also to find fertilizers that could enhance uptake of metals and their removal from contaminated soil.

  16. Ultraviolet absorption of common spacecraft contaminants. [to control effects of contaminants on optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Organic contamination of ultraviolet optical systems is discussed. Degradation of signal by reflection, scattering, interference, and absorption is shown. The first three processes depend on the physical state of the contaminant while absorption depends on its chemical structure. The latter phenomenon is isolated from the others by dissolving contaminants in cyclohexane and determining absorption spectra from 2100A to 3600A. A variety of materials representing the types of contaminants responsible for most spaceflight hardware problems is scanned and the spectra is presented. The effect of thickness is demonstrated for the most common contaminant, di(2 ethyl hexyl)phthalate, by scanning successive dilutions.

  17. Redistribution of intertidal sediment contaminants by microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Amani; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Nick; Sneddon, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) is a mixed community of microscopic algae inhabiting the top few millimetres of bottom sediment in the intertidal zone. It is a key component of the estuarine ecosystem, interacting with the sediment and fauna to influence sediment distribution and resuspension and forming the base of the estuarine food chain. Estuarine sediments, with which the MPB is closely associated, are a significant sink for contaminants from both fluvial and marine sources. Algae are known to have the capacity to take up contaminants, and the phytoplankton has been well studied in this respect, however there has been little research involving MPB. The extent to which contaminant uptake by MPB occurs and under what conditions is therefore very poorly understood. It seems probable that the paucity of research in this area is due to the complexity of the bioavailability of contaminants in the intertidal zone coupled with difficulties in separating MPB from the sediment. A series of experiments are proposed in which we will investigate (at a range of spatial scales) contaminant partitioning in the presence of MPB; the effect of changing temperatures on contaminant uptake and toxicity to MPB; effects of sediment resuspension on contaminant availability and uptake to MPB; and the uptake of contaminants from MPB to molluscs. A mesocosm (or experimental enclosure) is being constructed to replicate the natural system and enable manipulation of conditions of interest. This will attain greater realism than laboratory toxicity tests, with more statistical power than can be achieved through field studies. By gaining a better understanding of processes governing contaminant bioavailability and mechanisms for uptake by MPB it will be possible to relate these to projected climate change effects and ascertain potential consequences for contaminant redistribution.

  18. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  19. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  20. Influence of nonsoluble contaminants on the flashover voltages of artificially contaminated insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, R.; Kondo, K.; Naito, K.; Ishii, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of investigation into the influence of the kind of nonsoluble contaminant (Tonoko or Kaolin) on flashover voltages of artificially contaminated insulators. Deposit density of kaolin on the insulator surface is less than that of Tonoko when contaminated with the suspension containing the same amount of tonoko or Kaolin. However, discernible difference is observed in contamination flashover voltage between these two nonsoluble contaminants, not only under DC but also under AC when nonsoluble contaminant deposit densities (NSDD) are adjusted to the same degree. The difference in the performance is considered attributable to the less uniform contaminant layer produced by Tonoko suspension compared with Kaolin. When a dispersion agent was added to Tonoko suspension, which does not give any influence on the conductivity of the suspension, the layer uniformity and flashover voltage (FOV) for this modified Tonoko suspension became almost equal to those for Kaolin.

  1. [Contamination, endocrine disruptors and cancer].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, many species, very different from each other and located in all areas and comers of the planet, began presenting various alterations, many of which suggested to be related to endocrine disorders. Research has shown that such alterations were caused by exposure to various chemical contaminants that could affect the health and cause serious illnesses. Among them stands a diverse and large group of compounds, with very different chemical structures, capable of altering the hormonal balance, act at very low doses and with different mechanisms of action, that are called "endocrine disrupting chemicals". When released into the environment or as part of objects, food or medicines, constitute a major risk to animals and humans, which produces not only endocrine dysfunctions but also different cancers, which include the most common types. Despite the importance and significance of the impact of these compounds, they are not sufficiently known or understood, so the aim of this review is to show their origin and impact in the field of human health, highlighting their role as inducers of cancer, which has led to multiple clinical and biological investigations.

  2. Teenage experiments contaminate suburban property

    SciTech Connect

    Kassel, D.; Sass, W.; Lall, P.C.; Jensen, L.; Mitchell, J.

    1996-06-01

    In August 1994, 18-year-old Brian Cooper (not his real name) was detained by police in Clinton Township Michigan. When the police searched his car, they discovered a locked tool box and other containers that Brian said contained radioactive material resulting from experiments he had conducted with the radioactive material from, primarily, consumer products. From the ages 14 to 18, Brian spent his spare time at his Union Lake, Michigan, home attempting to concentrate, burn, chemically alter, and experiment with the thorium from hundreds of lantern mantles, radium from various luminescent sources and clock dials, smoke detector sources, and radioactive materials from natural ores. In the process, he had contaminated a wooden shed in his backyard and his bedroom, and injured and exposed himself. In 1995, EPA; their emergency response contractor, Ecology and Environment, Inc.; and the Michigan Department of Public Health performed an emergency assessment and removal at the property. The response and removal were conducted cost-effectively and generated approximately 10 cubic yards of radioactive waste.

  3. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  4. MEETING TODAY'S EMERGING CONTAMINANTS WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation will explore the many facets of research and development for emerging contaminants within the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratories (Athens, Cincinnati, Las Vegas, and Research Triangle Park). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for

  5. Perchlorate as an environmental contaminant.

    PubMed

    Urbansky, Edward Todd

    2002-01-01

    Perchlorate anion (ClO4-) has been found in drinking water supplies throughout the southwestern United States. It is primarily associated with releases of ammonium perchlorate by defense contractors, military operations, and aerospace programs. Ammonium perchlorate is used as a solid oxidant in missile and rocket propulsion systems. Traces of perchlorate are found in Chile saltpeter, but the use of such fertilizer has not been associated with large scale contamination. Although it is a strong oxidant, perchlorate anion is very persistent in the environment due to the high activation energy associated with its reduction. At high enough concentrations, perchlorate can affect thyroid gland functions, where it is mistakenly taken up in place of iodide. A safe daily exposure has not yet been set, but is expected to be released in 2002. Perchlorate is measured in environmental samples primarily by ion chromatography. It can be removed by anion exchange or membrane filtration. It is destroyed by some biological and chemical processes. The environmental occurrence, toxicity, analytical chemistry, and remediative approaches are discussed.

  6. Bioremediation of contaminated harbor sediments. 2: Monitoring of contaminant degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaegen, B.; De Brabandere, J.; Dumon, G.; Verstraete, W.

    1995-12-31

    A 3 phase project involving bench, pilot and full scale application aimed at bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mineral oil and tributyltin (TBT) contaminated sediments. On bench scale, biodegradation of PAH was monitored in 1-liter aerobic completely mixed reactors. The effect of adding microbial associations, surfactants and nutrients was monitored. Three parallel tests were set up: one monitored by means of {sup 14}C-labelled naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene, the other by GC-MSD analyses and a third by respirometry and HPLC. A shift from dichloromethane extractable {sup 14}C to non-extractable {sup 14}C for the labelled molecules was observed. Further analyses revealed that the nonextractable {sup 14}C was associated with the humines. The amount of {sup 14}C recovered as {sup 14}C-CO{sub 2} was 10% for benzo(a)pyrene and 54% for naphthalene. The results were not influenced by adding microbial inocula. Results of GC-MSD-measurements indicated an overall removal efficiency of 70% after 7 weeks (half-life: 1 month). Supplementary addition of bacteria sometimes gave slightly better results. During the pilot scale test, a systematic difference between GC-MSD and HPLC was detected. GC-MSD gave a bigger response on low molecular weight PAH. HPLC revealed higher concentrations for more complex PAH. Overall, GC-MSD was evaluated as the most valuable method. The experiment confirmed the bench scale kinetics. After 5 weeks the PAH-concentration remained constant. The overall removal efficiency was 70 to 90% after 5 months. Tributyltin and mineral oil were mineralized with about 70% (half-life: 15 weeks) and 90% respectively.

  7. Impact Of Groundwater Discharge On Contaminant Behavior In Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The discharge of groundwater into surface water may influence the concentrations and availability of contaminants in sediments. There are three predominant pathways by which groundwater may affect the characteristics of contaminated sediments: 1) direct contribution of contamin...

  8. 32 CFR 644.520 - Contaminated industrial property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... of contamination, or who agrees to perform the necessary decontamination. Any decontamination work... of the contamination. The description furnished to the DE should include the following...

  9. 32 CFR 644.520 - Contaminated industrial property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... of contamination, or who agrees to perform the necessary decontamination. Any decontamination work... of the contamination. The description furnished to the DE should include the following...

  10. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites

  11. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  12. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  13. Contaminated sediment dynamics in peatland headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Clay, Gareth; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, provide multiple ecosystem services, and when located in close proximity to urban and industrial areas, can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. The near-surface layer of the blanket peats of the Peak District National Park, UK, is severely contaminated with high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited lead (Pb). These peats are severely degraded, and there is increasing concern that erosion is releasing considerable quantities of this legacy pollution into surface waters. Despite substantial research into Pb dynamics in peatlands formal description of the possible mechanisms of contaminated sediment mobilisation is limited. However, there is evidence to suggest that a substantial proportion of contaminated surface sediment may be redistributed elsewhere in the catchment. This study uses the Pb contamination stored near the peat's surface as a fingerprint to trace contaminated sediment dynamics and storage in three severely degraded headwater catchments. Erosion is exposing high concentrations of Pb on interfluve surfaces, and substantial amounts of reworked contaminated material are stored on other catchment surfaces (gully walls and floors). We propose a variety of mechanisms as controls of Pb release and storage on the different surfaces, including: (i) wind action on interfluves; (ii) the aspect of gully walls, and (iii) gully depth. Vegetation also plays an important role in retaining contaminated sediment on all surfaces.

  14. Chemical contamination of ground water in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, S.P.; Agnihoiri, N.P.

    1996-10-01

    Ground water is the main source of drinking water in rural areas and many urban areas in India. In addition, it has been increasingly used for irrigation in farmland. Contamination of ground water by persistent inorganic and organic chemicals has emerged as a major environmental concern in recent years. Nitrate, fluoride, heavy metals and organochlorine compounds are found to be major contaminants of ground water in different parts of the country. At many places the concentrations of these chemicals exceed national and international guideline values for drinking water. While large concentrations of heavy metals come from industrial sources, agricultural activities are responsible for ground water contamination by nitrate and organochlorine insecticides.

  15. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  16. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-08-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  17. Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas. PMID:6015741

  18. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  19. New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility, Ohio, was measured using small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all measurement sites. Two ellipsometric models were developed to measure the oil film with the contamination film refractive index of DC 705: a continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. The island model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude. The continuous film model overestimated the oil volume by about 50 percent.

  20. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shay, T.A. ); Hoddinott, K. )

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    SciTech Connect

    Alezander, Francis; Anghel, Marian; Gulbahce, Natali; Tartakovsky, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  2. Ecotoxicology of organic contaminants to amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Sparling, Donald W.; Linder, Greg L.; Bishop, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of organic contaminants on amphibians are poorly known but of considerable interest. These contaminants include the highly toxic dioxins and furans as well as PCBs, PAHs and organochlorine pesticides. Although these compounds may have lower acute toxicity than dioxins and furans, they have been implicated in several problems associated with genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, malformations and reduced growth. There is evidence that amphibian tadpoles bioaccumulate these organic compounds and may have biological concentrating factors ranging in the hundreds. This chapter reviews what is known about the effects and concentrations of organic contaminants in amphibians and provides recommendations for further research

  3. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  4. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  5. Bioanalytical Methods for Food Contaminant Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds and other naturally occurring compounds. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food proc...

  6. Contamination and restoration of groundwater aquifers.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1993-01-01

    Humans are exposed to chemicals in contaminated groundwaters that are used as sources of drinking water. Chemicals contaminate groundwater resources as a result of waste disposal methods for toxic chemicals, overuse of agricultural chemicals, and leakage of chemicals into the subsurface from buried tanks used to hold fluid chemicals and fuels. In the process, both the solid portions of the subsurface and the groundwaters that flow through these porous structures have become contaminated. Restoring these aquifers and minimizing human exposure to the parent chemicals and their degradation products will require the identification of suitable biomarkers of human exposure; better understandings of how exposure can be related to disease outcome; better understandings of mechanisms of transport of pollutants in the heterogeneous structures of the subsurface; and field testing and evaluation of methods proposed to restore and cleanup contaminated aquifers. In this review, progress in these many different but related activities is presented. PMID:8354172

  7. Prioritizing Contaminants for Monitoring and Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA researcher presents work to develop methods and tools that integrate chemical monitoring with pathway-based bioactivity measurements, which will help provide screening-level assessments useful to identify and prioritize emerging contaminants.

  8. Contaminants of Emerging Concern - Methods Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analytical methods developed by EPA to identify and measure certain contaminants of emerging concern. These methods are not approved under 40 CFR Part 136, but may be of interest to regulated entities, permitting authorities, and the public.

  9. Infrared characterized spacecraft contaminants and related compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    The limits of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed, together with an explanation of some of the shortcomings of obtaining data in this range. Similarities and differences in the interest taken by the chemist/spectroscopist and the space/spectroscopist in the IR spectrum are discussed. The chemist uses IR spectra to identify materials and contaminants associated with spacecraft fabrication and testing. The space scientist, using IR spectrometry, can determine atmospheric conditions around planets, stars, and galaxies. He could also determine the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes, or even the temperature profile of the Sun. The importance of detecting contamination of spacecraft and the possible results of not taking corrective action are explored. All space experiments contain some contaminants, to a lesser or greater degree; the responsible personnel involved must determine the level of toleration. A collection of IR spectra of known spacecraft contaminants is presented as a guide for cognizant scientists and engineers.

  10. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electronic Media , Office of Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study ... Calendar Resources Resources Contact Us Frequently Asked Questions CDC Quick Links Data & Statistics Freedom of Information Act ...

  11. Research on the Management of Contaminated Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to provide solutions and restore sites whose soils or sediments are contaminated by environmental releases of chemicals and toxins, and protect ecosystems and public health from harmful exposure.

  12. CHILDREN'S DIETARY EXPOSURES TO CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires EPA to more accurately assess children's aggregate exposures to environmental contaminants. Children have unstructured eating behaviors which cause excess exposures as a result of their activities. Determining total dietary intak...

  13. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  14. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, Craig A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Eby, Lisa A.; Jackson, Leland J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper concludes that contaminants in Lake Michigan fishes are likely to remain above detectable levels for some time. Some interest groups have called for measures ranging from additional effluent controls to a ban on the industrial use of chlorine. Such measures, however well intended, are likely to have little impact on many of the contaminants of primary concern. PCBs, in particular, are largely the legacy of past activities and are not likely to be substantially affected by additional regulation. The authors review several options for reducing human exposure to PCBs, using relatively simple fisheries manipulations, although they do not propose that these measures are the ultimate solution to the contaminant problem. Of the options presented, the most promising is the replacement of lake trout with less-contaminated species, such as rainbow trout.

  15. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

  16. Bio-assays for microchemical environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    A solution of the problem of environmental contamination must be based on accurate measurement of the extent of the contamination and of the resulting hazards. This paper reviews the methods for the estimation of microchemical contaminants in water with the aid of living organisms. The methods are grouped according to the nature of the response of the organism to the contaminant—namely, acute response (usually death), behavioural change, physiological change, biochemical and histochemical change, ecological change, embryological and regenerational change, growth change, histological change and perception by man or aquatic organisms. Finally, the following problems are discussed: selection of appropriate tests and standardization, the dangers of sequential concentration and the need for multi-parametric assays (assays involving several responses of a single organism, or responses of several organisms) for complete characterization of the effects of a contaminant on the environment. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:5299747

  17. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  18. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  19. Verification tests for contaminant transport codes

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, R.K.; Nadarajah, P.

    1996-12-31

    The importance of verifying contaminant transport codes and the techniques that may be used in this verification process are discussed. Commonly used contaminant transport codes are characterized as belonging to one of several types or classes of solution, such as analytic, finite layer, boundary element, finite difference and finite element. Both the level of approximation and the solution methodology should be verified for each contaminant transport code. One powerful method that may be used in contaminant transport code verification is cross-checking (benchmarking) with other codes. This technique is used to check the results of codes from one solution class with the results of codes from another solution class. In this paper cross-checking is performed for three classes of solution; these are, analytic, finite layer, and finite element.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil.

  1. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Philippi, H.M.

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. CONTAMINANT ADSORPTION AND OXIDATION VIA FENTON REACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground water treatment process is proposed involving two cgemical processes: adsorption and oxidation. Adsorption of an organic compound onto granulated activated carbon (GAC) containing iron conveniently results in immobilizing and concentrating contaminants from the ground w...

  3. Methods for Environments and Contaminants: Drinking Water

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Information System Federal Version (SDWIS/FED) includes information on populations served and violations of maximum contaminant levels or required treatment techniques by the nation’s 160,000 public water systems.

  4. Groundwater contamination and emergency response guide

    SciTech Connect

    Guswa, J.H.; Donigian, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a review of equipment, methods, and field techniques; an overview of groundwater hydrology; and a methodology for estimating groundwater contamination under emergency response conditions. It describes techniques used to identify, quantify, and respond to groundwater pollution incidents.

  5. Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?

    PubMed

    Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination.

  6. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of atmospheric trace contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollis, David F.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed during the period 1 May - 31 Oct. 1992 on heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of atmospheric trace contaminants is presented. Topics discussed include photoreactor monolith fundamental studies and monolith reactor operation: batch recirculation system.

  7. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  8. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. ); Lewis, B.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  9. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental scientists are generally familiar with the concept of barriers for restricting the movement of contaminant plumes in ground water. Such barriers are typically constructed of highly impermeable emplacements of materials such as grouts, slurries, or sheet pilings to ...

  10. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Spacelab configuration contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hetrick, M. A.; Ress, E. B.; Strange, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The assessment of the Spacelab carrier induced contaminant environment was continued, and the ability of Spacelab to meet established contamination control criteria for the space transportation system program was determined. The primary areas considered included: (1) updating, refining, and improving the Spacelab contamination computer model and contamination analysis methodology, (2) establishing the resulting adjusted induced environment predictions for comparison with the applicable criteria, (3) determining the Spacelab design and operational requirements necessary to meet the criteria, (4) conducting mission feasibility analyses of the combined Spacelab/Orbiter contaminant environment for specific proposed mission and payload mixes, and (5) establishing a preliminary Spacelab mission support plan as well as model interface requirements; A summary of those activities conducted to date with respect to the modelling, analysis, and predictions of the induced environment, including any modifications in approach or methodology utilized in the contamination assessment of the Spacelab carrier, was presented.

  11. Contamination Control in Hybrid Microelectronic Modules. Part 1: Identification of Critical Process and Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Various hybrid processing steps, handling procedures, and materials are examined in an attempt to identify sources of contamination and to propose methods for the control of these contaminants. It is found that package sealing, assembly, and rework are especially susceptible to contamination. Moisture and loose particles are identified as the worst contaminants. The points at which contaminants are most likely to enter the hybrid package are also identified, and both general and specific methods for their detection and control are developed. In general, the most effective controls for contaminants are: clean working areas, visual inspection at each step of the process, and effective cleaning at critical process steps. Specific methods suggested include the detection of loose particles by a precap visual inspection, by preseal and post-seal electrical testing, and by a particle impact noise test. Moisture is best controlled by sealing all packages in a clean, dry, inert atmosphere after a thorough bake-out of all parts.

  12. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption

  13. METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

  14. Household Contamination with Salmonella enterica1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dale D.; Roozen, Paivi M.; Szymanski, Maryanne H.; Scheenstra, Beth C.; Cady, Kirsten M.; Besser, Thomas E.; Chudek, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Household contamination with Salmonella enterica increases when occupational exposure exists (cattle farms with known salmonellosis in cattle, a salmonella research laboratory, or a veterinary clinic experiencing an outbreak of salmonellosis). Fifteen of 55 (27.2%) vacuum cleaner bags from households with occupational exposure to S. enterica were positive versus 1 of 24 (4.2% without known exposure. Use of a carpet cleaner and several cleaners/disinfectants reduced, but failed to eliminate, S. enterica from artificially contaminated carpet. PMID:12533294

  15. The probabilistic structure of planetary contamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. M.; North, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The analytical basis for planetary quarantine standards and procedures is presented. The heirarchy of planetary quarantine decisions is explained and emphasis is placed on the determination of mission specifications to include sterilization. The influence of the Sagan-Coleman probabilistic model of planetary contamination on current standards and procedures is analyzed. A classical problem in probability theory which provides a close conceptual parallel to the type of dependence present in the contamination problem is presented.

  16. Microbiological contamination in counterfeit and unapproved drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Counterfeit and unapproved medicines are inherently dangerous and can cause patient injury due to ineffectiveness, chemical or biological contamination, or wrong dosage. Growth of the counterfeit medical market in developed countries is mainly attributable to life-style drugs, which are used in the treatment of non-life-threatening and non-painful conditions, such as slimming pills, cosmetic-related pharmaceuticals, and drugs for sexual enhancement. One of the main tasks of health authorities is to identify the exact active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in confiscated drugs, because wrong API compounds, wrong concentrations, and/or the presence of chemical contaminants are the main risks associated with counterfeit medicines. Serious danger may also arise from microbiological contamination. We therefore performed a market surveillance study focused on the microbial burden in counterfeit and unapproved medicines. Methods Counterfeit and unapproved medicines confiscated in Canada and Austria and controls from the legal market were examined for microbial contaminations according to the US and European pharmacopoeia guidelines. The microbiological load of illegal and legitimate samples was statistically compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Microbial cultivable contaminations in counterfeit and unapproved phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors were significantly higher than in products from the legal medicines market (p < 0.0001). Contamination levels exceeding the USP and EP limits were seen in 23% of the tested illegal samples in Canada. Additionally, microbiological contaminations above the pharmacopoeial limits were detected in an anabolic steroid and an herbal medicinal product in Austria (6% of illegal products tested). Conclusions Our results show that counterfeit and unapproved pharmaceuticals are not manufactured under the same hygienic conditions as legitimate products. The microbiological contamination of illegal medicinal

  17. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  18. Improving soil contamination monitoring in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombos, M.; Szabó, J.; Anton, A.; Pásztor, L.

    2009-04-01

    Development of national surveys and monitoring activities of soil contamination is currently one of the most important challenges in soil protection studies. In Hungary, the national Soil Information and Monitoring System (SIMS) has been established aiming to estimate changes in soil contaminants in agricultural lands and identify contaminated sites. However, besides the relatively high sample sizes of TIM (1236 point measurements) accuracies of the derived information on soil contamination are not known. The objectives of MONTABIO project are (1) to estimate the accuracy of SIMS by using additional up-to-date samplings of the typical soil contaminants using new field measurement methods; and (2) to develop spatial sampling design to improve the accuracy of the monitoring system. Towards aim (1) we measured toxic inorganic pollutants: heavy-metals, organic pollutants: pesticide residues and hydrocarbons in fields with different agricultural practices. Soil, soil water sampling and chemical analyses were completed according to standards. Differences and statistical power of the datasets provided by SIMS and our field sampling will be evaluated. In the interest of aim (2) regionalization of soil contamination coupled with further information (actual agricultural practices, soil physical and chemical parameters) will be conducted to optimize the spatial allocation of sampling points, to identify the relevant affecting factors and to minimize the required sample sizes.

  19. Bioremediation of munitions-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomi, E.; Coover, M.; Stroo, H.

    1994-12-31

    Military installations nationwide are required to cleanup soils contaminated with ordnance compounds, such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocine (HMX), and 1,3,5-2,4,2-triazine (RDX), introduced into the environment during the manufacture, use, storage, and disposal of explosives. Numerous laboratory and field studies have confirmed the effectiveness of aerobic biological treatment (composting) for remediation of soils contaminated with these and related nitroaromatics. Composting involves the incubation of contaminated soils with organic amendments under thermophilic conditions (i.e., temperatures between 40 and 70 C). Recently, the remediation of soils contaminated with nitroaromatics has also been demonstrated under anaerobic treatment conditions in bench- and field-scale studies. These studies have involved the incubation of soils in closed reactors or flooded soil cells with obligate anaerobic bacteria. Presented in this paper are the results of parallel bench-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatability studies carried out to aid in the selection of a treatment remedy for nitroaromatic contaminated soils. Bench-scale composting reactors were established by adding organic substrates to each soil at a 70% loading (on a volume basis). To investigate the anaerobic treatment of ordnance compounds, the SIMPLOT proprietary process was evaluated using a consortium of anaerobic bacteria. This process effectively remediated soil contaminated with Dinoseb, a related nitroaromatic compound, when tested in a field demonstration of the technology.

  20. Groundwater nitrate contamination: factors and indicators.

    PubMed

    Wick, Katharina; Heumesser, Christine; Schmid, Erwin

    2012-11-30

    Identifying significant determinants of groundwater nitrate contamination is critical in order to define sensible agri-environmental indicators that support the design, enforcement, and monitoring of regulatory policies. We use data from approximately 1200 Austrian municipalities to provide a detailed statistical analysis of (1) the factors influencing groundwater nitrate contamination and (2) the predictive capacity of the Gross Nitrogen Balance, one of the most commonly used agri-environmental indicators. We find that the percentage of cropland in a given region correlates positively with nitrate concentration in groundwater. Additionally, environmental characteristics such as temperature and precipitation are important co-factors. Higher average temperatures result in lower nitrate contamination of groundwater, possibly due to increased evapotranspiration. Higher average precipitation dilutes nitrates in the soil, further reducing groundwater nitrate concentration. Finally, we assess whether the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a valid predictor of groundwater nitrate contamination. Our regression analysis reveals that the Gross Nitrogen Balance is a statistically significant predictor for nitrate contamination. We also show that its predictive power can be improved if we account for average regional precipitation. The Gross Nitrogen Balance predicts nitrate contamination in groundwater more precisely in regions with higher average precipitation.

  1. Solar Development on Contaminated and Disturbed Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, Jordan; Lee, Courtney; Mosey, Gail; Melius, Jenny

    2013-12-01

    Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.

  2. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  3. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  4. Plasma-mediated ablation of biofilm contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Huang, Huan

    2010-12-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser removal of thin biofilm contamination on different substrates has been conducted via the use of plasma-mediated ablation. The biofilms were formed using sheep whole blood. The ablation was generated using a 1.2 ps ultra-short pulsed laser with wavelength centered at 1552 nm. The blood contamination was transformed into plasma and collected with a vacuum system. The single line ablation features have been measured. The ablation thresholds of blood contamination and bare substrates were determined. It is found that the ablation threshold of the blood contamination is lower than those of the beneath substrates including the glass slide, PDMS, and human dermal tissues. The ablation effects of different laser parameters (pulse overlap rate and pulse energy) were studied and ablation efficiency was measured. Proper ablation parameters were found to efficiently remove contamination with maximum efficiency and without damage to the substrate surface for the current laser system. Complete removal of blood contaminant from the glass substrate surface and freeze-dried dermis tissue surface was demonstrated by the USP laser ablation with repeated area scanning. No obvious thermal damage was found in the decontaminated glass and tissue samples.

  5. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  6. Remediation processes for heavy metals contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, G.A.; Torma, A.E.; Hsu, Pei-Cheng

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides information on selected technologies available for remediation of metal contaminated soils and industrial effluent solutions. Because some of the industrial sites are contaminated with organics (solvents, gasolines and oils), an effort has been made to introduce the most frequently used cost-effective cleanup methods, such as {open_quotes}bioventing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}composting.{close_quotes} The microorganisms involved in these processes are capable of degrading organic soil contaminants to environmentally harmless compounds: water and carbon dioxide. Heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated mining and industrial sites can be remediated by using adapted heap and dump leaching technologies, which can be chemical in nature or bio-assisted. The importance of volume reduction by physical separation is discussed. A special attention is devoted to the remediation of soils by leaching (soil washing) to remove heavy metal contaminants, such as chromium, lead, nickel and cadmium. Furthermore, the applicability of biosorption technology in the remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated industrial waste waters and acidic mining effluent solutions was indicated. 60 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Qualité de vie et vécu de la maladie, avant et après hystérectomie vaginale, chez les femmes admises au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Brazzaville

    PubMed Central

    Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, Léon Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu’il faut éradiquer car elle altère souvent de façon significative la qualité de la vie. L’hystérectomie vaginale est indiquée pour les patientes qui présentent certaines affections gynécologiques graves, elle est donc bénéfique mais, peut également avoir une répercussion néfaste sur la qualité de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le vécu de la maladie et de l’hystérectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et après l’intervention chirurgicale. Nous avons effectué une étude prospective qualitative, à recueil clinique sur une période de 12 mois; qui a concerné les femmes, ayant subi une hystérectomie vaginale. Celles n’ayant pas accepté de participer à l’étude, ou n’ayant pas de contact téléphonique n’ont pas été incluses. Pendant la maladie, le vécu des femmes a été: l’inconfort sexuel 26/40 (65%); les saignements génitaux 12/40 (30%); les douleurs pelviennes 13/40 (32,5%). En Post-opératoire, ont été noté les dyspareunies transitoires30/40 (75%) ; les céphalées secondaires à l’anesthésie 4/40 (10%). Le vécu psychologique a été dominé avant l’HV par la peur de la chirurgie chez toutes les patientes, les troubles du sommeil 38/40 (95%), l’angoisse 30 /40(75%), un sentiment de honte lié aux difficultés à accomplir l’acte sexuel en raison du prolapsus 26/40(65%) et/ ou en raison des saignements génitaux, dus au fibrome utérin 14/40(35%). Le sentiment de la perte de féminité était déclaré par 26/40 femmes porteuses de prolapsus utérin (65%), la modification de l’estime de soi 26/40 (65%). Ces appréciations subjectives ont été améliorées avec l’HV, contre balançant la perte de leur organe de reproduction. Aucune information n’a été donnée par les femmes à leurs proches et aux membres de la famille avant la chirurgie, traduisant ainsi leur sentiment de gène ou de honte. L’arrêt des symptômes a été observé dans tous les

  8. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  9. ANALYTICAL METHOD READINESS FOR THE CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), which was promulgated in March 1998, includes 50 chemical and 10 microbiological contaminants/contaminant groups. At the time of promulgation, analytical methods were available for 6 inorganic and 28 organic contaminants. Since then, 4 anal...

  10. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  11. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  12. Contamination effects on Space Station Freedom electric power system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1991-01-01

    One design issue for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is the potential performance decrease of the electric power system (EPS) solar arrays and radiators as a result of contamination on sensitive surfaces. The authors discuss SSF potential contamination sources and contamination effects on the solar array and radiator performance due to these sources. With these contamination consideration, the SSF EPS is designed for the induced contamination environment at an optimal cost. The efforts on contamination protection and control are undergoing continual update because of the changes in the SSF configuration and in the contamination requirements, and observations from recent flight and laboratory test data are continuously being incorporated into the design.

  13. Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) co-contaminated s...

  14. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  15. An OSEE Based Portable Surface Contamination Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.

    1997-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it's non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be output to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  16. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  17. Pathway models could aid management of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metal and trace organic contaminants are often cited as factors that could affect the riclmess of the biological communi~ of San Francisco Bay as well as the health of resident organisms. Silver (Ag), selenium (Se), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) are among the trace elements of current regulatory interest. All these elements can be toxic to estuarine organisms in minute quantities. However, understanding their toxicity in nature has proven a difficult challenge. In general, it is difficult to prove how pollutants are affecting ecosystems. The undisturbed "baseline" condition in San Francisco Bay is not always well enough understood to identify whether certain processes are affected or unaffected by contamination. Sources of disturbance (flow diversions, drought, invasion of exotic species, etc.) occur in addition to chemical contamination. Responses to contamination in individual organisms, populations, and commumties are seldom pollutant-specific, and the complex responses to moderate levels of contamination are not well known.

  18. Contamination and UV lasers: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, John G.

    2015-09-01

    Laser induced damage to optical elements has been a subject of significant research, development, and improvement, since the first lasers were built over the last 50 years. Better materials, with less absorption, impurities, and defects are available, as well as surface coatings with higher laser damage resistance. However, the presence of contamination (particles, surface deposition films, or airborne) can reduce the threshold for damage by several orders of magnitude. A brief review of the anticipated laser energy levels for damage free operation is presented as a lead into the problems associated with contamination for ultraviolet (UV) laser systems. As UV lasers become more common in applications especially in areas such as lithography, these problems have limited reliability and added to costs. This has been characterized as Airborne Molecular Contamination (AMC) in many published reports. Normal engineering guidelines such as screening materials within the optical compartment for low outgassing levels is the first step. The use of the NASA outgassing database (or similar test methods) with low Total Mass Loss (TML) and Condensed Collected Volatiles Collected Mass (CVCM) is a good baseline. Energetic UV photons are capable of chemical bond scission and interaction with surface contaminant or airborne materials results in deposition of obscuring film laser footprints that continue to degrade laser system performance. Laser systems with average powers less than 5 mW have been shown to exhibit aggressive degradation. Lessons learned over the past 15 years with UV laser contamination and steps to reduce risk will be presented.

  19. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  20. Mercury-contaminated sediments affect amphipod feeding.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Newman, Michael C; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    A 125-mile reach of the South River, Virginia, was contaminated with mercury during the first half of the 20th century. As increased concentrations of mercury have persisted, researchers have carefully studied its distribution in the river biota and estimated associated risks. The present study evaluated the influence of mercury on feeding rate and uptake by the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The test organisms were exposed for 7 days with leaf discs to reference and contaminated field sediment during the preliminary experiment and additionally to Sedimite (a commercial mercury-sequestering agent) amended sediments during the final experiment. The preliminary experiment demonstrated a decreased feeding rate (approximately 35%) of H. azteca in sediment from a contaminated site relative to sediment from a reference site. The test design of the final experiment took advantage of the knowledge gained in the preliminary experiment by increasing the number of replicates, which decreased the type II error rate. First, the results of the final experiment confirmed the results of the preliminary experiment by again demonstrating differences in the feeding rate of approximately 35% between reference and contaminated sediment. Second, the results indicated a lower feeding rate in reference sediment in the presence of Sedimite. Third, an opposite tendency, although not significant, was apparent for Sedimite-amended contaminated sediment. Thus, Sedimite appears to decrease sediment quality, whereas this conclusion is based on the feeding rate of H. azteca. However, Sedimite and its value as a mercury-sequestering agent requires further evaluation.