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Sample records for biology laboratory hog

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Biological Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moffett, James W.

    1963-01-01

    This laboratory located about 40 miles west of Detroit, near the intersection of highways I-94 and US-23, can be reached by bus, railroad, or via commercial airlines to Detroit Willow Run or Metropolitan airports. Field biological stations are located in Wisconsin at Ashland; in Ohio at Sandusky; and in Michigan at Ludington, Marquette, Millersburg, and Northville.

  3. Hog Farms in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a community's opinion and reaction to corporate hog farms. Acknowledges the vivid demonstration of literacy in these communities. Considers how these citizens use their literacy as political agents--just like they were taught to do in civics classes in high school--to participate in decisions affecting their lives. Considers the…

  4. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  5. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  6. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  7. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  8. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  9. From pigsties to hog heaven?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D A

    2001-01-01

    In the continuing transformation of U.S. agriculture, North Carolina finds itself on the front edge of change. Between 1989 and 1998, the number of hogs in the state's pork industry quintupled---and so has the amount of hog waste that must be disposed of. Now the state has engaged private and public resources in a rapid search for better ways for handling hog waste. A technology review panel has approved the first round of proposals for a number of novel technologies to be developed through funds from a government-industry agreement. A second batch of proposals is expected to be approved by late summer. PMID:11485887

  10. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. Integrating Introductory Biology and General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godrick, Elizabeth; Hartman, Standish

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science laboratory integrating biology and chemistry courses that includes four modules: (1) the fundamental process of reactions; (2) a semester-long project on the chemical assay of ascorbic acid; (3) human metabolism of Vitamin C; and (4) an open-ended project on the manipulation of macromolecules. (YDS)

  12. Investigating Coccolithophorid Biology in the Sedimentary Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, H. L. O.; Barbarin, N.; Beaufort, L.; Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores are the ocean's dominant calcifying phytoplankton; they play an important, but poorly understood, role in long-term biogeochemical climatic feedbacks. Calcite producing marine organisms are likely to calcify less in a future world where higher carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to ocean acidification (OA), but coccolithophores may be the exception. In coccolithophores calcification occurs in an intracellular vesicle, where the site of calcite precipitation is buffered from the external environment and is subject to a uniquely high degree of biological control. Culture manipulation experiments mimicking the effects of OA in the laboratory have yielded empirical evidence for phenotypic plasticity, competition and evolutionary adaptation in asexual populations. However, the extent to which these results are representative of natural populations, and of the response over timescales of greater than a few hundred generations, is unclear. Here we describe a new sediment-based proxy for the PIC:POC (particulate inorganic to particulate organic carbon ratio) of coccolithophore biomass, which is equivalent to the fractional energy contribution to calcification at constant pH, and a biologically meaningful measure of the organism's tendency to calcify. Employing the geological record as a laboratory, we apply this proxy to sedimentary material from the southern Pacific Ocean to investigate the integrated response of real ancient coccolithophore populations to environmental change over many thousands of years. Our results provide a new perspective on phenotypic change in real populations of coccolithophorid algae over long timescales.

  13. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  14. Radiation and Its Use in Biology: A Laboratory Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    This booklet contains a six-week series of laboratory investigations that may be used individually or in combination to complement other biology course materials or as an independent laboratory course in radiation biology. Contents include twelve activities dealing with radiation biology, five additional activities suitable for individual work,…

  15. Optimizing settling conditions for treatment of liquid hog manure.

    PubMed

    Trias, M; Mortula, M M; Hu, Z; Gagnon, G A

    2004-08-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used separation method for treating agricultural waste. There are several chemical and biological characteristics, which can affect the settling behavior and liquid waste. The optimization of cation balances and potential for nitrification are among these processes. In addition to sedimentation, it can also affect the dewaterability of the samples. Liquid hog manure was used during the laboratory based experiments to investigate the effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and nitrification inhibition on the overall settling and dewatering characteristics. The results indicated that settling and dewatering characteristics improved during the course of the experiments. However, the improvement in settling and dewatering characteristics was inconsistent and not statistically significant. Cation addition in aerated reactor increased the highest settling velocity (94%). The improvement in dewaterability, as quantified by capillary suction time, was also not consistent. The greatest filterability observed in the supernatant was a capillary suction time of 40 s for a M:D ratio of 2:1. Initial NH 4 + concentration was more important than the nitrification inhibitor, as the presence of nitrification inhibitor increased the nitrification rate by over 300% because of the high initial NH 4 + concentration and low volatile suspended solid. The results from these experiments provide the basis for further field evaluation of cation optimization. PMID:15366563

  16. Optimizing settling conditions for treatment of liquid hog manure.

    PubMed

    Trias, M; Mortula, M M; Hu, Z; Gagnon, G A

    2004-08-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used separation method for treating agricultural waste. There are several chemical and biological characteristics, which can affect the settling behavior and liquid waste. The optimization of cation balances and potential for nitrification are among these processes. In addition to sedimentation, it can also affect the dewaterability of the samples. Liquid hog manure was used during the laboratory based experiments to investigate the effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and nitrification inhibition on the overall settling and dewatering characteristics. The results indicated that settling and dewatering characteristics improved during the course of the experiments. However, the improvement in settling and dewatering characteristics was inconsistent and not statistically significant. Cation addition in aerated reactor increased the highest settling velocity (94%). The improvement in dewaterability, as quantified by capillary suction time, was also not consistent. The greatest filterability observed in the supernatant was a capillary suction time of 40 s for a M:D ratio of 2:1. Initial NH 4 + concentration was more important than the nitrification inhibitor, as the presence of nitrification inhibitor increased the nitrification rate by over 300% because of the high initial NH 4 + concentration and low volatile suspended solid. The results from these experiments provide the basis for further field evaluation of cation optimization.

  17. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  18. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  19. Tensions in the Biology Laboratory: What Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify tensions in teacher-student interaction in a high school biology laboratory. Using micro-analytic analysis of classroom talk, the interaction between the students and a teacher working in the biology laboratory session on "Reproduction in Plants" is studied. The two tensions highlighted here are tension…

  20. Classical Swine Fever in Wild Hog: Report of its Prevalence in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Khatoon, E; Mandal, S; Rakshit, A; Rajbongshi, G; Depner, K; Chakraborty, A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease, hog cholera in pigs. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect the animals from CSFV infection. Wild hogs belong to the species Sus Scrofa Cristatus under the family Suidae are quite susceptible to CSFV infection. The epidemiological role concerning classical swine fever (CSF) in India is largely unknown. We report here the three isolated cases of CSF in wild hogs from three National parks, namely Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and Jaldapara National Park, from north-east part of India. The post-mortem and histopathological findings were clearly indicative for CSFV infection. The presence of CSFV genome was demonstrated in several organs and tissues collected from hogs died due to viral infection. In addition, CSF-specific antibodies were detected in two wild hogs as well as in eighteen feral pigs from the same locations. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial E2 protein gene and 5' untranslated region of CSFV isolates from the wild hog showed identities with genotype 2.2 of the Indian isolates. Occurrence of CSF in wild hogs may pose a potent threat in the epidemiology of the virus in Northeast part of India. To the best of our knowledge, the report presented in the manuscript is the first comprehensive report on CSF in wild hogs form Northeast India. The findings reported would help us to understand the epidemiology and biology of CSFV in wild animals.

  1. Classical Swine Fever in Wild Hog: Report of its Prevalence in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Khatoon, E; Mandal, S; Rakshit, A; Rajbongshi, G; Depner, K; Chakraborty, A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease, hog cholera in pigs. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect the animals from CSFV infection. Wild hogs belong to the species Sus Scrofa Cristatus under the family Suidae are quite susceptible to CSFV infection. The epidemiological role concerning classical swine fever (CSF) in India is largely unknown. We report here the three isolated cases of CSF in wild hogs from three National parks, namely Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and Jaldapara National Park, from north-east part of India. The post-mortem and histopathological findings were clearly indicative for CSFV infection. The presence of CSFV genome was demonstrated in several organs and tissues collected from hogs died due to viral infection. In addition, CSF-specific antibodies were detected in two wild hogs as well as in eighteen feral pigs from the same locations. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial E2 protein gene and 5' untranslated region of CSFV isolates from the wild hog showed identities with genotype 2.2 of the Indian isolates. Occurrence of CSF in wild hogs may pose a potent threat in the epidemiology of the virus in Northeast part of India. To the best of our knowledge, the report presented in the manuscript is the first comprehensive report on CSF in wild hogs form Northeast India. The findings reported would help us to understand the epidemiology and biology of CSFV in wild animals. PMID:25430917

  2. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  3. An Integration of Chemistry, Biology, and Physics: The Interdisciplinary Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Haskell, Richard C.; McFadden, Catherine S.; Wettack, F. Sheldon

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a first-year laboratory sequence known as the Interdisciplinary Laboratory (ID Lab) introduced at Harvey Mudd College. The course seeks to illustrate commonality of investigative methods and laboratory techniques in biology, chemistry, and physics and introduce discipline-specific principles. Provides details of the experiments…

  4. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  5. Laboratory Safety in the Biology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritch, Donna; Rank, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a research project to determine if students possess and comprehend basic safety knowledge. Shows a significant increase in the amount of safety knowledge gained when students are exposed to various topics in laboratory safety and are held accountable for learning the information as required in a laboratory safety course. (Author/MM)

  6. The Illusion of the Instructional Biology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the changing informational content of biology, tightening cost constraints, improving electronic media, increasing pressures from advocates of animal rights, and the growing evidence of the effectiveness of electronic modes of instruction are undermining the traditional belief that all students in biology should have the benefit of…

  7. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. PMID:10706528

  8. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state.

  9. Analog Computer Laboratory with Biological Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    The use of biological examples in teaching applications of the analog computer is discussed and several examples from mathematical ecology, enzyme kinetics, and tracer dynamics are described. (Author/GA)

  10. [Biological safety in the laboratory. Biological risk, standardization and practice].

    PubMed

    Vidal, D R; Paucod, J C; Thibault, F; Isoard, P

    1993-01-01

    Working with pathogens or genetically engineered micro-organisms is a potential hazard for scientists, health care workers, employees of pharmaceutical industry, and also for the environment. Carelessness, poor technique in the handling of infectious materials, needle sting or infectious aerosol exposure are the cause of laboratory acquired infection. Biosafety, corollary of biocontamination, is based on the combination of good microbiological techniques, facility design of the laboratory and safety equipment. So, four biosafety levels are appropriate for the operations performed and the hazard posed by the infectious agents. PMID:8250492

  11. Investigating Evolutionary Biology in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, William F., Ed.

    This document presents a collection of useful laboratory-based activities for teaching about evolution. Some of the activities in this monograph are previously unpublished exercises, some are new versions of well-known labs, a few make useful classroom demonstrations, and several require somewhat sophisticated equipment. As a group, the activities…

  12. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology, Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual contains instructions for laboratory exercises using marine organisms. For each exercise a problem is defined, materials are listed, possible ways to solve the problem are suggested, questions are asked to guide the student in interpreting data, and further reading is suggested. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen…

  13. Graphic Biology Laboratory Modules for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Austin E.

    The goal of this project was to devise new methods of producing tactile facsimiles of microscopic images for the blind and visually impaired biology students at the secondary and college level. The numerous raised-line images that were produced were assembled along with brailled and large print student instructions, audio cassette tapes describing…

  14. Some Experiments with Biological Applications for the Elementary Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammer, D. W.; Williams, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Summarizes physics laboratory experiments with applications in the biological sciences. Includes the following topics: mechanics of the human arm, fluid flow in tubes, physics of learning, the electrocardiograph, nerve impulse conduction, and corrective lenses for eye defects. (Author/MLH)

  15. Chemistry and Biology Laboratories. Design--Construction--Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Werner

    Guidelines for planning, building, and equipping the biological and chemical laboratory are revealed, along with construction methods for the modernization or building of new academic or industrial type laboratories. Building equipment, services, utilities, and materials data are given with rules concerning the dimensions and services of…

  16. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  17. Biology Student Teachers' Ideas about Purpose of Laboratory Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Musa

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate biology student teachers' ideas about the purpose of laboratory work in teaching biology. Data has been collected from 82 participating students using an open-ended questionnaire and analyzed using content analysis techniques. The results show that almost all of the student teachers considered laboratory…

  18. An Integrated Biology-Chemistry Freshman Laboratory Project in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Marilyn Shimizu

    1999-01-01

    Describes a freshman biology laboratory project that uses the polymerase chain reaction to introduce students to the interrelationship between biology and chemistry. Students must develop their own experimental protocol, perform calculations introduced in freshman classes, and evaluate group dynamics. (Author/WRM)

  19. Laboratory animal: biological reagent or living being?

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, C.V.P.; de Almeida, A.E.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The duties of humans toward non-human animals and their rights in society have been debated for a long time. However, a discussion on the terminology used for the identification of laboratory animals is usually not considered, although the employment of inadequate terminology may generate disastrous consequences for the animals before, during, and after the experiment. This study intends to defend the use of appropriate terminology, call attention to an unethical attitude of certain professionals when dealing with experimental animals, and also propose operational mechanisms, which allow for those distortions to be corrected. PMID:24345873

  20. Laboratory animal: biological reagent or living being?

    PubMed

    Cardoso, C V P; Almeida, A E C C de

    2014-01-01

    The duties of humans toward non-human animals and their rights in society have been debated for a long time. However, a discussion on the terminology used for the identification of laboratory animals is usually not considered, although the employment of inadequate terminology may generate disastrous consequences for the animals before, during, and after the experiment. This study intends to defend the use of appropriate terminology, call attention to an unethical attitude of certain professionals when dealing with experimental animals, and also propose operational mechanisms, which allow for those distortions to be corrected.

  1. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  2. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319.144 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  3. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  4. A qualitative characterization of an introductory college nonmajors biology laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cherin Ann

    The nature of an undergraduate, nonmajors biology laboratory was investigated in this study. Student participants were enrolled in a general education biology laboratory course at the University of Northern Iowa. The researcher's purpose was to gain a characterization of the instructional format and laboratory activities experienced by students. Interpretation of student and instructor responses enabled an insider's view of the biology laboratory. The laboratory period was consistently described by both students and instructors as having three parts, Beginning, Middle, and End, with the End being of special importance for conceptual development. The instructional format of the three instructors differed within the three portions of the laboratory period, ranging from an inquiry-oriented, partial learning cycle to a fairly expository model labeled inform/verify/practice. There was striking similarity in intrasectional student and teacher descriptions of instructional format. Additionally, students experiencing the alternate instructor provided the same characterizations of instructional format as those provided by the instructor's usual students. There were no discernible patterns of instructional format based on sex or reasoning level. In addition to the central role of instructional format, three areas of importance emerged: the social aspects of learning, the collaborative and cooperative nature of laboratory work and learning, and the role of self-efficacy. Theory developed from and grounded in the data showed six factors important in the introductory college biology laboratory: collaborative and cooperative learning, student-student and teacher-student interactions, attitude and self-efficacy, learning process and learning style, effective instructional format, and science content. These factors were found to be similar to factors identified in the literature as important in K-12 science education. These factors were set in the context of schooling and learning

  5. A Practical Polymerase Chain Reaction Laboratory for Introductory Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlus, R. David; Grether, Susan C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory exercise that can be performed by introductory biology students in 1 45- to 55-minute class period. Includes a general description of the polymerase chain reaction, materials needed, procedure, and details of interest to teachers. (JRH)

  6. Characterizing High School Students' Written Explanations in Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive research study was to examine high school students' written scientific explanations during biology laboratory investigations. Specifically, we characterized the types of epistemologies and forms of reasoning involved in students' scientific explanations and students' perceptions of scientific…

  7. Modeling Radial Holoblastic Cleavage: A Laboratory Activity for Developmental Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory activity designed for an undergraduate developmental biology course. Uses Play-Doh (plastic modeling clay) to build a multicellular embryo in order to provide a 3-D demonstration of cleavage. Includes notes for the instructor and student directions. (YDS)

  8. Structural biology facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s high flux beam reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Korszun, Z.R.; Saxena, A.M.; Schneider, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The techniques for determining the structure of biological molecules and larger biological assemblies depend on the extent of order in the particular system. At the High Flux Beam Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Biology Department operates three beam lines dedicated to biological structure studies. These beam lines span the resolution range from approximately 700{Angstrom} to approximately 1.5{Angstrom} and are designed to perform structural studies on a wide range of biological systems. Beam line H3A is dedicated to single crystal diffraction studies of macromolecules, while beam line H3B is designed to study diffraction from partially ordered systems such as biological membranes. Beam line H9B is located on the cold source and is designed for small angle scattering experiments on oligomeric biological systems.

  9. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  10. Professor Created On-line Biology Laboratory Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will share the creation, implementation, and modification of an online college level general biology laboratory course offered for non-science majors as a part of a General Education Curriculum. The ability of professors to develop quality online laboratories will address a growing need in Higher Education as more institutions combine course sections and look for suitable alternative course delivery formats due to declining departmental budgets requiring reductions in staffing, equipment, and supplies. Also, there is an equal or greater need for more professors to develop the ability to create online laboratory experiences because many of the currently available online laboratory course packages from publishers do not always adequately parallel on-campus laboratory courses, or are not as aligned with the companion lecture sections. From a variety of scientific simulation and animation web sites, professors can easily identify material that closely fit the specific needs of their courses, instructional environment, and students that they serve. All too often, on-campus laboratory courses in the sciences provide what are termed confirmation experiences that do NOT allow students to experience science as would be carried out by scientists. Creatively developed online laboratory experiences can often provide the type of authentic investigative experiences that are not possible on-campus due to the time constraints of a typical two-hour, once-per-week-meeting laboratory course. In addition, online laboratory courses can address issues related to the need for students to more easily complete missing laboratory assignments, and to have opportunities to extend introductory exercises into more advanced undertakings where a greater sense of scientific discovery can be experienced. Professors are strongly encourages to begin creating online laboratory exercises for their courses, and to consider issues regarding assessment, copyrights, and Intellectual Property

  11. Removal design report for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Most of the 100-F facilities were deactivated with the reactor and have since been demolished. Of the dozen or so reactor-related structures, only the 105-F Reactor Building and the 108-F Biology Laboratory remain standing today. The 108-F Biology Laboratory was intended to be used as a facility for the mixing and addition of chemicals used in the treatment of the reactor cooling water. Shortly after F Reactor began operation, it was determined that the facility was not needed for this purpose. In 1949, the building was converted for use as a biological laboratory. In 1962, the lab was expanded by adding a three-story annex to the original four-story structure. The resulting lab had a floor area of approximately 2,883 m{sup 2} (main building and annex) that operated until 1973. The building contained 47 laboratories, a number of small offices, a conference room, administrative section, lunch and locker rooms, and a heavily shielded, high-energy exposure cell. The purpose of this removal design report is to establish the methods of decontamination and decommissioning and the supporting functions associated with facility removal and disposal.

  12. Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

  13. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  14. Teaching PCR Through Inquiry in an Undergraduate Biology Laboratory Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorighi, K. M.; Betancourt, J.; Sapp, J.; Quan, T. K.; Lee, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of an inquiry-based laboratory unit on the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This unit was designed and taught for the undergraduate Eukaryotic Genetics Laboratory class (Bio105L) at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Our activity utilizes an authentic molecular biology research question to teach the underlying molecular mechanisms and experimental technique of PCR, as well as fundamental scientific process skills such as planning experiments, making predictions and interpreting data. In particular, the activity prompts students to use PCR to determine which gene has been deleted in a region of the Drosophila genome. During this activity, students also gained technical experience in common molecular biology techniques, learned about additional applications of PCR and used a hands-on approach to model each step of PCR.

  15. [Cooperations between biology laboratories of the establishments of healthcare].

    PubMed

    Burnat, Pascal; Payen, Catherine; Mérens, Audrey; Ceppa, Franck; Renard, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In France, the cooperations between biological laboratories of the healthcare establishments increased after those realized in the private laboratories. The biologists are confronted with various hypotheses of organization. They are often complex because they may preserve the quality of the care and their continuity while realizing financial economies. These economies are mostly based on the global reduction in the staff and in the equipments by mutualising the biological tests with varying degrees. We describe the various elements to be taken into account (staff, activities, budget, quality, transport, materials) and propose many scenarios of cooperations, from a unique central shape to the transfer of very specialized tests, with their advantages and their inconveniences. The management of human aspects in these cooperations is determining to facilitate their success as well as a reliable preliminary inventory of fixtures.

  16. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    PubMed

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  17. A Guided-Inquiry pH Laboratory Exercise for Introductory Biological Science Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Meagan A.; Lux, Nicholas; Metz, Anneke M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a continuing need for engaging inquiry-based laboratory experiences for advanced high school and undergraduate biology courses. The authors describe a guided-inquiry exercise investigating the pH-dependence of lactase enzyme that uses an inexpensive, wide-range buffering system, lactase dietary supplement, over-the-counter glucose test…

  18. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshnek, V.

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6- g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6- g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity.

  19. Use of Veterinary Records To Teach Laboratory Thinking Skills in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolverton, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a laboratory protocol using clinical veterinary data that teaches the cognitive, analytical, communication, and interpersonal skills necessary for students in a biology core laboratory course. (WRM)

  20. Web Camera Use in Developing Biology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Paul J.; Deibel, Michael; Kelly, Ian; Mulnix, Amy B.; Peck, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    The use of a network-ready color camera is described which is primarily marketed as a security device and is used for experiments in developmental biology, genetics and biochemistry laboratories and in special student research projects. Acquiring and analyzing project and archiving images is very important in microscopy, electrophoresis and…

  1. BION - A Unique Space Biological Laboratory: Reviews and Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakova, A. E.; Abrashkin, V. I.; Kozlov, V. D.; Nikanorov, V. M.

    2002-01-01

    unique fundamental and applied researches in field of space biology. facilities when launch date, life time, orbital parameters, operation of the onboard equipment are subject to the benefit of the scientific research. of space system optimization prior to flight tests including ground and airplane tests with research hardware and animals involved. new relevant research hardware was also manufactured. influence of space flight on Earth organisms; combined influence of weightlessness and increased radiation on an organism; implementation of artificial gravity as a preventive aid; possibilities of fertilization and fetal growth under space flight conditions. amphibia, tortoises, laboratory rats, monkeys and others were used in space as biological objects. In total, they constituted 37 appellations. of the system. At present Bion S/C is a space facility, which meets scientific requirements and provides full scale of services to Customers.

  2. [Hygiene and security management in medical biology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Vinner, E; Odou, M F; Fovet, B; Ghnassia, J C

    2013-06-01

    Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined.

  3. Hematologic and Biochemical Biologic Variation in Laboratory Cats.

    PubMed

    Trumel, Catherine; Monzali, Céline; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier V; Hourqueig, Louise; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie H

    2016-01-01

    The biologic variation associated with a clinical pathology result is important to consider before reference intervals (RI) are used. Most available RI are population-based RI, in which the analytical variability, interindividual variability, and intraindividual variability are confounded. In addition, when the intraindividual variability is considerably less than the interindividual variability, a population-based RI is insufficiently sensitive to detect changes in a subject over time. Here we determined the biologic variation and reference change value (RCV) of hematologic and biochemical variables in laboratory cats. Blood specimens from 14 (7 females and 7 males) overnight-fasted laboratory cats sampled 7 times (days 1, 2, 7, 14, 31, 42, and 100) were analyzed regarding hematology and biochemistry variables. For each variable, analytical, intraindividual, and interindividual coefficients of variation were estimated prior to calculation of the index of individuality and the RCV. RBC variables (count, Hgb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RBC distribution width) and 5 biochemical analytes (cholesterol, creatinine, triglycerides, ALP, and calcium) exhibited marked individuality, therefore indicating that subject-based reference intervals or RCV would be preferable when monitoring these variables in laboratory cats. Population-based RI were shown to be adequate for glucose and sodium, and both types of population and individual RI were similarly efficient for albumin, total protein, urea, ALT, AST, creatine kinase, chloride, carbon dioxide, iron, magnesium, inorganic phosphate, and potassium and reticulocyte, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and platelet counts. The RCV determined in the present study provide a valuable tool for monitoring hematologic and biochemical variables in healthy laboratory cats. PMID:27657703

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  5. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  6. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  7. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  8. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  9. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  10. Exploring Metagenomics in the Laboratory of an Introductory Biology Course†

    PubMed Central

    Gibbens, Brian B.; Scott, Cheryl L.; Hoff, Courtney D.; Schottel, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Four laboratory modules were designed for introductory biology students to explore the field of metagenomics. Students collected microbes from environmental samples, extracted the DNA, and amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Students designed functional metagenomics screens to determine and compare antibiotic resistance profiles among the samples. Bioinformatics tools were used to generate and interpret phylogenetic trees and identify homologous genes. A pretest and posttest were used to assess learning gains, and the results indicated that these modules increased student performance by an average of 22%. Here we describe ways to engage students in metagenomics-related research and provide readers with ideas for how they can start developing metagenomics exercises for their own classrooms. PMID:25949755

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  14. PCA-HOG symmetrical feature based diseased cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Min-jie

    2016-04-01

    A histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature is applied to the field of diseased cell detection, which can detect diseased cells in high resolution tissue images rapidly, accurately and efficiently. Firstly, motivated by symmetrical cellular forms, a new HOG symmetrical feature based on the traditional HOG feature is proposed to meet the condition of cell detection. Secondly, considering the high feature dimension of traditional HOG feature leads to plenty of memory resources and long runtime in practical applications, a classical dimension reduction method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of high-dimensional HOG descriptor. Because of that, computational speed is increased greatly, and the accuracy of detection can be controlled in a proper range at the same time. Thirdly, support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained with PCA-HOG symmetrical features proposed above. At last, practical tissue images is detected and analyzed by SVM classifier. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new algorithm, it is practically applied to conduct diseased cell detection which takes 200 pieces of H&E (hematoxylin & eosin) high resolution staining histopathological images collected from 20 breast cancer patients as a sample. The experiment shows that the average processing rate can be 25 frames per second and the detection accuracy can be 92.1%.

  15. Integrating Mathematics into the Introductory Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James D.; Carpenter, Jenna P.

    2008-01-01

    Louisiana Tech University has an integrated science curriculum for its mathematics, chemistry, physics, computer science, biology-research track and secondary mathematics and science education majors. The curriculum focuses on the calculus sequence and introductory labs in biology, physics, and chemistry. In the introductory biology laboratory…

  16. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted.

  17. High school and non-major college biology laboratory environments and critical thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranston, Steven Jerrell

    The subjects of this study were 96 college students enrolled in an introductory college biology lecture and laboratory class at a Land Grant 1 midwestern university. The Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was used to determine their perceptions of the high school and college biology laboratory environments. Questions taken from the Test of Critical Thinking in Biology (TCTB) were used to determine differences in critical thinking between students who received only lecture instruction and those who received lecture plus laboratory instruction. No significant difference in perceptions of the high school biology laboratory environment were found between the students who received lecture only and those who received lecture plus laboratory instruction. Significant differences were found between perceptions of the high school and college biology laboratory environments by students who had experienced both levels of instruction. The college biology laboratory environment was perceived to be lower in integration (extent to which theoretical, non-laboratory, lecture classes are related to practical, laboratory classes) and higher in material environment (extent to which laboratory equipment and materials are adequate) than the high school biology laboratory environment. There was no significant difference on the tests of critical thinking between the students who received lecture only and those who received lecture plus laboratory instruction. Students who received lecture plus laboratory instruction scored significantly higher on the post test of critical thinking than students who received the lecture only instruction. There was no significant correlation between pre and post tests of critical thinking and five scales of the SLEI measuring perceptions of the high school or college biology laboratory environments. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the validity of the TCTB as a measure of critical thinking. This study used only 15 of the 52

  18. Identification of Hog Cholera Viral Antigen by Immunofluorescence. Application as a Diagnostic and Assay Method.

    PubMed

    Mengeling, W L; Pirtle, E C; Torrey, J P

    1963-10-01

    In the absence of detectable cytologic changes in hog cholera virus-infected tissue culture cells, hog cholera viral antigen was readily detected by immunofluorescence. The ability to detect hog cholera viral antigen by this method allowed for determination of infectivity titers and also for titration of homologous antibody. Immunofluorescence made possible the identification, in tissue culture, of hog cholera virus from blood, serum, and spleen extracts of experimentally infected swine. Further applications of this method and its limitations are being investigated.

  19. Responses of Florida panthers to recreational deer and hog hunting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Big Cypress National Preserve constitutes approximately one-third of the range of the endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). Because recreational hunting is allowed in Big Cypress National Preserve, we examined 8 response variables (activity rates, movement rates, predation success, home-range size, home-range shifts, proximity to off-road vehicle trails, use of areas with concentrated human activity, and habitat selection) to evaluate how Florida panthers respond to human activity associated with deer and hog hunting. Data consisted of panther radiolocations collected since 1981 by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and the National Park Service, which we augmented with radiolocations and activity monitoring from 1994 to 1998. A split-plot (treatment and control) study design with repeated measures of the variables for each panther taken before, during, and after the hunting season was used. We did not detect responses to hunting for variables most directly related to panther energy intake or expenditure (i.e., activity rates, movement rates, predation success of females; P>0.10). However, panthers reduced their use of Bear Island (P=0.021), an area of concentrated human activity, and were found farther from off-road vehicle trails (P≤0.001) during the hunting season, which was indicative of a reaction to human disturbance. Whereas the reaction to human activity on off-road vehicle trails probably has minor biological implications and may be linked to prey behavior, the decreased use of Bear Island is most likely a direct reaction to human activity and resulted in increased use of adjacent private lands. Future habitat loss on those private lands could exacerbate the negative consequences of this response by panthers.

  20. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  1. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  2. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  3. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  4. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  5. Environmental Inequity: An Analysis of Large-Scale Hog Operations in 17 States, 1982-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.; Johnston, Janis E.; Arney, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    This study extends ideas of environmental equity to large-scale hog operations. We investigate counties in 17 hog producing states to determine whether large-scale hog operations are more likely to be sited and expanded in areas that have a disproportionate number of Black, Hispanic, and/or economically disadvantaged residents. The data for this…

  6. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Gerasimov

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  7. Introduction to Biological Research: A Laboratory Course in Microbiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Aimee M.; Cardozo, David Lopes

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe their development of an introductory laboratory course in microbiology that is geared towards students in grades 8-10. The course was developed as part of the Mentoring for Science Program at Harvard Medical School, an outreach program created by the Minority Faculty Development Program, directed towards…

  8. What High School Students Learn during Internships in Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; van Eijck, Michiel; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Marshall, Anne; Mazumder, Asit

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of the authors' research and development work that was designed to study the impact of internships in scientific laboratories on high school students. The authors sketch how the internships affected cognitive outcomes, experiences and attitudes, and the career aspirations of the high school students. The…

  9. Life in the laboratory: public responses to experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Turney, J

    1995-04-01

    Present-day public attitudes to biological manipulation are ambivalent, many surveys show. This paper explores evidence of earlier attitudes to experimental biology, before survey data exists, by examining published responses in the press to the idea that biologists would 'create life'. This remarkable claim achieved wide currency in the early years of this century, particularly linked to the work of two prototypical 'visible scientists': Jacques Loeb and Alexis Carrel. Analysis of press responses to accounts of their work reveals deep disquiet about its possible implications, at a time when science and technology in general were regarded very positively. The evidence is augmented by studying commentary on a Presidential Address by Edward Schafer to the British Association meeting of 1912. It is concluded that feelings of ambivalence toward the manipulative power of biology are apparent at a very early stage in the development of modern biology, and that this makes it implausible that more recent manifestations of such ambivalence can be ascribed to some generalized 'anti-science' sentiment which has gathered strength in recent years.

  10. Determination of Rate Constants for Ouabain Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase: An Undergraduate Biological Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Eri; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate biological chemistry laboratory experiment which provides students with an example of pseudo-first-order kinetics with the cardiac glycoside inhibition of mammalism sodium and potassium transport. (SL)

  11. Demonstrations of Extraterrestrial Life Detection Techniques in the High School Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltinski, Ronald

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the experimental procedures and equipment for exobiology projects at the high school level. An interdisciplinary approach involving electronic equipment and micro-biological laboratory techniques is used. Photographs and diagrams of equipment are included. Bibliography. (LC)

  12. Practicing Real Science in the Laboratory: A Project-Based Approach to Teaching Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmers, Larry E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a molecular biology laboratory in which students study the role of the enzyme polygalacturonase in the softening of tomatoes during ripening by developing their own hypotheses and designing their own experiments. (MM)

  13. 7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER OF LEVEL 2; HAIR WAS TRANSPORTED BY CONVEYOR FROM BUILDING 40, THEN WASHED, DRIED AND BALED IN BUILDING 148 - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Observations of DNA transfer within an operational Forensic Biology Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Rowe, Emily; Rask-Nielsen, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    Advances in technology to both generate and interpret DNA profiles has seen the expansion of the ability to provide opinions about results obtained from very low levels of starting biological material. The response in court has been to question the mode by which the DNA came to be on an item, rather than questioning its presence. This brings into play a number of real-world aspects such as transfer of biological material, persistence of biological material on items, shedding ability of individuals, just to name a few. There have been a number of studies that investigate different aspects relating the mode of DNA deposition and transfer, mostly under tightly controlled conditions. We add to this knowledge pool by investigating the extent to which individuals at Forensic Science SA (FSSA) deposit their DNA on objects throughout the floor of the building where DNA examinations take place. We find that the results obtained in our minimally controlled study allow us to comment on a number of published concepts.

  15. Exposure to hazardous substances in a standard molecular biology laboratory environment: evaluation of exposures in IARC laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chapot, Brigitte; Secretan, Béatrice; Robert, Annie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Working in a molecular biology laboratory environment implies regular exposure to a wide range of hazardous substances. Several recent studies have shown that laboratory workers may have an elevated risk of certain cancers. Data on the nature and frequency of exposures in such settings are scanty. The frequency of use of 163 agents by staff working in molecular biology laboratories was evaluated over a period of 4 years by self-administered questionnaire. Of the agents listed, ethanol was used by the largest proportion of staff (70%), followed by ethidium bromide (55%). Individual patterns of use showed three patterns, namely (i) frequent use of a narrow range of products, (ii) occasional use of a wide range of products, and (iii) frequent and occasional use of an intermediate range of products. Among known or suspected carcinogens (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 and 2A, respectively), those most frequently used included formaldehyde (17%), oncogenic viruses (4%), and acrylamide (32%). The type of exposure encountered in research laboratories is extremely diverse. Few carcinogenic agents are used frequently but many laboratory workers may be exposed occasionally to known human carcinogens. In addition, many of the chemicals handled by staff represent a health hazard. The results enabled the staff physician to develop an individual approach to medical surveillance and to draw a personal history of occupational exposures for laboratory staff.

  16. Basic Laboratory Techniques for Students of Biology and Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jerome; Berman, Paul

    This document provides descriptions of lessons, activities, and laboratory experiments to be used in a course on basic laboratory techniques for students in biology and small animal care. These learning experiences are designed to be completed during one class period daily for approximately 70 days per semester. (It is assumed that this would…

  17. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  18. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  19. Biology Instruction by Interactive Videodisc or Conventional Laboratory: A Qualitative Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.

    This study was designed to learn if students perceived an interactive computer/videodisc learning system to represent a viable alternative to (or extension of) the conventional laboratory for learning biology skills and concepts normally taught under classroom laboratory conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire in introductory biology…

  20. Laboratory Experiences in Marine Biology for Upper Elementary and Secondary School Grades, Teachers Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    Designed to assist the teacher who wishes to use marine organisms for biological laboratory investigations, this manual includes general information on maintaining marine aquaria and collecting marine organisms as well as five tested laboratory exercises. The exercises deal with the measurement of oxygen consumption (giving techniques for…

  1. Student Perceptions of the Cell Biology Laboratory Learning Environment in Four Undergraduate Science Courses in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Juan, Joaquin; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa M.; Segovia, Yolanda; Girela, Jose Luis; Martínez-Ruiz, Noemi; Romero-Rameta, Alejandro; Gómez-Torres, Maria José; Vizcaya-Moreno, M. Flores

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology is an academic discipline that organises and coordinates the learning of the structure, function and molecular composition of cells in some undergraduate biomedical programs. Besides course content and teaching methodologies, the laboratory environment is considered a key element in the teaching of and learning of cell biology. The…

  2. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  3. Restructuring Laboratory Worksheets for Junior High School Biology Students in the Heterogeneous Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witenoff, Shalamit; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    1993-01-01

    Presents samples of educational material adapted for laboratory use on the subject of the pH scale, dilution skills, and their relevance to biology. The experiments were developed for use in both ninth-grade heterogeneous and tracked classes in biology. Students were assessed for academic achievement in relation to their operational reasoning…

  4. Information Literacy in a Biology Laboratory Session: An Example of Librarian-Faculty Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Teresa S.; DiBenedetto, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes a collaboration between librarians and the biology department to create a science information literacy component in a general biology laboratory. Outlines the objectives, planning, and execution of the program. Both forms of evaluation of the program--judging the quality of students' final reports and a student feedback…

  5. Chimerism in the immunohematology laboratory in the molecular biology era.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Martin H; Reid, Marion E; Manny, Noga

    2007-04-01

    Dual or multiple cell populations, induced by chimeras, have been the subject of many studies. This long-standing fascination with chimeras has revealed a good deal of knowledge about human inheritance. Although historically most chimeras were caused by natural events, certain current medical intervention therapies are increasing the number of situations that can lead to a mixed cell population, that is, the chimeric condition, in humans. Medical therapies such as transfusion, stem cell transplantation, kidney transplantation, and artificial insemination induce temporary and sometimes permanent chimeras. Such natural or therapeutically induced presentations of chimerism can present challenging issues to the clinical immunohematology laboratory with regard to interpretation of results and subsequent patient management. The purpose of this review was to highlight some of these chimeric states and hypothesize how testing DNA from various tissues can cause apparent discrepancies between phenotype and genotype results.

  6. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  7. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  8. An Analysis of Student and Instructor Reactions to Biology and Selected Techniques of Biology Laboratory Instruction in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Julia Ree

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between attitudes of general biology students and their instructors toward biology as a discipline and toward certain patterns of biology laboratory instruction. The sample consisted of 29 instructors of general biology in 9 Texas two-year colleges and their students. Four attitude…

  9. Practicing biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the impact of self-efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkes, Elizabeth

    As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their impact on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes practices that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of practice develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models

  10. Connecting biology and organic chemistry introductory laboratory courses through a collaborative research project.

    PubMed

    Boltax, Ariana L; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S; Pontrello, Jason K

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an interdisciplinary, medically relevant, project intended to help students see connections between chemistry and biology. Second term organic chemistry laboratory students designed and synthesized potential polymer inhibitors or inducers of polyglutamine protein aggregation. The use of novel target compounds added the uncertainty of scientific research to the project. Biology laboratory students then tested the novel potential pharmaceuticals in Huntington's disease model assays, using in vitro polyglutamine peptide aggregation and in vivo lethality studies in Drosophila. Students read articles from the primary literature describing the system from both chemical and biological perspectives. Assessment revealed that students emerged from both courses with a deeper understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry and a heightened interest in basic research. The design of this collaborative project for introductory biology and organic chemistry labs demonstrated how the local interests and expertise at a university can be drawn from to create an effective way to integrate these introductory courses. Rather than simply presenting a series of experiments to be replicated, we hope that our efforts will inspire other scientists to think about how some aspect of authentic work can be brought into their own courses, and we also welcome additional collaborations to extend the scope of the scientific exploration.

  11. Culturally relevant inquiry-based laboratory module implementations in upper-division genetics and cell biology teaching laboratories.

    PubMed

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, María; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Vélez, Ana; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of laboratory research in the undergraduate teaching laboratory using a culturally relevant approach to engage students. Laboratory modules were implemented in upper-division genetics and cell biology courses using cassava as the central theme. Students were asked to bring cassava samples from their respective towns, which allowed them to compare their field-collected samples against known lineages from agricultural stations at the end of the implementation. Assessment of content and learning perceptions revealed that our novel approach allowed students to learn while engaged in characterizing Puerto Rican cassava. In two semesters, based on the percentage of students who answered correctly in the premodule assessment for content knowledge, there was an overall improvement of 66% and 55% at the end in the genetics course and 24% and 15% in the cell biology course. Our proposed pedagogical model enhances students' professional competitiveness by providing students with valuable research skills as they work on a problem to which they can relate.

  12. Feral Hogs Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: Analysis of Current Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Arie; Hinkle, C. Ross; Epstein, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This ST1 Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes a two-month project on feral hog management in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). For this project, feral hogs were marked and recaptured, with the help of local trappers, to estimate population size and habitat preferences. Habitat covers included vegetation cover and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data for MINWR. In addition, an analysis was done of hunting records compiled by the Refuge and hog-car accidents compiled by KSC Security.

  13. A comparison of student reactions to biology instruction by interactive videodisc or conventional laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, William H.

    This study was designed to learn if students perceived an interactive computer/videodisc learning system to represent a viable alternative to (or extension of) the conventional laboratory for learning biology skills and concepts normally taught under classroom laboratory conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire for introductory biology classes at a large midwestern university where students were randomly assigned to two interactive videodisc/computer lessons titled Respiration and Climate and Life or traditional laboratory investigation with the same titles and concepts. The interactive videodisc system consisted of a TRS-80 Model III microcomputer interfaced to a Pioneer laser-disc player and a color TV monitor. Students indicated an overall level satisfaction with this strategy very similar to that of conventional laboratory instruction. Students frequently remarked that videodisc instruction gave them more experimental and procedural options and more efficient use of instructional time than did the conventional laboratory mode. These two results are consistent with past CAI research. Students also had a strong perception that the images on the videodisc were not real and this factor was perceived as having both advantages and disadvantages. Students found the two approaches to be equivalent to conventional laboratory instruction in the areas of general interest, understanding of basic principles, help on examinations, and attitude toward science. The student-opinion data in this study do not suggest that interactive videodisc technology serve as a substitute to the wet laboratory experience, but that this medium may enrich the spectrum of educational experiences usually not possible in typical classroom settings.

  14. Merging of Research and Teaching in Developmental Biology: Adaptation of Current Scientific Research Papers for Use in Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, H. H.; and others

    1970-01-01

    Describes two laboratory exercises adopted from current research papers for use in an undergraduate developmental biology course. Gives methods, summary of student results, and student comments. Lists lecture topics, text and reprint assignments, and laboratory exercises for course. (EB)

  15. Integrating Internet Assignments into a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Roger L.

    2002-01-01

    A main challenge in educating undergraduate students is to introduce them to the Internet and to teach them how to effectively use it in research. To this end, an Internet assignment was developed that introduces students to websites related to biomedical research at the beginning of a biochemistry/molecular biology laboratory course. The basic…

  16. Connecting Biology and Organic Chemistry Introductory Laboratory Courses through a Collaborative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltax, Ariana L.; Armanious, Stephanie; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.; Pontrello, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Modern research often requires collaboration of experts in fields, such as math, chemistry, biology, physics, and computer science to develop unique solutions to common problems. Traditional introductory undergraduate laboratory curricula in the sciences often do not emphasize connections possible between the various disciplines. We designed an…

  17. An Open-Ended Investigative Microbial Ecology Laboratory for Introductory Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Held, Susan; Paoletti, Robert; Glick, David; Held, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe a multi-week investigative laboratory in microbial ecology/diversity and nitrogen cycling that we have used in our introductory biology course. This module encourages active student involvement in experimental design, using the scientific literature and quantitative analysis of large data sets. Students analyze soil…

  18. Student Perceptions of the Use of Inquiry Practices in a Biology Survey Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayer, Liz; Zalud, Garreth; Baron, Mark; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Duggan, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research has shown inquiry in science education to be best practice; however, most universities currently do not include inquiry practices in their coursework. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of inquiry that students in a Biology Survey Laboratory course considered to be the most supportive of their learning at a…

  19. Problem-Solving Inquiry-Oriented Biology Tasks Integrating Practical Laboratory and Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedler, Yael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study that examines the development and use of computer simulations for high school science instruction and for integrated laboratory and computerized tests that are part of the biology matriculation examination in Israel. Eleven implications for teaching are presented. (MDH)

  20. An Inquiry-Infused Introductory Biology Laboratory That Integrates Mendel's Pea Phenotypes with Molecular Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudish, Philip; Schlag, Erin; Kaplinsky, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multi-week laboratory in which college-level introductory biology students investigate Mendel's stem length phenotype in peas. Students collect, analyze and interpret convergent evidence from molecular and physiological techniques. In weeks 1 and 2, students treat control and experimental plants with Gibberellic Acid (GA) to…

  1. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  2. Cloning Yeast Actin cDNA Leads to an Investigative Approach for the Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Michael W.; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the…

  3. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  4. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  5. Audio-Tutorial Versus Conventional Lecture-Laboratory Instruction in a University Animal Biology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowsey, Robert E.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze two methods of instruction used in an animal biology course. One group of students, the experimental group, was taught using an audio-tutorial program, and another group, the control group, was taught using the conventional lecture-laboratory method. Pretest and posttest data were collected from achievement…

  6. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  7. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  8. Redefining authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratories and barriers to their implementation.

    PubMed

    Spell, Rachelle M; Guinan, Judith A; Miller, Kristen R; Beck, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are poorly defined. To guide future reform efforts in this area, we conducted a national survey of biology faculty members to determine 1) their definitions of authentic research experiences in laboratory classes, 2) the extent of authentic research experiences currently experienced in their laboratory classes, and 3) the barriers that prevent incorporation of authentic research experiences into these classes. Strikingly, the definitions of authentic research experiences differ among faculty members and tend to emphasize either the scientific process or the discovery of previously unknown data. The low level of authentic research experiences in introductory biology labs suggests that more development and support is needed to increase undergraduate exposure to research experiences. Faculty members did not cite several barriers commonly assumed to impair pedagogical reform; however, their responses suggest that expanded support for development of research experiences in laboratory classes could address the most common barrier.

  9. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses.

  10. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students†

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Dale L.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  11. Neutron Imaging at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Application to Biological Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Bailey, William Barton; Keener, Wylie S; Davis, Larry E; Herwig, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD) has recently installed a neutron imaging beamline at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) cold guide hall. The CG-1D beamline supports a broad range of user research spanning from engineering to material research, energy storage, additive manufacturing, vehicle technologies, archaeology, biology, and plant physiology. The beamline performance (spatial resolution, field of view, etc.) and its utilization for biological research are presented. The NScD is also considering a proposal to build the VENUS imaging beamline (beam port 10) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Unlike CG-1D which provides cold neutrons, VENUS will offer a broad range of neutron wavelengths, from epithermal to cold, and enhanced contrast mechanisms. This new capability will also enable the imaging of thicker biological samples than is currently available at CG-1D. A brief overview of the VENUS capability for biological research is discussed.

  12. Biological Risks and Laboratory-Acquired Infections: A Reality That Cannot be Ignored in Health Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk – not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418

  13. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  14. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Marin, Pierre; Castor, Jean; Warot, Guillaume; Incerti, S.; Maigne, Lydia; Sarramia, David; Breton, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1) and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1) in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  15. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  16. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  17. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  18. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  19. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  20. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.11 Cleaning of hog...

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus.

  2. Renal structural flexibility in response to environmental water stress in feral hogs.

    PubMed

    Zervanos, S M; Naveh, S

    1988-09-01

    Several morphological characteristics of the kidney were studied to determine the degree of acclimatization that may occur in three groups of feral hogs raised under different environmental conditions. Two groups of hogs were living in the wild, while another was raised in captivity for three generations and was directly descended from one of the wild-living groups. The two groups of wild hogs were living under two different types of water stress conditions. One group experienced periodic drought, and the other ate a high salt diet. The captive hogs were given food and water ad libitum. The captive-raised hogs had significantly lower relative medullary thickness (RMT) and relative medullary area (RMA) values (RMT of 2.35; RMA of 0.35) than either group of hogs living in the wild (RMT of 2.70 and 2.69; RMA of 0.41 and 0.44). Since the feral hogs living in the wild were exposed to a higher degree of water stress than the captive-raised hogs, it was concluded that the differences in observed kidney structure were due to acclimatization.

  3. Glycosylation defects activate filamentous growth Kss1 MAPK and inhibit osmoregulatory Hog1 MAPK.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Yu; Tatebayashi, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi; Saito, Haruo

    2009-05-20

    The yeast filamentous growth (FG) MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated under poor nutritional conditions. We found that the FG-specific Kss1 MAPK is activated by a combination of an O-glycosylation defect caused by disruption of the gene encoding the protein O-mannosyltransferase Pmt4, and an N-glycosylation defect induced by tunicamycin. The O-glycosylated membrane proteins Msb2 and Opy2 are both essential for activating the FG MAPK pathway, but only defective glycosylation of Msb2 activates the FG MAPK pathway. Although the osmoregulatory HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) MAPK pathway and the FG MAPK pathway share almost the entire upstream signalling machinery, osmostress activates only the HOG-specific Hog1 MAPK. Conversely, we now show that glycosylation defects activate only Kss1, while activated Kss1 and the Ptp2 tyrosine phosphatase inhibit Hog1. In the absence of Kss1 or Ptp2, however, glycosylation defects activate Hog1. When Hog1 is activated by glycosylation defects in ptp2 mutant, Kss1 activation is suppressed by Hog1. Thus, the reciprocal inhibitory loop between Kss1 and Hog1 allows only one or the other of these MAPKs to be stably activated under various stress conditions. PMID:19369942

  4. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  5. Developing Information Fluency in Introductory Biology Students in the Context of an Investigative Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Students of biology must learn the scientific method for generating information in the field. Concurrently, they should learn how information is reported and accessed. We developed a progressive set of exercises for the undergraduate introductory biology laboratory that combine these objectives. Pre- and postassessments of approximately 100 students suggest that increases occurred, some statistically significant, in the number of students using various library-related resources, in the numbers and confidence level of students using various technologies, and in the numbers and confidence levels of students involved in various activities related to the scientific method. Following this course, students should be better prepared for more advanced and independent study. PMID:15746979

  6. [Proposed recommendations for the practical use of internal quality controls (IQC) in a medical biology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Giannoli, Jean-Marc; Szymanowicz, Anton

    2011-01-01

    We propose a set of recommendations and practices to optimize the use of quality control of medical biology examinations. The fundamentals are reviewed: definition of a series of analysis, IQC at one or more level, Westgard alert rules and rejection, practical remedial actions to take for the technician, corrective and preventive actions to be implemented by the biologist. We have also formalized three flowcharts to guide the technician in their daily practice to ensure analytical quality of investigations carried out. These decision trees are the result of the experience submitted by an accredited and professional laboratory attentive to the ongoing improvement of IQC. This article can provide useful assistance to biologists for accreditation but also aims to foster collaboration reliable medical biology laboratory at the appropriate management of patients.

  7. Recommendations for accreditation of laboratories in molecular biology of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Cornillet, Pascale; Hayette, Sandrine; Gachard, Nathalie; Tondeur, Sylvie; Mauté, Carole; Cayuela, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, the development of molecular biology techniques has improved the hematological diseases diagnostic and follow-up. Consequently, these techniques are largely used in the biological screening of these diseases; therefore the Hemato-oncology molecular diagnostics laboratories must be actively involved in the accreditation process according the ISO 15189 standard. The French group of molecular biologists (GBMHM) provides requirements for the implementation of quality assurance for the medical molecular laboratories. This guideline states the recommendations for the pre-analytical, analytical (methods validation procedures, quality controls, reagents), and post-analytical conditions. In addition, herein we state a strategy for the internal quality control management. These recommendations will be regularly updated.

  8. Hog1p activation by marasmic acid through inhibition of the histidine kinase Sln1p

    PubMed Central

    Schüffler, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The histidine kinase (HK) MoHik1p within the high‐osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is known to be the target of the fungicide fludioxonil. Treatment of the fungus with fludioxonil causes an uncontrolled hyperactivation of the pathway and cell death. In this study, we used a target‐based in vivo test system with mutant strains of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae to search for new fungicidal compounds having various target locations within the HOG pathway. Mutants with inactivated HOG signalling are resistant to fungicides having the target located in the HOG pathway. RESULTS The HK MoSln1p was identified as being involved in the new antifungal mode of action of marasmic acid, as single inactivation of the genes MoSLN1, MoSSK1, MoSSK2, MoPBS2 and MoHOG1 resulted in mutant strains resistant against the sesquiterpenoid, whereas the wild‐type strain and the ΔMohik1 mutant were susceptible. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated MoHog1p confirmed the hypothesis that marasmic acid interferes with the HOG pathway, as a strong phosphorylation of MoHog1p was detectable after sesquiterpenoid treatment in the wild‐type strain but not in the ΔMosln1 mutant. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence for marasmic acid activating the HOG pathway via the HK MoSln1p, and we propose that the sesquiterpenoid has a new mode of action in M. oryzae that differs from that of known HOG inhibitors, e.g. fludioxonil. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26888741

  9. A linked series of laboratory exercises in molecular biology utilizing bioinformatics and GFP.

    PubMed

    Medin, Carey L; Nolin, Katie L

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists commonly use bioinformatics to map and analyze DNA and protein sequences and to align different DNA and protein sequences for comparison. Additionally, biologists can create and view 3D models of protein structures to further understand intramolecular interactions. The primary goal of this 10-week laboratory was to introduce the importance of bioinformatics in molecular biology. Students employed multiprimer, site-directed mutagenesis to create variant colors from a plasmid expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Isolated mutant plasmid from Escherichia coli showing changes in fluorescence were sequenced. Students used sequence alignment tools, protein translator tools, protein modeling, and visualization to analyze the potential effect of their mutations within the protein structure. This laboratory linked molecular techniques and bioinformatics to promote and expand the understanding of experimental results in an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course. PMID:22081550

  10. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  11. Integrated payload resource requirements for NASA's Gravitational Biology Research Laboratory on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Lauren E.; Sarver, George L., Dr.; Jahns, Gary, Dr.

    2000-01-01

    The primary mission of International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a shirt-sleeve working environment within an orbiting laboratory to support a wide variety of research conducted in the micro-gravity (μ-gravity) environment of space. The laboratory being developed by the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) at the Ames Research Center (ARC) will support NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) Research Program on the influence and affects of gravity on living systems. It will support research from the building blocks of biology (cells and tissues) through complete, fully grown systems (plants, rodents, aquatics and insects) and through all phases of growth as well as multiple generations. The results will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of gravity in living systems. It should provide the information necessary to support long-term manned missions for exploration of the solar system. In addition, it is expected to provide valuable insight into how Earth-bound biological systems work. .

  12. Signaling of chloroquine-induced stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Hog1 and Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Shivani; Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2014-09-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) has been under clinical use for several decades, and yet little is known about CQ sensing and signaling mechanisms or about their impact on various biological pathways. We employed the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by CQ. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it targets histone proteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we also describe the novel role of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 and Slt2, which aid in survival in the presence of CQ. Cells deficient in Hog1 or Slt2 are found to be CQ hypersensitive, and both proteins were phosphorylated in response to CQ exposure. CQ-activated Hog1p is translocated to the nucleus and facilitates the expression of GPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which is required for the synthesis of glycerol (one of the major osmolytes). Moreover, cells treated with CQ exhibited an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. The deletion of SOD1, the superoxide dismutase in yeast, resulted in hypersensitivity to CQ. We have also observed P38 as well as P42/44 phosphorylation in HEK293T human cells upon exposure to CQ, indicating that the kinds of responses generated in yeast and human cells are similar. In summary, our findings define the multiple biological pathways targeted by CQ that might be useful for understanding the toxicity modulated by this pharmacologically important molecule.

  13. Combining ontologies and workflows to design formal protocols for biological laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Laboratory protocols in life sciences tend to be written in natural language, with negative consequences on repeatability, distribution and automation of scientific experiments. Formalization of knowledge is becoming popular in science. In the case of laboratory protocols two levels of formalization are needed: one for the entities and individuals operations involved in protocols and another one for the procedures, which can be manually or automatically executed. This study aims to combine ontologies and workflows for protocol formalization. Results A laboratory domain specific ontology and the COW (Combining Ontologies with Workflows) software tool were developed to formalize workflows built on ontologies. A method was specifically set up to support the design of structured protocols for biological laboratory experiments. The workflows were enhanced with ontological concepts taken from the developed domain specific ontology. The experimental protocols represented as workflows are saved in two linked files using two standard interchange languages (i.e. XPDL for workflows and OWL for ontologies). A distribution package of COW including installation procedure, ontology and workflow examples, is freely available from http://www.bmr-genomics.it/farm/cow. Conclusions Using COW, a laboratory protocol may be directly defined by wet-lab scientists without writing code, which will keep the resulting protocol's specifications clear and easy to read and maintain. PMID:20416048

  14. Effect of biological pretreatment of coarse MSW on landfill behaviour: laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Bayard, R; de Araujo Morais, J; Rouez, M; Fifi, U; Achour, F; Ducom, G

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical and biological pre-treatment (MBT) of residual Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is considered as a promising technical option prior to landfilling. The aim of MBT is to control the biological landfill activity to minimize biogas and leachate production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were set up to study the behaviour of untreated and pre-treated residues. The bioreactors were designed to simulate the anaerobic condition of sanitary landfill. Initial water addition has been performed to ensure optimal condition of biological degradation. The incubation time was 400 days to achieve the biodegradation. Experiments have been carried out with untreated or treated waste collected from a mechanical-aerobic biological treatment plant located in middle south of France. Chemical and biological analyses have been performed to characterise the waste samples before and after the incubation. Results showed that a residual anaerobic activity does exist for the pre-treated waste when incubated in optimal moisture condition: biogas production does still exist even after a long period of aerobic hot fermentation and maturation. PMID:18957748

  15. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure.

  16. Late Phase of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Pathway Is Regulated by Hog1 MAP Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Alicia A.; Tourtellotte, Joel; Niwa, Maho

    2010-01-01

    When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causing ER stress, the unfolded protein response (UPR) responds rapidly to induce a transcriptional program that functions to alleviate the stress. However, under extreme conditions, when UPR activation is not sufficient to alleviate ER stress, the stress may persist long term. Very little is known about how the cell responds to persistent ER stress that is not resolved by the immediate activation of the UPR. We show that Hog1 MAP kinase becomes phosphorylated during the late stage of ER stress and helps the ER regain homeostasis. Although Hog1 is well known to function in osmotic stress and cell wall integrity pathways, we show that the activation mechanism for Hog1 during ER stress is distinct from both of these pathways. During late stage ER stress, upon phosphorylation, Hog1 translocates into the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Subsequently, Hog1 returns to the cytoplasm, where its phosphorylation levels remain high. From its cytoplasmic location, Hog1 contributes to the activation of autophagy by enhancing the stability of Atg8, a critical autophagy protein. Thus, Hog1 coordinates a multifaceted response to persistent ER stress. PMID:20382742

  17. Role of Hog1, Tps1 and Sod1 in boric acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Akasaka, Kento; Messerly, Jeffrey T; Boyer, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    In order to identify genetic contributions to boric acid (BA) resistance, a yeast knockout collection was screened for BA-sensitive mutants. Prominent among the BA-sensitive mutants were strains with defects in the cytoplasmic part of the high osmolarity/glycerol (HOG) signalling pathway, the trehalose-synthesis pathway (TPS1/TPS2) and the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase SOD1. An analysis of HOG-pathway mutants and fluorescence microscopy of Hog1-GFP fusions showed that the non-redundant cytoplasmic components of the pathway, Pbs2p and Hog1p, are required to maintain BA resistance, but that import of the activated Hog1p kinase into the nucleus neither occurs during BA stress nor is necessary for wild-type-like BA tolerance. Pbs2p and Hog1p are also required to support normal morphogenesis during BA stress as their absence leads to BA-induced hyperpolarized growth. An analysis of Sod1p and Tps1p expression revealed that BA stress induces superoxide dismutase and increases trehalose synthesis activity, albeit only after a 7 h delay. We conclude that normal BA resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the functioning of HOG signalling, the trehalose synthesis pathway and superoxide dismutase activity. PMID:22902726

  18. Role of Hog1, Tps1 and Sod1 in boric acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Akasaka, Kento; Messerly, Jeffrey T; Boyer, Michael P

    2012-10-01

    In order to identify genetic contributions to boric acid (BA) resistance, a yeast knockout collection was screened for BA-sensitive mutants. Prominent among the BA-sensitive mutants were strains with defects in the cytoplasmic part of the high osmolarity/glycerol (HOG) signalling pathway, the trehalose-synthesis pathway (TPS1/TPS2) and the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase SOD1. An analysis of HOG-pathway mutants and fluorescence microscopy of Hog1-GFP fusions showed that the non-redundant cytoplasmic components of the pathway, Pbs2p and Hog1p, are required to maintain BA resistance, but that import of the activated Hog1p kinase into the nucleus neither occurs during BA stress nor is necessary for wild-type-like BA tolerance. Pbs2p and Hog1p are also required to support normal morphogenesis during BA stress as their absence leads to BA-induced hyperpolarized growth. An analysis of Sod1p and Tps1p expression revealed that BA stress induces superoxide dismutase and increases trehalose synthesis activity, albeit only after a 7 h delay. We conclude that normal BA resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the functioning of HOG signalling, the trehalose synthesis pathway and superoxide dismutase activity.

  19. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.

  20. A comparison of a biological sciences curriculum study (BSCS) laboratory and a traditional laboratory on student achievement at two private liberal arts colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donald A.; McCurdy, Donald W.

    The purpose of this experiment was to compare an inquiry-oriented Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) style laboratory approach with a more directive traditional approach on student outcomes in the cognitive and affective domains of learning at two private, midwestern liberal-arts colleges. The BSCS approach emphasized basic and integrated science processes, concept development through extensive questioning, and increased student discretion, while the traditional approach contained highly structured, more prescriptive, teacher-oriented activities. Intact laboratory sections of students enrolled in introductory general biology at two private liberal-arts colleges were randomly selected into two treatment groups. Pretest and posttest measures were taken on three dependent variables: (1) biological content achievement, measured with a researcher-generated Test on Biology Laboratory Concepts, (2) reasoning ability, measured with the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, and (3) attitude toward biology, measured with the Biology Student Behavior Inventory. Analysis of covariance indicated the experimental group (n = 60) using the BSCS-style laboratory approach scored significantly higher than the comparison group (n = 59) in levels of performance on biology content achievement, F(1, 114) = 4.07, p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in performance levels on attitude toward biology or on reasoning ability. However, both groups experienced a 15-percent increase in the number of formal thinkers as indicated by pretest-posttest gain scores on the reasoning ability test. These results lend support to the hypothesis that a BSCS-style laboratory approach fosters desired learner outcomes at the postsecondary level. In addition, these findings support the notion that the science laboratory may be used as a primary vehicle to promote formal reasoning skills.

  1. The Purification and Concentration of Hog Cholera Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, H. R.; Rebers, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Partial purification of hog cholera virus (HCV) using a simple batch-type chromatographic procedure with magnetic ferric oxide (MFO) is described. Infectious HCV was adsorbed from isotonic solutions to MFO and was eluted under conditions of low ionic strength and high pH. Aqueous solutions of 0.01 M sodium cyanide or 0.0003 M ammonium hydroxide effectively dissociated MFO-HCV complexes. The data indicate that 50 to 100% of the original HCV infectivity was recovered concomitant with a 90 to 95% reduction of extraneous organic nitrogen. MFO-purified HCV was concentrated by density gradient type centrifugations in buffered solutions of cesium chloride and sucrose. Prolonged isodensity centrifugations of concentrated MFO-purified HCV indicated a buoyant density of 1.14 to 1.15 gm/ml for the strain of virus used. PMID:15846899

  2. Integrating responsible conduct of research education into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Tamara L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these agencies offer useful templates for the introduction of RCR materials into courses worldwide. Many academic programs already offer courses or workshops in RCR for their graduate students and for undergraduate science majors and/or researchers. Introducing RCR into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula is another, highly practical way that students can be exposed to these important topics. In fact, a strong argument can be made for integrating RCR into laboratory courses because these classes often introduce students to a scientific environment like that they might encounter in their careers after graduation. This article focuses on general strategies for incorporating explicit RCR education into biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory coursework using the topics suggested by NIH as a starting point.

  3. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (16th, Atlanta, Georgia, June 7-11, 1994). Volume 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 17 papers on the topics of cell and molecular biology, genetics, and…

  4. Laboratory facilities and recommendations for the characterization of biological ultraviolet dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Bolsée, D; Webb, A R; Gillotay, D; Dörschel, B; Knuschke, P; Krins, A; Terenetskaya, I

    2000-06-01

    A laboratory facility for characterizing biological dosimeters for the measurement of UV radiation has been built and tested. The facility is based on a solar simulator, stabilized by photofeedback, and monitored by a spectroradiometer, with a versatile filter arrangement. This enables the following characteristics of the dosimeters to be ascertained: spectral response, linearity, and reciprocity; angular acceptance and response; calibration in simulated sunlight. The system has been tested on a variety of dosimeters and has the potential to be used with other radiometers, subject currently to the size of their active surface. PMID:18345205

  5. Using biocatalysis to integrate organic chemistry into a molecular biology laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D; Mateer, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We have developed an inquiry-based module that uses the mutagenesis of the yeast reductase, YDL124w, to study the bioorganic synthesis of the taxol side-chain, a pharmacologically important molecule. Using related structures, students identify regions they think will affect enzyme stereoselective, design and generate site-specific mutants, and then characterize the effect of these changes on enzyme activity. This laboratory activity gives our students experience, working in a scientific discipline outside of biology and exposes them to techniques and equipment they do not normally work with in a molecular biology course. These inter-disciplinary experiences not only show the relevance of other sciences to biology, but also give our students the ability to communicate more effectively with scientists outside their discipline.

  6. Cocaine Use among the College Age Group: Biological and Psychological Effects--Clinical and Laboratory Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge about cocaine's effect on the human mind and body is limited and not clearly documented. This article discusses various biological and psychological effects of the drug based on clinical and laboratory studies of man. (Author/DF)

  7. [Reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus inducing interference with VSV (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Laude, H

    1978-01-01

    Infection of PK15 cells with various strains of Hog Cholera (HCV, togaviridae) induces a transient refractory state to VSV. The reverse plaque procedure is convenient for HCV titration of virulent, "chronic" and attenuated strains.

  8. Developmental biology of Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal (Acari: Argasidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.

  9. How to Generate Understanding of the Scientific Process in Introductory Biology: A Student-Designed Laboratory Exercise on Yeast Fermentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda T.; Bell, Rebekah P.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy faculty teaching loads and limited funds biology teachers designed certain objectives in order to increase the understandability of the subject matter of the laboratory exercises they write. In relation to these objectives an old "cookbook" laboratory exercise on yeast fermentation is introduced which involve students asking questions,…

  10. Using Phylogenetic Analysis to Detect Market Substitution of Atlantic Salmon for Pacific Salmon: An Introductory Biology Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Erica; Gogarten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for the cell and molecular biology quarter of a year-long majors' undergraduate introductory biology sequence. In an analysis of salmon samples collected by students in their local stores and restaurants, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to detect market substitution of Atlantic salmon…

  11. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  12. 3D nanoscale imaging of biological samples with laboratory-based soft X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehlinger, Aurélie; Blechschmidt, Anne; Grötzsch, Daniel; Jung, Robert; Kanngießer, Birgit; Seim, Christian; Stiel, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, where the theoretical resolution limit depends on the wavelength of the probing light, radiation in the soft X-ray regime can be used to analyze samples that cannot be resolved with visible light microscopes. In the case of soft X-ray microscopy in the water-window, the energy range of the radiation lies between the absorption edges of carbon (at 284 eV, 4.36 nm) and oxygen (543 eV, 2.34 nm). As a result, carbon-based structures, such as biological samples, posses a strong absorption, whereas e.g. water is more transparent to this radiation. Microscopy in the water-window, therefore, allows the structural investigation of aqueous samples with resolutions of a few tens of nanometers and a penetration depth of up to 10μm. The development of highly brilliant laser-produced plasma-sources has enabled the transfer of Xray microscopy, that was formerly bound to synchrotron sources, to the laboratory, which opens the access of this method to a broader scientific community. The Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope at the Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray technologies (BLiX) runs with a laser produced nitrogen plasma that emits radiation in the soft X-ray regime. The mentioned high penetration depth can be exploited to analyze biological samples in their natural state and with several projection angles. The obtained tomogram is the key to a more precise and global analysis of samples originating from various fields of life science.

  13. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-08-19

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians.

  14. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles’ in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  15. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  16. Hog1 Targets Whi5 and Msa1 Transcription Factors To Downregulate Cyclin Expression upon Stress

    PubMed Central

    González-Novo, Alberto; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Cavero, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells have developed complex mechanisms to cope with extracellular insults. An increase in external osmolarity leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which is the main regulator of adaptive responses, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression, that are essential for cellular survival. Upon osmostress, the G1-to-S transition is regulated by Hog1 through stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and the downregulation of G1 cyclin expression by an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates components of the core cell cycle transcriptional machinery such as Whi5 and the coregulator Msa1. Phosphorylation of these two transcriptional regulators by Hog1 is essential for inhibition of G1 cyclin expression, for control of cell morphogenesis, and for maximal cell survival upon stress. The control of both Whi5 and Msa1 by Hog1 also revealed the necessity for proper coordination of budding and DNA replication. Thus, Hog1 regulates G1 cyclin transcription upon osmostress to ensure coherent passage through Start. PMID:25733686

  17. Impact of Biology Laboratory Courses on Students' Science Performance and Views about Laboratory Courses in General: Innovative Measurements and Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Lai, Yung-Chih; Yu, Hon-Tsen Alex; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that some educational researchers believe that laboratory courses promote outcomes in cognitive and affective domains in science learning, others have argued that laboratory courses are costly in relation to their value. Moreover, effective measurement of student learning in the laboratory is an area requiring further…

  18. Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students’ Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Maldarelli, Grace A.; Hartmann, Erica M.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Horner, Robert D.; Obom, Kristina. M.; Shingles, Richard; Pearlman, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergraduate and graduate lab courses and to assess the impact of these videos on student learning. Demonstrations of individual laboratory procedures were videotaped and then edited with iMovie. Narration for the videos was edited with Audacity. Undergraduate students were surveyed anonymously prior to and following screening to assess the impact of the videos on student lab performance by completion of two Participant Perception Indicator surveys. A total of 203 and 171 students completed the pre- and posttesting surveys, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to compare student perceptions of knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques before and after viewing the videos. Eleven demonstrations were recorded. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of students reporting increased knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques after viewing the videos. Incorporation of instructional videos as prelaboratory exercises has the potential to standardize techniques and to promote successful experimental outcomes. PMID:23653690

  19. Biological reduction of uranium--from the laboratory to the field.

    PubMed

    Dullies, Frank; Lutze, Werner; Gong, Weiliang; Nuttall, H Eric

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and biological processes underlying in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater have been studied in the laboratory and in the field. This article focuses on the long-term stability of uraninite (UO(2)) in the underground. A large tailings pond, 'Dänkritz 1' in Germany, was selected for this investigation. A single-pass flow-through experiment was run in a 100-liter column: bioremediation for 1year followed by infiltration of tap water (2.5years) saturated with oxygen, sufficient to oxidize the precipitated uraninite in two months. Instead, only 1wt.% uraninite was released over 2.4years at concentrations typically less than 20μg/L. Uraninite was protected against oxidation by the mineral mackinawite (FeS(0.9)), a considerable amount of which had formed, together with uraninite. A confined field test was conducted adjacent to the tailings pond, which after bio-stimulation showed similarly encouraging results as in the laboratory. Taking Dänkritz 1 as an example we show that in situ bioremediation can be a viable option for long-term site remediation, if the process is designed based on sufficient laboratory and field data. The boundary conditions for the site in Germany are discussed.

  20. Implementation of a Project-Based Molecular Biology Laboratory Emphasizing Protein Structure-Function Relationships in a Large Introductory Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treacy, Daniel J.; Sankaran, Saumya M.; Gordon-Messer, Susannah; Saly, Danielle; Miller, Rebecca; Isaac, R. Stefan; Kosinski-Collins, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory laboratory courses, many universities are turning from traditional laboratories with predictable outcomes to inquiry-inspired, project-based laboratory curricula. In these labs, students are allowed to design at least some portion of their own experiment and interpret new, undiscovered data. We have redesigned the introductory…

  1. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  2. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H.; Morgan, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  4. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director`s Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  5. A Laboratory-Scale Coaxial Fluorescence and Soft X-ray Microscope for Biological Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaba, K.; Aoki, S.

    2011-09-01

    A laboratory-scale coaxial fluorescence and soft x-ray microscope for biological observation was developed. The characteristic features of a fluorescence microscope were introduced to the conventional soft x-ray microscope, which was developed in our previous study, where the specimens can be set in air. One of the technical difficulties in detecting visible fluorescence is the chromatic aberration. This was overcome by applying a reflective optics, Wolter mirror, to the coaxial optical system. The coaxial optical system offers experimental simplicity and makes it possible to obtain soft x-ray images and fluorescence images of an identical specimen, which can be more informative than applying either imaging modality alone. Therefore, the newly developed optical system offers high-quality structural and morphological details of biological specimens with the ability to localize specific cells and other important sub-cellular targets. Soft x-ray images and fluorescence images of an identical DNA, which were derived from redfish testes and stained with DAPI (4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), were obtained by the newly developed coaxial optical system.

  6. A dedicated database program for cataloging recombinant clones and other laboratory products of molecular biology technology.

    PubMed

    Jenson, H B

    1989-06-01

    A novel computer database program dedicated to storing, cataloging, and accessing information about recombinant clones and libraries has been developed for the IBM (or compatible) personal computer. This program, named CLONES, also stores information about bacterial strains and plasmid and bacteriophage vectors used in molecular biology. The advantages of this method are improved organization of data, fast and easy assimilation of new data, automatic association of new data with existing data, and rapid retrieval of desired records using search criteria specified by the user. Individual records are indexed in the database using B-trees, which automatically index new entries and expedite later access. The use of multiple windows, pull-down menus, scrolling pick-lists, and field-input techniques make the program intuitive to understand and easy to use. Daughter databases can be created to include all records of a particular type, or only those records matching user-specified search criteria. Separate databases can also be merged into a larger database. This computer program provides an easy-to-use and accurate means to organize, maintain, access, and share information about recombinant clones and other laboratory products of molecular biology technology. PMID:2631777

  7. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J. M.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B. D.; Kitchings, J. T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D. A.; Olsen, C. R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  8. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (12th, Springfield, Missouri, June 4-8, 1990). Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume includes 13 papers: "Non-Radioactive DNA Hybridization Experiments for the…

  9. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings. Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (11th, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, June 12-16, 1989). Volume 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Investigating Fungi Which Cause Rot and Decay" (J. A Johnson);…

  10. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 8-12, 1993). Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 18 papers: "Human DNA Fingerprinting by Polymerase Chain Reaction" (M. V.…

  11. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (5th, Clemson, South Carolina, June 13-17, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; And Others

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains eight papers: "Bacterial Transformation" (M. J. Ernest & N. J. Rosenbaum);…

  12. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (13th, Laramie, Wyoming, June 11-15, 1991). Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 10 papers: "Testing Issues of Foraging and Flocking Behavior" (C. C.…

  13. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (14th, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 2-6, 1992). Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve undergraduate biology laboratory experiences by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceedings volume contains 11 papers: "A Practical Guide to the Use of Cellular Slime Molds for…

  14. Laboratory study of biological response of juvenile salmon subjected to turbulent shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Mueller, Robert P.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2005-07-21

    The objective of this study is to establish correlation metrics between Sensor Fish measurements and live fish injuries through well-controlled laboratory studies, and relate the findings of field studies and computational fluid dynamics modeling to the Sensor Fish measurements in the turbine environment. We exposed juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawythscha) and Sensor Fish devices to a laboratory-generated turbulent shear environment to determine whether observed biological responses could be linked to hydraulic conditions. Since its field trials in 1999, the Sensor Fish device has been an important tool to characterize the exposure conditions that fish experience during turbine, spillway, and other hydraulic environments. The live fish and Sensor Fish were introduced into the top portion of a submerged, 6.35-cm diameter water jet at velocities ranging from 12.2 to 19.8 m-s-1, with a control group released at 3 m.s-1. Injuries typical of simulated turbine-exposures include eye damage, opercle damage, bruising, loss of equilibrium, lethargy, and mortality. Digital video images were captured by two high-speed, high-resolution cameras. Advanced motion analysis was performed to obtain three-dimensional trajectories of Sensor Fish and juvenile salmon, from which time series of the velocity, acceleration, jerk, fish body bending, and force magnitudes were calculated. The motion is then correlated with live fish injury and mortality data and related kinematic/dynamic parameters. This study provides improved understanding of the location and dynamics of conditions deleterious to fish passage, and linkage between laboratory, field studies, and computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  15. Biological investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biological field survey performed on the Sandia National Laboratories Aerial Cable Facility, at the east end of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), Bernalillo County, New Mexico. This survey was conducted late September through October, 1991. ACF occupies a 440-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service (USFS) for use by KAFB, and in turn placed under operational control of SNL by the Department of Energy (DOE). All land used by SNL for ACF is part of a 15,851-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service. In addition, a number of different organizations use the 15,851-acre area. The project area used by SNL encompasses portions of approximately six sections (3,840 acres) of US Forest Service land located within the foothills of the west side of the Manzano Mountains (East Mesa). The biological study area is used by the KAFB, the US Department of Interior, and SNL. This area includes: (1) Sol se Mete Springs and Canyon, (2) East Anchor Access Road, (3) East Anchor Site, (4) Rocket Sled Track, (5) North Arena, (6) East Instrumentation Site and Access Road, (7) West Anchor Access Road, (8) West Anchor Site, (9) South Arena, (10) Winch Sites, (11) West Instrumentation Sites, (12) Explosive Assembly Building, (13) Control Building, (14) Lurance Canyon Road and vicinity. Although portions of approximately 960 acres of withdrawn US Forest Service land have been altered, only 700 acres have been disturbed by activities associated with ACF; approximately 2,880 acres consist of natural habitat. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative lack of human disturbance have allowed this area to remain in a more natural vegetative state relative to the condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found on ACF, as well as a comprehensive assessment of biological habitats.

  16. Horse Manure and Other Fun Projects. Field Studies and Laboratory Experiences in Environmental Biology - A Book of Experimental Ideas for Secondary School Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert T., Ed.; Clark, Barbara G., Ed.

    This guide contains a collection of laboratory and field inquiries designed to promote ecological awareness, sensitivity, and understanding. The activities compiled by 28 teachers are for use in teaching biology at the secondary level. They are presented in a "recipe" form to make it possible for teachers without prior experience or training to…

  17. Examination of atmospheric ammonia levels near hog CAFOs, homes, and schools in Eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release ammonia (NH 3) in Eastern North Carolina (NC) to the atmosphere which is potentially hazardous for nearby human populations at community locations particularly homes and schools. We present NH 3 weekly average concentrations that were collected using passive diffusion tubes from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) near community locations in close proximity to hog CAFOs. The data for each phase of sampling was stratified by distance from the nearest hog CAFO. The mean Phase I levels were 16, 8, 7 and 5 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2 km or more, respectively. The mean levels for Phase II were 29, 16, and 11 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, and 1 km or more, respectively. The results of the distance stratification are the best results of this study and provide the strongest evidence that distance to one or more CAFOs is the key variable in controlling weekly NH 3 atmospheric concentration at the community level in Eastern NC. Statistical analyses confirmed that source terms such as distance to a hog CAFO and live weight per operation, as well as temperature, wind speed and wind direction were important predictors of atmospheric NH 3 at community locations. The results indicate potential zones of exposure for human populations who live or go to school near hog CAFOs.

  18. Pheromone-Induced Morphogenesis Improves Osmoadaptation Capacity by Activating the HOG MAPK Pathway**

    PubMed Central

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. Here, we investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell-wall integrity response (CWI). Although these MAPK pathways share components with each and a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity response (HOG), they are normally only activated by distinct stimuli, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity- dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the “shmooing” morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover that improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to enable responses to yeast to multiple stimuli. PMID:23612707

  19. Teaching Statistics in Biology: Using Inquiry-based Learning to Strengthen Understanding of Statistical Analysis in Biology Laboratory Courses

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for students in the biological sciences to build a strong foundation in quantitative approaches to data analyses. Although most science, engineering, and math field majors are required to take at least one statistics course, statistical analysis is poorly integrated into undergraduate biology course work, particularly at the lower-division level. Elements of statistics were incorporated into an introductory biology course, including a review of statistics concepts and opportunity for students to perform statistical analysis in a biological context. Learning gains were measured with an 11-item statistics learning survey instrument developed for the course. Students showed a statistically significant 25% (p < 0.005) increase in statistics knowledge after completing introductory biology. Students improved their scores on the survey after completing introductory biology, even if they had previously completed an introductory statistics course (9%, improvement p < 0.005). Students retested 1 yr after completing introductory biology showed no loss of their statistics knowledge as measured by this instrument, suggesting that the use of statistics in biology course work may aid long-term retention of statistics knowledge. No statistically significant differences in learning were detected between male and female students in the study. PMID:18765754

  20. Low-gravity Orbiting Research Laboratory Environment Potential Impact on Space Biology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2006-01-01

    One of the major objectives of any orbital space research platform is to provide a quiescent low gravity, preferably a zero gravity environment, to perform fundamental as well as applied research. However, small disturbances exist onboard any low earth orbital research platform. The impact of these disturbances must be taken into account by space research scientists during their research planning, design and data analysis in order to avoid confounding factors in their science results. The reduced gravity environment of an orbiting research platform in low earth orbit is a complex phenomenon. Many factors, among others, such as experiment operations, equipment operation, life support systems and crew activity (if it is a crewed platform), aerodynamic drag, gravity gradient, rotational effects as well as the vehicle structural resonance frequencies (structural modes) contribute to form the overall reduced gravity environment in which space research is performed. The contribution of these small disturbances or accelerations is precisely why the environment is NOT a zero gravity environment, but a reduced acceleration environment. This paper does not discuss other factors such as radiation, electromagnetic interference, thermal and pressure gradient changes, acoustic and CO2 build-up to name a few that affect the space research environment as well, but it focuses solely on the magnitude of the acceleration level found on orbiting research laboratory used by research scientists to conduct space research. For ease of analysis this paper divides the frequency spectrum relevant to most of the space research disciplines into three regimes: a) quasi-steady, b) vibratory and c) transient. The International Space Station is used as an example to illustrate the point. The paper discusses the impact of these three regimes on space biology research and results from space flown experiments are used to illustrate the potential negative impact of these disturbances (accelerations

  1. Dynamic signaling in the Hog1 MAPK pathway relies on high basal signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Macia, Javier; Regot, Sergi; Peeters, Tom; Conde, Núria; Solé, Ricard; Posas, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is essential for cells to survive osmotic stress. Here, we show that the two sensing mechanisms upstream of Hog1 display different signaling properties. The Sho1 branch is an inducible nonbasal system, whereas the Sln1 branch shows high basal signaling that is restricted by a MAPK-mediated feedback mechanism. A two-dimensional mathematical model of the Snl1 branch, including high basal signaling and a Hog1-regulated negative feedback, shows that a system with basal signaling exhibits higher efficiency, with faster response times and higher sensitivity to variations in external signals, than would systems without basal signaling. Analysis of two other yeast MAPK pathways, the Fus3 and Kss1 signaling pathways, indicates that high intrinsic basal signaling may be a general property of MAPK pathways allowing rapid and sensitive responses to environmental changes. PMID:19318625

  2. The Protein Information Management System (PiMS): a generic tool for any structural biology research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Chris; Pajon, Anne; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Ed; Savitsky, Marc; Lin, Bill; Diprose, Jonathan M; da Silva, Alan Wilter; Pilicheva, Katya; Troshin, Peter; van Niekerk, Johannes; Isaacs, Neil; Naismith, James; Nave, Colin; Blake, Richard; Wilson, Keith S; Stuart, David I; Henrick, Kim; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    The techniques used in protein production and structural biology have been developing rapidly, but techniques for recording the laboratory information produced have not kept pace. One approach is the development of laboratory information-management systems (LIMS), which typically use a relational database schema to model and store results from a laboratory workflow. The underlying philosophy and implementation of the Protein Information Management System (PiMS), a LIMS development specifically targeted at the flexible and unpredictable workflows of protein-production research laboratories of all scales, is described. PiMS is a web-based Java application that uses either Postgres or Oracle as the underlying relational database-management system. PiMS is available under a free licence to all academic laboratories either for local installation or for use as a managed service. PMID:21460443

  3. The Protein Information Management System (PiMS): a generic tool for any structural biology research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Morris, Chris; Pajon, Anne; Griffiths, Susanne L; Daniel, Ed; Savitsky, Marc; Lin, Bill; Diprose, Jonathan M; da Silva, Alan Wilter; Pilicheva, Katya; Troshin, Peter; van Niekerk, Johannes; Isaacs, Neil; Naismith, James; Nave, Colin; Blake, Richard; Wilson, Keith S; Stuart, David I; Henrick, Kim; Esnouf, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    The techniques used in protein production and structural biology have been developing rapidly, but techniques for recording the laboratory information produced have not kept pace. One approach is the development of laboratory information-management systems (LIMS), which typically use a relational database schema to model and store results from a laboratory workflow. The underlying philosophy and implementation of the Protein Information Management System (PiMS), a LIMS development specifically targeted at the flexible and unpredictable workflows of protein-production research laboratories of all scales, is described. PiMS is a web-based Java application that uses either Postgres or Oracle as the underlying relational database-management system. PiMS is available under a free licence to all academic laboratories either for local installation or for use as a managed service.

  4. The Protein Information Management System (PiMS): a generic tool for any structural biology research laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Chris; Pajon, Anne; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Ed; Savitsky, Marc; Lin, Bill; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Wilter da Silva, Alan; Pilicheva, Katya; Troshin, Peter; van Niekerk, Johannes; Isaacs, Neil; Naismith, James; Nave, Colin; Blake, Richard; Wilson, Keith S.; Stuart, David I.; Henrick, Kim; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The techniques used in protein production and structural biology have been developing rapidly, but techniques for recording the laboratory information produced have not kept pace. One approach is the development of laboratory information-management systems (LIMS), which typically use a relational database schema to model and store results from a laboratory workflow. The underlying philosophy and implementation of the Protein Information Management System (PiMS), a LIMS development specifically targeted at the flexible and unpredictable workflows of protein-production research laboratories of all scales, is described. PiMS is a web-based Java application that uses either Postgres or Oracle as the underlying relational database-management system. PiMS is available under a free licence to all academic laboratories either for local installation or for use as a managed service. PMID:21460443

  5. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  7. Remodeling of global transcription patterns of Cryptococcus neoformans genes mediated by the stress-activated HOG signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young-Joon; Yu, Yeong Man; Kim, Gyu-Bum; Lee, Gir-Won; Maeng, Pil Jae; Kim, Sangsoo; Floyd, Anna; Heitman, Joseph; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2009-08-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to a hostile host environment is a crucial element for virulence of pathogenic fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans. These cellular responses are evoked by diverse signaling cascades, including the stress-activated HOG pathway. Despite previous analysis of central components of the HOG pathway, its downstream signaling network is poorly characterized in C. neoformans. Here we performed comparative transcriptome analysis with HOG signaling mutants to explore stress-regulated genes and their correlation with the HOG pathway in C. neoformans. In this study, we not only provide important insights into remodeling patterns of global gene expression for counteracting external stresses but also elucidate novel characteristics of the HOG pathway in C. neoformans. First, inhibition of the HOG pathway increases expression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes and cellular ergosterol content, conferring a striking synergistic antifungal activity with amphotericin B and providing an excellent opportunity to develop a novel therapeutic method for treatment of cryptococcosis. Second, a number of cadmium-sensitive genes are differentially regulated by the HOG pathway, and their mutation causes resistance to cadmium. Finally, we have discovered novel stress defense and HOG-dependent genes, which encode a sodium/potassium efflux pump, protein kinase, multidrug transporter system, and elements of the ubiquitin-dependent system.

  8. Thermal biology, torpor and behaviour in sugar gliders: a laboratory-field comparison.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Fritz; Holloway, Joanne C; Körtner, Gerhard

    2007-07-01

    Most studies on animal physiology and behaviour are conducted in captivity without verification that data are representative of free-ranging animals. We provide the first quantitative comparison of daily torpor, thermal biology and activity patterns, conducted on two groups of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps, Marsupialia) exposed to similar thermal conditions, one in captivity and the other in the field. Our study shows that activity in captive gliders in an outdoor aviary is restricted to the night and largely unaffected by weather, whereas free-ranging gliders omit foraging on cold/wet nights and may also forage in the afternoon. Torpor occurrence in gliders was significantly lower in captivity (8.4% after food deprivation; 1.1% for all observations) than in the field (25.9%), mean torpor bout duration was shorter in captivity (6.9 h) than in the field (13.1 h), and mean body temperatures during torpor were higher in captivity (25.3 degrees C) than in the field (19.6 degrees C). Moreover, normothermic body temperature as a function of air temperature differed between captive and free-ranging gliders, with a >3 degrees C difference at low air temperatures. Our comparison shows that activity patterns, thermal physiology, use of torpor and patterns of torpor may differ substantially between the laboratory and field, and provides further evidence that functional and behavioural data on captive individuals may not necessarily be representative of those living in the wild.

  9. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  10. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  11. "A lab of one's own". The Balfour Biological Laboratory for Women at Cambridge University, 1884-1914.

    PubMed

    Richmond, M L

    1997-09-01

    The Balfour Biological Laboratory for Women was established at Cambridge University in 1884 to prepare the students of Newnham and Girton Colleges to sit the Natural Sciences Tripos, first opened to women in 1881. For thirty years, until its closure in 1914, the Balfour Laboratory served as the central conduit for biological instruction for the women of Cambridge, introducing them to the new program of experimental biology developed by the physiologist Michael Foster and the embryologist Francis Maitland Balfour. Directed by distinguished women graduates, the Balfour Laboratory became recognized as the leading center for women's biological instruction in Britain. Its significance, however, extends beyond its nominal status as a teaching laboratory. It provided university positions for able scientists who otherwise would not have been placed, offered advanced students the opportunity to engage in independent research, and, most important, formed the locus for the scientific subculture created by women at Cambridge to compensate for their exclusion from the social community of science. Drawing upon college and university archival records, this essay offers institutional, social, and biographical research that broadens our understanding of the experience of the first generation of women to pursue a higher education in the life sciences at one of the world's premier universities.

  12. Terrestrial Slugs as a Model Organism for Inquiry-Based Experimentation in a Majors General Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Brenda J.; Blair, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    Many biology educators at the undergraduate level are revamping their laboratory curricula to incorporate inquiry-based research experiences so that students can directly participate in the process of science and improve their scientific reasoning skills. Slugs are an ideal organism for use in such a student-directed, hypothesis-driven experience.…

  13. A case study of self-efficacy and attitudes toward science in an inquiry-based biology laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laipply, Richelle Susan

    It is in the introductory college science class where future teachers of science and future scientists are trained. Research has shown that self-efficacy and attitudes toward science are linked to future enrollment in science courses, selection of a college major, and even to a science career. It is important to examine the effects of these and other factors which impact the undergraduate science experience so as to decrease the attrition from the sciences and to evaluate science teaching methodologies. The purpose of this case study was to examine the effect of an inquiry-based introductory biology laboratory on students' biology self-efficacy and attitudes toward science at an urban public university. Data were gathered from one laboratory section during a fifteen-week semester through the use of participant observations, interviews, and three administrations of the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale and the Test of Science-Related Attitudes . Results showed that the inquiry experience had a positive effect on students' attitudes toward science and increased their biology self-efficacy. Moreover, peer group collaborations and student interactions with the teaching assistant were found to facilitate the inquiry process and the development of positive attitudes and self-efficacy. The findings of this study have implications for the enhancement of the undergraduate experience in college science laboratories and are significant for all college science educators with regard to ways in which to structure laboratory instruction.

  14. Practice Makes Pretty Good: Assessment of Primary Literature Reading Abilities across Multiple Large-Enrollment Biology Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Brian K.; Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M. N.; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent "training" our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In…

  15. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring…

  16. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  17. From Genes to Proteins to Behavior: A Laboratory Project That Enhances Student Understanding in Cell and Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    In the laboratory, students can actively explore concepts and experience the nature of scientific research. We have devised a 5-wk laboratory project in our introductory college biology course whose aim was to improve understanding in five major concepts that are central to basic cellular, molecular biology, and genetics while teaching molecular biology techniques. The project was focused on the production of adenine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and investigated the nature of mutant red colonies of this yeast. Students created red mutants from a wild-type strain, amplified the two genes capable of giving rise to the red phenotype, and then analyzed the nucleotide sequences. A quiz assessing student understanding in the five areas was given at the start and the end of the course. Analysis of the quiz showed significant improvement in each of the areas. These areas were taught in the laboratory and the classroom; therefore, students were surveyed to determine whether the laboratory played a role in their improved understanding of the five areas. Student survey data demonstrated that the laboratory did have an important role in their learning of the concepts. This project simulated steps in a research project and could be adapted for an advanced course in genetics. PMID:19952098

  18. Through Microgravity and Towards the Stars: Microgravity and Strategic Research at Marshall's Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    The Microgravity and Strategic research at Marshall s Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory will be reviewed. The environment in orbit provides a unique opportunity to study Materials Science and Biotechnology in the absence of sedimentation and convection. There are a number of peer-selected investigations that have been selected to fly on the Space Station that have been conceived and are led by Marshall s Biological and Physical Research Laboratory s scientists. In addition to Microgravity research the Station will enable research in "Strategic" Research Areas that focus on enabling humans to live, work, and explore the solar system safely. New research in Radiation Protection, Strategic Molecular Biology, and In-Space Fabrication will be introduced.

  19. Laboratory Measurements of Self-Potential (SP) During Biologically-Induced Precipitation of Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, V.; Maineult, A.; Menez, B.; Zamora, M.

    2007-05-01

    Self-potential (or natural electrical field) data often provide complementary information for hydrological and environmental applications. Particularly, this method can be used to detect and quantify the variations of fluid flow or chemistry, as SP field results mainly from pressure and concentration gradients. Recent laboratory and field works have demonstrated that bacterial activity can also impact on this natural electrical field, even though the chemical and/or physical processes involved are still not well understood. It seems that direct transfer of electrons through biofilms triggers an electrical signal. Moreover, in an indirect way, the bacterial activity affects the fluid composition and the solute concentrations, as well as the properties of the surface of the mineral matrix, and thus changes the SP response. In order to provide some insights into the link between bacterial activity, chemistry and geophysics, we performed some laboratory experiments in sand-boxes. In particular, we studied the chemical and electrical response to the hydrolysis of urea by Bacillus pasteurii in presence of calcium. Schematically, bacteria were confined in the centre of the sand-box to avoid chemotactic migration. The sand was fully saturated with a nutrient solution containing urea (5 g/L), NaCl (8 g/L) and CaCl2-2(H2O) (2.8 g/L). The SP field was recorded continuously using small unpolarizable electrodes placed inside the sand. The chemical evolution of the solution at different distances from the centre of the box was daily analyzed. We report our preliminary results. The chemical evolution with time evidences at least two phases. First, a strong ammonium production, associated with the biodegradation of the urea, and a concomitant decrease of calcium ion content, due to the precipitation of calcite. Then, the biodegradation rate decreases or even goes to zero, while the by-products diffuse from the centre of the sand-box toward its borders. The SP variations are

  20. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting: “Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic”, held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13–15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 micrograms per liter (10 μg/L) in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry and educators at the local, state, national and international levels to: (1) Establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) Work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry and others; (3) Develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) Develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods, and (5) Develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies. PMID:26231509

  1. MDI Biological Laboratory Arsenic Summit: Approaches to Limiting Human Exposure to Arsenic.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Bruce A; Caldwell, Kathleen; Congdon, Clare Bates; Disney, Jane; Donahue, Maria; Ferguson, Elizabeth; Flemings, Elsie; Golden, Meredith; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Highman, Jay; James, Karen; Kim, Carol; Lantz, R Clark; Marvinney, Robert G; Mayer, Greg; Miller, David; Navas-Acien, Ana; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Postema, Sonia; Rardin, Laurie; Rosen, Barry; SenGupta, Arup; Shaw, Joseph; Stanton, Elizabeth; Susca, Paul

    2015-09-01

    This report is the outcome of the meeting "Environmental and Human Health Consequences of Arsenic" held at the MDI Biological Laboratory in Salisbury Cove, Maine, August 13-15, 2014. Human exposure to arsenic represents a significant health problem worldwide that requires immediate attention according to the World Health Organization (WHO). One billion people are exposed to arsenic in food, and more than 200 million people ingest arsenic via drinking water at concentrations greater than international standards. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a limit of 10 μg/L in public water supplies and the WHO has recommended an upper limit of 10 μg/L, recent studies indicate that these limits are not protective enough. In addition, there are currently few standards for arsenic in food. Those who participated in the Summit support citizens, scientists, policymakers, industry, and educators at the local, state, national, and international levels to (1) establish science-based evidence for setting standards at the local, state, national, and global levels for arsenic in water and food; (2) work with government agencies to set regulations for arsenic in water and food, to establish and strengthen non-regulatory programs, and to strengthen collaboration among government agencies, NGOs, academia, the private sector, industry, and others; (3) develop novel and cost-effective technologies for identification and reduction of exposure to arsenic in water; (4) develop novel and cost-effective approaches to reduce arsenic exposure in juice, rice, and other relevant foods; and (5) develop an Arsenic Education Plan to guide the development of science curricula as well as community outreach and education programs that serve to inform students and consumers about arsenic exposure and engage them in well water testing and development of remediation strategies.

  2. Biological characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) induced to diapause in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Neto e Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May-August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal-adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects' nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta.

  3. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  4. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  5. Health effects from breathing air near CAFOs for feeder cattle or hogs.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Susanna G; Auvermann, Brent W

    2005-01-01

    There is concern that livestock operations for fattening cattle and raising hogs known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release substances into the air that have negative effects on the health of persons living nearby. These substances include dust containing endotoxin and other microbial products as well as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and a variety of volatile organic compounds. Odors from these farms are considered offensive by some neighbors. A variety of medical complaints are reported to be more common in those people who live near CAFOs for raising hogs than in people without this exposure. Respiratory health effects, including symptoms of pulmonary disease and lung function test result abnormalities, have been described in workers employed in CAFOs where hogs are raised. Health effects after inhalation exposure of neighbors to substances released into the ambient air from these farms is less well characterized. It must be noted that CAFO workers may differ from neighbors in terms of their exposures and general health status. The presence of dust and other substances from cattle feedlots also causes some neighbors to voice concerns about the impact on their health but this exposure has been studied less extensively than exposure to substances released from CAFOs where hogs are raised. Further research needs to be done to look for measurable health effects attributable to living near all CAFOs in order to better understand the impact of these farms. PMID:16702123

  6. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  7. [Life cycle of Gongylonema mucronatum Seurat, 1916, parasite of the African hedge-hog (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Quentin, J C; Seguignes, M

    1979-01-01

    The Gongylonematid Nematode parasite of the Tunisian hedge-hog has been identified as Gongylonema mucronatum Seurat, 1916. The infective larva has been obtained from Locusta migratoria as intermediate host. The larval characters of this Gongylonema link it to the species G. pulchrum.

  8. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  9. Nuclear versus cytosolic activity of the yeast Hog1 MAP kinase in response to osmotic and tunicamycin-induced ER stress.

    PubMed

    García-Marqués, Sara; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Prieto, Jose A

    2015-07-22

    We examined the physiological significance of the nuclear versus cytosolic localization of the MAPK Hog1p in the ability of yeast cells to cope with osmotic and ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress. Our results indicate that nuclear import of Hog1p is not critical for osmoadaptation. Plasma membrane-anchored Hog1p is still able to induce increased expression of GPD1 and glycerol accumulation. This is a key osmoregulatory event, although a small production of the osmolyte coupled with the nuclear import of Hog1p is sufficient to provide osmoresistance. On the contrary, the nuclear activity of Hog1p is dispensable for ER stress adaptation.

  10. Rewiring yeast osmostress signalling through the MAPK network reveals essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 in osmoadaptation.

    PubMed

    Babazadeh, Roja; Furukawa, Takako; Hohmann, Stefan; Furukawa, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a number of targets which they regulate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to mediate specific responses. The yeast Hog1 MAPK is essential for cell survival under hyperosmotic conditions and it plays multiple roles in gene expression, metabolic regulation, signal fidelity and cell cycle regulation. Here we describe essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 using engineered yeast cells in which osmoadaptation was reconstituted in a Hog1-independent manner. We rewired Hog1-dependent osmotic stress-induced gene expression under the control of Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs, which are activated upon osmostress via crosstalk in hog1Δ cells. This approach revealed that osmotic up-regulation of only two Hog1-dependent glycerol biosynthesis genes, GPD1 and GPP2, is sufficient for successful osmoadaptation. Moreover, some of the previously described Hog1-dependent mechanisms appeared to be dispensable for osmoadaptation in the engineered cells. These results suggest that the number of essential MAPK functions may be significantly smaller than anticipated and that knockout approaches may lead to over-interpretation of phenotypic data. PMID:24732094

  11. Rewiring yeast osmostress signalling through the MAPK network reveals essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 in osmoadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Furukawa, Takako; Hohmann, Stefan; Furukawa, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a number of targets which they regulate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to mediate specific responses. The yeast Hog1 MAPK is essential for cell survival under hyperosmotic conditions and it plays multiple roles in gene expression, metabolic regulation, signal fidelity and cell cycle regulation. Here we describe essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 using engineered yeast cells in which osmoadaptation was reconstituted in a Hog1-independent manner. We rewired Hog1-dependent osmotic stress-induced gene expression under the control of Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs, which are activated upon osmostress via crosstalk in hog1Δ cells. This approach revealed that osmotic up-regulation of only two Hog1-dependent glycerol biosynthesis genes, GPD1 and GPP2, is sufficient for successful osmoadaptation. Moreover, some of the previously described Hog1-dependent mechanisms appeared to be dispensable for osmoadaptation in the engineered cells. These results suggest that the number of essential MAPK functions may be significantly smaller than anticipated and that knockout approaches may lead to over-interpretation of phenotypic data. PMID:24732094

  12. The Protein Information Management System (PiMS): a generic tool for any structural biology research laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Chris; Pajon, Anne; Griffiths, Susanne L.; Daniel, Ed; Savitsky, Marc; Lin, Bill; Diprose, Jonathan M.; Wilter da Silva, Alan; Pilicheva, Katya; Troshin, Peter; Niekerk, Johannes van; Isaacs, Neil; Naismith, James; Nave, Colin; Blake, Richard; Wilson, Keith S.; Stuart, David I.; Henrick, Kim; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2011-04-01

    The Protein Information Management System (PiMS) is described together with a discussion of how its features make it well suited to laboratories of all sizes. The techniques used in protein production and structural biology have been developing rapidly, but techniques for recording the laboratory information produced have not kept pace. One approach is the development of laboratory information-management systems (LIMS), which typically use a relational database schema to model and store results from a laboratory workflow. The underlying philosophy and implementation of the Protein Information Management System (PiMS), a LIMS development specifically targeted at the flexible and unpredictable workflows of protein-production research laboratories of all scales, is described. PiMS is a web-based Java application that uses either Postgres or Oracle as the underlying relational database-management system. PiMS is available under a free licence to all academic laboratories either for local installation or for use as a managed service.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Testing of Penicillins: An Investigative Approach to the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ragnhild D.; Truhlar, Laura M.; Yksel, Deniz; Walt, David R.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The development and implementation of a research-based organic chemistry laboratory experiment is presented. The experiment was designed to simulate a scientific research environment, involve students in critical thinking, and develop the student's ability to analyze and present research-based data. In this experiment, a laboratory class…

  14. Environmental monitoring and assessment program (EMAP) laboratory methods manual estuaries. Volume 1. Biological and physical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Klemm, D.J.; Lobring, L.B.; Eichelberger, J.W.; Alford-Stevens, A.

    1995-08-01

    This document is intended to document analytical methods for use by laboratories conducting analyses for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries. This document is volume I of a two-part series. The second volume of the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual presents methods for the chemical analyses of sediments and tissue.

  15. A Molecular Genetics Laboratory Course Applying Bioinformatics and Cell Biology in the Context of Original Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Cynthia J.; Pruitt, Wendy M.; Robinson, Lucy C.

    2008-01-01

    Research based laboratory courses have been shown to stimulate student interest in science and to improve scientific skills. We describe here a project developed for a semester-long research-based laboratory course that accompanies a genetics lecture course. The project was designed to allow students to become familiar with the use of…

  16. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  17. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  18. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure, selected fertilizers, and water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Boron-isotope (δ11B) values may be useful as surrogate tracers of contaminants and indicators of water mixing in agricultural settings. This paper characterizes the B contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure and selected fertilizers, and presents δ11B data for ground and surface water from two agricultural areas. Boron concentrations in dry hog manure averaged 61 mg/kg and in commercial fertilizers ranged from below detection limits in some brands of ammonium nitrate and urea to 382 mg/kg in magnesium sulfate. Values of δ11B of untreated hog manure ranged from 7.2 to 11.2o/oo and of N fertilizers were −2.0 to 0.7o/oo. In 22 groundwater samples from a sand-plain aquifer in east-central Minnesota, B concentrations averaged 0.04 mg/L and δ11B values ranged from 2.3 to 41.5o/oo. Groundwater beneath a hog feedlot and a cultivated field where hog manure was applied had B-isotope compositions consistent with the water containing hog-manure leachate. In a 775-km2 watershed with silty-loam soils in southcentral Minnesota: 18 samples of subsurface drainage from corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) fields had average B concentrations of 0.06 mg/L and δ11B values of 5.3 to 15.1o/oo; 27 stream samples had average B concentrations of 0.05 mg/L and δ11B values of 1.0 to 19.0o/oo; and eight groundwater samples had average B concentrations of 0.09 mg/L and δ11B values of −0.3 to 23.0o/oo. Values of δ11B and B concentrations, when plotted against one another, define a curved mixing trend that suggests subsurface drainage and stream water contain mixtures of B from shallow and deep groundwater.

  19. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  20. Osmolarity hypersensitivity of hog1 deleted mutants is suppressed by mutation in KSS1 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Park, Shi-Young; Na, Jong-Gil; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2002-03-19

    An osmosensing mechanism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (HOG pathway). This study aimed to investigate the response of the yeast to osmotic stress. A mutant strain, in which the HOG1 gene was disrupted by TRP1, was constructed. A spontaneous mutant, named YJY45, which suppresses the osmosensitive growth phenotype of the hog1 deletion mutant, was selected and showed a secondary phenotype of temperature sensitivity on YPD containing 0.5 M NaCl at 37 degrees C. Our data indicate that the spontaneous mutation in YJY45 mutant was mapped in KSS1, which is one of the MAPK family. The mutation in KSS1 suppresses the osmolarity-hypersensitive phenotype of the hog1 deletion mutation and restores GPD1 induction. PMID:12007647

  1. Prepare, Do, Review: A skills-based approach for laboratory practical classes in biochemistry and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Peter; Ludwig, Martha; Castelli, Joane; Kirkwood, Paul; Attwood, Paul

    2016-05-01

    A new laboratory practical system is described which is comprised of a number of laboratory practical modules, each based around a particular technique or set of techniques, related to the theory part of the course but not designed to be dependent on it. Each module comprises an online recorded pre-lab lecture, the laboratory practical itself and a post-lab session in which students make oral presentations on different aspects of the practical. Each part of the module is assessed with the aim of providing rapid feedback to staff and students. Each laboratory practical is the responsibility of a single staff member and through this "ownership," continual review and updating is promoted. Examples of changes made by staff to modules as a result of student feedback are detailed. A survey of students who had experienced both the old-style laboratory course and the new one provided evidence of increased satisfaction with the new program. The assessment of acquired shills in the new program showed that it was much more effective than the old course. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:276-287, 2016.

  2. The development and assessment of constructivist-based curriculum changes in a university general biology laboratory course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Sherry Shelton

    1999-11-01

    This study describes the processes involved in transforming the curriculum of the second semester general biology laboratory course for science majors, BSC 111L, at the University of Southern Mississippi from one based on the behaviorist model of teaching and learning to one based on the constructivist model. The study encompasses pilot and research phases. During the pilot phase conducted fall semester of 1997, the researcher presented to graduate teaching assistants an overview of the need for curriculum reform and some of the theoretical underpinnings for the movement. The researcher worked with all of the general biology teaching assistants to determine factors they considered supportive of the effort, identified specific goals and exercises, and developed a mission statement. The researcher then worked with two of the teaching assistants to write the new curriculum materials and pilot them in a designated laboratory section each week. During the research phase, the researcher facilitated the use of constructivist teaching methods and interviewed the teaching assistants during weekly group meetings. The researcher videotaped and observed the laboratories at various times throughout spring semester of 1998. Student responses to survey questions about the laboratories were collected during the observation sessions. Data derived from self-assessments on teaching beliefs completed by the teaching assistants, interview transcripts, videotaped laboratory sessions, and student surveys were used to assess the effectiveness of the new curriculum and the intervention program. It was observed that despite being given the same instructions, curriculum, and materials, each teaching assistant conducted his laboratory section in a unique way and rarely conducted the complete laboratory in the intended manner. It was also observed that one TA in particular needed more training in interpersonal skill development and content than was provided during the weekly intervention

  3. A case study of meaningful learning in a collaborative concept mapping strategy as a preparation for a college biology laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Catherine Wilburn Evelyn

    Statement of the problem. The purpose of this research was to add to our understanding of meaningful learning by examining the process of collaborative concept mapping and student interaction during knowledge construction. Laboratory learning has been hampered by inadequacies of students' conceptual understanding and laboratory preparation. Believing that people construct their own knowledge and that collaboration might assist in these constructions, this research examined student dialog and written products related to their college general biology laboratory experiences. The following questions guided the research: (a) What negotiations and other interactions take place between students who jointly construct propositions and concept maps? (b) What thinking and understanding takes place as students are constructing biology concepts? (c) What awareness do students have about their construction of biological concepts and about the use of these concept mapping strategies? Method. This study utilized qualitative and interpretive methodologies and a case study approach with purposeful sampling. Students in college general biology laboratory used an instructional strategy in which they independently constructed propositions from laboratory concepts. While being audio taped, pairs of students negotiated these propositions and used them to form concept maps. The data sets resulting from these methods, solicited personal documents including written proposition lists, concept maps, and examinations, were examined along with tape recorded conversations. Results. Analysis of interaction data revealed that most students paid only moderate attention to each other's comments. Most commonly observed cooperative behaviors were seeking meaning, providing explanations, and completion of partner's statements. The degree of pair symmetry did not consistently influence student interactions or cooperative behaviors. Students used easily memorized, but not necessarily accurate, answers

  4. Pedestrian detection system based on HOG and a modified version of CSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmo, Daniel L.; Salles, Evandro O. T.; Ciarelli, Patrick M.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a complete pedestrian detection system based on sliding windows. Two feature vector extraction techniques are used: HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradient) and CSS (Color Self Similarities), and to classify windows we use linear SVM (Support Vector Machines). Besides these techniques, we use mean shift and hierarchical clustering, to fuse multiple overlapping detections. The results we obtain on the dataset INRIA Person shows that the proposed system, using only HOG descriptors, achieves better results over similar systems, with a log average miss rate equal to 43%, against 46%, due to the cutting of final detections to better adapt them to the modified annotations. The addition of the modified CSS increases the efficiency of the system, leading to a log average miss rate equal to 39%.

  5. Hydrologic conditions related to the Hog Canyon Riparian Restoration Project, dinosaur national monument. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.; Wagner, J.

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1990, an interdisciplinary team of hydrologists, botanists, soil scientists, and park resource managers met to develop a plan for evaluating riparian conditions and management opportunities for Hog Canyon. At this meeting a set of study objectives was developed to help focus information needs. This report focuses on analysis of hydrologic data collected during the first year of the study. Specifically, the authors discuss seasonal surface and ground water hydrologic conditions, stream channel and ground water relationships, soil moisture conditions, and other aspects of Hog Canyon hydrology relevant to the management objectives. A set of preliminary management/restoration alternatives are also presented as a starting point for continued discussions by the evaluation team.

  6. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk.

  7. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  8. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers.

  9. Mammalian skin cell biology: at the interface between laboratory and clinic.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona M

    2014-11-21

    Mammalian skin research represents the convergence of three complementary disciplines: cell biology, mouse genetics, and dermatology. The skin provides a paradigm for current research in cell adhesion, inflammation, and tissue stem cells. Here, I discuss recent insights into the cell biology of skin. Single-cell analysis has revealed that human epidermal stem cells are heterogeneous and differentiate in response to multiple extrinsic signals. Live-cell imaging, optogenetics, and cell ablation experiments show skin cells to be remarkably dynamic. High-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded unprecedented insights into the circuitry that controls epidermal stem cell fate. Last, integrative biological analysis of human skin disorders has revealed unexpected functions for elements of the skin that were previously considered purely structural.

  10. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  11. An intercomparison of gamma-spectrometry on two samples of biological origin by eight laboratories in four countries.

    PubMed

    Twining, J R

    1996-08-01

    This report gives details of the first inter-laboratory comparison of gamma-spectrometry to be run within SPERA, the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association since its inauguration in 1991. Laboratories in Australia, Chile, French Polynesia and New Zealand participated in the exercise. Two 'unknown' samples of biological origin were analysed. The first was a sample of milk powder derived from IAEA reference material. This sample provided an assessment of overall accuracy of 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K determinations. The second sample consisted of dried fish flesh including natural 40K and spiked with a mixed nuclide solution containing 210Pb, 109Cd, 54Mn, 60Co and trace 133Ba. Together the samples gave information on analytical precision over a range of energies and activities. When the results were compared with the recommended values and confidence intervals of the IAEA reference material, the overall accuracy of the gamma-spectrometry analytical procedures was found to be good. The average mean values for combined laboratory data fell within the recommended value ranges for each isotope. Ninety percent of the individual laboratory isotope mean values were within two standard errors of the 95% confidence interval of the standard, 75% were within 1 s.e., and 33% of the analyses fell within the confidence interval. Technical precision was also adequate with the overall errors being of the same magnitude as that of the reference material values for each isotope with relative standard deviations of 5-10%. There was a tendency for standard deviations of the combined results to be larger than those reported or derived from individual laboratory results by a factor between 1.2-5.6. This result suggested an under-estimate of systematic errors within individual laboratories. The largest sources of error were derived from reporting and calculation of results which gave a 16% gross error rate.

  12. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Leslie A.

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  13. Middle/high school students in the research laboratory: A summer internship program emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of biology.

    PubMed

    McMiller, Tracee; Lee, Tameshia; Saroop, Ria; Green, Tyra; Johnson, Casonya M

    2006-03-01

    We describe an eight-week summer Young Scientist in Training (YSIT) internship program involving middle and high school students. This program exposed students to current basic research in molecular genetics, while introducing or reinforcing principles of the scientific method and demonstrating the uses of mathematics and chemistry in biology. For the laboratory-based program, selected students from Baltimore City Schools working in groups of three were teamed with undergraduate research assistants at Morgan State University. Teams were assigned a project that was indirectly related to our laboratory research on the characterization of gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. At the end of the program, teams prepared posters detailing their accomplishments, and presented their findings to parents and faculty members during a mini-symposium. The posters were also submitted to the respective schools and the interns were offered a presentation of their research at local high school science fairs. PMID:21638644

  14. Implementation of an Explicit and Reflective Pedagogy in Introductory Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Students need to reflect on the practice of science to fully understand the nature of science (NOS), which is an important component of scientific literacy. In this paper, the authors describe how to implement an explicit and reflective pedagogy in college science laboratories and share examples from their implementation in a multiple-section…

  15. How-To-Do-It: Recombinant DNA Technology in the High School Biology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a basic biotechnology investigation that includes restriction and ligation of plasmid DNA, transformation of bacteria and cloning of these bacterial cells. Discusses laboratory procedures and another activity in the identification of unknown plasmids by studying agarose gel electrophoresis photographs. (CW)

  16. Bats, Barnacles, and Bread Mold: An "Organism Day" Laboratory for General Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehr, Karen A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise in which students select and identify an organism, study it as it interacts within its environment, collect further information through library research, and bring the organism (alive, preserved, or photographed) to lab for a five-minute presentation. (JN)

  17. Introducing Human Population Biology through an Easy Laboratory Exercise on Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas, Antonio F.; Dopico, Eduardo; Roca, Agustin; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Lopez, Belen

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an easy and cheap laboratory exercise for students to discover their own mitochondrial haplogroup. Students use buccal swabs to obtain mucosa cells as noninvasive tissue samples, extract DNA, and with a simple polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis they can obtain DNA fragments of…

  18. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  19. A Linked Series of Laboratory Exercises in Molecular Biology Utilizing Bioinformatics and GFP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Carey L.; Nolin, Katie L.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists commonly use bioinformatics to map and analyze DNA and protein sequences and to align different DNA and protein sequences for comparison. Additionally, biologists can create and view 3D models of protein structures to further understand intramolecular interactions. The primary goal of this 10-week laboratory was to introduce…

  20. Apoptosis: A Four-Week Laboratory Investigation for Advanced Molecular and Cellular Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.; Mone, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, apoptosis has emerged as an important field of study central to ongoing research in many diverse fields, from developmental biology to cancer research. Apoptosis proceeds by a highly coordinated series of events that includes enzyme activation, DNA fragmentation, and alterations in plasma membrane permeability. The detection…

  1. Degradative Enzymes from the Pharmacy or Health Food Store: Interesting Examples for Introductory Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.

    2007-01-01

    Degradative enzymes in over-the-counter products from pharmacies and health food stores provide good examples of biological catalysis. These include [beta]-galactosidase in Lactaid[TM], [alpha]-galactosidase in Beano[R], [alpha]-amylase and proteases in digestive aids, and proteases in contact lens cleaners. These enzymes can be studied…

  2. Using Biocatalysis to Integrate Organic Chemistry into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Mande; Archer, Crystal; Feske, Brent D.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Current cutting-edge biomedical investigation requires that the researcher have an operational understanding of several diverse disciplines. Biocatalysis is a field of science that operates at the crossroads of organic chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and molecular biology, and provides an excellent model for interdisciplinary research. We…

  3. An Investigative Alternative to Single-Species Dissection in the Introductory Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    Dissections of single species (e.g., fetal pig) are a common student learning activity in introductory biology courses. Such dissections demonstrate location of anatomical parts and provide dissection practice but provide less opportunity for student critical thinking, numeracy and demonstration of the scientific method. A comparative anatomy lab…

  4. Using Osteoclast Differentiation as a Model for Gene Discovery in an Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Mark J.; Picco, Jenna; Clements, Meghan; Witwicka, Hanna; Yang, Meiheng; Hoey, Margaret T.; Odgren, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of molecular/cell biology/biotechnology is to identify essential genes in virtually every physiological process to uncover basic mechanisms of cell function and to establish potential targets of drug therapy combating human disease. This article describes a semester-long, project-oriented molecular/cellular/biotechnology laboratory…

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Learning from Inquiry-Based Laboratories in Nonmajor Biology: An Interpretive Study of the Relationships among Inquiry Experience, Epistemologies, and Conceptual Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Tsoi, Mai Yin; Calkin, Jamie; Darley, Marshall

    2003-01-01

    The use of inquiry-based laboratory in college science classes is on the rise. This study investigated how five nonmajor biology students learned from an inquiry-based laboratory experience. Using interpretive data analysis, the five students' conceptual ecologies, learning beliefs, and science epistemologies were explored. Findings indicated that…

  7. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus. PMID:27379041

  8. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  9. Instructional Experiences of Graduate Assistants Implementing Explicit and Reflective Introductory Biology Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uludag Bautista, Nazan; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rybczynski, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Science education reform documents identify nature of science (NOS) as a critical component of scientific literacy and call for universities, colleges, and K-12 schools to explicitly integrate NOS learning into science curricula. In response to these calls, this study investigated the classroom practices of nine graduate assistants (GAs) who taught expository and inquiry laboratories that implemented an explicit and reflective (ER) pedagogy to teach NOS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experiences that enabled or inhibited GA implementation of an ER strategy in a college setting. The findings revealed that achieving quality implementation in this setting was very difficult. Factors such as GAs' ability to foster meaningful classroom discussions, laboratory logistics (e.g. lack of time and supplies), and the value undergraduates and GAs saw in learning about NOS were identified by GAs and observed by the researchers as barriers to the technique maximizing its potential. Thus, for meaningful infusion of NOS into science curricula, pedagogical support for GAs to manage meaningful classroom discussions in support of NOS or other complex topics is recommended for an ER approach to NOS learning to be successful in college settings.

  10. Interpreting EChO's future data: biological laboratory extimates under M star's planetary surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erculiani, Marco S.; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Galletta, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Micela, Giuseppina; Billi, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The EChO Exoplanet Atmosphere Characterization mission will have in the midst of its main targets, planets that orbit M stars in their or very close to their habitable zone. In this framework at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (INAF) we are going to perform experiments that will give us an idea about the possible modification of the atmosphere by photosynthetic biota present on the planet surface. In the framework of the project "Atmosphere In a Test Tube", planetary environmental conditions are being performed. The bacteria that are being studied are Acaryochloris marina, Chroococcidiopsis sp., Cyanidium Caldarium and Halomicronema hongdechloris and tests are being performed with LISA ambient simulator in the laboratory of the Padova Astronomical Observatory.

  11. Contributions of academic laboratories to the discovery and development of chemical biology tools.

    PubMed

    Huryn, Donna M; Resnick, Lynn O; Wipf, Peter

    2013-09-26

    The academic setting provides an environment that may foster success in the discovery of certain types of small molecule tools while proving less suitable in others. For example, small molecule probes for poorly understood systems, those that exploit a specific resident expertise, and those whose commercial return is not apparent are ideally suited to be pursued in a university setting. In this review, we highlight five projects that emanated from academic research groups and generated valuable tool compounds that have been used to interrogate biological phenomena: reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensors, GPR30 agonists and antagonists, selective CB2 agonists, Hsp70 modulators, and β-amyloid PET imaging agents. By taking advantage of the unique expertise resident in university settings and the ability to pursue novel projects that may have great scientific value but with limited or no immediate commercial value, probes from academic research groups continue to provide useful tools and generate a long-term resource for biomedical researchers.

  12. Finding mouse models of human lymphomas and leukemia's using the Jackson laboratory mouse tumor biology database.

    PubMed

    Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Krupke, Debra M; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Morse, Herbert C; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-12-01

    Many mouse models have been created to study hematopoietic cancer types. There are over thirty hematopoietic tumor types and subtypes, both human and mouse, with various origins, characteristics and clinical prognoses. Determining the specific type of hematopoietic lesion produced in a mouse model and identifying mouse models that correspond to the human subtypes of these lesions has been a continuing challenge for the scientific community. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB; http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) is designed to facilitate use of mouse models of human cancer by providing detailed histopathologic and molecular information on lymphoma subtypes, including expertly annotated, on line, whole slide scans, and providing a repository for storing information on and querying these data for specific lymphoma models. PMID:26302176

  13. Investigation on some biological aspects of Chrysoperla lucasina (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) on Bemisia tabaci in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, A; Sharifi, F; Mirmoayedi, A

    2012-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important key pests of many types of cultivated plants. Lacewings (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) are predatory insects, widely used in biological control programs. Between them green lacewing is a promising biological control agent of pests in green houses and crop fields. In this study, gravid females of the green lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix) were captured from Sarepolzahab ( altitude 540m, latitude 34 degrees ,14' N 46 degrees, 9' E) in western part of Iran. Collected insects were reared in a growth chamber, under experimental conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L: D). Different diets were offered to larvae which consisted of a whitefly species B. tabaci, an aphid Myzus persica and also lyophilized powder of drone honeybee (Apis melifera). As different foods were used to nurish larvae, so for each diet, mean larval period were calculated, and finally means were compared to each other. Anova in MSTAT-C was used for analysis of variance, and Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) to compare between means. The results showed that larvae had maximum duration of 27 +/- 0.33 days when fed on honeybee lyophilized powder and the minimum value was 17.9 +/- 0.3 days for B. tabaci. 25 +/- 0.27 day recorded for M. persicae. Food preference of the 3rd instar larvae of green lacewing was surveyed, they showed a food preference to M. persicae, to compare with B. tabaci, as the former has a bigger body size, so more easily to be captured by the predator larvae. The 3rd instar larvae of lacewing were more voracious on preys, than the 1st or the 2nd instar larvae. Statistically speaking, there were a significantly difference when mean of different preys consumed by predator larvae were compared. We found, that when the predator larvae have fed on B. tabaci, their development time was shorter, and when arrived to adult stage, the adults showed, an improved fertility. The results indicated that the suitable prey

  14. Investigation on some biological aspects of Chrysoperla lucasina (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) on Bemisia tabaci in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, A; Sharifi, F; Mirmoayedi, A

    2012-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci is one of the most important key pests of many types of cultivated plants. Lacewings (Chrysopidae: Neuroptera) are predatory insects, widely used in biological control programs. Between them green lacewing is a promising biological control agent of pests in green houses and crop fields. In this study, gravid females of the green lacewing Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix) were captured from Sarepolzahab ( altitude 540m, latitude 34 degrees ,14' N 46 degrees, 9' E) in western part of Iran. Collected insects were reared in a growth chamber, under experimental conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L: D). Different diets were offered to larvae which consisted of a whitefly species B. tabaci, an aphid Myzus persica and also lyophilized powder of drone honeybee (Apis melifera). As different foods were used to nurish larvae, so for each diet, mean larval period were calculated, and finally means were compared to each other. Anova in MSTAT-C was used for analysis of variance, and Duncan multiple range test (DMRT) to compare between means. The results showed that larvae had maximum duration of 27 +/- 0.33 days when fed on honeybee lyophilized powder and the minimum value was 17.9 +/- 0.3 days for B. tabaci. 25 +/- 0.27 day recorded for M. persicae. Food preference of the 3rd instar larvae of green lacewing was surveyed, they showed a food preference to M. persicae, to compare with B. tabaci, as the former has a bigger body size, so more easily to be captured by the predator larvae. The 3rd instar larvae of lacewing were more voracious on preys, than the 1st or the 2nd instar larvae. Statistically speaking, there were a significantly difference when mean of different preys consumed by predator larvae were compared. We found, that when the predator larvae have fed on B. tabaci, their development time was shorter, and when arrived to adult stage, the adults showed, an improved fertility. The results indicated that the suitable prey

  15. Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, I.C.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ``Radon Hazards in Homes`` project. This project primarily focuses on radon exposures of animals and addresses the major biologic effects and factors influencing risks of indoor radon exposures. For example, the ``Mechanisms of Radon Injury`` and ``In vivo/In vitro Radon-Induced Cellular Damage`` projects specifically address the cytogenetic and DNA damage produced by radon exposure as part of a larger effort to understand radon carcinogenesis. Several other ongoing PNL projects, namely: ``Biological Effectiveness of Radon Alpha Particles: A Microbeam Study of Dose Rate Effects,`` ``Laser Measurements of Pb-210,`` ``Radon Transport Modeling in Soils,`` ``Oncogenes in Radiation Carcinogenesis,`` ``Mutation of DNA Targets,`` ``Dosimetry of Radon Progeny,`` and ``Aerosol Technology Development`` also use the radon exposure facilities in the conduct of their work. While most, but not all, studies in the PNL Radon Research Program are funded through DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research, PNL also has ongoing collaborative radon studies with investigators worldwide; many of these use the radon exposure facilities. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide for relocation of the radon generators to a DOE-owned facility and to continue to provide a controlled source of radon-222 for continued use in physical and biological research.

  16. Laboratory and field methods for stable isotope analysis in human biology.

    PubMed

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen) of human tissues offers a means for assessing diet among living humans. Stable isotope ratios of broad categories of food and drink food vary systematically, and stable isotope ratios in consumer tissues represent a composite of the isotopic ratios of food and drink consumed during an individual's life. Isotopic evidence for diet is independent of errors in informant recall, and accrues during time periods when researchers are absent. Beyond diet reconstruction, tissue stable isotope ratios are sensitive to excursions from homeostasis, such as starvation and rapid growth. Because of their relationship to diet, geographic location, hydration, and nutritional status, stable isotope signatures in human tissues offer a window into human biocultural adaptations, past and present. This article describes methods for SIA that may be usefully applied in studies of living humans, with emphasis placed on carbon and nitrogen. Some of the ecological, physiological, and evolutionary applications of stable isotope data among living humans are discussed. By incorporating SIA in research, human biologists facilitate a productive dialog with bioarchaeologists, who routinely use stable isotope evidence, mingling different perspectives on human biology and behavior.

  17. Biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small and large laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    Rats and mice were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields up to 330 kV/m for durations as long as four months. No significant effects were found in the following major areas: metabolic status and growth; organ and tissue morphology; brain morphology; cardiovascular function; serum chemistry; reproduction; prenatal growth and development; teratology; bone growth; peripheral nerve function; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; susceptibility to viral infection; cell and membrane function; illness/malaise; and cytogenetics. Statistically significant effects of electric field exposures were observed in the following areas: bone fracture repair; neonatal development; neuromuscular function; endocrinology; hematology; neurochemistry; urine volume and chemistry; sympathetic nervous system; behavior. It is likely that many of the effects observed are secondary to chronic stimulation of the animal by the field. Our research efforts have shifted to an in-depth investigation of nervous system functions, with emphasis in behavior, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and dosimetry. Current and future research in these areas will focus on: relationship of effects to field strength and duration of exposure; recovery from observed effects; fundamental understanding of observed effects; fundamental understanding of interaction of field with animal (dosimetry); and biological significance of observed effects. (ERB)

  18. Superhydrophobicity of the gecko toe pad: biological optimization versus laboratory maximization.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Subarajan, Shairani; Jain, Dharamdeep; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-08-01

    While many gecko-inspired hierarchically structured surfaces perform as well as or better than the natural adhesive system, these designs often fail to function across a variety of contexts. For example, the gecko can adhere to rough, wet and dirty surfaces; however, most synthetic mimics cannot maintain function when faced with a similar situation. The solution to this problem lies in a more thorough investigation of the natural system. Here, we review the adhesive system of the gecko toe pad, as well as the far less-well-studied anti-adhesive system that results from the chemistry and structure of the toe pad (superhydrophobicity). This paradoxical relationship serves as motivation to study functional optimization at the system level. As an example, we experimentally investigate the role of surface lipids in adhesion and anti-adhesion, and find a clear performance trade-off related to shear adhesion in air on a hydrophilic surface. This represents the first direct investigation of the role of surface lipids in gecko adhesion and anti-adhesion, and supports the argument that a system-level approach is necessary to elucidate optimization in biological systems. Without such an approach, bioinspired designs will be limited in functionality and context, especially compared to the natural systems they mimic.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354726

  19. Superhydrophobicity of the gecko toe pad: biological optimization versus laboratory maximization.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Subarajan, Shairani; Jain, Dharamdeep; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2016-08-01

    While many gecko-inspired hierarchically structured surfaces perform as well as or better than the natural adhesive system, these designs often fail to function across a variety of contexts. For example, the gecko can adhere to rough, wet and dirty surfaces; however, most synthetic mimics cannot maintain function when faced with a similar situation. The solution to this problem lies in a more thorough investigation of the natural system. Here, we review the adhesive system of the gecko toe pad, as well as the far less-well-studied anti-adhesive system that results from the chemistry and structure of the toe pad (superhydrophobicity). This paradoxical relationship serves as motivation to study functional optimization at the system level. As an example, we experimentally investigate the role of surface lipids in adhesion and anti-adhesion, and find a clear performance trade-off related to shear adhesion in air on a hydrophilic surface. This represents the first direct investigation of the role of surface lipids in gecko adhesion and anti-adhesion, and supports the argument that a system-level approach is necessary to elucidate optimization in biological systems. Without such an approach, bioinspired designs will be limited in functionality and context, especially compared to the natural systems they mimic.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  20. Perceptual Drawing as a Learning Tool in a College Biology Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    The use of drawing in the classroom has a contentious history in the U.S. education system. While most instructors and students agree that the activity helps students focus and observe more details, there is a lack of empirical data to support these positions. This study examines the use of three treatments (writing a description, drawing a perceptual image, or drawing a perceptual image after participating in a short instructional lesson on perceptual drawing) each week over the course of a semester. The students in the "Drawing with Instruction" group exhibit a small but significantly higher level of content knowledge by the end of the semester. When comparing Attitude Toward Biology and Observational Skills among the three groups, inconclusive results restrict making any conclusions. Student perceptions of the task are positive, although not as strong as indicated by other studies. A student behavior observed during the first study led to another question regarding student cognitive processes, and demonstrated cognitive change in student-rendered drawings. The data from the second study indicate that hemispheric dominance or visual/verbal learning do not impact learning from perceptual drawing activities. However, conservatism and need for closure are inversely proportional to the change seen in student drawings over the course of a lesson. Further research is needed to verify these conclusions, as the second study has a small number of participants.

  1. Toward the laboratory identification of [O,N,S,S] isomers: Implications for biological NO chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, Tarek; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine; Al Mogren, Muneerah Mogren; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-06-01

    Benchmark ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the stable isomers of [O,N,S,S]. These computations are carried out using coupled cluster (RCCSD(T)) and explicitly correlated coupled cluster methods (RCCSD(T)-F12). In addition to the already known cis isomer of SSNO, nine other stable forms are predicted. The most stable isomer is cis-OSNS. Nine structures are chain bent-bent with relatively large dipole moments which make them detectable, as cis-SSNO, by infrared, far-infrared, and microwave spectroscopies. We found also a C2v isomer (NS2O). Since these species are strongly suggested to play an important role as intermediates during the bioactive reaction products of the NO/H2S interaction, the rotational and vibrational spectroscopic parameters are presented to help aid the in vivo identification and assignment of these spectra. Results from this work show that [O,N,S,S] may play key roles during nitric oxide transport and deliver in biological media, as well as, provide an explanation for the weak characteristic of disulfide bridges within proteins.

  2. High-resolution emission tomography of small laboratory animals: physics and gamma-astronomy meet molecular biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, F. J.; Colijn, A. P.; Vastenhouw, B.; Wiegant, V. M.; Gerrits, M. A. F. M.

    2003-08-01

    Molecular imaging can be defined as the characterization and measurement of biological processes in living animals, model systems and humans at the cellular and molecular level using remote imaging detectors. An example concerns the mapping of the distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in laboratory animals which is of crucial importance for life sciences. Tomographic methods like Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) offer a possibility to visualize distributions of radioactively labeled molecules in living animals. Miniature tomography systems, derived from their clinical counterparts, but with a much higher image resolution are under development in several institutes. An example is U-SPECT that will be discussed in the present paper. Such systems are expected to accelerate several biomedical research procedures, the understanding of gene and protein function, as well as pharmaceutical development.

  3. A Brief History of the Study of Fish Osmoregulation: The Central Role of the Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL) has played a central role in the study of fish osmoregulation for the past 80 years. In particular, scientists at the MDIBL have made significant discoveries in the basic pattern of fish osmoregulation, the function of aglomerular kidneys and proximal tubular secretion, the roles of NaCl cotransporters in intestinal uptake and gill and rectal gland secretion, the role of the shark rectal gland in osmoregulation, the mechanisms of salt secretion by the teleost fish gill epithelium, and the evolution of the ionic uptake mechanisms in fish gills. This short review presents the history of these discoveries and their relationships to the study of epithelial transport in general. PMID:21423356

  4. The Biology and some Population Parameters of the Grasshopper, Ronderosia bergi, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Yanina; de Wysiecki, Maria Laura; Lange, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Some biological and population parameters of Ronderosia bergi (Stål) (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae) were estimated by monitoring five cohorts of the first generation (F1) of individuals born in captivity from grasshoppers collected in the South of Misiones province, northeastern Argentina, and held under controlled conditions (30° C, 14:10 L:D, 40% RH). The mean embryonic development time was 40.6 ± 1.7 days. Five nymphal instars were recorded. Total duration of nymphal development was 30.8 ± 0.54 days. The mean lifespan of cohorts was 22.6 ± 0.7 weeks. The number of egg-pods per female was 7.6 ± 1.44, and the amount of eggs per egg-pod was 16.45 ± 0.85. Mean fecundity was 125 ± 5.83 eggs per female with an oviposition rate of 1.55 ± 0.57 eggs/female/day. Survivorship curves showed that mortality was concentrated in the final weeks of adulthood, and the life expectancy curve decreased accordingly. The population parameters estimated gave the following values: the net rate of reproduction (R0) was 46.75 ± 11.2, generation time (T) was 18.87 ± 1.67 weeks, duplication time (D) was 3.31 ± 0.34, the intrinsic rate of population growth (rm) was 0.21 ± 0.021 and the finite rate of population increase (λ) was 1.24 ± 0.026. The reproductive values (Vx) indicated that the largest contribution of females to the subsequent generation was between weeks 15 and 25. PMID:20673116

  5. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring comprehensive laboratory reports modeled on the primary literature. The project for the course focuses on a gene, MSH2, implicated in the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer. Msh2 is important for maintaining the fidelity of genetic material where it functions as an important component of the DNA mismatch repair machinery. The goal of the project has two parts. The first part is to create mapped missense mutation listed in the human databases in the cognate yeast MSH2 gene and to assay for defects in DNA mismatch repair. The second part of the course is directed towards understanding in what way are the variant proteins defective for mismatch repair. Protein levels are analyzed to determine if the missense alleles display decreased expression. Furthermore, the students establish whether the Msh2p variants are properly localized to the nucleus using indirect immunofluorescence and whether the altered proteins have lost their ability to interact with other subunits of the MMR complex by creating recombinant DNA molecules and employing the yeast 2-hybrid assay. PMID:22039344

  6. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  7. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a “Raspberry Pi” single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them. PMID:26771659

  8. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them. PMID:26771659

  9. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.; Knight, P.J.

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  10. Using Zebrafish to Implement a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Study Teratogenesis in Two Biology Laboratory Courses.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Chism, Grady W; Vaughan, Martin A; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, Jim A; Marrs, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) spanning three semesters was introduced into freshman and sophomore biology classes, with the hypothesis that participation in a CURE affects skills in research, communication, and collaboration, which may help students persist in science. Student research projects were centered on the hypothesis that nicotine and caffeine exposure during early development affects gastrulation and heart development in zebrafish. First, freshmen generated original data showing distinct effects of embryonic nicotine and caffeine exposure on zebrafish heart development and function. Next, Cell Biology laboratory students continued the CURE studies and identified novel teratogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during gastrulation. Finally, new freshmen continued the CURE research, examining additional toxicant effects on development. Students designed new protocols, made measurements, presented results, and generated high-quality preliminary data that were studied in successive semesters. By implementing this project, the CURE extended faculty research and provided a scalable model to address national goals to involve more undergraduates in authentic scientific research. In addition, student survey results support the hypothesis that CUREs provide significant gains in student ability to (1) design experiments, (2) analyze data, and (3) make scientific presentations, translating into high student satisfaction and enhanced learning.

  11. Practice Makes Pretty Good: Assessment of Primary Literature Reading Abilities across Multiple Large-Enrollment Biology Laboratory Courses

    PubMed Central

    Kadandale, Pavan; He, Wenliang; Murata, Paige M. N.; Latif, Yama; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Primary literature is essential for scientific communication and is commonly utilized in undergraduate biology education. Despite this, there is often little time spent training our students how to critically analyze a paper. To address this, we introduced a primary literature module in multiple upper-division laboratory courses. In this module, instructors conduct classroom discussions that dissect a paper as researchers do. While previous work has identified classroom interventions that improve primary literature comprehension within a single course, our goal was to determine whether including a scientific paper module in our classes could produce long-term benefits. On the basis of performance in an assessment exam, we found that our module resulted in longitudinal gains, including increased comprehension and critical-thinking abilities in subsequent lab courses. These learning gains were specific to courses utilizing our module, as no longitudinal gains were seen in students who had taken other upper-division labs that lacked extensive primary literature discussion. In addition, we assessed whether performance on our assessment correlated with a variety of factors, including grade point average, course performance, research background, and self-reported confidence in understanding of the article. Furthermore, all of the study conclusions are independent of biology disciplines, as we observe similar trends within each course. PMID:25452490

  12. Assessment of Swine Worker Exposures to Dust and Endotoxin during Hog Load-Out and Power Washing

    PubMed Central

    O’shaughnessy, Patrick; Peters, Thomas; Donham, Kelley; Taylor, Craig; Altmaier, Ralph; Kelly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Field measurements of personal and area dust and endotoxin concentrations were obtained while agricultural workers performed two work tasks that have been previously unreported: hog load-out and swine building power washing. Hog load-out involves moving hogs from their pens in finishing buildings into a truck for transport to a meat processor. High pressure power washing is conducted for sanitation purposes after a building has been emptied of hogs to remove surface and floor debris. This debri consists of feed, feces, and hog dander as dust or an encrusted form. The hog load-out process necessarily increases pig activity which is known to increase airborne dust concentrations. An unintended consequence of power washing is that the material covering surfaces is forcibly ejected into the atmosphere, creating the potential for a highly concentrated aerosol exposure to workers. The load-out process resulted in a median personal inhalable mass concentration of 7.14 mg m− 3 and median endotoxin concentration of 12 150 endotoxin units (EU) m− 3. When converted to an 8-h time-weighted average for a ‘total’ sampler, one of the 19 samples exceeded a regulatory limit of 15 mg m− 3. An impinger was used to sample power washing endotoxin concentrations, which resulted in a median personal concentration of 40 350 EU m− 3. These concentrations were among the highest found in the literature for any occupation. With the lack of engineering controls present to reduce airborne contaminant concentrations in swine buildings, either respirator use or a reduction in exposure time is recommended while performing these tasks. PMID:22425653

  13. The sensitivity of new laboratory-based heterogeneous freezing schemes for dust and biological particles to time and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, D.; Ervens, B.; Hartmann, S.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been recently described by means of the Soccer ball model that takes into account multiple nucleation sites on individual particles [Niedermeier et al., 2011]. In order to study sensitivities of the implied contact angle distributions, a modified version of the Soccer ball model is implemented into a parcel model that describes in detail heterogeneous ice formation and ice /liquid water partitioning [Ervens and Feingold, 2012]. Soccer ball model parameters (number of surface sites, mean and width of the contact angle distribution) are determined from immersion freezing measurements of mineral dust particles and bacteria performed with the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator [LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011]. While biological particles (e.g., bacteria) are much less frequent in the atmosphere, they can induce droplet freezing already at about -5°C as opposed to dust that shows efficient freezing only at lower temperatures (below -15°C). We will identify updraft regimes, temperature and IN concentration ranges where dust or biological particles, respectively, might dominate the number concentration of frozen droplets in mixed phase clouds. Additional model studies will focus on the importance of time versus temperature dependence and explore the usefulness of alternative descriptions of the freezing behavior that can be derived based on the respective laboratory studies using LACIS. These descriptions include the choice of a single contact angle as opposed to contact angle distributions or time-independent expressions. These results reveal that under selected conditions, it might be a satisfactory approximation to assume singular freezing behavior. Our sensitivity studies will help to refine time-independent freezing parameterizations using laboratory data and help bridging the current divergence between deterministic approaches [e.g., Hoose and Möhler, 2012] and physically-based approaches (classical nucleation theory) that

  14. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  15. Biophysical properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relationship with HOG pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Jörg; Adrover, Miquel Angel; Eriksson, Emma; Pelet, Serge; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Klein, Dagmara; Posas, Francesc; Goksör, Mattias; Peter, Mathias; Hohmann, Stefan; Klipp, Edda

    2010-10-01

    Parameterized models of biophysical and mechanical cell properties are important for predictive mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The concepts of turgor, cell wall elasticity, osmotically active volume, and intracellular osmolarity have been investigated for decades, but a consistent rigorous parameterization of these concepts is lacking. Here, we subjected several data sets of minimum volume measurements in yeast obtained after hyper-osmotic shock to a thermodynamic modeling framework. We estimated parameters for several relevant biophysical cell properties and tested alternative hypotheses about these concepts using a model discrimination approach. In accordance with previous reports, we estimated an average initial turgor of 0.6 ± 0.2 MPa and found that turgor becomes negligible at a relative volume of 93.3 ± 6.3% corresponding to an osmotic shock of 0.4 ± 0.2 Osm/l. At high stress levels (4 Osm/l), plasmolysis may occur. We found that the volumetric elastic modulus, a measure of cell wall elasticity, is 14.3 ± 10.4 MPa. Our model discrimination analysis suggests that other thermodynamic quantities affecting the intracellular water potential, for example the matrix potential, can be neglected under physiological conditions. The parameterized turgor models showed that activation of the osmosensing high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway correlates with turgor loss in a 1:1 relationship. This finding suggests that mechanical properties of the membrane trigger HOG pathway activation, which can be represented and quantitatively modeled by turgor. PMID:20563574

  16. Continuous Human Action Recognition Using Depth-MHI-HOG and a Spotter Model

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  17. Continuous human action recognition using depth-MHI-HOG and a spotter model.

    PubMed

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  18. An Open Source Based High Content Screening Method for Cell Biology Laboratories Investigating Cell Spreading and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Maurianne A.; Schwab, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adhesion dependent mechanisms are increasingly recognized to be important for a wide range of biological processes, diseases and therapeutics. This has led to a rising demand of pharmaceutical modulators. However, most currently available adhesion assays are time consuming and/or lack sensitivity and reproducibility or depend on specialized and expensive equipment often only available at screening facilities. Thus, rapid and economical high-content screening approaches are urgently needed. Results We established a fully open source high-content screening method for identifying modulators of adhesion. We successfully used this method to detect small molecules that are able to influence cell adhesion and cell spreading of Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts in general and/or specifically counteract Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion and cell spreading. The tricyclic anti-depressant clomipramine hydrochloride was shown to not only inhibit Nogo-A-Δ20-induced cell spreading inhibition in 3T3 fibroblasts but also to promote growth and counteract neurite outgrowth inhibition in highly purified primary neurons isolated from rat cerebellum. Conclusions We have developed and validated a high content screening approach that can be used in any ordinarily equipped cell biology laboratory employing exclusively freely available open-source software in order to find novel modulators of adhesion and cell spreading. The versatility and adjustability of the whole screening method will enable not only centers specialized in high-throughput screens but most importantly also labs not routinely employing screens in their daily work routine to investigate the effects of a wide range of different compounds or siRNAs on adhesion and adhesion-modulating molecules. PMID:24205161

  19. Role of Hog1 and Yaf9 in the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cesium chloride.

    PubMed

    Del Vescovo, Valerio; Casagrande, Viviana; Bianchi, Michele M; Piccinni, Eugenia; Frontali, Laura; Militti, Cristina; Fardeau, Vivienne; Devaux, Frédéric; Di Sanza, Claudio; Presutti, Carlo; Negri, Rodolfo

    2008-03-14

    We analyzed the global transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to different concentrations of CsCl in the growth medium and at different times after addition. Early responsive genes were mainly involved in cell wall structure and biosynthesis. About half of the induced genes were previously shown to respond to other alkali metal cations in a Hog1-dependent fashion. Western blot analysis confirmed that cesium concentrations as low as 100 mM activate Hog1 phosphorylation. Another important fraction of the cesium-modulated genes requires Yaf9p for full responsiveness as shown by the transcriptome of a yaf9-deleted strain in the presence of cesium. We showed that a cell wall-restructuring process promptly occurs in response to cesium addition, which is dependent on the presence of both Hog1 and Yaf9 proteins. Moreover, the sensitivity to low concentration of cesium of the yaf9-deleted strain is not observed in a strain carrying the hog1/yaf9 double deletion. We conclude that the observed early transcriptional modulation of cell wall genes has a crucial role in S. cerevisiae adaptation to cesium.

  20. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  2. Regulating Global Sumoylation by a MAP Kinase Hog1 and Its Potential Role in Osmo-Tolerance in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Mahmoud; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Yuqi

    2014-01-01

    Sumoylation, a post-translational protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), has been implicated in many stress responses. Here we analyzed the potential role of sumoylation in osmo-response in yeast. We find that osmotic stress induces rapid accumulation of sumoylated species in normal yeast cells. Interestingly, disruption of MAP kinase Hog1 leads to a much higher level of accumulation of sumoylated conjugates that are independent of new protein synthesis. We also find that the accumulation of sumoylated species is dependent on a SUMO ligase Siz1. Notably, overexpression of SIZ1 in HOG1-disruption mutants (hog1Δ) but not in wild type cells leads to a markedly increased and prolonged accumulation of sumoylated species. Examination of osmo-tolerance of yeast mutants that display either an increase or a decrease in the global sumoylation level revealed an inverse relationship between accumulation of sumoylated conjugates and osmo-tolerance. Further investigation has shown that many of the sumoylated species induced by hyperosmotic stress are actually poly-sumoylated. Together, these findings indicate that abnormal accumulation of poly-sumoylated conjugates is harmful for osmo-tolerance in yeast, and suggest that Hog1 promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress partially via regulation of global sumoylation level. PMID:24498309

  3. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world. PMID:27110354

  4. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  5. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  6. Botulism: a laboratory investigation on biological and food samples from cases and outbreaks in Brazil (1982-2001).

    PubMed

    Gelli, Dilma Scala; Jakabi, Miyoko; Souza, Aldo de

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory investigation of botulism from 1982 to 2001 confirmed the occurrence of eight positive outbreaks/cases of botulism in Brazil. From those, type A botulism was observed in seven of them. Biological material of one case (serum and feces) was positive in the first step of the bioassay, but the amount of sample was not sufficient for typification. One of the outbreaks that occurred in 2001 was negative for botulinum toxin in samples of serum, gastric washing and feces, collected eight days before the onset of the symptoms in the affected person who was clinically diagnosed as presenting the disease. Other two cases presenting compatible clinical diagnoses presented negative results. However, in those cases, the collection of samples was (1) after antiserum administration or (2) later than eight days of the onset of symptoms. Investigation was performed by mouse bioassay, as described in the Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods (compiled by American Public Health Association--APHA)11, using specific antiserum from Centers for Disease Control (CDC), USA. PMID:12532215

  7. An Analysis and Evaluation of an Audio-Tutorial Approach in the Biology Laboratory at the University Community and Technical College, the University of Toledo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Charles Leonard

    This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-developed audio-tutorial (A-T) system in biology at the college level. The basic design of the study was a variation of a compromise experimental group-control group design. The control group was instructed by lecture-laboratory method, and the experimental by the A-T system. Facutal…

  8. Actin Immobilization on Chitin for Purifying Myosin II: A Laboratory Exercise That Integrates Concepts of Molecular Cell Biology and Protein Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Marcelle Gomes; Grossi, Andre Luiz; Pereira, Elisangela Lima Bastos; da Cruz, Carolina Oliveira; Mendes, Fernanda Machado; Cameron, Luiz Claudio; Paiva, Carmen Lucia Antao

    2008-01-01

    This article presents our experience on teaching biochemical sciences through an innovative approach that integrates concepts of molecular cell biology and protein chemistry. This original laboratory exercise is based on the preparation of an affinity chromatography column containing F-actin molecules immobilized on chitin particles for purifying…

  9. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  10. Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching. Proceedings of the Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) (7th, Las Vegas, Nevada, June 3-7, 1985; 8th, Ithaca, New York, June 16-20, 1986). Volume 7/8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Corey A., Ed.; Hauta, P. Lynn, Ed.

    The focus of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) is to improve the undergraduate biology laboratory experience by promoting the development and dissemination of interesting, innovative, and reliable laboratory exercises. This proceeding volume contains 12 papers: "Experimental Design and Testing: Hatching and Development in…

  11. Activation of the Hog1p kinase in Isc1p-deficient yeast cells is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António Daniel; Graça, João; Mendes, Vanda; Chaves, Susana Rodrigues; Amorim, Maria Amélia; Mendes, Marta Vaz; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor

    2012-05-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, plays a key role in mitochondrial function, oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan. Isc1p functions upstream of the ceramide-activated protein phosphatase Sit4p through the modulation of ceramide levels. Here, we show that both ceramide and loss of Isc1p lead to the activation of Hog1p, the MAPK of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway that is functionally related to mammalian p38 and JNK. The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and premature aging of isc1Δ cells was partially suppressed by HOG1 deletion. Notably, Hog1p activation mediated the mitochondrial dysfunction and catalase A deficiency associated with oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging of isc1Δ cells. Downstream of Hog1p, Isc1p deficiency activated the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Deletion of the SLT2 gene, which encodes for the MAPK of the CWI pathway, was lethal in isc1Δ cells and this mutant strain was hypersensitive to cell wall stress. However, the phenotypes of isc1Δ cells were not associated with cell wall defects. Our findings support a role for Hog1p in the regulation of mitochondrial function and suggest that constitutive activation of Hog1p is deleterious for isc1Δ cells under oxidative stress conditions and during chronological aging. PMID:22445853

  12. Development of a HOG-based real-time PCR method to detect stress response changes in mycotoxigenic moulds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    There is a need to understand the mechanism of adaptation of toxigenic fungal species which are able to colonise highly specialised foods such as cured meats where there is a high osmotic stress due to the presence up to 20-22% NaCl during the ripening process. A new tool able to detect changes in stress related genes would be useful to understand the ecological reasons for the ability of these species to grow in specialised niches. In this work a real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green was developed. Primers were designed from the Hog1 gene involved in osmo-adaptation in fungi. For this, conserved regions resulting from the alignment of 26 published partial sequences of such gene were used. Specificity of primers HogF2/R2 was demonstrated when amplified, producing a unique 131-bp PCR product with a Tm value of 84 °C. The qPCR method showed an efficiency of 98%, R(2) value > 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.7 log Hog1 gene copies. The qPCR method to measure changes in the Hog1 gene expression in relation to growth in ionic and non-ionic stressed environments (using 10-40% NaCl and sorbitol concentrations) was found to be suitable for two mycotoxigenic species (Penicillium nordicum, P. expansum). This assay will be a valuable tool for generating relevant Hog1 expression data from different mould species in relation to different stresses in food habitats. It will also be a good tool for a better understanding of the ability of xerophilic and xerotolerant species to colonise extreme environments. PMID:27052709

  13. A comparison of the pathogenicity of two strains of hog cholera virus. 2. Virological studies.

    PubMed

    Kamolsiriprichaiporn, S; Morrissy, C J; Westbury, H A

    1992-10-01

    Quantitative and qualitative differences were demonstrated in the amount of virus in a range of tissues from pigs infected with either the Weybridge or New South Wales (NSW) strains of hog cholera (HC) virus. The titre of the Weybridge strain in samples, as assessed by either virus titration in cell culture or by the density of specific fluorescing cells in tissue sections, was higher than that for the NSW strain. This correlated with the greater severity of the clinico-pathological syndrome induced by the Weybridge strain. The implications of the differences in the virus content of tissues in the diagnosis of HC is discussed as is the use of monoclonal antibodies to differentiate HC and bovine virus diarrhoea viruses.

  14. In vitro synthesis of nitroxide free radicals by hog liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Valvis, I.I.; Lischick, D.; Shen, D.; Sofer, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biooxidation of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine (TEMP), 4-hydroxy-2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine (TEMO) and diphenylamine (DPA) by hog liver microsomes to their respective nitroxide free radicals, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), 2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine-1-oxyl (TEMOO), and diphenylnitroxide (DPNO) has been investigated. For extending the life span of the liver microsomes, a calcium alginate immobilization procedure was used. The biooxidation rates of the above amines to their respective nitroxide metabolites were measured by means of oxygen uptake at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. N-octylamine was found to be an activator in the biooxidation of the amines. The formation of the nitroxide radicals was identified by E.S.R. spectroscopy.

  15. Integrating Epidemiology, Education, and Organizing for Environmental Justice: Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R.; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-01-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations’ neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities. PMID:18556620

  16. Biophysical properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relationship with HOG pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Adrover, Miquel Àngel; Eriksson, Emma; Pelet, Serge; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Klein, Dagmara; Posas, Francesc; Goksör, Mattias; Peter, Mathias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Parameterized models of biophysical and mechanical cell properties are important for predictive mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The concepts of turgor, cell wall elasticity, osmotically active volume, and intracellular osmolarity have been investigated for decades, but a consistent rigorous parameterization of these concepts is lacking. Here, we subjected several data sets of minimum volume measurements in yeast obtained after hyper-osmotic shock to a thermodynamic modeling framework. We estimated parameters for several relevant biophysical cell properties and tested alternative hypotheses about these concepts using a model discrimination approach. In accordance with previous reports, we estimated an average initial turgor of 0.6 ± 0.2 MPa and found that turgor becomes negligible at a relative volume of 93.3 ± 6.3% corresponding to an osmotic shock of 0.4 ± 0.2 Osm/l. At high stress levels (4 Osm/l), plasmolysis may occur. We found that the volumetric elastic modulus, a measure of cell wall elasticity, is 14.3 ± 10.4 MPa. Our model discrimination analysis suggests that other thermodynamic quantities affecting the intracellular water potential, for example the matrix potential, can be neglected under physiological conditions. The parameterized turgor models showed that activation of the osmosensing high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway correlates with turgor loss in a 1:1 relationship. This finding suggests that mechanical properties of the membrane trigger HOG pathway activation, which can be represented and quantitatively modeled by turgor. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00249-010-0612-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20563574

  17. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone.

  18. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone. PMID:27396166

  19. Laboratory column study for remediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater using a biological two-layer permeable barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Jiang; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xin-Gang

    2006-10-01

    In this study, an in situ biological two-layer permeable reactive barrier system consisting of an oxygen-releasing material layer followed by a biodegradation layer was designed to evaluate the remediation effectiveness of MTBE-contaminated groundwater. The first layer containing calcium peroxide (CaO(2)) and other inorganic salts is to provide oxygen and nutrients for the immobilized microbes in the second layer in order to keep them in aerobic condition and maintain their normal metabolism. Furthermore, inorganic salts such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH(2)PO(4)) and ammonium sulphate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) can also decrease the high pH caused by the alkali salt degraded from CaO(2). The second layer using granular expanded perlite as microbial carrier is able to biodegrade MTBE entering the barrier system. Batch experiments were conducted to identify the appropriate components of oxygen-releasing materials and the optimum pH value for the biodegradation of MTBE. At pH=8.0, the biodegradation efficiency of MTBE is the maximum and approximately 48.9%. A laboratory-scale experiment using two continuous upflow stainless-steel columns was then performed to evaluate the feasibility of this designed system. The fist column was filled with oxygen-releasing materials at certain ratio by weight. The second column was filled with expanded perlite granules immobilizing MTBE-degrading microbial consortium. Simulated MTBE-contaminated groundwater, in which dissolved oxygen (DO) content was 0mg/L, was pumped into this system at a flow rate of 500mL/d. Samples from the second column were analyzed for MTBE and its major degradation byproduct. Results showed that MTBE could be removed, and its metabolic intermediate, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), could also be further degraded in this passive system.

  20. An Evaluation of Community College Student Perceptions of the Science Laboratory and Attitudes towards Science in an Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nakia Rae

    2012-01-01

    The science laboratory is an integral component of science education. However, the academic value of student participation in the laboratory is not clearly understood. One way to discern student perceptions of the science laboratory is by exploring their views of the classroom environment. The classroom environment is one determinant that can…

  1. Prepare, Do, Review: A Skills-Based Approach for Laboratory Practical Classes in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Peter; Ludwig, Martha; Castelli, Joane; Kirkwood, Paul; Attwood, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A new laboratory practical system is described which is comprised of a number of laboratory practical modules, each based around a particular technique or set of techniques, related to the theory part of the course but not designed to be dependent on it. Each module comprises an online recorded pre-lab lecture, the laboratory practical itself and…

  2. Synthesizing Novel Anthraquinone Natural Product-Like Compounds to Investigate Protein-Ligand Interactions in Both an in Vitro and in Vivo Assay: An Integrated Research-Based Third-Year Chemical Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Nancy; McNulty, James; McLeod, David; McFadden, Meghan; Balachandran, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    A new undergraduate program in chemical biology was launched in 2008 to provide a unique learning experience for those students interested in this interdisciplinary science. An innovative undergraduate chemical biology laboratory course at the third-year level was developed as a key component of the curriculum. The laboratory course introduces…

  3. Use of passive samplers to measure atmospheric ammonia levels in a high-density industrial hog farm area of eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina release ammonia (NH 3), hydrogen sulfide, VOCs, and particulate matter to the atmosphere. These operations are located mainly in the NC coastal plain and can create potential health hazards for nearby human populations. Limited work has been performed to measure NH 3 at the community level to assess potential human exposure. In an effort to address this issue, a study was designed to measure NH 3 levels near hog CAFOs and community locations (i.e. homes and schools) in Eastern NC. NH 3 was collected using passive diffusion tubes in triplicate exposed primarily in weekly intervals. Sampling occurred from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) at varying distances from hog CAFOs in close proximity to homes and schools. Average weekly NH3 levels were measured as mass (μg NH 3-N) and converted to concentration (ppb). Mean level of 13.8 ppb near homes and schools (<2 km) was 4-12 times greater than ambient background levels (1-3 ppb), reaching as high as 80 ppb. Exposed sites (<2 km from a hog CAFO) had a mean level of 12.8 ppb which was over 2 times higher than the mean level of 5.5 ppb at less exposed sites (>2 km from a hog CAFO). The study establishes that passive sampling can be effectively used to measure average atmospheric ammonia levels at community locations near hog CAFOs in Eastern NC. The collected data indicate the relative exposure for human populations who live near a hog CAFO. The closer a populace is to the hog CAFO, the more intense the exposure. These results require more validation in the field by comparison to a reference method.

  4. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.

  5. Environmental regulation of plant gene expression: an RT-qPCR laboratory project for an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry or molecular biology course.

    PubMed

    Eickelberg, Garrett J; Fisher, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, a key regulator of floral timing in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students in biochemistry or molecular biology courses. The project provides students with hands-on experience with RT-qPCR, the current "gold standard" for gene expression analysis, including detailed data analysis using the common 2-ΔΔCT method. Moreover, it provides a convenient starting point for many inquiry-driven projects addressing diverse questions concerning ecological biochemistry, naturally occurring genetic variation, developmental biology, and the regulation of gene expression in nature.

  6. Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) interrupts signal transduction between the Kss1 MAPK and the Tec1 transcription factor to maintain pathway specificity.

    PubMed

    Shock, Teresa R; Thompson, James; Yates, John R; Madhani, Hiten D

    2009-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mating, filamentous growth (FG), and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways share components and yet mediate distinct responses to different extracellular signals. Cross talk is suppressed between the mating and FG pathways because mating signaling induces the destruction of the FG transcription factor Tec1. We show here that HOG pathway activation results in phosphorylation of the FG MAPK, Kss1, and the MAPKK, Ste7. However, FG transcription is not activated because HOG signaling prevents the activation of Tec1. In contrast to the mating pathway, we find that the mechanism involves the inhibition of DNA binding by Tec1 rather than its destruction. We also find that nuclear accumulation of Tec1 is not affected by HOG signaling. Inhibition by Hog1 is apparently indirect since it does not require any of the consensus S/TP MAPK phosphorylation sites on Tec1, its DNA-binding partner Ste12, or the associated regulators Dig1 or Dig2. It also does not require the consensus MAPK sites of the Ste11 activator Ste50, in contrast to a recent proposal for a role for negative feedback in specificity. Our results demonstrate that HOG signaling interrupts the FG pathway signal transduction between the phosphorylation of Kss1 and the activation of DNA binding by Tec1. PMID:19218425

  7. Repression of ergosterol biosynthesis is essential for stress resistance and is mediated by the Hog1 MAP kinase and the Mot3 and Rox1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Montañés, Fernando Martínez; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2011-02-01

    Hyperosmotic stress triggers a complex adaptive response that is dominantly regulated by the Hog1 MAP kinase in yeast. Here we characterize a novel physiological determinant of osmostress tolerance, which involves the Hog1-dependent transcriptional downregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes (ERG). Yeast cells considerably lower their sterol content in response to high osmolarity. The transcriptional repressors Mot3 and Rox1 are essential for this response. Both factors together with Hog1 are required to rapidly and transiently shut down transcription of ERG2 and ERG11 upon osmoshock. Mot3 abundance and its binding to the ERG2 promoter is stimulated by osmostress in a Hog1-dependent manner. As an additional layer of control, the expression of the main transcriptional activator of ERG gene expression, Ecm22, is negatively regulated by Hog1 and Mot3/Rox1 upon salt shock. Oxidative stress also triggers repression of ERG2, 11 transcription and a profound decrease in total sterol levels. However, this response was only partially dependent on Mot3/Rox1 and Hog1. Finally, we show that the upc2-1 mutation confers stress insensitive hyperaccumulation of ergosterol, overexpression of ERG2, 11 and severe sensitivity to salt and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that transcriptional control of ergosterol biosynthesis is an important physiological target of stress signalling.

  8. Biological controls on dissolution of diatom frustules during their descent to the deep ocean: Lessons learned from controlled laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Uta; French, Megan A.; Robert, Maya

    2011-12-01

    The majority of opal produced by diatoms dissolves during their sedimentation to the seafloor, but spatial and temporal variability of dissolution rates are large. Controlled laboratory experiments using live phytoplankton or phyto-detritus may help identify the different processes, including those that are biologically mediated or physico-chemically driven, that impact the dissolution of frustules and the aforementioned variability. Results of eight bSiO 2 dissolution experiments, seven of which were conducted at low temperatures (<6 °C) are presented within the context of earlier similar studies, and different phases of dissolution dynamics characterized. TEP concentration, aggregation and the physiological status of the diatoms determined the period during which diatoms may maintain the protective membrane that surrounds their frustule and effectively reduces or completely inhibits (lag period) dissolution for some time. Once diatoms loose the capability to maintain their protective membrane, bacterial activity compromises it. Physico-chemical dissolution, which depends on frustule structure and abiotic environmental conditions, begins once the protective membrane is damaged. The ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane, the bacterial composition and activity governing its degradation, and the physico-chemical dissolution dynamics of exposed frustules are all impacted by temperature. In our experiments instantaneous dissolution rates were not dependant on bSiO 2 concentration at low temperatures, although such a relationship was observed under otherwise identical conditions at 15 °C, implying that biotic factors rather than physico-chemical processes initially dominated dissolution at polar temperatures. Since inhibition of bSiO 2 dissolution at low temperatures was inhibited to a greater extent than organic matter degradation, we postulate that it was not reduced bacterial activity but the enhanced ability of diatoms to maintain their membrane and thus

  9. [A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological detection of antibodies against the European hog cholera virus].

    PubMed

    Schagemann, G; Greiser-Wilke, I; Liess, B; Moennig, V

    1991-02-01

    An ELISA for the detection of antibodies against hog cholera virus (HCV) was developed. The HCV-specific glycoprotein gp53 served as diagnostic antigen after immobilization using a monoclonal capture antibody. Due to the higher affinity of HCV-specific antibodies to the viral gp53, sera cross reacting with bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus were discriminated by the slope of the titration curves.

  10. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  11. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  12. Using an ePortfolio System as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Practical Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jill; Kant, Sashi; Gysbers, Vanessa; Hancock, Dale; Denyer, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Despite many apparent advantages, including security, back-up, remote access, workflow, and data management, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) in the modern research laboratory is still developing. This presents a challenge to instructors who want to give undergraduate students an introduction to the kinds of data curation and…

  13. Laboratory biological parameters of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre was identified attacking Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), a serious pest of Opuntia spp. in North America, raising the possibility of using this egg parasitoid as an inundative biological control agent. Studies were conducted to assess the biological parameters of this para...

  14. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  15. The Role of Laboratory-Based Studies of the Physical and Biological Properties of Sea Ice in Supporting the Observation and Modeling of Ice Covered Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, B.; Krembs, C.

    2003-12-01

    Laboratory-based studies of the physical and biological properties of sea ice are an essential link between high latitude field observations and existing numerical models. Such studies promote improved understanding of climatic variability and its impact on sea ice and the structure of ice-dependent marine ecosystems. Controlled laboratory experiments can help identify feedback mechanisms between physical and biological processes and their response to climate fluctuations. Climatically sensitive processes occurring between sea ice and the atmosphere and sea ice and the ocean determine surface radiative energy fluxes and the transfer of nutrients and mass across these boundaries. High temporally and spatially resolved analyses of sea ice under controlled environmental conditions lend insight to the physics that drive these transfer processes. Techniques such as optical probing, thin section photography, and microscopy can be used to conduct experiments on natural sea ice core samples and laboratory-grown ice. Such experiments yield insight on small scale processes from the microscopic to the meter scale and can be powerful interdisciplinary tools for education and model parameterization development. Examples of laboratory investigations by the authors include observation of the response of sea ice microstructure to changes in temperature, assessment of the relationships between ice structure and the partitioning of solar radiation by first-year sea ice covers, observation of pore evolution and interfacial structure, and quantification of the production and impact of microbial metabolic products on the mechanical, optical, and textural characteristics of sea ice.

  16. An evaluation of community college student perceptions of the science laboratory and attitudes towards science in an introductory biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Nakia Rae

    The science laboratory is an integral component of science education. However, the academic value of student participation in the laboratory is not clearly understood. One way to discern student perceptions of the science laboratory is by exploring their views of the classroom environment. The classroom environment is one determinant that can directly influence student learning and affective outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to examine community college students' perceptions of the laboratory classroom environment and their attitudes toward science. Quantitative methods using two survey instruments, the Science Laboratory Environment Instrument (SLEI) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TORSA) were administered to measure laboratory perceptions and attitudes, respectively. A determination of differences among males and females as well as three academic streams were examined. Findings indicated that overall community college students had positive views of the laboratory environment regardless of gender of academic major. However, the results indicated that the opportunity to pursue open-ended activities in the laboratory was not prevalent. Additionally, females viewed the laboratory material environment more favorably than their male classmates did. Students' attitudes toward science ranged from favorable to undecided and no significant gender differences were present. However, there were significantly statistical differences between the attitudes of nonscience majors compared to both allied health and STEM majors. Nonscience majors had less positive attitudes toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, and enjoyment of science lessons. Results also indicated that collectively, students' experiences in the laboratory were positive predicators of their attitudes toward science. However, no laboratory environment scale was a significant independent predictor of student attitudes. .A students' academic streams was the only significant

  17. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y K; Kim, K Y

    2016-07-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  18. Fungi use the SakA (HogA) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Armant, Olivier; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent MAP kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. Besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). Light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. Here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in Aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing and osmosensing signalling pathway. In a screening for 'blind' mutants, the MAP kinase SakA (also known as HogA) was identified by whole-genome sequencing. The phytochrome FphA physically interacted with the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein YpdA and caused light-dependent phosphorylation of the MAP kinase SakA and its shuttling into nuclei. In the absence of phytochrome, SakA still responded to osmotic stress but not to light. The SakA pathway thus integrates several stress factors and can be considered to be a hub for environmental signals. PMID:27572639

  19. Detection of hog cholera virus and differentiation from other pestiviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Wirz, B; Tratschin, J D; Müller, H K; Mitchell, D B

    1993-05-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. For this purpose, one primer pair was selected from a highly conserved region of the genome of pestiviruses. Using these primers (PEST 1-PEST 2), DNA fragments of between 72 and 74 bp could be amplified from all pestivirus isolates tested. In order to differentiate hog cholera virus (HCV) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), we selected a primer pair from a conserved region in the genome of HCV strains that differed from that sequenced in the genome of BVDV strains. By using these primers (HCV 1-HCV 2), a DNA fragment of 478 bp could be specifically amplified from HCV isolates. By these means, viral RNA was detected in extracts of lymph node, spleen, tonsil, and lung. Such extracts were used directly for RT-PCR without prior RNA isolation. We also performed multiplex PCR by using both the PEST 1-PEST 2 and HCV 1-HCV 2 primer pairs in a single reaction. This allowed the differentiation of HCV from BVDV and BDV in one step. To assess the sensitivity of the method, RT-PCR was compared with virus propagation in tissue culture and subsequent detection by immunofluorescence staining. The results show that RT-PCR is useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. PMID:8388887

  20. Reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus of the GPE-strain inducing heterologous interference.

    PubMed

    Fukusho, A; Ogawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Sawada, M; Sazawa, H

    1976-08-01

    A simple and rapid plaque procedure was developed for the assay of hog cholera virus (HCV) of a particular strain, GPE-, based on its intrinsic interference with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on the primary swine testicle cells and on an established swine kidney cell line; the procedure is called the reverse plaque formation (RPF) method. The plaques were produced as colonies of HCV-infected cells which were VSV-sensitive, disintegrated cell sheet. These plaques became visible after 15 to 20 h of superinfection with VSV done 2 days after an initial inoculation of the GPE- strain. The plaque formation was inhibited by a specific antiserum against HCV. All cells within the plaque had HCV antigen detectable by fluorescent-antibody staining. The variations of reverse plaque count were low enough to permit virus titration. The relationship between virus concentration and the number of plaques was essentially linear. The titer measured by the RPF method was a little higher than that of the tube culture interference method.

  1. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y.K.; Kim, K.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  2. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (P<0.05). Therefore, a greater metabolic and energy imbalance occurs during exsanguination when pigs recover consciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber.

  3. Object tracking with adaptive HOG detector and adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Stefano; Paleari, Marco; Ariano, Paolo; Bona, Basilio

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios for a manned mission to the Moon or Mars call for astronaut teams to be accompanied by semiautonomous robots. A prerequisite for human-robot interaction is the capability of successfully tracking humans and objects in the environment. In this paper we present a system for real-time visual object tracking in 2D images for mobile robotic systems. The proposed algorithm is able to specialize to individual objects and to adapt to substantial changes in illumination and object appearance during tracking. The algorithm is composed by two main blocks: a detector based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors and linear Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a tracker which is implemented by an adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF). The SVM is re-trained online on new samples taken from previous predicted positions. We use the effective sample size to decide when the classifier needs to be re-trained. Position hypotheses for the tracked object are the result of a clustering procedure applied on the set of particles. The algorithm has been tested on challenging video sequences presenting strong changes in object appearance, illumination, and occlusion. Experimental tests show that the presented method is able to achieve near real-time performances with a precision of about 7 pixels on standard video sequences of dimensions 320 × 240.

  4. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (P<0.05). Therefore, a greater metabolic and energy imbalance occurs during exsanguination when pigs recover consciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber. PMID:24967538

  5. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  6. Tighter αC-helix–αL16-helix interactions seem to make p38α less prone to activation by autophosphorylation than Hog1

    PubMed Central

    Tesker, Masha; Selamat, Sadiduddin Edbe; Beenstock, Jonah; Hayouka, Ruchama; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) are autoactivated through autophosphorylation of their activation loop. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases do not autophosphorylate spontaneously; relying instead upon mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) for their activation loop phosphorylation. Yet, in previous studies we identified mutations in the yeast MAPK high osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) that render it capable of spontaneous autophosphorylation and consequently intrinsically active (MKK-independent). Four of the mutations occurred in hydrophobic residues, residing in the αC-helix, which is conserved in all EPKs, and in the αL16-helix that is unique to MAPKs. These four residues interact together forming a structural element termed ‘hydrophobic core’. A similar element exists in the Hog1’s mammalian orthologues p38s. Here we show that the ‘hydrophobic core’ is a loose suppressor of Hog1’s autophosphorylation. We inserted 18 point mutations into this core, 17 of which were able to render Hog1 MKK-independent. In p38s, however, only a very few mutations in the equivalent residues rendered these proteins intrinsically active. Structural analysis revealed that a salt bridge between the αC-helix and the αL16-helix that exists in p38α may not exist in Hog1. This bond further stabilizes the ‘hydrophobic core’ of p38, making p38 less prone to de-repressing its concealed autophosphorylation. Mutating equivalent hydrophobic residues in Jnk1 and Erk2 has no effect on their autophosphorylation. We propose that specific structural elements developed in the course of evolution to suppress spontaneous autophosphorylation of Hog1/p38. The suppressors were kept wobbly, probably to allow activation by induced autophosphorylation, but became stricter in mammalian p38s than in the yeast Hog1. PMID:26987986

  7. CaZF, a plant transcription factor functions through and parallel to HOG and calcineurin pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to provide osmotolerance.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepti; Roy, Nilanjan; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    Salt-sensitive yeast mutants were deployed to characterize a gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger protein (CaZF) that is differentially expressed in a drought-tolerant variety of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and provides salinity-tolerance in transgenic tobacco. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae most of the cellular responses to hyper-osmotic stress is regulated by two interconnected pathways involving high osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (Hog1p) and Calcineurin (CAN), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase 2B. In this study, we report that heterologous expression of CaZF provides osmotolerance in S. cerevisiae through Hog1p and Calcineurin dependent as well as independent pathways. CaZF partially suppresses salt-hypersensitive phenotypes of hog1, can and hog1can mutants and in conjunction, stimulates HOG and CAN pathway genes with subsequent accumulation of glycerol in absence of Hog1p and CAN. CaZF directly binds to stress response element (STRE) to activate STRE-containing promoter in yeast. Transactivation and salt tolerance assays of CaZF deletion mutants showed that other than the transactivation domain a C-terminal domain composed of acidic and basic amino acids is also required for its function. Altogether, results from this study suggests that CaZF is a potential plant salt-tolerance determinant and also provide evidence that in budding yeast expression of HOG and CAN pathway genes can be stimulated in absence of their regulatory enzymes to provide osmotolerance.

  8. A Novel Function for Hog1 Stress-Activated Protein Kinase in Controlling White-Opaque Switching and Mating in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shen-Huan; Cheng, Jen-Hua; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-An

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal in heathy people but has the potential to become an opportunistic pathogen and is responsible for half of all clinical infections in immunocompromised patients. Central to understanding C. albicans behavior is the white-opaque phenotypic switch, in which cells can undergo an epigenetic transition between the white state and the opaque state. The phenotypic switch regulates multiple properties, including biofilm formation, virulence, mating, and fungus-host interactions. Switching between the white and opaque states is associated with many external stimuli, such as oxidative stress, pH, and N-acetylglucosamine, and is directly regulated by the Wor1 transcriptional circuit. The Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway is recognized as the main pathway for adapting to environmental stress in C. albicans. In this work, we first show that loss of the HOG1 gene in a/a and α/α cells, but not a/α cells, results in 100% white-to-opaque switching when cells are grown on synthetic medium, indicating that switching is repressed by the a1/α2 heterodimer that represses WOR1 gene expression. Indeed, switching in the hog1Δ strain was dependent on the presence of WOR1, as a hog1Δ wor1Δ strain did not show switching to the opaque state. Deletion of PBS2 and SSK2 also resulted in C. albicans cells switching from white to opaque with 100% efficiency, indicating that the entire Hog1 SAPK pathway is involved in regulating this unique phenotypic transition. Interestingly, all Hog1 pathway mutants also caused defects in shmoo formation and mating efficiencies. Overall, this work reveals a novel role for the Hog1 SAPK pathway in regulating white-opaque switching and sexual behavior in C. albicans. PMID:25344054

  9. An RNA Phage Lab: MS2 in Walter Fiers' laboratory of molecular biology in Ghent, from genetic code to gene and genome, 1963-1976.

    PubMed

    Pierrel, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    The importance of viruses as model organisms is well-established in molecular biology and Max Delbrück's phage group set standards in the DNA phage field. In this paper, I argue that RNA phages, discovered in the 1960s, were also instrumental in the making of molecular biology. As part of experimental systems, RNA phages stood for messenger RNA (mRNA), genes and genome. RNA was thought to mediate information transfers between DNA and proteins. Furthermore, RNA was more manageable at the bench than DNA due to the availability of specific RNases, enzymes used as chemical tools to analyse RNA. Finally, RNA phages provided scientists with a pure source of mRNA to investigate the genetic code, genes and even a genome sequence. This paper focuses on Walter Fiers' laboratory at Ghent University (Belgium) and their work on the RNA phage MS2. When setting up his Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Fiers planned a comprehensive study of the virus with a strong emphasis on the issue of structure. In his lab, RNA sequencing, now a little-known technique, evolved gradually from a means to solve the genetic code, to a tool for completing the first genome sequence. Thus, I follow the research pathway of Fiers and his 'RNA phage lab' with their evolving experimental system from 1960 to the late 1970s. This study illuminates two decisive shifts in post-war biology: the emergence of molecular biology as a discipline in the 1960s in Europe and of genomics in the 1990s.

  10. Preliminary Authorization Basis Document For the Proposed Biological Safety Level 3 (BSL-3) Facility (B368) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Nguyen, S

    2005-01-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System Description (LLNL 2002) and the Task Plan for the Preparation of Authorization Basis Documentation for the proposed Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (DOE 2002a) require a PABD be prepared for the proposed BSL-3 Facility. NNSA-OAK approval is required prior to its construction. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) formalizes and documents the hazard evaluation and its results for the Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility. The PABD for the proposed BSL-3 facility provides the following information: (1) BSL-3 facility's site description; (2) general description of the BSL-3 facility and its operations; (3) identification of facility hazards; (4) generic hazard analysis; (5) identification of controls important to safety; and (6) safety management programs. The PABD characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility and provides the basis for its hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the level of review and approval for the safety analysis. The hazards of primary concern associated with the BSL-3 facility are biological. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of biological materials and activities with the BSL-3 threshold established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for BSL-3 facilities.

  11. The effects of geomagnetic activity in biological phenomena and physico-chemical processes as observed in the laboratories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirskij, B. M.

    A short review is given of the most important Soviet results of the investigations of geomagnetic activity effects on biological and physico-chemical phenomena. The main topics are: 1. The presence of well known geophysical periods in some organisms (biological rhythms). 2. The correlations of some biological indexes and water solution's parameters with the sector structure of the IMF. 3. Cosmophysical origin of "macroscopic fluctuations". 4. The influence of magnetic disturbances (the variations of solar activity) upon precise measurements. All these correlations might be interpreted as the influence upon the systems of variations in the electromagnetic background fields of VLF-ELF range. Such variations are important environment factors which have to be taken into account in modern ecology.

  12. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  13. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs. PMID:27261430

  14. Mortality of Pratylenchus penetrans by Volatile Fatty Acids from Liquid Hog Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, A.; Tenuta, M.; Hanson, M. L.; Daayf, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive. PMID:19259528

  15. Effect of processing systems on protein quality of feather meals and hog hair meals.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1997-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of five commercial processing systems and to a lesser extent, processing temperature within system, on protein quality of feather meals (FM). Two hog hair meals (HH) were also evaluated. True digestibilities of AA were determined with a 48-h excreta collection assay using cecectomized cockerels. Protein efficiency ratio (PER; grams of gain:grams of CP consumed) was determined with chicks by feeding Met-fortified 15% CP diets containing a FM or HH as the sole source of dietary protein. The six FM samples averaged 88.7% CP, 1.99% Lys, 4.83% Cys, and 0.71% Met on a DM basis. For HH, these values were 92.6, 2.78, 3.76, and 0.85%, respectively. True digestibilities of amino acids and PER of the FM varied among processing systems (e.g., lysine digestibility range was 58 to 72%, PER range was 0.71 to 1.13). Increasing the temperature during processing had no significant effect on protein quality of one FM and one HH. Digestibilities of AA in the FM water-soluble fraction collected after cooking were higher than those in the insoluble fraction. True amino acid digestibility coefficients for FM were higher than those for HH, whereas the PER of several FM were lower than those of HH. The latter response was probably due to the higher Lys content in the HH. The results of this study suggested that type of commercial processing system or conditions can affect the protein quality of FM.

  16. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs.

  17. [Deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology to deal with the A(H1N1) challenge in Kaboul].

    PubMed

    Maslin, J; Ducher, P; Fourel, D; Causse Le Dorze, P

    2010-11-01

    Since October 2009, the fear of swine flu spread in Afghanistan and severe cases were observed among NATO soldiers. Two patients were hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit. To face this new challenge, the French Health Service decided the deployment of a mobile RT-PCR laboratory molecular biology in the Kabul International Military Hospital. We describe the implementation of the mobile RT-PCR laboratory for the diagnosis of A(H1N1). The analysis of the first nasopharyngeal samples confirmed the presence of this virus in Afghanistan. The peak of positive cases was observed in mid-November 2009, and some cluster cases were observed among units deployed on the field.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-52, 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory Soil, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-022

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 100-F-52 waste site consisted of the soil under and around the former 146-FR Radioecology and Aquatic Biology Laboratory. The laboratory was used for studies of the effects of pre-reactor and post-reactor process water on fish eggs, young fish, and other small river creatures of interest. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  20. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.; Stout, J.G.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  1. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  2. Laboratory Measures of Filtration by Freshwater Mussels: An Activity to Introduce Biology Students to an Increasingly Threatened Group of Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Shaffer, Julie J.; Koupal, Keith D.; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms survive by filter feeding from the surrounding water and capturing food particles. We developed a laboratory exercise that allows students to measure the effects of filtering by fresh water mussels on water turbidity. Mussels were acquired from Wards Scientific and exposed to a solution of baker's yeast. Over a period of one…

  3. A DNA Fingerprinting Simulation Laboratory for Biology Students: Hands-on Experimentation To Solve a Mock Forensic Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, Michael A.; Cosentino, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to DNA fingerprinting. Demonstrates how undergraduate students can be involved in many aspects of this type of experiment and how DNA fingerprinting experiments can be incorporated into the laboratory curriculum of courses for majors and nonmajors. (NB)

  4. Using an ePortfolio system as an electronic laboratory notebook in undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology practical classes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill; Kant, Sashi; Gysbers, Vanessa; Hancock, Dale; Denyer, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Despite many apparent advantages, including security, back-up, remote access, workflow, and data management, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) in the modern research laboratory is still developing. This presents a challenge to instructors who want to give undergraduate students an introduction to the kinds of data curation and notebook keeping skills that will inevitably be required as ELNs penetrate normal laboratory practice. An additional problem for the teacher is that ELNs do not generally have student-administrative functions and are prohibitively expensive. In this report, we describe the use and impact of an ePortfolio system as a surrogate ELN. Introduction of the system led to several pedagogic outcomes, namely: increased preparedness of students for class, encouragement of creativity and reflection with respect to experimental methods, greatly enhanced engagement between students and tutors, and it gave instructors the ability to scrutinize original data files and monitor student-tutor feedback cycles. However, implementation led to a disruption of tutor workloads and incurred new levels of accountability that threatened to undermine the initiative. Through course evaluations and other reflective processes, we reached an appreciation of how an ELN should be introduced into practical class teaching so that it not only becomes an appropriate aid for teaching the laboratory experience, but also becomes a life-long resource for students.

  5. Gene Amplification by PCR and Subcloning into a GFP-Fusion Plasmid Expression Vector as a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornhorst, Joshua A.; Deibel, Michael A.; Mulnix, Amy B.

    2004-01-01

    A novel experimental sequence for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course has been developed at Earlham College. Utilizing recent improvements in molecular techniques for a time-sensitive environment, undergraduates were able to create a chimera of a selected gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a bacterial expression plasmid over the…

  6. Middle/High School Students in the Research Laboratory: A Summer Internship Program Emphasizing the Interdisciplinary Nature of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMiller, Tracee; Lee, Tameshia; Saroop, Ria; Green, Tyra; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2006-01-01

    We describe an eight-week summer Young Scientist in Training (YSIT) internship program involving middle and high school students. This program exposed students to current basic research in molecular genetics, while introducing or reinforcing principles of the scientific method and demonstrating the uses of mathematics and chemistry in biology. For…

  7. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; preparation procedure for aquatic biological material determined for trace metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the chemical preparation of tissue samples that are subsequently analyzed for 22 trace metals is described. The tissue-preparation procedure was tested with three National Institute of Standards and Technology biological standard reference materials and two National Water Quality Laboratory homogenized biological materials. A low-temperature (85 degrees Celsius) nitric acid digestion followed by the careful addition of hydrogen peroxide (30-percent solution) is used to decompose the biological material. The solutions are evaporated to incipient dryness, reconstituted with 5 percent nitric acid, and filtered. After filtration the solutions were diluted to a known volume and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Many of the metals were determined by both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This report does not provide a detailed description of the instrumental procedures and conditions used with the three types of instrumentation for the quantitation of trace metals determined in this study. Statistical data regarding recovery, accuracy, and precision for individual trace metals determined in the biological material tested are summarized.

  8. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  9. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, James L., Jr.; Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  10. Analysis of Variation in Total Airborne Bacteria Concentration to Assess the Performance of Biological Safety Cabinets in Microbial Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Hyun Hee; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the concentration of total airborne bacteria (TAB) in biosafety cabinets (BSCs) at universities and hospital microbial laboratories to assess the performance of BSCs. Methods TAB was determined by using the single-stage Anderson sampler (BioStage Viable Cascade Impactor). The samples were obtained three times (with the BSC turned off and the shield open; with the BSC turned off and the shield closed; and with the BSC tuned on and operating) from the areas in front of 11 BSCs. Results TAB concentrations of accredited and nonaccredited BSCs were determined. No significant differences were observed in the TAB concentrations of the accredited BSCs and the nonaccredited BSCs for the areas outside the BSCs in the laboratories (p > 0.05). TAB concentrations for the BSCs sampled with the shield open and the instrument turned off showed differences based on the sampling site outside the BSC in each laboratory. Conclusion These results imply that TAB concentration is not altered by the performance of the BSCs or TAB itself and/or concentration of TAB outside the BSC is not a good index of BSC performance. PMID:24932416

  11. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general.

  12. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound.

  13. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound. PMID:26856058

  14. Investigative Cases and Student Outcomes in an Upper-Division Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory Course at a Minority-serving Institution

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Rebecca M.; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    Active-learning strategies are increasingly being integrated into college-level science courses to make material more accessible to all students and to improve learning outcomes. One active-learning pedagogy, case-based learning (CBL), was developed as a way to both enhance engagement in the material and to accommodate diverse learning styles. Yet, adoption of CBL approaches in undergraduate biology courses has been piecemeal, in part because of the perceived investment of time required. Furthermore, few CBL lesson plans have been developed specifically for upper-division laboratory courses. Here, we describe four cases that we developed and implemented for a senior cell and molecular biology laboratory course at San Francisco State University, a minority-serving institution. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modules, we used both written and verbal assessments to gauge learning outcomes and attitudinal responses of students over two semesters. Students responded positively to the new approach and seemed to meet the learning goals for the course. Most said they would take a course using CBL again. These case modules are readily adaptable to a variety of classroom settings. PMID:19047425

  15. Investigative cases and student outcomes in an upper-division cell and molecular biology laboratory course at a minority-serving institution.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jonathan D; Fulop, Rebecca M; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2008-01-01

    Active-learning strategies are increasingly being integrated into college-level science courses to make material more accessible to all students and to improve learning outcomes. One active-learning pedagogy, case-based learning (CBL), was developed as a way to both enhance engagement in the material and to accommodate diverse learning styles. Yet, adoption of CBL approaches in undergraduate biology courses has been piecemeal, in part because of the perceived investment of time required. Furthermore, few CBL lesson plans have been developed specifically for upper-division laboratory courses. Here, we describe four cases that we developed and implemented for a senior cell and molecular biology laboratory course at San Francisco State University, a minority-serving institution. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modules, we used both written and verbal assessments to gauge learning outcomes and attitudinal responses of students over two semesters. Students responded positively to the new approach and seemed to meet the learning goals for the course. Most said they would take a course using CBL again. These case modules are readily adaptable to a variety of classroom settings.

  16. Investigative cases and student outcomes in an upper-division cell and molecular biology laboratory course at a minority-serving institution.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jonathan D; Fulop, Rebecca M; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2008-01-01

    Active-learning strategies are increasingly being integrated into college-level science courses to make material more accessible to all students and to improve learning outcomes. One active-learning pedagogy, case-based learning (CBL), was developed as a way to both enhance engagement in the material and to accommodate diverse learning styles. Yet, adoption of CBL approaches in undergraduate biology courses has been piecemeal, in part because of the perceived investment of time required. Furthermore, few CBL lesson plans have been developed specifically for upper-division laboratory courses. Here, we describe four cases that we developed and implemented for a senior cell and molecular biology laboratory course at San Francisco State University, a minority-serving institution. To evaluate the effectiveness of these modules, we used both written and verbal assessments to gauge learning outcomes and attitudinal responses of students over two semesters. Students responded positively to the new approach and seemed to meet the learning goals for the course. Most said they would take a course using CBL again. These case modules are readily adaptable to a variety of classroom settings. PMID:19047425

  17. The effect of following learning style pathways on learning and satisfaction in online biology laboratories for non-science-major undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel-Trifilo, Patricia M.

    Learning is a biological process involving horizontal and vertical synapse formations in the brain resulting in established neuronal pathways. Each learner has a unique biological makeup resulting in individual approaches to acquire, understand, and perceive information, which constitutes their learning styles. Learners have a dominant and several subdominant learning styles they use to explore new material. This study investigates the effect of following learning style pathways on learning and satisfaction in an online biology laboratory for non-science-major undergraduates. Participants in the control group, without knowledge of learning styles, randomly chose from eight instructional strategies, to create a pathway to explore the subject of fermentation and enzymes. Each participant in the experimental group was tested to determine dominant and subdominant learning styles, and was then instructed to follow a specific pathway that conformed to his or her learning styles through the instructional materials to explore the topics. Results of the study show a statistically significant improvement in learning when instructional strategies are matched to dominant and subdominant learning styles compared to instructional strategies unmatched to learning styles. Learners following the learning style pathway exactly as suggested by Canfield Learning Styles Inventory, with the dominant instruction first, accomplished extremely significantly higher posttest scores over those who only partially followed the suggested learning path. Learners expressed a higher level of satisfaction with the instruction and greater ease of learning when the instructional strategies matched learning styles. Research results suggest that, if the instructional strategies incorporated into an online laboratory presenting unfamiliar material to learners do not match the learner's style, the learner is forced to use a brain pathway with little neuronal connectivity resulting in poor learning and

  18. Ineffective Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1p in Response to High Osmotic Stress in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Zavala, Nancy; Rodríguez-González, Miriam; Navarro-Olmos, Rocío; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Kawasaki, Laura; Torres-Quiroz, Francisco; Coria, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt. Interestingly, we have observed that in ΔKlste11 and ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutants, which exhibit sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and contrary to what would be expected, KlHog1p becomes phosphorylated. Additionally, in mutants lacking both MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) present in K. lactis (KlSte11p and KlSsk2p), the hyperosmotic stress induced the phosphorylation and nuclear internalization of KlHog1p, but it failed to induce the transcriptional expression of KlSTL1 and the cell was unable to grow in high-osmolarity medium. KlHog1p phosphorylation via the canonical HOG pathway or in mutants where the SHO1 and SLN1 branches have been inactivated requires not only the presence of KlPbs2p but also its kinase activity. This indicates that when the SHO1 and SLN1 branches are inactivated, high-osmotic-stress conditions activate an independent input that yields active KlPbs2p, which, in turn, renders KlHog1p phosphorylation ineffective. Finally, we found that KlSte11p can alleviate the sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress displayed by a ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutant when it is anchored to the plasma membrane by adding the KlSho1p transmembrane segments, indicating that this chimeric protein can substitute for KlSho1p and KlSsk2p. PMID:26150414

  19. Ineffective Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1p in Response to High Osmotic Stress in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Zavala, Nancy; Rodríguez-González, Miriam; Navarro-Olmos, Rocío; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Kawasaki, Laura; Torres-Quiroz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt. Interestingly, we have observed that in ΔKlste11 and ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutants, which exhibit sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and contrary to what would be expected, KlHog1p becomes phosphorylated. Additionally, in mutants lacking both MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) present in K. lactis (KlSte11p and KlSsk2p), the hyperosmotic stress induced the phosphorylation and nuclear internalization of KlHog1p, but it failed to induce the transcriptional expression of KlSTL1 and the cell was unable to grow in high-osmolarity medium. KlHog1p phosphorylation via the canonical HOG pathway or in mutants where the SHO1 and SLN1 branches have been inactivated requires not only the presence of KlPbs2p but also its kinase activity. This indicates that when the SHO1 and SLN1 branches are inactivated, high-osmotic-stress conditions activate an independent input that yields active KlPbs2p, which, in turn, renders KlHog1p phosphorylation ineffective. Finally, we found that KlSte11p can alleviate the sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress displayed by a ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutant when it is anchored to the plasma membrane by adding the KlSho1p transmembrane segments, indicating that this chimeric protein can substitute for KlSho1p and KlSsk2p. PMID:26150414

  20. Broadening Horizons and Teaching Basic Biology Through Cell-Free Synthesis of Green Fluorescent Protein in a High School Laboratory Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Cem; Jones, K. C.; Swartz, James R.

    2013-12-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a practical method for producing a broad variety of proteins. In addition, the direct accessibility to the reaction environment makes CFPS particularly suitable as a learning vehicle for fundamental biological concepts. Here, we describe its implementation as a teaching tool for a high school laboratory course. Ninety students in a biotechnology class used CFPS to study the effects of the concentrations of amino acids, cell extract, DNA, and the energy source on accumulation of active super-folder green fluorescent protein. Students estimated product concentrations simply by comparing solution colors to a printed green color gradient. This simple and inexpensive method allows for immediate measurements, and 26 of the 30 groups observed measurable product concentrations within 60 min. These student-generated data were then discussed to illustrate concepts of data analysis such as outliers and standard deviation. We also combined the laboratory experience with a visit to a university campus that included a laboratory tour and a college-style lecture. Our overall objective was to excite the students about the scientific enterprise and to instill a sense of personal relevance and attainability so that these students could realistically consider technical careers.

  1. Biological treatment of whitewater in a laboratory process in order to determine kinetic parameters for model development.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, T; Jeppsson, U; Rosen, C

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of an in-mill biological treatment plant is one solution to the problems associated with closure of whitewater systems. It is, however, important to operate the treatment with low concentration of nutrients in the effluent. The effect on the COD reduction from decreased additions of NH4-N and PO4-P were investigated in three parallel aerobic suspended carrier reactors during treatment at 46 to 48 degrees C of whitewater from a recycled paper mill producing liner and fluting. In the reference reactor, a COD reduction of 89% was achieved and 45.6 mg NH4-N/(g COD reduced) and 11.6 mg PO4-P/(g COD reduced) was consumed at an organic load around 20 kg COD/(m3 x d). Reduced additions of NH4-N decreased the COD reduction. Addition of 56% of the consumption of NH4-N in the reference reactor resulted in a COD reduction of 80%. The response from decreased addition of PO4-P was different compared to NH4-N but it could not be determined if this is due to unsuitable experimental design or a different reaction mechanism. Reducing the addition of PO4-P to 26% of the consumption of PO4-P in the reference reactor, decreased the COD reduction to 83%. The main conclusion from the experiment is: biological treatment has the potential of treating whitewater from recycled paper mills with low effluent nutrient concentrations.

  2. The effect of iodide administration on hog thyroid gland and the composition of thyroglobulin and 27-S iodoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tarutani, O; Kondo, T; Horiguchi-Sho, K

    1975-10-01

    The effect of excess iodide on hog thyroid gland has been examined with regard to the change in the chemical composition of thyroglobulin and in the accumulation of 27-S iodoprotein by the in vivo treatment of hogs with iodide for various lengths of time. The iodine content of thyroglobulin was either unchanged by short term administration of excess iodide, or somewhat lowered. However, the iodine content as well as the total amount of thyroglobulin increased in the glands enlarged by prolonged treatment with iodide. The iodine highest reached 1.17% of the protein on an average. On the other hand, 27-S iodoprotein decreased and finally disappeared after the chronic treatment. Monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine increased in parallel with the increase in the iodine content (0.15 to 1.17%) caused by the iodide treatment, while thyroxine increased but reached a plateau at the level of three residues per mole of thyroglobulin, and no change was observed even in the proteins with the higher iodine content than 0.75%. Proteolytic activity measured by amino acid release from the thyroid protein was depressed by the chronic treatment. On the other hand, the amount of iodocompound released by the autoproteolysis, which may reflect hormone secretion, increased, possibly because of the marked increase in the iodine content of thyroglobulin.

  3. Osmoregulation and fungicide resistance: the Neurospora crassa os-2 gene encodes a HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase homologue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Lamm, Randy; Pillonel, Christian; Lam, Stephen; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2002-02-01

    Neurospora crassa osmosensitive (os) mutants are sensitive to high osmolarity and therefore are unable to grow on medium containing 4% NaCl. We found that os-2 and os-5 mutants were resistant to the phenylpyrrole fungicides fludioxonil and fenpiclonil. To understand the relationship between osmoregulation and fungicide resistance, we cloned the os-2 gene by using sib selection. os-2 encodes a putative mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologous to HOG1 and can complement the osmosensitive phenotype of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae hog1 mutant. We sequenced three os-2 alleles and found that all of them were null with either frameshift or nonsense point mutations. An os-2 gene replacement mutant also was generated and was sensitive to high osmolarity and resistant to phenylpyrrole fungicides. Conversely, os-2 mutants transformed with the wild-type os-2 gene could grow on media containing 4% NaCl and were sensitive to phenylpyrrole fungicides. Fludioxonil stimulated intracellular glycerol accumulation in wild-type strains but not in os-2 mutants. Fludioxonil also caused wild-type conidia and hyphal cells to swell and burst. These results suggest that the hyperosmotic stress response pathway of N. crassa is the target of phenylpyrrole fungicides and that fungicidal effects may result from a hyperactive os-2 MAP kinase pathway.

  4. The Biology and Husbandry of the African Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinus)and the Research Uses of a Laboratory Colony

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, Cheryl L; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    African spiny mice (Acomysspp.) are unique precocial rodents that are found in Africa, the Middle East, and southern Asia. They exhibit several interesting life-history characteristics, including precocial development, communal breeding, and a suite of physiologic adaptations to desert life. In addition to these characteristics, African spiny mice are emerging as an important animal model for tissue regeneration research. Furthermore, their important phylogenetic position among murid rodents makes them an interesting model for evolution and development studies. Here we outline the necessary components for maintaining a successful captive breeding colony, including laboratory housing, husbandry, and health monitoring aspects. We also review past and present studies focused on spiny mouse behavior, reproduction, and disease. Last, we briefly summarize various current biomedical research directions using captive-bred spiny mice. PMID:26817973

  5. The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching.

    PubMed

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-03-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

  6. Biological removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during laboratory soil aquifer treatment simulation with different primary substrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Onesios, Kathryn M; Bouwer, Edward J

    2012-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in bodies of water worldwide, yet their effects on the environment are not fully understood. Recent toxicity studies suggest that mixtures of PPCPs at low concentrations may be detrimental to exposed organisms, highlighting the need to remove PPCPs from wastewater treatment plant effluent before it is discharged to the environment. In this study, the utility of biofilm-based PPCP removal as a means to prevent environmental PPCP contamination was investigated. The removal of 14 PPCPs, each at an initial concentration of 10 μg/L, was studied in laboratory sand columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. The examined PPCPs included biosol, biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-xylenol, chlorophene, sodium diclofenac, gabapentin, gemfibrozil, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, triclosan, and valproic acid. Ten of the PPCPs were removed by greater than 95% during column passage, while the four other compounds proved more recalcitrant. The effect of the concentration (either 50 or 1000 μg/L) of an easily degradable primary substrate (acetate) supplied along with the mixture of PPCPs was examined. Most of the tested PPCPs were removed consistently by the biofilms regardless of the concentration of acetate, although the extent of removal for three compounds showed dependence on acetate concentration, and two behaved with no reproducible pattern over time. Biofilm protein measurements indicated that the mixture of PPCPs supplied to columns suppressed biofilm growth, suggesting toxicity of the PPCPs to the biofilm communities. This laboratory-scale experiment suggests that biofilm-based water treatment strategies, such as soil aquifer treatment and slow sand filtration, may be well-suited for the removal of many PPCPs from impacted water. PMID:22374299

  7. Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards

  8. Consequences of experimental cortisol manipulations on the thermal biology of the checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus) in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Cull, F; Suski, C D; Shultz, A; Danylchuk, A J; O'Connor, C M; Murchie, K J; Cooke, S J

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is altering temperature regimes for coastal marine fishes. However, given that temperature changes will not occur in isolation of other stressors, it is necessary to explore the potential consequences of stress on the thermal tolerances and preferences of tropical marine fish in order to understand the thresholds for survival, and predict the associated coastal ecological consequences. In this study, we used exogenous cortisol injections to investigate the effects of a thermal challenge on checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) as a secondary stressor. There were no significant differences between control and cortisol-treated fish 48h following cortisol treatment for swimming ability (using a chase to exhaustion protocol), blood glucose concentrations or standard metabolic rate. In the lab, control and cortisol-treated puffers were exposed to ambient (29.1±1.5°C), ambient +5°C (heat shock) and ambient -5°C (cold shock) for 4h and to evaluate the consequences of abrupt temperature change on puff performance and blood physiology. Following cold shock, control fish exhibited increases in cortisol levels and weak 'puff' performance. Conversely, fish dosed with cortisol exhibited consistently high cortisol levels independent of thermal treatment, although there was a trend for an attenuated cortisol response in the cortisol-treated fish to the cold shock treatment. A 20-day complementary field study conducted in the puffer's natural habitat, a tidal creek in Eleuthera, The Bahamas, revealed that cortisol-injected fish selected significantly cooler temperatures, measured using accumulated thermal units, when compared to controls. These results, and particularly the discrepancies between consequences documented in the laboratory and the ecological trends observed in the field, highlight the need to establish the link between laboratory and field data to successfully develop management policies and conservation initiatives with regards

  9. Biological removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during laboratory soil aquifer treatment simulation with different primary substrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Onesios, Kathryn M; Bouwer, Edward J

    2012-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in bodies of water worldwide, yet their effects on the environment are not fully understood. Recent toxicity studies suggest that mixtures of PPCPs at low concentrations may be detrimental to exposed organisms, highlighting the need to remove PPCPs from wastewater treatment plant effluent before it is discharged to the environment. In this study, the utility of biofilm-based PPCP removal as a means to prevent environmental PPCP contamination was investigated. The removal of 14 PPCPs, each at an initial concentration of 10 μg/L, was studied in laboratory sand columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. The examined PPCPs included biosol, biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-xylenol, chlorophene, sodium diclofenac, gabapentin, gemfibrozil, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, triclosan, and valproic acid. Ten of the PPCPs were removed by greater than 95% during column passage, while the four other compounds proved more recalcitrant. The effect of the concentration (either 50 or 1000 μg/L) of an easily degradable primary substrate (acetate) supplied along with the mixture of PPCPs was examined. Most of the tested PPCPs were removed consistently by the biofilms regardless of the concentration of acetate, although the extent of removal for three compounds showed dependence on acetate concentration, and two behaved with no reproducible pattern over time. Biofilm protein measurements indicated that the mixture of PPCPs supplied to columns suppressed biofilm growth, suggesting toxicity of the PPCPs to the biofilm communities. This laboratory-scale experiment suggests that biofilm-based water treatment strategies, such as soil aquifer treatment and slow sand filtration, may be well-suited for the removal of many PPCPs from impacted water.

  10. Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are one of the best non-chemical alternatives for insect pest control, with native EPN strains that are adapted to local conditions considered to be ideal candidates for regional biological control programs. Virulence screening of 17 native Mediterranean EPN strains was performed to select the most promising strain for regional insect pest control. Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja strain produced 7%, 91% and 33% larval mortality for the insects Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively, and was selected as the most promising strain. The S. feltiae Rioja strain-S. littoralis combination was considered the most suitable to develop the Rioja strain as a biocontrol agent for soil applications. The effect of soil texture on the virulence of the Rioja strain against S. littoralis was determined through dose-response experiments. The estimated LC(90) to kill larvae in two days was 220, 753 and 4178 IJs/cm(2) for soils with a clay content of 5%, 14% and 24%, respectively, which indicates that heavy soils produced negative effects on the virulence of the Rioja strain. The nematode dose corresponding to the LC(90) for soils with a 5% and 14% clay content reduced insect damage to Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants under greenhouse microcosm conditions. The results of this research suggest that an accurate characterization of new EPN strains to select the most suitable combination of insect, nematode and soil texture might provide valuable data to obtain successful biological control under different ecological scenarios in future field applications. PMID:19073191

  11. Designing student learning teams improving team performance in a college biology laboratory by designing learning teams based on student's intra-team function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Lisarenee

    Cooperative learning is likely the most utilized form of classroom management in college science laboratory courses. Time restrictions, equipment availability and physical space limitations promote use of cooperation if for no other reason than convenience and necessity. In college laboratory courses, students are often assigned to learning teams the first day of class. Student placement in these learning teams is usually a task for the instructor in charge and may depend on student preference, proximity, or random assignment according to an arbitrary character such as the student's last name. Regardless of placement method, learning teams often experience negative outcomes due to friction between team members. This study addresses the possibility that friction is caused by intra team competition and that intra team competition can be eliminated through team design using the Intra-Team Function Assay (ITFA) (English 2001). Eight hundred and ninety one college students, in 62 sections of an introductory biology laboratory course, participated in the ITFA study during the Fall 2001, Spring 2002, and Summer 2002 semesters. Using a Latin Square all laboratory sections were assigned to one of the following groups: control, Hawthorne, or experimental. Students in the control and Hawthorne sections were assigned to student teams randomly without regard for the ITFA results, while students in the experimental group were assigned to teams dependent on their identified intra-team function. In seven out of ten grade assessments, students in the experimental group earned significantly higher grades than did students in the control group; with no significant difference in the remaining three measures. Student grades in the experimental group where significantly higher than student grades in the Hawthorne group on all team assessments with the exception of the final examination. Students in the experimental group also earned higher semester grades than did students in either the

  12. Selection of prey to improve biological parameters of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, S A De; Vacari, A M; Laurentis, V L; Bortoli, C P De; Santos, R F; Otuka, A K

    2016-06-01

    Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus.

  13. 33S nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological samples obtained with a laboratory model 33S cryogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Saito, Yuta; Sato, Naoki; Takao, Tomoaki; Koshiba, Seizo; Maeda, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is limited by inherently low NMR sensitivity because of the quadrupolar moment and low gyromagnetic ratio of the S33 nucleus. We have developed a 10 mm S33 cryogenic NMR probe, which is operated at 9-26 K with a cold preamplifier and a cold rf switch operated at 60 K. The S33 NMR sensitivity of the cryogenic probe is as large as 9.8 times that of a conventional 5 mm broadband NMR probe. The S33 cryogenic probe was applied to biological samples such as human urine, bile, chondroitin sulfate, and scallop tissue. We demonstrated that the system can detect and determine sulfur compounds having SO42- anions and -SO3- groups using the S33 cryogenic probe, as the S33 nuclei in these groups are in highly symmetric environments. The NMR signals for other common sulfur compounds such as cysteine are still undetectable by the S33 cryogenic probe, as the S33 nuclei in these compounds are in asymmetric environments. If we shorten the rf pulse width or decrease the rf coil diameter, we should be able to detect the NMR signals for these compounds.

  14. [The research-study of pneumococci transformation in the laboratory, and the rise of bacterial genetics and molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Carrada-Bravo, Teodoro

    2016-02-01

    The virulence of pneumococci for mice depends on the production of a polysaccharide-capsule, which encloses the bacteria and protects it against phagocytosis. Capsulated pneumococci yield smooth, brilliant colonies designated S, but mutant strains arise frequently which have lost the capacity to sinthetise the capsule, are avirulent and rough designated R. F. Griffith discovery of bacterial "transformation" in 1928, is a landmark in the history of genetics, because hereditary determinants could be transferred from one bacteria to another, and laid the foundation for the subsequent recognition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the hereditary material. A systematic analysis of the chemical nature of the "transforming principle", by O. T. Avery and his colleagues during next 10 years, culminated in a formidable weight of evidence that it possessed all properties of DNA. In 1953, J. D. Watson and F. H. C Crick by a brilliant synthesis, fitted the chemical X-ray diffraction data together into a symmetrical double-helix structure, which possessed the inherent properties of genetic material, and carries the information necessary to direct all biochemical-cellular activities and self-replications. This paper describes de early rise and development of bacterial genetics and molecular biology.

  15. Laboratory host range of Parafreutreta regalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of Cape-ivy.

    PubMed

    Balciunas, Joe; Mehelis, Chris; Van Der Westhuizen, Liamé; Neser, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lamaire) is an ornamental vine that has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. It is native to the eastern part of South Africa, and surveys there located several potential biological control agents for this weed. One of these is Parafreutreta regalis Munro, a tephritid fly that causes large galls to form on the stems of the vine. In a collaborative effort, we began to evaluate, in both California and South Africa, the host range of this fly. Between the two locations, we tested 93 plant species and 2 varieties of Cape-ivy to see if, after being exposed to four pairs of flies for a week, any galls would develop on them. No galls were formed on any of the test species, although an average of six galls developed on each of the Cape-ivy controls. We also tested to see whether P. regalis showed any preference for either of the two varieties of Cape-ivy. There was no significant difference between the numbers of galls forming on the stipulate or astipulate varieties. Our tests indicate that this fly is essentially monospecific. Earlier research had shown that P. regalis galls cause a significant reduction in the height and nongall biomass of Cape-ivy. A petition has been submitted to initiate the process of obtaining permission to release P. regalis in California to control the Cape-ivy infestations there.

  16. [The research-study of pneumococci transformation in the laboratory, and the rise of bacterial genetics and molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Carrada-Bravo, Teodoro

    2016-02-01

    The virulence of pneumococci for mice depends on the production of a polysaccharide-capsule, which encloses the bacteria and protects it against phagocytosis. Capsulated pneumococci yield smooth, brilliant colonies designated S, but mutant strains arise frequently which have lost the capacity to sinthetise the capsule, are avirulent and rough designated R. F. Griffith discovery of bacterial "transformation" in 1928, is a landmark in the history of genetics, because hereditary determinants could be transferred from one bacteria to another, and laid the foundation for the subsequent recognition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as the hereditary material. A systematic analysis of the chemical nature of the "transforming principle", by O. T. Avery and his colleagues during next 10 years, culminated in a formidable weight of evidence that it possessed all properties of DNA. In 1953, J. D. Watson and F. H. C Crick by a brilliant synthesis, fitted the chemical X-ray diffraction data together into a symmetrical double-helix structure, which possessed the inherent properties of genetic material, and carries the information necessary to direct all biochemical-cellular activities and self-replications. This paper describes de early rise and development of bacterial genetics and molecular biology. PMID:26965880

  17. Small-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction system for studies of biological and other materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, S.; Hodgson, K. O.; Eliezer, D.; Rice, M.; Hubbard, S.; Gillis, N.; Doniach, S.; Spann, U.

    1992-01-01

    A versatile small-angle x-ray diffraction/scattering system has been developed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory for studies of biological and other materials. The system includes two sets of collimation slits separated by an ionization chamber, a sample holder cooled by a circulation bath, a vacuum/He scattering path after the sample holder and a detector, either a linear one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter or a position-sensitive quadrant detector. Data aquisition is controlled by a VAXstation through a CAMAC interface. Menu-driven data acquisition and on-line analysis software has been developed. The system can be used to collect small- to intermediate-angle x-ray scattering and diffraction data. Monochromatic, anomalous, and time-resolved diffraction/scattering experiments are possible. A time-resolved spectrophotometer using photodiode arrays has also been developed for simultaneous measurements of optical absorption spectra and x-ray scattering/diffraction.

  18. Quantification method of N2O emission from full-scale biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plant by laboratory batch reactor analysis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yesul; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a simplified method for the quantification of N2O emission from a biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The method incorporates a laboratory-scale batch reactor which had almost the same operational (wastewater and sludge flow rates) condition of a unit operation/process of the WWTP. Cumulative N2O emissions from the batch reactor at the corresponding hydraulic retention times of the full-scale units (primary and secondary clarifiers, pre-anoxic, anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic basins) were used for the quantification of N2O emission. The analysis showed that the aerobic basin emitted 95% of the total emission and the emission factor (yield) reached 0.8% based on the influent nitrogen load. The method successfully estimated N2O emission from the WWTP and it has shown advantages in measurement time and cost over the direct field measurement (floating chamber) method. PMID:24690468

  19. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  20. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  1. The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli DH10B: Insights into the Biology of a Laboratory Workhorse▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Durfee, Tim; Nelson, Richard; Baldwin, Schuyler; Plunkett, Guy; Burland, Valerie; Mau, Bob; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Qin, Xiang; Muzny, Donna M.; Ayele, Mulu; Gibbs, Richard A.; Csörgő, Bálint; Pósfai, György; Weinstock, George M.; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli DH10B was designed for the propagation of large insert DNA library clones. It is used extensively, taking advantage of properties such as high DNA transformation efficiency and maintenance of large plasmids. The strain was constructed by serial genetic recombination steps, but the underlying sequence changes remained unverified. We report the complete genomic sequence of DH10B by using reads accumulated from the bovine sequencing project at Baylor College of Medicine and assembled with DNAStar's SeqMan genome assembler. The DH10B genome is largely colinear with that of the wild-type K-12 strain MG1655, although it is substantially more complex than previously appreciated, allowing DH10B biology to be further explored. The 226 mutated genes in DH10B relative to MG1655 are mostly attributable to the extensive genetic manipulations the strain has undergone. However, we demonstrate that DH10B has a 13.5-fold higher mutation rate than MG1655, resulting from a dramatic increase in insertion sequence (IS) transposition, especially IS150. IS elements appear to have remodeled genome architecture, providing homologous recombination sites for a 113,260-bp tandem duplication and an inversion. DH10B requires leucine for growth on minimal medium due to the deletion of leuLABCD and harbors both the relA1 and spoT1 alleles causing both sensitivity to nutritional downshifts and slightly lower growth rates relative to the wild type. Finally, while the sequence confirms most of the reported alleles, the sequence of deoR is wild type, necessitating reexamination of the assumed basis for the high transformability of DH10B. PMID:18245285

  2. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  3. Dust from hog confinement facilities impairs Ca2+ mobilization from sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum by inhibiting ryanodine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Moore, Caronda J.; Dodmane, Puttappa; Shao, Chun Hong; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities have elevated incidences of headaches, depression, nausea, skeletal muscle weakness, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, and the molecular mechanisms for these nonrespiratory ailments remain incompletely undefined. A common element underlying these diverse pathophysiologies is perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. This study assessed whether the dust generated inside hog confinement facilities contains compounds that alter Ca2+ mobilization via ryanodine receptors (RyRs), key intracellular channels responsible for mobilizing Ca2+ from internal stores to elicit an array of physiologic functions. Hog barn dust (HBD) was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline, sterile-filtered (0.22 μm), and size-separated using Sephadex G-100 resin. Fractions (F) 1 through 9 (Mw >10,000 Da) had no measurable effects on RyR isoforms. However, F10 through F17, which contained compounds of Mw ≤2,000 Da, modulated the [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 in a biphasic (Gaussian) manner. The Ki values for F13, the most potent fraction, were 3.8 ± 0.2 μg/ml for RyR1, 0.2 ± 0.01 μg/ml and 19.1 ± 2.8 μg/ml for RyR2 (two binding sites), and 44.9 ± 2.8 μg/ml and 501.6 ± 9.2 μg/ml for RyR3 (two binding sites). In lipid bilayer assays, F13 dose-dependently decreased the open probabilities of RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3. Pretreating differentiated mouse skeletal myotubes (C2C12 cells) with F13 blunted the amplitudes of ryanodine- and K+-induced Ca2+ transients. Because RyRs are present in many cell types, impairment in Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores via these channels is a possible mechanism by which HBD may trigger these seemingly unrelated pathophysiologies. PMID:23288552

  4. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  5. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Lucas; Pedrini, Nicolás; Girotti, Juan R.; Mijailovsky, Sergio J.; Cardozo, Rubén M.; Gentile, Alberto G.; Hernández-Suárez, Carlos M.; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Juárez, M. Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America. Methodology and findings We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control. Conclusions The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling. PMID:25969989

  6. Estimation of the dynamics and rate of transmission of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hone, J.; Pech, R.; Yip, P.

    1992-01-01

    Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed. PMID:1582476

  7. High-throughput assessment of bacterial ecology in hog, cow and ovine casings used in sausages production.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Miragoli, Francesco; Polka, Justyna; Falasconi, Irene; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Natural casings derived from different intestine portions have been used for centuries in the production of fresh and dry-fermented sausages. Here we analysed by means of culture-dependent methods and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons the bacterial ecology of hog, cow and ovine casings at different stages of their preparation for sausages production. Several strains of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Vagococcus and Clostridium were counted, isolated and characterised at phylogenetic level. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed a high bacterial diversity, which differed strongly between casings of different animal species. The technological processes involved in the preparation for casing had also a strong impact on the casings bacterial ecology, with a significant reduction of undesired microorganisms, and an increase in the proportion of lactobacilli and staphylococci. Natural casings were demonstrated to be complex ecological environments, whose role as microbiological inoculants in the production of sausages should not be underestimated.

  8. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  9. Laboratory Materials: Affordances or Constraints?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Ruibal-Villasenor, Maria; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory instruction is critical to the understanding of biology and is a central piece of biological sciences instruction. Although much investigation has focused on the content of biology laboratory exercises, we contend that understanding the extent to which the laboratory materials can aid or limit experimental investigation is of equal…

  10. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  11. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  12. An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (CAI) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Joan Beverly

    Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (CAI). This case study investigated the use of CAI as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of CAI. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of CAI as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that CAI is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the CAI laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of CAI also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings

  13. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks.

  14. Thermal Performance of Biological Substance Systems in Vitro Under Static and Dynamic Conditions at the Cryogenic Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, James E.; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A unique research program, including a comprehensive study of thermal performance at cryogenic vacuum insulation systems, was performed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The main goal was to develop a new soft vacuum system (from 1 torr to 10 torr) that provides an intermediate level of performance (k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K). Liquid nitrogen boil-off methods were used to test conventional materials, novel materials, and certain combinations. The test articles included combinations of aluminum foil, fiberglass paper, polyester fabric, silica aerogel composite blanket, fumed silica, silica aerogel powder, and syntactic foam. A new LCI system was developed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory. This system performs exceptionally well at soft vacuum levels and nearly as good as an MLI at high vacuum levels. Apparent thermal conductivities for the LCI range from 2 mW/m-K at soft vacuum to 0.1 mW/m-K at high vacuum. Several cryostats were designed, constructed, and calibrated by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at KSC NASA as part of this research program. The cryostat test apparatus is a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter system for direct measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity at a fixed vacuum level between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 760 torr. The apparatus is also used for transient measurements of temperature profiles. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems has been a targeted area of research for a number of years. Improved methods of characterization, testing, and evaluation of complex biological substance systems for cryosurgery and cryobiology are the focus of this paper.

  15. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

  16. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1970-1992: The JANUS Program Survival and Pathology Data

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.; Williamson, F.S.; Fox, C.

    1995-02-01

    A research reactor for exclusive use in experimental radiobiology was designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1960`s. It was located in a special addition to Building 202, which housed the Division of Biological and Medical Research. Its location assured easy access for all users to the animal facilities, and it was also near the existing gamma-irradiation facilities. The water-cooled, heterogeneous 200-kW(th) reactor, named JANUS, became the focal point for a range of radiobiological studies gathered under the rubic of {open_quotes}the JANUS program{close_quotes}. The program ran from about 1969 to 1992 and included research at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to organism. More than a dozen moderate- to large-scale studies with the B6CF{sub 1} mouse were carried out; these focused on the late effects of whole-body exposure to gamma rays or fission neutrons, in matching exposure regimes. In broad terms, these studies collected data on survival and on the pathology observed at death. A deliberate effort was made to establish the cause of death. This archieve describes these late-effects studies and their general findings. The database includes exposure parameters, time of death, and the gross pathology and histopathology in codified form. A series of appendices describes all pathology procedures and codes, treatment or irradiation codes, and the manner in which the data can be accessed in the ORACLE database management system. A series of tables also presents summaries of the individual experiments in terms of radiation quality, sample sizes at entry, mean survival times by sex, and number of gross pathology and histopathology records.

  17. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist.

  18. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  19. Peroxide sensing and signaling in the Sporothrix schenckii complex: an in silico analysis to uncover putative mechanisms regulating the Hog1 and AP-1 like signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ivy; Soares Felipe, Maria Sueli; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Lopes Bezerra, Leila Maria; Da Silva Dantas, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how fungal pathogens can survive inside the host, we must analyze how they evade the fungicidal mechanisms mounted by the host's immune system, such as generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Studies have shown that infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis can be more aggressive than those due to Sporothrix schenckii. Therefore, we propose to analyze and compare the ability of these two pathogenic species to counteract oxidative stress, which, as noted, can be relevant in the host response to infection. We have shown that S. brasiliensis is more resistant to different oxidants, such as H2O2 and menadione, when compared with S. schenckii. Furthermore, our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms by which Sporothrix spp. AP-1 like transcription factors are regulated probably differs from the one seen in other fungal pathogens. Interestingly, comparison between sequences of SbHog1 and SsHog1 stress activated protein kinases suggest that S. brasiliensis Hog1 display mutations that could account for the differences seen in stress sensitivities of these two species. In summary, this is the first study to our knowledge to investigate oxidative stress responses of Sporothrix spp. and provided a model that can be employed in vivo to address how these fungal pathogens can surmount the oxidative stress generated by the host.

  20. Cesium chloride sensing and signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: an interplay among the HOG and CWI MAPK pathways and the transcription factor Yaf9.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Viviana; Del Vescovo, Valerio; Militti, Cristina; Mangiapelo, Eleonora; Frontali, Laura; Negri, Rodolfo; Bianchi, Michele M

    2009-05-01

    In yeast, many environmental stimuli are sensed and signaled by the MAP kinases pathways. In a previous work, we showed that cesium chloride activates the HOG pathway and modulates the transcription of several genes, especially those involved in cell wall biosynthesis and organization. The response to cesium was largely overlapping with the response to salt and osmotic stress. However, when low cesium chloride concentrations were used, a specific response was eventually elicited. The cesium-specific response involved the Yaf9 protein and its activity of chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation. In this paper we show that the osmotic activity of cesium salt is detected and signaled by the two branches downstream of the Sln1 and Sho1 sensors of the HOG pathway, that seem to possess different but exchangeables functions in cesium signaling. However, the cesium-specific response mediated by Yaf9, that counteracts the efficiency of the HOG pathway, is not routed by these sensors. In addition, the cesium response also involves the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, which is activated by low concentration of cesium chloride. Mutations blocking the CWI pathway show sensitivity to this salt.

  1. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-07-21

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images.

  2. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  3. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  4. Passive detection of biological aerosols in the atmosphere with a Fourier Transform Instrument (FTIR)--the results of the measurements in the laboratory and in the field.

    PubMed

    Błęcka, M I; Rataj, M; Szymański, G

    2012-06-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for the detection of gaseous constituents, aerosols, and dust in planetary atmospheres. Infrared spectroscopy plays an important role in searching for biomarkers, organics and biological substances in the Universe. The possibility of detection and identifications with FTIR spectrometer of bio-aerosol spores (Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii=BG) in the atmosphere is discussed in this paper. We describe the results of initial spectral measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field. The purpose of these experiments was to detect and to identify bio-aerosol spores in two conditions: 1) In a closed chamber where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was large, and 2) In open air where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was small. The extinction spectrum of BG spores was deduced by comparing our measurements with models, and other measurements known from the literature. Our theoretical and experimental studies indicate that, during passive remote sensing measurements, it is difficult-but possible to detect and to identify bio-aerosol clouds by their spectral signatures. The simple spectral analysis described in the paper can be useful for the detection of various kinds of trace aerosols-not only in the Earth's atmosphere, but also during planetary missions in the environments of other astronomical objects such as planets, comets etc. We expect that the interpretation of data from spectrometric sounding of Venus and Mars during the current missions Mars and Venus Express, and later during the Rosetta mission will benefit from our experimental work and numerical modelling.

  5. Passive detection of biological aerosols in the atmosphere with a Fourier Transform Instrument (FTIR)--the results of the measurements in the laboratory and in the field.

    PubMed

    Błęcka, M I; Rataj, M; Szymański, G

    2012-06-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for the detection of gaseous constituents, aerosols, and dust in planetary atmospheres. Infrared spectroscopy plays an important role in searching for biomarkers, organics and biological substances in the Universe. The possibility of detection and identifications with FTIR spectrometer of bio-aerosol spores (Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii=BG) in the atmosphere is discussed in this paper. We describe the results of initial spectral measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field. The purpose of these experiments was to detect and to identify bio-aerosol spores in two conditions: 1) In a closed chamber where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was large, and 2) In open air where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was small. The extinction spectrum of BG spores was deduced by comparing our measurements with models, and other measurements known from the literature. Our theoretical and experimental studies indicate that, during passive remote sensing measurements, it is difficult-but possible to detect and to identify bio-aerosol clouds by their spectral signatures. The simple spectral analysis described in the paper can be useful for the detection of various kinds of trace aerosols-not only in the Earth's atmosphere, but also during planetary missions in the environments of other astronomical objects such as planets, comets etc. We expect that the interpretation of data from spectrometric sounding of Venus and Mars during the current missions Mars and Venus Express, and later during the Rosetta mission will benefit from our experimental work and numerical modelling. PMID:22707349

  6. Micro method for performing titration and neutralization test of hog cholera virus using established porcine kidney cell strain.

    PubMed

    Komaniwa, H; Fukusho, A; Shimizu, Y

    1981-01-01

    Hog cholera (HC) virus and antibody against it were estimated by the END method with microplates and CPK porcine kidney cell strain. To establish the technique of this method, studies were made on such basic conditions of the method as the type of strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the time of challenge with this virus, and the concentration of serum in culture fluid. There was little difference in the infective titer of HC virus estimated between the END method performed by the established technique and the same method by the conventional technique with test tubes and swine testicle (ST) cells. Besides, there was a high correlation between the neutralizing antibody titer measured by the one technique and that measured by the other. The coefficient of correlation was r = +0.948 in this case. From the experimental results mentioned above it was concluded that the END method by the micro-technique with CPK cells was simpler than and as reliable as the same method conducted by any conventional technique, and that it was a practicable one capable of testing many samples.

  7. Genomic and Metabolomic Insights into the Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity of a Feral-Hog-Associated Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Christine M.; Stamps, Blake W.; King, Jarrod B.; Price, Lauren S. L.; Powell, Douglas R.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Cichewicz, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria associated with mammals are a rich source of microbial biodiversity; however, little is known concerning the abilities of these microbes to generate secondary metabolites. This report focuses on a bacterium isolated from the ear of a feral hog from southwestern Oklahoma, USA. The bacterium was identified as a new strain (PE36) of Brevibacillus latersporus, which was shown via genomic analysis to contain a large number of gene clusters presumably involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A scale-up culture of B. latersporus PE36 yielded three bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (basiliskamides A and B and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid). Further studies of the isolate's secondary metabolome provided both new (auripyrazine) and previously-described pyrazine-containing compounds. In addition, a new peptidic natural product (auriporcine) was purified that was determined to be composed of a polyketide unit, two L-proline residues, two D-leucine residues, one L-leucine residue, and a reduced L-phenylalanine (L-phenylalanol). An examination of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are likely responsible for generating the basiliskamides and auriporcine. These combined genomic and chemical studies confirm that new and unusual secondary metabolites can be obtained from the bacterial associates of wild mammals. PMID:24595070

  8. A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2012-08-01

    Atriotaenia sanmarci n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is described as a parasite of the Andean hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae), from Cusco, Perú. The new species is primarily distinguished from related species by the distribution, and greater number, of testes, i.e., 194-223 versus 40-60 in Atriotaenia sandgroundi (Sandground, 1926) Baer, 1935, 47-73 in Atriotaenia procyonis (Chandler, 1942) Spasskii, 1951, and 21-84 in Atriotaenia incisa Railliet, 1899. Also, there are differences with respect to the larger dimensions of suckers (300-371 µm vs. 140 in A. sandgroundi, 83-134 in A. procyonis, 70-140 in A. incisa, and 155-192 in Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982) and in the cirrus pouch length (204-732 µm vs. 90 in A. sandgroundi, 200-220 in A. procyonis, 100-180 in A. incisa, and 150-205 in A. hastati). The new species differs from A. sandgroundi and A. hastati in having a larger body size (122-133 mm vs. 10.6 and 10, respectively). This cestode is the fifth species of Atriotaenia Sandground, 1926.

  9. Use of a commercial household steam cleaning system to decontaminate beef and hog carcasses processed by four small or very small meat processing plants in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Suvang; Reynolds, A Estes; Chen, Jinru

    2007-03-01

    Small and very small meat-processing facilities in the United States are in need of a pathogen reduction technology that would be both effective and economical. In the present study, the effectiveness of a commercial household steam cleaner for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef and hog carcasses was evaluated in four small or very small meat-processing plants. Three anatomical sites on the right half of each carcass were exposed to a 60-s steam treatment, and the corresponding left half of the carcass remained untreated. Samples were collected from 72 beef and 72 hog carcasses before, immediately after, and 24 h after the steam treatment. The mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from three anatomical sites on the beef carcasses were 1.88, 1.89, and 1.36 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 1.00, 0.71, and 0.52 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 1.10, 0.95, and 0.50 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. On hog carcasses, the mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the three anatomical sites were 2.50, 2.41, and 1.88 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 0.50, 0.94, and 0.21 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 0.91, 1.56, and 0.44 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. The steam treatment significantly reduced the total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae at all three anatomical locations on both types of carcasses (P < 0.05). The order of mean bacterial populations recovered before steam treatment was midline > neck > rump for beef carcasses and belly > jowl > ham for hog carcasses except for the total coliform counts at the midline and neck areas on the beef carcasses. Of the 144 carcasses evaluated, 5 (3.47%) were positive for Salmonella before steam treatment, but all carcasses tested

  10. Use of a commercial household steam cleaning system to decontaminate beef and hog carcasses processed by four small or very small meat processing plants in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Suvang; Reynolds, A Estes; Chen, Jinru

    2007-03-01

    Small and very small meat-processing facilities in the United States are in need of a pathogen reduction technology that would be both effective and economical. In the present study, the effectiveness of a commercial household steam cleaner for reducing naturally occurring bacterial populations on freshly slaughtered beef and hog carcasses was evaluated in four small or very small meat-processing plants. Three anatomical sites on the right half of each carcass were exposed to a 60-s steam treatment, and the corresponding left half of the carcass remained untreated. Samples were collected from 72 beef and 72 hog carcasses before, immediately after, and 24 h after the steam treatment. The mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from three anatomical sites on the beef carcasses were 1.88, 1.89, and 1.36 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 1.00, 0.71, and 0.52 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 1.10, 0.95, and 0.50 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. On hog carcasses, the mean populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the three anatomical sites were 2.50, 2.41, and 1.88 log CFU/cm2, respectively, before the steam treatment, 0.50, 0.94, and 0.21 log CFU/cm2, respectively, immediately after the steam treatment, and 0.91, 1.56, and 0.44 log CFU/cm2, respectively, 24 h after the steam treatment. The steam treatment significantly reduced the total aerobes, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae at all three anatomical locations on both types of carcasses (P < 0.05). The order of mean bacterial populations recovered before steam treatment was midline > neck > rump for beef carcasses and belly > jowl > ham for hog carcasses except for the total coliform counts at the midline and neck areas on the beef carcasses. Of the 144 carcasses evaluated, 5 (3.47%) were positive for Salmonella before steam treatment, but all carcasses tested

  11. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  14. Environmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression: An Rt-qPCR Laboratory Project for an Upper-Level Undergraduate Biochemistry or Molecular Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickelberg, Garrett J.; Fisher, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the "FLOWERING LOCUS C" gene, a key regulator of floral timing in "Arabidopsis thaliana" plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate…

  15. Assessment of soil-gas and soil contamination at the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Andral W.; Falls, W. Fred; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas and soil were assessed for contaminants at the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included delineating organic contaminants present in soil-gas and inorganic contaminants present in soil samples collected from the area estimated to be the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. All soil-gas samplers contained total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass detected was 121.32 micrograms in a soil-gas sampler from the western corner of the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area along Sawmill Road. The highest undecane mass detected was 73.28 micrograms at the same location as the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass. Some soil-gas samplers detected toluene mass greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram; the highest detection of toluene mass was 0.07 microgram. Some soil-gas samplers were installed in areas of high-contaminant mass to assess for explosives and chemical agents. Explosives or chemical agents were not detected above their respective method detection levels for all soil-gas samplers installed. Inorganic concentrations in five soil samples collected did not exceed regional screening levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Barium concentrations, however, were up to eight times higher than the background concentrations reported in similar Coastal Plain sediments of South Carolina.

  16. Microbial and sensorial models for head-on and gutted (HOG) Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) stored from 0 to 15 °C.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Olivia J; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Powell, Shane M; Tamplin, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Predictive models offer efficient means to manage the quality and safety of highly perishable seafood. Salmon is an increasingly popular seafood, and relies on well managed domestic and international supply chains to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. While the literature describes predictive models for smoked and modified atmosphere packaged salmon, there are no reported models for spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes on head-on and gutted (HOG) aerobically-stored Atlantic salmon. Predictive models were developed for microbial and sensorial degradation of HOG Atlantic salmon stored at 0-15 °C until the end of shelf-life. Total Viable Count (TVC) and Pseudomonas spp. had similar growth rates at 0, 5 and 10 °C, but TVC rate was higher at 15 °C. L. monocytogenes growth rate at 0 °C was 0.004 log10 cfu/h, and showed a log-linear increase (R(2) = 0.99) to 0.079 log10 cfu/h at 15 °C. Sensory Quality Index (QI) scores were 2.4, 4.5, and 7.2 times greater at 5, 10 and 15 °C, respectively, compared to 0 °C. QI and TVC rates had a relatively strong relationship at 5 (R(2) = 0.87), 10 (R(2) = 0.80) and 15 °C (R(2) = 0.78), compared to 0 °C (R(2) = 0.50). These models are potential tools to manage the safety and quality of HOG Atlantic salmon in supply chains. PMID:27052713

  17. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  18. The Effects of in utero Viral Infection on Embryonic, Fetal, and Neonatal Survival: A Comparison of SMEDI (Porcine Picorna) Viruses with Hog Cholera Vaccinal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, H. W.; Wang, J. T.; Clark, C. D.; Hokanson, J. F.; Morimoto, T.; Bubash, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    SMEDI and hog cholera viruses were shown to have marked effects upon the survival of the embryo (from conception to 30 days of gestation), the fetus (from 30 days of gestation until birth), and the neonatal pig (from birth until five days after birth). Embryonic infection was characterized by death and absorption of the embryo and in some instances the return to estrus after an irregular estrous cycle. Embryonic infection also may have been responsible for the development of some abnormal pigs. Fetal infection caused death with mummification of one or more fetuses and occasionally all fetuses in the uterus. Infection established in early gestation produced effects on the fetus which apparently persisted until after birth and varied from a persistent viremia (as in hog cholera infection) to an undefined lack of resistance in the newborn (as in SMEDI virus infection). Hog cholera vaccinal virus was the more virulent of the two virus types and reacted somewhat like rubella virus, in that infection apparently could be established in the fetus even in middle trimester of pregnancy, and possibly later. SMEDI viruses, in contrast, were less virulent and were most pathogenic when the dam was infected during the first 30 days of pregnancy. Immunity against either virus could be established in the nonpregnant gilt and was most effective in preventing intrauterine infections with that virus. However, with as many as 10 enteroviruses (five are known to cause intrauterine infection) it was believed that maintaining a closed breeding herd and introducing new stock into contact with the breeding herd at least 30 days before breeding time might be a safer means of control. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4243029

  19. The Hog Cycle of Law Professors: An Econometric Time Series Analysis of the Entry-Level Job Market in Legal Academia

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Hanjo

    2016-01-01

    The (German) market for law professors fulfils the conditions for a hog cycle: In the short run, supply cannot be extended or limited; future law professors must be hired soon after they first present themselves, or leave the market; demand is inelastic. Using a comprehensive German dataset, we show that the number of market entries today is negatively correlated with the number of market entries eight years ago. This suggests short-sighted behavior of young scholars at the time when they decide to prepare for the market. Using our statistical model, we make out-of-sample predictions for the German academic market in law until 2020. PMID:27467518

  20. The Hog Cycle of Law Professors: An Econometric Time Series Analysis of the Entry-Level Job Market in Legal Academia.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Hamann, Hanjo

    2016-01-01

    The (German) market for law professors fulfils the conditions for a hog cycle: In the short run, supply cannot be extended or limited; future law professors must be hired soon after they first present themselves, or leave the market; demand is inelastic. Using a comprehensive German dataset, we show that the number of market entries today is negatively correlated with the number of market entries eight years ago. This suggests short-sighted behavior of young scholars at the time when they decide to prepare for the market. Using our statistical model, we make out-of-sample predictions for the German academic market in law until 2020. PMID:27467518

  1. The Hog Cycle of Law Professors: An Econometric Time Series Analysis of the Entry-Level Job Market in Legal Academia.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Hamann, Hanjo

    2016-01-01

    The (German) market for law professors fulfils the conditions for a hog cycle: In the short run, supply cannot be extended or limited; future law professors must be hired soon after they first present themselves, or leave the market; demand is inelastic. Using a comprehensive German dataset, we show that the number of market entries today is negatively correlated with the number of market entries eight years ago. This suggests short-sighted behavior of young scholars at the time when they decide to prepare for the market. Using our statistical model, we make out-of-sample predictions for the German academic market in law until 2020.

  2. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... examine and identify bacteria and other microorganisms. Molecular biology technologists perform complex protein and nucleic acid tests ... medical laboratory scientist degree, includes courses in chemistry, biology, microbiology, math, and statistics. Coursework emphasizes laboratory skills, ...

  3. Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, Ronald H.

    2002-09-01

    Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher

  4. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  5. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  6. Removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from the separated liquid phase of hog manure by the multi-zone BioCAST technology.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Afroze, Niema; Godbout, Stephane; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-06-15

    The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) at concentrations of 960 ± 38 to 2400 ± 96 mg/L, 143 ± 9 to 235 ± 15 mg/L and 25 ± 2 to 57 ± 4 mg/L, respectively, from the separated liquid phase of hog manure by the multi-zone BioCAST technology is discussed. Despite the inhibitory effect of hog waste toward microbial activities, removal efficiencies up to 89.2% for COD, 69.2% for TN and 47.6% for TP were obtained during 185 d of continuous operation. The free ammonia inhibition was postulated to be responsible for the steady reduction of COD and TP removal with the increase of TN/TP ratio from 3.6 to 5.8. On the contrary, the increase of COD/TN ratio from 4.8 to 14.1 improved the removal of all contaminants. Nitrogen removal did not show any dependence on the COD/TP ratio, despite the steady increase of COD and TP removal with this ratio in the range of 19.3-50.6. The removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic contaminants increased progressively owing to the adaptation of microbial biomass, resulting from the presence of suspended biomass in the mixed liquor that circulated continuously between the three zones of aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, as well as the attached biomass immobilized inside the aerobic zone.

  7. The Impact of Inquiry Based Instruction on Science Process Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers at a University Level Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ceylan; Sezen Vekli, Gülsah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of inquiry-based teaching approach on pre-service science teachers' laboratory self-efficacy perceptions and scientific process skills. The quasi experimental model with pre-test-post-test control group design was used as an experimental design in this research. The sample of this study included…

  8. An Extended, Problem-Based Learning Laboratory Exercise on the Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases Suitable for Large Level 1 Undergraduate Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatner, Mary; Tierney, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a two-week laboratory class, based on the diagnosis of human infectious diseases, is described. It can be easily scaled up or down, to suit class sizes from 50 to 600 and completed in a shorter time scale, and to different audiences as desired. Students employ a range of techniques to solve a real-life and…

  9. Use of the "gl1" Mutant and the "CA-rop2" Transgenic Plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in the Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Zhi-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of the "glabrous1 (g11)" mutant and constitutively active "(CA)-rop2" transgenic plants of "Arabidopsis thaliana" in teaching genetics laboratory for both high school and undergraduate students. The experiments provide students with F[subscript 1] and F[subscript 2] generations within a semester for genetic and…

  10. "Mini-Array" Transcriptional Analysis of the "Listeria Monocytogenes" Lecithinase Operon as a Class Project: A Student Investigative Molecular Biology Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Douglas; Jovic, Marko

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a molecular biotechnology-based laboratory curriculum developed to accompany an undergraduate genetics course. During the course of a semester, students researched the pathogen, developed a research question, designed experiments, and performed transcriptional analysis of a set of genes that confer virulence to the food-borne…

  11. Using an International p53 Mutation Database as a Foundation for an Online Laboratory in an Upper Level Undergraduate Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melloy, Patricia G.

    2015-01-01

    A two-part laboratory exercise was developed to enhance classroom instruction on the significance of p53 mutations in cancer development. Students were asked to mine key information from an international database of p53 genetic changes related to cancer, the IARC TP53 database. Using this database, students designed several data mining activities…

  12. Laboratory host range of Austromusotima camptozonale (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum (Lygodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, is one of the most serious invasive weeds impacting south Florida and development of biological control is crucial for sustainable management. Larvae of a small moth, Austromusotima camptozonale, were discovered defoliating L. microphyllum in Australia...

  13. Laboratory and open-field tests on Abia sericea (L.) (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) - a candidate for biological control of teasels (Dipsacus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive teasels (Dipsacus spp.) are widespread in the USA (43 states) and listed as noxious in five states. The cimbicid sawfly Abia sericea (Linné, 1758) is under evaluation as a potential agent for biological control of teasels. Abia sericea lays its eggs under the epidermis of the leaves of Di...

  14. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  15. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: II – RAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  16. Broadening Horizons and Teaching Basic Biology through Cell-Free Synthesis of Green Fluorescent Protein in a High School Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albayrak, Cem; Jones, K. C.; Swartz, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a practical method for producing a broad variety of proteins. In addition, the direct accessibility to the reaction environment makes CFPS particularly suitable as a learning vehicle for fundamental biological concepts. Here, we describe its implementation as a teaching tool for a high school…

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-003

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 116-F-15 waste site is the former location of the 108-F Radiation Crib that was located in the first floor of the 108-F Biological Laboratory. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-36, 108-F Biological Laboratory, and for the 116-F-15, 108-F Radiation Crib, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-002

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-05-24

    The 100-F-36 waste site is the location of the former 108-F Biological Laboratory. The building was closed in 1973, decontaminated, decommissioned, and eventually demolished in 1999. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Chemoinformatics for rational discovery of safe antibacterial drugs: simultaneous predictions of biological activity against streptococci and toxicological profiles in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2013-05-15

    Streptococci are a group of Gram-positive bacteria which are responsible for causing many diverse diseases in humans and other animals worldwide. The high prevalence of resistance of these bacteria to current antibacterial drugs is an alarming problem for the scientific community. The battle against streptococci by using antimicrobial chemotherapies will depend on the design of new chemicals with high inhibitory activity, having also as low toxicity as possible. Multi-target approaches based on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR) have played a very important role, providing a better knowledge about the molecular patterns related with the appearance of different pharmacological profiles including antimicrobial activity. Until now, almost all mt-QSAR models have considered the study of biological activity or toxicity separately. In the present study, we develop by the first time, a unified multitasking (mtk) QSAR model for the simultaneous prediction of anti-streptococci activity and toxic effects against biological models like Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. The mtk-QSAR model was created by using artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis for the classification of compounds as positive (high biological activity and/or low toxicity) or negative (otherwise) under diverse sets of experimental conditions. Our mtk-QSAR model, correctly classified more than 97% of the cases in the whole database (more than 11,500 cases), serving as a promising tool for the virtual screening of potent and safe anti-streptococci drugs.

  20. Development by injection in Simulium damnosum s.l. of two Onchocerca species from the wart hog to infective larvae resembling type D larvae (Duke, 1967).

    PubMed

    Wahl, G; Bain, O

    1995-03-01

    Four wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) examined in the Sudan savanna of North-Cameroon were all found infected with two types of skin microfilariae. One was O. ramachandrini Bain, Wahl and Renz, 1993, the adult worms of which live in the subcutaneous tissues of the feet. The other, smaller type belongs to a new Onchocerca species, the adult worms of which were not yet found. O. ramachandrini-microfilariae were evenly distributed across the whole body surface, those of Onchocerca sp. were concentrated on the back. The two species of microfilariae were isolated from an infected hide separated under the dissecting microscope and injected into the thorax of pupae-hatched S. squamosum and S. damnosum s.slr. females. Both filariae developed in both flies at high rates (33-47% of injected microfilariae) and without pathological forms to infective larvae L3). Both L3-species had a caudal tip, were long, slender and very motile and had a conspicuous glandular oesophagus. L3 from O. ramachandrini-microfilariae had a long glandular oesophagus (55% of total L3 length), a round head and measured an average of 955 microns long and 19.2 microns wide. L3 from the other microfilaria-species were shorter (845 microns, P < 0.001) and thinner (16.7 microns, P < 0.001) and had a shorter glandular oesophagus (36%, P < 0.001), a shorter tail (P < 0.01) and a conical head. Both L3-species, by their caudal tip, their long and slender silhouette, their great motility and their conspicuous glandular oesophagus resemble non-O. volvulus filarial L3 known, since many years, to occur in "wild" S. damnosum s.l. in Cameroon (Type D larvae, Duke, 1967) and in Liberia (Agamofilaria Type VI, Voelker and Garms, 1972). During our study, L3 such larvae were found in 12 wild S. damnosum s.l. from two geographically different areas of North Cameroon and all identified as O. ramachandrini. The excellent development of the two Onchocerca species from the wart hog in S. damnosum s.l. after artificial

  1. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods. PMID:23686667

  2. Using an international p53 mutation database as a foundation for an online laboratory in an upper level undergraduate biology class.

    PubMed

    Melloy, Patricia G

    2015-01-01

    A two-part laboratory exercise was developed to enhance classroom instruction on the significance of p53 mutations in cancer development. Students were asked to mine key information from an international database of p53 genetic changes related to cancer, the IARC TP53 database. Using this database, students designed several data mining activities to look at the changes in the p53 gene from a number of perspectives, including potential cancer-causing agents leading to particular changes and the prevalence of certain p53 variations in certain cancers. In addition, students gained a global perspective on cancer prevalence in different parts of the world. Students learned how to use the database in the first part of the exercise, and then used that knowledge to search particular cancers and cancer-causing agents of their choosing in the second part of the exercise. Students also connected the information gathered from the p53 exercise to a previous laboratory exercise looking at risk factors for cancer development. The goal of the experience was to increase student knowledge of the link between p53 genetic variation and cancer. Students also were able to walk a similar path through the website as a cancer researcher using the database to enhance bench work-based experiments with complementary large-scale database p53 variation information.

  3. Methods for rearing Mesostoma ehrenbergii in the laboratory for cell biology experiments, including identification of factors that influence production of different egg types.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Carina; Ferraro-Gideon, Jessica; Gauthier, Kimberley; Forer, Arthur

    2013-10-01

    Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes are uniquely useful to study various aspects of cell division. Their chromosomes are large in size and few in number, with only three bivalent and four univalent chromosomes. During prometaphase, bipolar bivalents oscillate regularly to and from the poles for 1-2 hours. The univalents remain at the poles but occasionally move from one pole to the other. In addition, a precocious cleavage furrow forms during prometaphase and remains partially constricted until anaphase. Attempts to rear these animals indefinitely in laboratory conditions, however, have been mostly unsuccessful because of their reproductive strategy. M. ehrenbergii are hermaphroditic flatworms that can produce viviparous offspring (termed S eggs) and/or diapausing eggs (termed D eggs) and they follow either one of two reproductive patterns: (1) they first form S eggs and following the delivery of these eggs produce D eggs, or (2) they only produce D eggs. When only D eggs are formed, which is common under laboratory conditions, the stocks die out until the D eggs hatch, which is irregular and creates unpredictable wait times. Consequently, in order to maintain M. ehrenbergii stocks to study their spermatocytes, we examined various factors that might influence egg-type production. Feeding them daily and keeping them at 25°C favours S egg production. Currently, our cultures have reached the 53rd generation. We herein describe our rearing and dissection methods, and some experiments which led to our present rearing methods.

  4. Laboratory exposure of Oreochromis niloticus to crude microcystins (containing microcystin-LR) extracted from Egyptian locally isolated strain (Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing): biological and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Mai D; Khairy, Hanan M; Ibrahim, Marwa A

    2012-06-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms exert negative impacts on fisheries and water management authorities. Recently, it has gained global attention, as elevated earth warming and environmental pollution are accelerating algal growth. Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus) is a worldwide and the most commonly cultured fish in Egypt. The biological interaction of the living organisms to the surrounding environment must continuously be assessed to predict future effects of the ongoing hazards on fish. The study was designed to examine the possible biological and biochemical response of O. niloticus exposed to different concentrations of microcystins crude extract (containing microcystin-LR). Three equal groups of O. niloticus were assigned for intraperitoneal injection of three different doses: 100, 200, and 400 μg m(-1) dried aqueous microcystins extract, for 10 days. Clinical, condition factor (K) and hepatosomatic index (HIS) were estimated. Biochemical alterations were evaluated via lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation assay and electrophoretic analysis of fragmented DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that there were discernible behavioral and clinical alterations. Significant differences in K and HIS were observed between treatments. Also, significant elevations were observed in lipid peroxidation level and in the DNA fragmentation percentage in the exposed fish to the doses of 200 and 400 μg m(-1) of microcystins crude extract. The current study addresses the possible toxic effects of microcystins crude extract to O. niloticus. The results cleared that microcystins crude extract (containing MC-LR) is toxic to O. niloticus in time- and dose-dependent manners.

  5. Spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections of aerosolized biological live agents and simulants using five excitation wavelengths in a BSL-3 laboratory.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong-Le; Hill, Steven C; Santarpia, Joshua L; Brinkley, Kelly; Sickler, Todd; Coleman, Mark; Williamson, Chatt; Gurton, Kris; Felton, Melvin; Pinnick, Ronald G; Baker, Neal; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hahn, Jerry; Smith, Emily; Alvarez, Ben; Prugh, Amber; Gardner, Warren

    2014-04-01

    A system for measuring spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections of single bioaerosol particles has been developed and employed in a biological safety level 3 (BSL-3) facility at Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC). It is used to aerosolize the slurry or solution of live agents and surrogates into dried micron-size particles, and to measure the fluorescence spectra and sizes of the particles one at a time. Spectrally-resolved fluorescence cross sections were measured for (1) bacterial spores: Bacillus anthracis Ames (BaA), B. atrophaeus var. globigii (BG) (formerly known as Bacillus globigii), B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk), B. anthracis Sterne (BaS); (2) vegetative bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pantoea agglomerans (Eh) (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola), Yersinia rohdei (Yr), Yersinia pestis CO92 (Yp); and (3) virus preparations: Venezuelan equine encephalitis TC83 (VEE) and the bacteriophage MS2. The excitation wavelengths were 266 nm, 273 nm, 280 nm, 365 nm and 405 nm.

  6. Investigation of the impacts of clearcutting, feral hogs, and white-tailed deer on the native vegetative resources of the Congaree Swamp National Monument (revised). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, L.E.; Barry, J.E.

    1992-07-27

    Vegetation surveys, large mammal exclosures, and acorn collections were used to study the effects of past cuttings, feral hogs, and deer on the continued presence of large, majestic oaks on the monument. Few oaks other than laurel oak remain in the harvested areas of the western half of the monument which are dominated by green ash and sweetgum. This species composition is very similar to that of the predisturbance condition, sweetgum-green ash-laurel oak, bottomland forest type. The scattered, remaining large oaks (cherrybark, Shumard, water and willow oak) have failed to reproduce adequately under the conditions created by the harvest practices. Lack of acorn production and seedling establishment rather than large mammal predation of oaks appear to be the primary factors in the decline of oaks in the disturbed areas.

  7. Effects of an intensive hog farming operation on groundwater in east Mediterranean (I): a study on electrical conductivity, as well as nitrogen and sulfur nutrients.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2014-12-01

    The discharge of treated animal wastewater produced in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on surface soil (within CAFOs borders) leads to groundwater degradation. In this research, groundwater degradation effects of an intensive hog farming operation, located in a Mediterranean area, were investigated. Treated animal wastewater was discharged on a small plot (~10.8 ha) with a geologic fault. Groundwater samples were taken from seven groundwater monitoring wells close to the farm. These wells were affected by the subsurface flow of waters, due to the presence of the geologic fault. In the summer, a significant increase of electrical conductivity values was noted in and attributed to falling water table levels. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and sulfate were noted and attributed to high precipitation, which assisted in the leaching of nitrogen and sulfur to groundwater.

  8. Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Stewart, Jill; Larsen, Jesper; Nachman, Keeve E; Love, Dave C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Strelitz, Jean; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. Methods Workers anticipating at least 24 h away from work were enrolled June–August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2–7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn. Results Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49 h; range >0–96 h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates. Conclusions Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. PMID:25200855

  9. Distribution of the Multidrug Resistance Gene cfr in Staphylococcus Isolates from Pigs, Workers, and the Environment of a Hog Market and a Slaughterhouse in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lin, Da-Chuan; Guo, Xiao-Mu; Wei, Hong-Kun; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Guo, Jian-Ying; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria harboring cfr, a multidrug resistance gene, have high prevalence in livestock in China and might be transmitted to humans through direct contact or via contaminated food products. To better understand the epidemiology of cfr producers in the food chain, the prevalence and genetic analysis of Staphylococcus isolates recovered from pigs, workers, and meat-handling facilities (a slaughterhouse and a hog market in Guangzhou, China) were examined. Twenty (4.5%) cfr-positive Staphylococcus isolates (18 Staphylococcus simulans, 1 S. cohnii, and 1 S. aureus) were derived from pigs (16/312), the environment (2/52), and workers (2/80). SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 26 staphylococcal strains (22 S. simulans and 4 S. cohnii), including previously reported cfr-carrying staphylococci of animal food origin, exhibited 19 major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns (A-S). Clonal spread of cfr-carrying staphylococci among pigs, workers, and meat products was detected. The genetic contexts of cfr in plasmids (pHNKF3, pHNZT2, and pHNCR35) obtained from S. simulans of swine or human origin were similar to that of Staphylococcus species isolated from human clinics and animal-derived food. The cfr-carrying S. aureus strain isolated from floor swabs of the hog market was spa-type t889 and belonged to the ST9 clonal lineage. In summary, both clonal spread and horizontal transmission via mobile elements contributed to cfr dissemination among staphylococcal isolates obtained from different sources. To monitor potential outbreaks of cfr-positive bacteria, continued surveillance of this gene in animals at slaughter and in animal-derived food is warranted.

  10. Mitochondria influence CDR1 efflux pump activity, Hog1-mediated oxidative stress pathway, iron homeostasis, and ergosterol levels in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Edwina; Roman, Elvira; Claypool, Steven; Manzoor, Nikhat; Pla, Jesús; Panwar, Sneh Lata

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in Candida albicans is known to be associated with drug susceptibility, cell wall integrity, phospholipid homeostasis, and virulence. In this study, we deleted CaFZO1, a key component required during biogenesis of functional mitochondria. Cells with FZO1 deleted displayed fragmented mitochondria, mitochondrial genome loss, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and were rendered sensitive to azoles and peroxide. In order to understand the cellular response to dysfunctional mitochondria, genome-wide expression profiling of fzo1Δ/Δ cells was performed. Our results show that the increased susceptibility to azoles was likely due to reduced efflux activity of CDR efflux pumps, caused by the missorting of Cdr1p into the vacuole. In addition, fzo1Δ/Δ cells showed upregulation of genes involved in iron assimilation, in iron-sufficient conditions, characteristic of iron-starved cells. One of the consequent effects was downregulation of genes of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway with a commensurate decrease in cellular ergosterol levels. We therefore connect deregulated iron metabolism to ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in response to dysfunctional mitochondria. Impaired activation of the Hog1 pathway in the mutant was the basis for increased susceptibility to peroxide and increase in reactive oxygen species, indicating the importance of functional mitochondria in controlling Hog1-mediated oxidative stress response. Mitochondrial phospholipid levels were also altered as indicated by an increase in phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine and decrease in phosphatidylcholine in fzo1Δ/Δ cells. Collectively, these findings reinforce the connection between functional mitochondria and azole tolerance, oxidant-mediated stress, and iron homeostasis in C. albicans.

  11. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  12. Quest to identify geochemical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in an endemic region of Sri Lanka-a multimedia laboratory analysis of biological, food, and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Levine, Keith E; Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Smith, Kristin; Munoz, Breda; Waduge, Vajira A; Periris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Harrington, James M; Womack, Donna S; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of a new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka's North Central Province (NCP) has become a catastrophic health crisis. CKDu is characterized as slowly progressing, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages and, importantly, not attributed to diabetes, hypertension, or other known risk factors. It is postulated that the etiology of CKDu is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, nutritional and dehydration status, exposure to one or more environmental nephrotoxins, and lifestyle factors. The objective of this limited geochemical laboratory analysis was to determine the concentration of a suite of heavy metals and trace element nutrients in biological samples (human whole blood and hair) and environmental samples (drinking water, rice, soil, and freshwater fish) collected from two towns within the endemic NCP region in 2012 and 2013. This broad panel, metallomics/mineralomics approach was used to shed light on potential geochemical risk factors associated with CKDu. Based on prior literature documentation of potential nephrotoxins that may play a role in the genesis and progression of CKDu, heavy metals and fluoride were selected for analysis. The geochemical concentrations in biological and environmental media areas were quantified. Basic statistical measurements were subsequently used to compare media against applicable benchmark values, such as US soil screening levels. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were detected at concentrations exceeding US reference values in many of the biological samples, suggesting that study participants are subjected to chronic, low-level exposure to these elements. Within the limited number of environmental media samples, arsenic was determined to exceed initial risk screening and background concentration values in soil, while data collected from drinking water samples reflected the unique hydrogeochemistry of the region, including the prevalence of hard or very hard water, and

  13. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  14. Biology 100-A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pensacola Junior Coll., FL.

    This publication is the course guide book for a one-semester, non-laboratory junior college course in biology. Included for each topic are lesson objectives, learning materials, and discussion ideas for seminar groups. Topics include the organization of life, heredity, reproduction, the meaning of biology to modern man, and homeostasis and…

  15. Thirty-sixth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements--from the field to the laboratory and back: the what ifs, wows, and who cares of radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Antone L

    2013-11-01

    My scientific journey started at the University of Utah chasing fallout. It was on everything, in everything, and was distributed throughout the ecosystem. This resulted in radiation doses to humans and caused me great concern. From this concern I asked the question, "Are there health effects from these radiation doses and levels of radioactive contamination?" I have invested my scientific career trying to address this basic question. While conducting research, I got acquainted with many of the What ifs of radiation biology. The major What if in my research was, "What if we have underestimated the radiation risk for internally-deposited radioactive material?" While conducting research to address this important question, many other What ifs came up related to dose, dose rate, and dose distribution. I also encountered a large number of Wows. One of the first was when I went from conducting environmental fallout studies to research in a controlled laboratory. The activity in fallout was expressed as pCi L⁻¹, whereas it was necessary to inject laboratory animals with μCi g⁻¹ body weight to induce measurable biological changes, chromosome aberrations, and cancer. Wow! That is seven to nine orders of magnitude above the activity levels found in the environment. Other Wows have made it necessary for the field of radiation biology to make important paradigm shifts. For example, one shift involved changing from "hit theory" to total tissue responses as the result of bystander effects. Finally, Who cares? While working at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters and serving on many scientific committees, I found that science does not drive regulatory and funding decisions. Public perception and politics seem to be major driving forces. If scientific data suggested that risk had been underestimated, everyone cared. When science suggested that risk had been overestimated, no one cared. This result-dependent Who cares? was demonstrated as we tried to generate interactions

  16. Biology Course Innovations: Remedial Science and Biology-at-Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Leonard F.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the objectives of remedial science instruction and provides a comparison of remedial and general biology courses in terms of hours of instruction, course credits, text assignments, tests, and laboratory exercises. Describes a biology-at-home course, which provides a laboratory kit, course syllabus, and study guide. (JP)

  17. Biological and life table parameters of Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans (Acari, Phytoseiidae) fed on Panonychus citri and pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Principato, Dennj; Jordà Palomero, Raoul; Lombardo, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0.55 day) on Oxalis pollen, whereas the two food types did not influence these parameters in T. laurentii. However, Oxalis pollen showed a positive effect on the survivorship of the latter phytoseiid, with a median life time (LT50) of 44.51 days, which was two times longer than that registered on prey with the same phytoseiid, and on both food types with I. degenerans. This latter species had a better performance on the pollen (rm = 0.243, λ = 1.275, Ro = 22.88, DT = 2.85) than on prey (rm = 0.182, λ = 1.199, Ro = 17.43, DT = 3.81). On the other hand, the pollen influenced the net reproductive rate (25.43 females/female) of T. laurentii positively but showed the same effect as the prey on the other demographic parameters. Our results improve knowledge on the feeding behaviour of the above mentioned phytoseiids on two food sources that could represent the main possibility to maintain a consistent population of these predators during winter. Moreover, both phytoseiids were shown to be good biocontrol candidates of P. citri populations.

  18. Biological and life table parameters of Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans (Acari, Phytoseiidae) fed on Panonychus citri and pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Principato, Dennj; Jordà Palomero, Raoul; Lombardo, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Typhlodromus laurentii and Iphiseius degenerans are two generalist phytoseiid mites, broadly spread in the Mediterranean area, especially in citrus orchards. In the present work we report results on various biological and life table parameters of the two phytoseiids, fed on pollen of Oxalis pes-caprae and various stages of the tetranychid Panonychus citri. Iphiseius degenerans had the shortest post embryonic development (6.53 days), the highest oviposition rate (1.83 eggs/female/day) and the shortest mean time between eggs laid (0.55 day) on Oxalis pollen, whereas the two food types did not influence these parameters in T. laurentii. However, Oxalis pollen showed a positive effect on the survivorship of the latter phytoseiid, with a median life time (LT50) of 44.51 days, which was two times longer than that registered on prey with the same phytoseiid, and on both food types with I. degenerans. This latter species had a better performance on the pollen (rm = 0.243, λ = 1.275, Ro = 22.88, DT = 2.85) than on prey (rm = 0.182, λ = 1.199, Ro = 17.43, DT = 3.81). On the other hand, the pollen influenced the net reproductive rate (25.43 females/female) of T. laurentii positively but showed the same effect as the prey on the other demographic parameters. Our results improve knowledge on the feeding behaviour of the above mentioned phytoseiids on two food sources that could represent the main possibility to maintain a consistent population of these predators during winter. Moreover, both phytoseiids were shown to be good biocontrol candidates of P. citri populations. PMID:27497592

  19. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  20. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  1. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  2. Wet- and dry-season steroid hormone profiles and stress reactivity of an insular dwarf snake, the Hog Island boa (Boa constrictor imperator).

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Dorr, Scott W; Pollock, Nicholas B; Muelleman, P J; Branske, Amber; Henningsen, Sloane N; Eikenaar, Cas; Escallón, Camilo; Montgomery, Chad E; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-01-01

    Field endocrine studies providing new comparisons for inference into the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping organismal physiology are important, often yielding novel physiological insights. Here, we explored factors associated with the sex steroid hormone concentrations and adrenocortical response to capture stress in Hog Island boas (Boa constrictor imperator) in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago of Honduras to generate comparative field hormone data from a tropical reptile and test the island tameness hypothesis. Baseline concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured during the wet and dry seasons, and an acute stressor of 1 h in a cloth bag was used to assess the stress response. Plasma steroid concentrations in these snakes were generally low in comparison to other taxa. Higher testosterone concentrations in males and higher estradiol and corticosterone concentrations in females were observed during the wet season compared to the dry season, which may be indicative of mating activities and vitellogenesis during this period. Snakes displayed a 15-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations in response to capture stress, a rise that was not impacted by whether a snake had been captured during previous years. The adrenocortical stress response was greater in males and positively related to body temperature. We suggest that this system merits future inquiries into the physiology and behavior of B. c. imperator, particularly as a model for studying insular impacts on diverse life history characters.

  3. Laboratory investigations in cell biology. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This text contains 18 lab projects that explore the structural, biochemical, and physiological nature of eukaryotic cells. Topics are largely traditional, however, several investigations employ new methodologies. Offers extended coverage of biochemistry. Materials have been selected for availability and ease of handling: e.g. Project 4 - extraction of DNA and RNA done with calf liver, Project 9 - succinate dehydrogenase activity studied in mitochondria isolated from cauliflower. There is more procedural detail than found in most lab manuals, negating the need for constant instructional details. And a variety of methodologies is introduced, such as Cytochemistry, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis, Cell Fractionation, silver staining of active sites of RNA transcription, and many more. Pages are perforated for collecting and grading.

  4. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  5. The Biological Sciences Collaboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Lansing, Carina S.

    2004-06-24

    Developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Biological Sciences Collaboratory (BSC) enables distributed biologists to carry out a full range of collaborative research activities. In contrast to more traditional tool-centric collaboratories, BSC enables the sharing of scientific data and analyses through diverse capabilities such as a data portal, project workspaces, analysis notes, data pedigree tracking, electronic laboratory notebooks, data translation services, external data source access and integration, and collaborative analysis. Overall, BSC strives to effectively capture and support the scientific context in which collaborations in biology takes place.

  6. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  7. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. The 2013 Discovery Award from the Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine: Selected Discoveries from the Butterfield Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Its Sequelae in Brain in Cognitive Disorders Exemplified by Alzheimer Disease and Chemotherapy Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, D. Allan

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective review on discoveries of the roles of oxidative stress in brain of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD) and animal models thereof as well as brain from animal models of chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (CICI) results from the author receiving the 2013 Discovery Award from the Society for Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The paper reviews our laboratory's discovery of: protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in AD brain regions rich in amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) but not in Aβ-poor cerebellum; redox proteomics as a means to identify oxidatively modified brain proteins in AD and its earlier forms that are consistent with the pathology, biochemistry, and clinical presentation of these disorders; how Aβ in in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies can lead to oxidative modification of key proteins that also are oxidatively modified in AD brain; the role of the single methionine residue of Aβ(1-42) in these processes; and some of the potential mechanisms in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. CICI affects a significant fraction of the 14 million American cancer survivors, and due to diminished cognitive function, reduced quality of life of the persons with CICI (called “chemobrain” by patients) often results. A proposed mechanism for CICI employed the prototypical ROS-generating and non-blood brain barrier (BBB)-penetrating chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox, also called adriamycin, ADR). Because of the quinone moiety within the structure of Dox, this agent undergoes redox cycling to produce superoxide free radical peripherally. This, in turn, leads to oxidative modification of the key plasma protein, Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1). Oxidized ApoA1 leads to elevated peripheral TNFα, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that crosses the BBB to induce oxidative stress in brain parenchyma that affects negatively brain mitochondria. This subsequently leads to apoptotic cell death resulting in CICI. This review outlines aspects of CICI consistent

  9. Geology of the Hog Mountain tonalite and associated lode gold deposits, Northern Alabama Piedmont: Final report for the 1986-1987 project year

    SciTech Connect

    Green, N.L.; Lesher, C.M.

    1988-02-01

    The Hog Mountain tonalite intrudes lower Paleozoic graphitic phyllites of the Wedowee formation and is transgressed by a series of planar, en echelon, bifurcating, auriferous quartz-sulfide veins with well-defined sericite-sulfide alteration envelopes. Least-altered tonalite is white, medium-grained, and weakly to non-foliated. It is characterized by moderately uniform distributions of quartz and oscillatory-normal zoned plagioclase (An/sub 7-41/), with minor amounts of biotite, muscovite, ilmenite, apatite, zircon and corroded garnet; K-feldspar is rare. Least-altered granitoids are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.15), exhibit significant major- and trace-element variations, are characterized by relatively low REE contents, and have moderately high /delta//sup 18/O (+9.7 to +11.2 %) and uniform /delta/D (-82 to -78 %) values. Biotite log (X/sub Mg//X/sub Fe/)-log(X/sub F//X/sub OH/) relations suggest contamination of an I-type granitic melt by graphitic metapelites. Corroded garnets (Pyr/sub 3/Alm/sub 55/Spess/sub 17/Gross/sub 25/) within the granitoids are chemically-similar to euhedral garnets in adjacent schists and in fine-grained, foliated plagioclase-biotite-muscovite-ilmenite xenoliths, and were probably derived from the metasedimentary host rocks. Equilibration conditions of the xenolith mineral assemblages (465-510/degree/C at ca. 6 kb), calculated using garnet-biotite-muscovite-plagioclase thermobarometry, are similar to inferred metamorphic P-T conditions of underthrusting of Wedowee metasediments to mid-crustal levels during Paleozoic crustal thickening. Observed chemical variations may be modeled by plagioclase/biotite-controlled fractionation of a peraluminous tonalitic melt, accompanied by local cumulus mineral-intercumulus liquid segregation and graphitic metapelite contamination during emplacement. 70 refs., 20 figs.

  10. LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

    THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

  11. Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  12. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  13. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  14. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  15. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  16. Teaching Biology to the Visually Impaired: Accommodating Students' Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womble, Mark D.; Walker, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how to teach a visually-oriented biology lecture and laboratory course to blind students. Using several techniques in the laboratory enabled a student to have a meaningful laboratory experience. (SAH)

  17. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Laboratory Tests Share Tweet Linkedin ... Approved Home and Lab Tests Find All In Vitro Diagnostic Products and Decision Summaries Since November 2003 ...

  18. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  19. Tropical Biological Drawings with Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, June A.

    The annotated illustrations of biological specimens useful for illustrating the "tropical" topics dealt with in African secondary school biology courses are designed to serve a two-fold purpose. The diagrams are intended to show the pupil the structures he should be looking for in his laboratory work, with the textual material being an addition to…

  20. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.