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Sample records for biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

  1. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a user's guide'' that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  2. Conceptual strategy for design, implementation, and validation of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1991-12-01

    This document describes a strategy for defining specific objectives for biomarker studies and for designing and implementing a biomonitoring study that focuses on these objectives. In researching this subject, it became clear to the authors that the subject of biomarkers created a great deal of interest among scientists and regulators but that general acceptance of biomarkers as a tool for environmental protection was hampered by lack of a clear notion of how to develop and apply this approach. We intend this document to be a ``user`s guide`` that lays out a logical scheme for applying biomarkers in environmental monitoring. In addition, laboratory and field research components needed to develop and validate fundamental understanding and interpretation of biomarker responses are also described, as is a strategy for evolution of a biomarker-based biomonitoring capability. The document is divided into sections intended to lead the reader to an understanding of how biomarkers can be developed and applied.

  3. A TASER conducted electrical weapon with cardiac biomonitoring capability: Proof of concept and initial human trial.

    PubMed

    Stopyra, Jason P; Ritter, Samuel I; Beatty, Jennifer; Johnson, James C; Kleiner, Douglas M; Winslow, James E; Gardner, Alison R; Bozeman, William P

    2016-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating the overall safety of Conducted Electrical Weapons (CEWs), commonly known by the brand name TASER(®), concerns remain regarding cardiac safety. The addition of cardiac biomonitoring capability to a CEW could prove useful and even lifesaving in the rare event of a medical crisis by detecting and analyzing cardiac rhythms during the period immediately after CEW discharge. To combine an electrocardiogram (ECG) device with a CEW to detect and store ECG signals while still allowing the CEW to perform its primary function of delivering an incapacitating electrical discharge. This work was performed in three phases. In Phase 1 standard law enforcement issue CEW cartridges were modified to demonstrate transmission of ECG signals. In Phase 2, a miniaturized ECG recorder was combined with a standard issue CEW and tested. In Phase 3, a prototype CEW with on-board cardiac biomonitoring was tested on human volunteers to assess its ability to perform its primary function of electrical incapacitation. Bench testing demonstrated that slightly modified CEW cartridge wires transmitted simulated ECG signals produced by an ECG rhythm generator and from a human volunteer. Ultimately, a modified CEW incorporating ECG monitoring successfully delivered incapacitating current to human volunteers and successfully recorded ECG signals from subcutaneous CEW probes after firing. An ECG recording device was successfully incorporated into a standard issue CEW without impeding the functioning of the device. This serves as proof-of-concept that safety measures such as cardiac biomonitoring can be incorporated into CEWs and possibly other law enforcement devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of dry and living Sphagnum palustre moss samples in determining their biocumulative capability as biomonitoring tools.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Karolina; Astel, Aleksander; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan; Biziuk, Marek; Bode, Peter; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    Dry and living Sphagnum palustre moss samples were compared in parallel in order to study their biocumulative capability as biomonitoring tools. The two biomonitoring forms were used and compared to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of both preparation approaches and to choose the most suitable tool. The study was performed in an urban area to identify the main pollution sources. Cluster Analysis and Principal Components Analysis were used in order to identify specific element profiles attributed to various sources impacting both dry and living plant composition. A large number of tracer elements were initially tested by multivariate statistical data treatment but it turned out that a much smaller number of them could be used in modeling. Consequently, future monitoring can be performed using fewer tracers without losing significant information. Environmetric results were compared with absolute concentration levels of the indicated tracer elements and also compared at various locations. The contribution of pollution sources to the total concentration of elements in biomonitors was determined.

  5. BIOMONITORING USING AQUATIC VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  6. BIOMONITORING USING AQUATIC VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of the state-of-the-science as related to the phytoassessment techniques used in environmental biomonitoring and the hazard assessment process for chemicals. The emphasis is on freshwater angiosperms and bryophytes. Algal species, which are prese...

  7. Biomonitoring Equivalents for selenium.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2014-10-01

    Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health with a narrow range between essentiality and toxicity. Selenium is incorporated into several proteins that perform important functions in the body. With insufficient selenium intake, the most notable effect is Keshan disease, an endemic cardiomyopathy in children. Conversely, excessive selenium intake can result in selenosis, manifested as brittle nails and hair and gastro-intestinal disorders. As such, guidance values have been established to protect against both insufficient and excessive selenium exposures. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been established as standard reference values for nutritional adequacy in North America. To protect against selenosis resulting from exposure to excessive amounts of selenium, several government and non-governmental agencies have established a range of guidance values. Exposure to selenium is primarily through the diet, but monitoring selenium intake is difficult. Biomonitoring is a useful means of assessing and monitoring selenium status for both insufficient and excessive exposures. However, to be able to interpret selenium biomonitoring data, levels associated with both DRIs and toxicity guidance values are required. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were developed for selenium in whole blood, plasma and urine. The BEs associated with assuring adequate selenium intake (Estimated Average Requirements - EAR) are 100, 80 and 10μg/L in whole blood, plasma and urine, respectively. The BEs associated with protection against selenosis range from 400 to 480μg/L in whole blood, 180-230μg/L in plasma, and 90-110μg/L in urine. These BE values can be used by both regulatory agencies and public health officials to interpret selenium biomonitoring data in a health risk context.

  8. Biomonitoring Equivalents for molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Hays, Sean M; Macey, Kristin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Lu, Ming; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L

    2016-06-01

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element for mammalian, plant, and other animal systems. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has established an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) to assure sufficient molybdenum intakes for human populations; however excessive exposures can cause toxicity. As a result, several agencies have established exposure guidance values to protect against molybdenum toxicity, including a Reference Dose (RfD), Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) and a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Biomonitoring for molybdenum in blood or urine in the general population is being conducted by the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Using pharmacokinetic data from controlled human dosing studies, Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) were calculated for molybdenum in plasma, whole blood, and urine associated with exposure guidance values set to protect against both nutritional deficits and toxicity. The BEEAR values in plasma, whole blood and urine are 0.5, 0.45 and 22 μg/L, respectively. The BEs associated with toxicity range from 0.9 to 31 μg/L in plasma, 0.8-28 μg/L in whole blood and 200-7500 μg/L in urine. These values can be used to interpret molybdenum biomonitoring data from a nutritional and toxicity perspective. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network

    Treesearch

    Chris Jones; Brian Craig; Nicole Dmytrow

    2006-01-01

    Canada’s Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada (Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network) are developing an aquatic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring network for Ontario’s lakes, streams, and wetlands. We are building the program, called the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), on the principles of partnership, free data sharing, and...

  10. Biomonitoring equivalents for deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Lesa L; Krishnan, Kannan; Kirman, Christopher R; Nong, Andy; Hays, Sean M

    2011-07-01

    Measured concentrations of chemicals in blood or urine in biomonitoring studies provide an integrated reflection of exposures to chemicals via multiple routes and pathways. The potential significance of the measured concentrations of chemicals in the context of existing toxicology data and risk assessments can be assessed if chemical-specific quantitative screening criteria are available. This work presents the derivation of Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for deltamethrin, a synthetic Type II pyrethroid. BEs are estimates of biomarker concentrations that are consistent with risk assessment-based exposure guidance values such as reference doses or acceptable daily intakes. BE values were derived for deltamethrin based on two biomarkers: deltamethrin in plasma and 3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DBCA), a specific metabolite, in urine. BE values for deltamethrin in plasma were based on extrapolation from measured deltamethrin concentrations in plasma in rats under conditions consistent with the Point of Departure in the critical study underlying the USEPA RfD. BE values for DBCA in urine were derived based on pharmacokinetic data from a study in human volunteers on the urinary excretion of deltamethrin and metabolites. BE values for deltamethrin in plasma corresponding to the USEPA RfD for adults and children are 20 and 2μg/L, respectively. BE values for DBCA in urine corresponding to the adult and child-specific RfDs are 50 and 7μg/L, respectively. The urinary BE value corresponding to the ADI established by the European Commission and the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues is 60μg/L (as DBCA in urine). These values can be used to screen biomonitoring data in the context of current risk assessments for detlamethrin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BIOMONITORING OF EXPOSURE IN FARMWORKER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though biomonitoring has been used in many occupational and environmental health and exposure studies, we are only beginning to understand the complexities and uncertainties involved with the biomonitoring process -- from study design, to sample collection, to chemical analysis -...

  12. BIOMONITORING OF EXPOSURE IN FARMWORKER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though biomonitoring has been used in many occupational and environmental health and exposure studies, we are only beginning to understand the complexities and uncertainties involved with the biomonitoring process -- from study design, to sample collection, to chemical analysis -...

  13. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  14. [Biomonitoring pesticides: a national need?].

    PubMed

    Ríos B, Juan Carlos; Solari G, Sandra

    2010-04-01

    The word biomarker is being used more frequently during the last decade. Currently, a great amount of research is directed to fnd toxicological biomarkers for several different chemical substances, since persons are more exposed now than decades before. For this reason, it is important to perform a biomonitoring of such substances in order to assess the possibility that low quantities could cause health problems. Obtaining toxicological values through biomonitoring is also useful to control the exposure. The markers of poisoning by chemicals available worldwide are numerous, but unfortunately in Chile only a few are being used. It is essential to have more toxicology and environmental laboratories to test the levels of exposure of our population.

  15. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1995-07-01

    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  16. Identifying Chemical Groups for Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Krowech, Gail; Hoover, Sara; Plummer, Laurel; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Regulatory agencies face daunting challenges identifying emerging chemical hazards because of the large number of chemicals in commerce and limited data on exposure and toxicology. Evaluating one chemical at a time is inefficient and can lead to replacement with uncharacterized chemicals or chemicals with structural features already linked to toxicity. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has developed a process for constructing and assessing chemical groups for potential biomonitoring in California. We screen for chemicals with significant exposure potential and propose possible chemical groups, based on structure and function. To support formal consideration of these groups by Biomonitoring California’s Scientific Guidance Panel, we conduct a detailed review of exposure and toxicity data and examine the likelihood of detection in biological samples. To date, 12 chemical groups have been constructed and added to the pool of chemicals that can be selected for Biomonitoring California studies, including p,p´-bisphenols, brominated and chlorinated organic compounds used as flame retardants, non-halogenated aromatic phosphates, and synthetic polycyclic musks. Evaluating chemical groups, rather than individual chemicals, is an efficient way to respond to shifts in chemical use and the emergence of new chemicals. This strategy can enable earlier identification of important chemicals for monitoring and intervention. PMID:27905275

  17. Use of fauna as biomonitors

    SciTech Connect

    Carlile, D.W.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1983-08-01

    Five criteria by which to evaluate the suitability of faunal species as biomonitors are proffered. The criteria which should be considered include: species response to environmental condition, distribution of species, cost of biomonitoring, precision of measurements and ease of maintaining a monitoring system. As an example, the criteria are used in assessing the utility of using nesting Great Blue Herons as biomonitors of fate and effects of environmental contaminants. Emphasis is placed on a method of determining optimal sampling based on cost and precision of measurements of environmental condition. Heron excreta, collected from nine colonies throughout the arid, Mid-Columbia region of Washington, was analyzd to determine levels of specific pollutants. Analyses of variance components were conducted and estimates of within and among-colony variance in levels of selected pollutants are provided. From such variance estimates, numbers of colonies and samples within colonies needed to obtain precise estimates of pollutant levels are determined. The costs of each aspect of sampling are accounted for and are incorporated into a cost function to estimate the cost of sampling. Costs associated specifically with colonies and those attributed to samples within colonies are related to estimates of among and within-colony variation in pollutant levels. This enables determination of the most cost-effective allocation of sampling effort. This method of associating precision and cost is also applied to counts of fledglings for assessment of effects.

  18. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    Much like the caged canary used by miners, a plethora of wildlife species have been promoted as biomonitors of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants in the environment. Species promoted as useful biomonitors share many common life history characters, such as wide distribution, territorial, non-...

  19. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women.

  20. STRATEGIC BIOMONITORING INITIATIVES: MOVING THE SCIENCE FORWARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring programs in the United States and Europe demonstrate the vast array of data that are publicly available for the evaluation of exposure trends, identification of susceptible populations, detection of emerging chemical risks, the conduct of epidemiology studies, and ...

  1. Biomonitoring Methods for Drinking Water Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    aquatic biomonitor continuously monitors water at fixed facilities such as water treatment plants by identifying changes in fish ventilatory and...for use in rear areas and at fixed Army facilities such as water treatment plants . To decrease the size, weight, and logistic requirements of the...conjunction with one of the two sets of eight fish in the biomonitor at the Fort Detrick water treatment plant ; the other set of eight fish was exposed

  2. Biomonitoring in the Era of the Exposome

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Kristine K.; Marder, Elizabeth; Balshaw, David M.; Cui, Yuxia; Lynes, Michael A.; Patti, Gary J.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Shaughnessy, Daniel T.; Vrijheid, Martine; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term “exposome” was coined in 2005 to underscore the importance of the environment to human health and to bring research efforts in line with those on the human genome. The ability to characterize environmental exposures through biomonitoring is key to exposome research efforts. Objectives: Our objectives were to describe why traditional and nontraditional (exposomic) biomonitoring are both critical in studies aiming to capture the exposome and to make recommendations on how to transition exposure research toward exposomic approaches. We describe the biomonitoring needs of exposome research and approaches and recommendations that will help fill the gaps in the current science. Discussion: Traditional and exposomic biomonitoring approaches have key advantages and disadvantages for assessing exposure. Exposomic approaches differ from traditional biomonitoring methods in that they can include all exposures of potential health significance, whether from endogenous or exogenous sources. Issues of sample availability and quality, identification of unknown analytes, capture of nonpersistent chemicals, integration of methods, and statistical assessment of increasingly complex data sets remain challenges that must continue to be addressed. Conclusions: To understand the complexity of exposures faced throughout the lifespan, both traditional and nontraditional biomonitoring methods should be used. Through hybrid approaches and the integration of emerging techniques, biomonitoring strategies can be maximized in research to define the exposome. Citation: Dennis KK, Marder E, Balshaw DM, Cui Y, Lynes MA, Patti GJ, Rappaport SM, Shaughnessy DT, Vrijheid M, Barr DB. 2017. Biomonitoring in the era of the exposome. Environ Health Perspect 125:502–510; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP474 PMID:27385067

  3. HOW CAN BIOMONITORING INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT? PERMETHRIN A CASE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool for understanding the linkages between external chemical exposures, internal doses and potential health outcomes in humans. In recent years, there has been an explosion of available human biomonitoring data from scientists.

  4. Clinical trial designs for testing biomarker-based personalized therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip W; Shih, Mei-Chiung I; Sikic, Branimir I

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in molecular therapeutics in the past decade have opened up new possibilities for treating cancer patients with personalized therapies, using biomarkers to determine which treatments are most likely to benefit them, but there are difficulties and unresolved issues in the development and validation of biomarker-based personalized therapies. We develop a new clinical trial design to address some of these issues. The goal is to capture the strengths of the frequentist and Bayesian approaches to address this problem in the recent literature and to circumvent their limitations. Methods We use generalized likelihood ratio tests of the intersection null and enriched strategy null hypotheses to derive a novel clinical trial design for the problem of advancing promising biomarker-guided strategies toward eventual validation. We also investigate the usefulness of adaptive randomization (AR) and futility stopping proposed in the recent literature. Results Simulation studies demonstrate the advantages of testing both the narrowly focused enriched strategy null hypothesis related to validating a proposed strategy and the intersection null hypothesis that can accommodate to a potentially successful strategy. AR and early termination of ineffective treatments offer increased probability of receiving the preferred treatment and better response rates for patients in the trial, at the expense of more complicated inference under small-to-moderate total sample sizes and some reduction in power. Limitations The binary response used in the development phase may not be a reliable indicator of treatment benefit on long-term clinical outcomes. In the proposed design, the biomarker-guided strategy (BGS) is not compared to ‘standard of care’, such as physician’s choice that may be informed by patient characteristics. Therefore, a positive result does not imply superiority of the BGS to ‘standard of care’. The proposed design and tests are valid asymptotically

  5. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrault, S.; Clocchiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Michel, A.; Gaudry, A.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    The atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals were measured continuously in the Paris area. The dry depositions were collected on quartz fiber filters, after comparison between clogging capacities and blank levels on commercial filters. Rain was collected in a polyethylene gauge. Two transplanted biomonitors, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri, and the pleurocarpeous moss Scleropodium purum, were exposed simultaneously. These two common biomonitors have been used in previous passive biomonitoring campaigns [Galsomies 1999, Grasso 1999]. This work attempts to produce data on heavy metal exposure of this populated area near Paris, and to compare these two cryptogamic species behaviour. The results on bioaccumulation were compared to those given by a previous work in Italy [Bargagli, 2002] comparing the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the lichen Parmelia caperata. In our study, the transplanted lichens were exposed in different conditions: to the rain or protected from rain, in vertical, horizontal or oblique position. Dry (filters) and wet (rain) depositions and biomonitors were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for more than 30elements [Ayrault, 2001]. The individual particle composition (on filters and cryptogams) was determined by nuclear microprobe (PIXE) and electron microprobe. The lichens displayed different accumulation rates, depending on exposition conditions. In particular, the inclination influenced the bulk concentrations in the lichen. Relation was made between fluxes and concentration accumulated by the biomonitors. The enrichment factors were spectacular for some elements, e.g. lead.

  6. Interpreting NHANES biomonitoring data, cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Osterloh, John; Fisher, Jeffrey; Fowler, Bruce A

    2010-09-15

    Cadmium (Cd) occurs naturally in the environment and the general population's exposure to it is predominantly through diet. Chronic Cd exposure is a public health concern because Cd is a known carcinogen; it accumulates in the body and causes kidney damage. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) has measured urinary Cd; the 2003-2004 NHANES survey cycle reported estimates for 2257 persons aged 6 years and older in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors we re-coded a cadmium model in Berkeley Madonna simulation language. This model was used in our computational toxicology laboratory to predict the urinary excretion of cadmium. The model simulated the NHANES-measured data very well from ages 6 to 60+ years. An unusual increase in Cd urinary excretion was observed among 6-11-year-olds, followed by a continuous monotonic rise into the seventh decade of life. This observation was also made in earlier studies that could be life stage-related and a function of anatomical and phsysiological changes occurring during this period of life. Urinary excretion of Cd was approximately twofold higher among females than males in all age groups. The model describes Cd's cumulative nature in humans and accommodates the observed variation in exposure/uptake over the course of a lifetime. Such models may be useful for interpreting biomonitoring data and risk assessment.

  7. Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective electrochemical (EC) sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50uL) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next-generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This manuscript highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed. PMID:19018275

  8. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry.

  9. Temporal Insights on Biomarker-Based Climate Records (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenzek, N.; Stanley, R. H.; Santos, G. M.; Southon, J. R.; Druffel, E. R.; Montlucon, D.; Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    on maximizing the resolution of biomarker-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  10. WHAT DOES BIOMONITORING REALLY TELL US?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January, 2003, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control released the 2nd National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, a "report card" of biomonitoring information for 116 synthetic chemicals and their metabolites, in addition to the 27 chemicals reported on in 20...

  11. APPLICATIONS OF AUTOMATED BIOMONITORING FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over three decades of progress have been made since John Cairns and his associates first coined a new scientific endeavor known as automated biomonitoring. Implementations have ranged from designs for early warning of toxicity in wastewater discharges using fish as sensors, to co...

  12. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  13. WHAT DOES BIOMONITORING REALLY TELL US?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In January, 2003, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control released the 2nd National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, a "report card" of biomonitoring information for 116 synthetic chemicals and their metabolites, in addition to the 27 chemicals reported on in 20...

  14. APPLICATIONS OF AUTOMATED BIOMONITORING FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over three decades of progress have been made since John Cairns and his associates first coined a new scientific endeavor known as automated biomonitoring. Implementations have ranged from designs for early warning of toxicity in wastewater discharges using fish as sensors, to co...

  15. Interpreting biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Update to Biomonitoring Equivalents and population biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M

    2015-12-01

    Urinary biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) reflect aggregate population exposures to trace 2,4-D residues in diet and the environment. These data can be interpreted in the context of current risk assessments by comparison to a Biomonitoring Equivalent (BE), which is an estimate of the average biomarker concentration consistent with an exposure guidance value such as the US EPA Reference Dose (RfD). BE values are updated here from previous published BE values to reflect a change in the US EPA RfD. The US EPA RfD has been updated to reflect a revised point of departure (POD) based on new information from additional toxicological studies and updated assessment of applicable uncertainty factors. In addition, new biomonitoring data from both the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) have been published. The updated US EPA chronic RfD of 0.21 mg/kg-d results in updated BE values of 10,500 and 7000 μg/L for adults and children, respectively. Comparison of the current population-representative data to these BE values shows that upper bound population biomarker concentrations are more than 5000-fold below BE values corresponding to the updated US EPA RfD. This biomonitoring-based risk assessment supports the conclusion that current use patterns in the US and Canada result in incidental exposures in the general population that can be considered negligible in the context of the current 2,4-D risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human biomonitoring in Israel: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Berman, Tamar; Amitai, Yona; Almog, Shlomo; Richter, Elihu D

    2012-02-01

    The first human biomonitoring (HBM) studies in Israel in the 1970s and 80s focused on measuring exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides in the general population and organophosphate pesticides in agricultural workers. In the late 1990 s, a regional human biomonitoring study found differences in blood lead levels in children from Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority. Taken together with data on time trends in lead emissions in Israel, the study indicated the benefits from phasing out of leaded gasoline. More recently, a pilot study in pregnant women in Jerusalem, conducted in collaboration with the US-CDC, found widespread exposure to phthalates, organophosphate pesticides, and the carbamate bendiocarb. Creatinine-adjusted total dimethyl (DM) metabolite concentrations were between 4 and 6 times higher than populations of pregnant women in the United States. The Israel Ministry of Health is currently collaborating with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Al Quds University to study exposures to phthalates and organophosphates in pregnant women in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The Israel Ministry of Health has also begun the first National Biomonitoring Study to measure exposures to bisphenol A, phthalates, organophosphates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein, and cotinine in the Israeli adult population. This study is being carried out in collaboration with the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg in Germany. Until recently, HBM programs in Israel were targeted at selected occupational groups (workers potentially exposed to metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and cholinesterase inhibitors) and naval divers potentially exposed to environmental contaminants. The future of HBM in Israel lies in extending such programs to measuring exposures in representative samples of the general population, increasing international collaboration in this field, developing analytical capacity

  17. Microanalyzer for biomonitoring lead (Pb) in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Charles; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. State-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments can only analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turnaround times, and they are expensive. In response to the growing need for a metal analyzer capable of on-site, real-time monitoring of trace toxic metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/stripping voltammetry (ASV), and validated the system using rat blood and urine spiked with known amounts of Pb. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with suitable sample pretreatment and by establishing turbulent flow of blood and urine containing Pb onto the electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. No matrix effect was observed for the voltammetric Pb signals, even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration ranges relevant to Pb exposure levels in humans (0-20 ppb in 10% blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50% urine samples). The device showed excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.44 ppb and 0.46 ppb, and % R.S.D. was 4.9 and 2.4 in 50% urine and 10% blood samples, respectively. It gave similar Pb concentrations in blood and urine to those measured by ICP-MS. It offered high throughput (3 min per sample) and economical use of samples (60 microL per measurement) as well as low reagent consumption (1 microg of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing environmental concerns associated with mercury use. Since it is miniaturized, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it shows much promise as the next-generation analyzer for the biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  18. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Bio-Monitoring of Ozone by Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    An educational pilot project on the bio-monitoring of air quality was carried out in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. It involved about 1000 young students (ages 4 to 16) from 42 schools of 16 municipalities in active biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone with bio-indicator sensitive tobacco seedlings. Some 6500 raw biological readings were used…

  20. INTEGRATION OF BIOMONITORING EXPOSURE DATA INTO THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved biomonitoring techniques are being used to measure very low levels of environmental chemicals in the tissues of adults and children. Public and private demand for biomonitoring data are on the increase worldwide. In the United States alone, government-sponsored programs...

  1. Bio-Monitoring of Ozone by Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    An educational pilot project on the bio-monitoring of air quality was carried out in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. It involved about 1000 young students (ages 4 to 16) from 42 schools of 16 municipalities in active biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone with bio-indicator sensitive tobacco seedlings. Some 6500 raw biological readings were used…

  2. INTEGRATION OF BIOMONITORING EXPOSURE DATA INTO THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved biomonitoring techniques are being used to measure very low levels of environmental chemicals in the tissues of adults and children. Public and private demand for biomonitoring data are on the increase worldwide. In the United States alone, government-sponsored programs...

  3. BATTLE: Biomarker-Based Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Waun Ki Hong, M.D...M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX 77030 REPORT DATE: April...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BATTLE: Biomarker-Based Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Elimination 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  4. Biomonitoring for Improving Alcohol Consumption Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess alcohol consumption levels in large populations, researchers often rely on self-report measures. However, these approaches are associated with several limitations, particularly underreporting. Use of noninvasive biomonitoring approaches may help validate self-report alcohol consumption measurements and thus improve their accuracy. Two such devices currently are available, the WrisTAS™ and SCRAM™ devices, both of which measure alcohol vapors emitted through the skin after alcohol consumption. Several studies assessing the utility of the WrisTAS™ bracelet in determining alcohol consumption levels noted that it was associated with relatively high failure rates. The SCRAM™ is an ankle bracelet intended for court-ordered alcohol monitoring. In studies, its sensitivity exceeded that of the WrisTAS™ and increased with increasing blood alcohol concentrations. Although early studies also identified some equipment concerns with the SCRAM™, studies of its ability to detect moderate and heavy drinking recently have yielded good results. Biomonitoring devices already are valuable tools and with further improvements may become even more useful in both research and practical applications. PMID:26258999

  5. Weakly electric fish for biomonitoring water quality.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Juergen; van Wijk, Roeland; Albrecht, Henning

    2012-06-01

    Environmental pollution is a major issue that calls for suitable monitoring systems. The number of possible pollutants of municipal and industrial water grows annually as new chemicals are developed. Technical devices for pollutant detection are constructed in a way to detect a specific and known array of pollutants. Biological systems react to lethal or non-lethal environmental changes without pre-adjustment, and a wide variety have been employed as broad-range monitors for water quality. Weakly electric fish have proven particularly useful for the purpose of biomonitoring municipal and industrial waters. The frequency of their electric organ discharges directly correlates with the quality of the surrounding water and, in this way, concentrations of toxicants down to the nanomolar range have been successfully detected by these organisms. We have reviewed the literature on biomonitoring studies to date, comparing advantages and disadvantages of this test system and summarizing the lowest concentrations of various toxicants tested. Eighteen publications were identified investigating 35 different chemical substances and using six different species of weakly electric fish.

  6. Hg localisation in Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae), an atmospheric biomonitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado Filho, G. M.; Andrade, L. R.; Farina, M.; Malm, O.

    The Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides, has been applied as an atmospheric biomonitor of Hg contamination, although the mechanism of metal plant accumulation has not been understood until now. In the present work, analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to localize Hg in T. usneoides exposed to a Hg-air-contaminated area during 15 days. After this period, Hg was determined by the flow injection mercury system, and plants were prepared for SEM observation and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A concentration of 2702±318 μg Hg g -1 was determined in exposed plants. The presented microanalytical results demonstrated that Hg was partly associated with atmospheric particles deposited upon the plant surface, but it was highly absorbed by the scales, stem and leaves surfaces and less absorbed by epidermal cells of T. usneoides. No Hg was detected in mesophyll parenchyma or in vascular system cells. The great surface adsorption area provided by the scales, in addition to the characteristics of T. usneoides morphology, especially of the node region, are suggested to confer the great capability of T. usneoides in Hg holding.

  7. HUMAN BIOMONITORING TO LINK ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract and presentation on Human Biomonitoring to Link Environmental Exposure to Biologically Relevant Dose describes the use of biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of current health state, and biomarker measurements. The abstract and presentation focuses on how biomarkers ...

  8. Biomonitoring - An Exposure Science Tool for Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring studies of environmental stressors are useful for confirming exposures, estimating dose levels, and evaluating human health risks. However, the complexities of exposure-biomarker and biomarker-response relationships have limited the use of biomarkers in exposure sc...

  9. Biomonitoring - An Exposure Science Tool for Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring studies of environmental stressors are useful for confirming exposures, estimating dose levels, and evaluating human health risks. However, the complexities of exposure-biomarker and biomarker-response relationships have limited the use of biomarkers in exposure sc...

  10. USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. Extended abstract will also be translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  11. USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. Extended abstract will also be translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  12. HISTORY OF BIOMONITORING IN THE UNITED STATES - EXTENDED ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring of ecological systems has a long history dating back several centuries when high levels of industrial and urban pollution caused discolored rivers, noxious smells, fish kills, and other obvious indicators of ecosystem dysfunction. As a result, significant environmen...

  13. A Biomonitoring Framework to Support Exposure and Risk Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background - Biomonitoring is used in exposure and risk assessments to reduce uncertainties along the source-to-outcome continuum. Specifically, biomarkers can help identify exposure sources, routes, and distributions, and reflect kinetic and dynamic processes following exposure ...

  14. HISTORY OF BIOMONITORING IN THE UNITED STATES - EXTENDED ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring of ecological systems has a long history dating back several centuries when high levels of industrial and urban pollution caused discolored rivers, noxious smells, fish kills, and other obvious indicators of ecosystem dysfunction. As a result, significant environmen...

  15. Human biomonitoring: research goals and needs.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, W A; Collman, G; Damstra, T

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have taken advantage of a number of strategies to monitor human populations for mortality, incidence, and exposure to hazardous environmental agents. These studies have been compromised by the lack of individual exposure assessment data that precisely quantified internal dose. As methods improve in analytical chemistry and molecular biology, direct biological monitoring of exposed populations is possible. Biomarkers have been developed and validated in exposed populations that quantify individual exposure, susceptibility, and early markers of health effects and can be used to study relationships between exposures and environmentally induced diseases. This paper provides background on the state of the art of human populations monitoring and, through a series of case studies, provides examples of novel biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect that highlight new opportunities for biomonitoring. Prevention of human disease due to environmental contaminants can be accomplished by implementing strategies such as those discussed to monitor exposure and early health effects in human populations. PMID:8781368

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem biomonitoring at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Matiatos, D.; Seery, D.; Hetrick, M.; Griess, J.; Henry, C.; Vaughn, S.; Miesner, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1987 the Fish and Wildlife Service became actively involved in wildlife population monitoring at the Arsenal because of the discovery of a bald eagle roost on the site. Since that time the Service has conducted or funded a variety of investigations to inventory the wildlife species present at the Arsenal and determine their population status. As time progressed and as a result of the passage of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge legislation in 1992, the Service developed a biomonitoring strategy to determine the current effects of contaminants on terrestrial wildlife resources at the Arsenal and evaluate the efficacy of remediation to ensure the protection and restoration of wildlife resources at the future refuge. This poster will present an overview of the species being studied, measurement and assessment endpoints, strategies, and methods being used by the Service to assess wildlife health as it relates to contaminant exposure.

  17. Biomonitoring test procedures and biological criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Lipschultz, M.J.; Foster, W.E.

    1997-10-01

    The Water Environment Federation recently issued a special publication, Biomonitoring in the Water Environment. In this paper, the authors highlight the contents of the chapter 3, Biomonitoring Test Procedures, identify current trends in test procedures and introduce the concept of biological criteria (biocriteria). The book chapter (and this paper) focuses on freshwater and marine chronic and acute toxicity tests used in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits program to identify effluents and receiving waters containing toxic materials in acutely or chronically toxic concentrations. The two major categories of toxicity tests include acute tests and chronic tests. The USEPA chronic tests required in NPDEs permits have been shortened to 7 days by focusing on the most sensitive life-cycle stages; these tests are often referred to as short-term chronic tests. The type of test(s) required depend on NPDES permit requirements, objectives of the test, available resources, requirements of the test organisms, and effluent characteristics such as variability in flow or toxicity. The permit writer will determine the requirements for toxicity test(s) by considering such factors as dilution, effluent variability, and exposure variability. Whether the required test is acute or chronic, the objective of the test is to estimate the safe or no effect concentration which is defined as the concentration which will permit normal propagation of fish and other aquatic life in the receiving waters. In this paper, the authors review the types of toxicity tests, the commonly used test organisms, and the uses of toxicity test data. In addition, they briefly describe research on new methods and the use of biological criteria.

  18. Ethics in biomonitoring for occupational health.

    PubMed

    Manno, M; Sito, F; Licciardi, L

    2014-12-01

    Biological monitoring, i.e., the use of biomarkers for the measurement of systemic human exposure, effects and susceptibility to chemicals has increased considerably in recent years. Biomonitoring techniques, originally limited to a few metals and other chemicals in the workplace, are currently applied to a large number of exposure situations and have become a useful tool for occupational and environmental health risk assessment. Almost any biomonitoring program, however, entails a number of relevant ethical issues, which concern all the phases of the entire process, from the selection of the biomarker to the study design, from the collection, storage and analysis of the biological sample to the interpretation, communication and management of the results, from the (truly?) informed consent of the worker to the independence and autonomy of the occupational health professional. These issues require a balanced assessment of the interests and responsibilities of all the parties, the worker primarily, but also the employer, the occupational health professional, the health authorities and, for research studies on new biomarkers, also the scientists involved. Ideally, decisions of ethical relevance concerning biomarkers should be based on, and respectful of the best scientific, legal and ethical evidence available. When, however, a conflict should arise, before any decision is taken a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be done, at the beginning of the process and after listening to the workers and the management involved, by the occupational physician or scientist, based on his/her professional experience, independent judgement and individual responsibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P B; Sepai, O; Lawrence, R; Autrup, H; Sabro Nielsen, P; Vestergård, A B; Waters, R; Leuratti, C; Jones, N J; Stone, J; Baan, R A; van Delft, J H; Steenwinkel, M J; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Souliotis, V L; Theodorakopoulos, N; Bacalis, N C; Natarajan, A T; Tates, A D; Haugen, A; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Shuker, D E; Amaning, K S; Castelain, P

    1996-07-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical sources to larger amounts of some of the genotoxic compounds present in the environmental samples were used as positive controls for the environmentally exposed population. Samples from rural areas were used as negative controls. The project has led to new, more sensitive and more selective approaches for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers exposed to ethylene oxide in a sterilization plant. Dose reponse and adduct repair were studied for methylated adducts in patients treated with methylating cytostatic drugs

  20. US EPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATOR CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  1. USEPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATORS CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  2. USEPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATOR CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring...

  3. USEPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATOR CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring...

  4. US EPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATOR CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  5. USEPA BIOMONITORING AND BIOINDICATORS CONCEPTS NEEDED TO EVALUATE THE BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter presents the current uses, concepts and anticipated future directions of biomonitoring and bioindicators in the regulatory and research programs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The chapter provides a historical look on how biomonitoring ...

  6. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of silver biomonitoring data in a risk assessment context.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Lesa L; Bachler, Gerald; von Goetz, Natalie; Poddalgoda, Devika; Hays, Sean M; Nong, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Silver is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in both ionic and nanoparticle forms, and general population exposure to silver can occur through the presence of trace levels in foods and dusts, through dermal contact with treated textiles, from use of wound care products, and other sources. Biomonitoring for silver in blood or urine in persons in the general population is being conducted by the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Tolerable exposure guidance values for silver designed to prevent adverse effects of excess exposure are available from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (an oral reference dose, or RfD), from the United States Food and Drug Administration (a draft provisional tolerable intake, or TI) and from literature evaluations of recent data on responses to nanoparticle silver (a recommended tolerable daily intake, or TDI). A current physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model is used to estimate Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for silver, which are steady-state biomarker concentrations consistent with the RfD, provisional TI, or recommended TDI (BERfD, BETI, or BETDI, respectively). The BE values based on silver in whole blood range from 0.2 to 0.9μg/L. BE values for silver in urine were not derived due to low confidence in the predicted steady-state urinary silver excretion rates. Comparison of general population biomonitoring data from Canada to the derived BE values indicate that general population exposure levels are generally below levels consistent with current risk assessment-derived exposure guidance values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  8. Policy recommendations and cost implications for a more sustainable framework for European human biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Joas, Anke; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sepai, Ovnair; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Castaño, Argelia; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Berglund, Marika; Crettaz, Pierre; Rudnai, Peter; Halzlova, Katarina; Mulcahy, Maurice; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Becher, Georg; Fréry, Nadine; Jensen, Genon; Van Vliet, Lisette; Koch, Holger M; Den Hond, Elly; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Esteban, Marta; Exley, Karen; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Ligocka, Danuta; Hohenblum, Philipp; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Botsivali, Maria; DeFelip, Elena; Guillou, Claude; Reniero, Fabiano; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Jensen, Janne F; Rivas, Teresa C; Sanchez, Jinny; Koppen, Gudrun; Smolders, Roel; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krskova, Andrea; Mannion, Rory; Jakubowski, Marek; Fucic, J Aleksandra; Pereira-Miguel, Jose; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Lehmann, Andrea; Larsson, Kristin; Dumez, Birgit; Joas, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of the European Commission recognised the value of HBM and the relevance and importance of coordination of HBM programmes in Europe. Based on existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) funded COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. The pilot study protocol was tested in 17 European countries in the DEMOCOPHES feasibility study (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) cofunded (50%) under the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  10. [Air pollution biomonitoring with plants and fungi: concepts and uses].

    PubMed

    Cuny, D

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution remains a major environmental concern of the French. Since about 30 years, due to evolution and diversification of sources, pollution became more and more complex, constituting a true "cocktail". Today, it is very important to know environmental and health effects of this cocktail. In this context air biomonitoring using plants and fungi can bring a lot of information. Biomonitoring includes four concepts: the use of biomarkers, bioindication biointegration and bioaccumulation. These four concepts are articulated according to the levels of biological organization, what links up biosurveillance on fundamental plan with ecotoxicology. It is a complementary approach of the physicochemical techniques of air pollution measurements. The main objectives of biomonitoring studies are the monitoring of the space and temporal distribution of pollutants effect; the monitoring of local sources; participation in the health risks assessment; the information of people and the help to decision in public policies. Biomonitoring of air quality is a method, which made its proof in numerous domains of application and brings fundamental information on the impacts of the quality of air. Recent evolution of low concerning biggest industries allows us to envisage the increase of air quality biomonitoring with plants and fungi applications in the field of the valuation of environmental and health risks. The recent normalization (French and European) of different methods will also allow the development of uses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. The comet assay in human biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Dhawan, Alok; Laubenthal, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Human biomonitoring studies aim to identify potential exposures to environmental, occupational, or lifestyle toxicants in human populations and are commonly used by public health decision makers to predict disease risk. The Comet assay measures changes in genomic stability and is one of the most reliable biomarkers to indicate early biological effects, and therefore accepted by various governmental regulatory agencies. The appeal of the Comet assay lies in its relative simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and economic efficiency. Furthermore, the assay is known for its broad versatility, as it can be applied to virtually any human cell and easily adapted in order to detect particular biomarkers of interest, such as DNA repair capacity or single- and double-strand breaks. In a standard experiment, isolated single cells are first embedded in agarose, and then lysed in high-salt solutions in order to remove all cellular contents except the DNA attached to a nuclear scaffold. Subsequent electrophoresis results in accumulation of undamaged DNA sequences at the proximity of the nuclear scaffold, while damaged sequences migrate towards the anode. When visualized with fluorochromes, these migrated DNA fragments resemble a comet tail and can be quantified for their intensity and shape according to internationally drafted guidelines.

  12. Human biomonitoring system in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cerná, Milena; Spĕvácková, Vĕra; Batáriová, Andrea; Smíd, Jirí; Cejchanová, Mája; Ocadlíková, Dana; Bavorová, Hana; Benes, Bohuslav; Kubínová, Růzena

    2007-05-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) is an integral part of Environmental Health Monitoring System in the Czech Republic since 1994. Selected biomarkers of the internal dose (heavy metals, PCBs) and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes as a biomarker of the exposure/effect to/of environmental genotoxic factors are systematically followed up in the blood and urine of adults (blood donors), in children aged 8 to 10 years, and in the breast milk of nursing mothers. Selected outputs documented the declining trend of blood lead levels, with the recent reference value of 80 mg/l for men, and the rising trend of blood selenium levels in adults, but not in children. PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in human milk show a long-term downward trend, but still higher than in neighbouring countries. The frequency of aberrant cells revealed a downward trend, but the increase obtained in the last monitored period needs to be explained. Further HBM activities are required to demonstrate the corresponding trends and to reduce human exposure and health risks.

  13. Developing a biomonitoring tool for fine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, Matt; Bilotta, Gary; Brazier, Richard; Extence, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Sediment is an essential component of freshwater ecosystems; however anthropogenic activities can lead to elevated sediment delivery which can impact on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of these ecosystems. Ultimately, this can result in a loss of ecosystem services worth more than 1.7 trillion per annum. As such it is important that sediment, which is one of the most commonly attributed causes of water quality impairment globally, is managed in order to minimise these impacts. The current EU environmental quality standard for sediment (monitored in the form of suspended solids) is 25 mg L-1 for all environments. It is widely recognised that this standard is unsuitable and not ecologically relevant. Furthermore, it requires a substantial resource investment to monitor sediment in this form as part of national and international water resource legislation. In recognition of this the development of sediment-specific biomonitoring tools is receiving increasing attention. The Proportion of Sediment-Sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index is one such tool that is designed to indicate levels of fine sediment (

  14. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    PubMed

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on owls has been largely understudied. Research primarily has focused on two species, the eastern screech owl (Otus asio) and barn owl (Tyto alba). Most of this work has been conducted with captive populations at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, MD. In the wild, work has been, or is currently being, conducted with great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) at a Superfund site in Colorado and in agricultural croplands in Iowa, and barn owls at a Superfund site in Texas and in metal-contaminated regions of the Netherlands. As higher order consumers, owls bioconcentrate many different environmental contaminants through their prey. Owls have proven to be sensitive to a wide variety of toxic compounds, including PCB`s, metals, and fluoride. Endpoints examined include reproductive effects, eggshell thickness, residue analyses, cholinesterase inhibition, and induction of liver MFO`s. Much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination, particularly with captive populations, salvaged individuals, raptor rehabilitation center birds, and with wild populations in areas around hazardous waste sites, smelters, landfills, agricultural croplands, and other major sources of environmental contamination.

  16. Optimal wavelet denoising for smart biomonitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, Sheila R.; Agzarian, John; Abbott, Derek

    2001-03-01

    Future smart-systems promise many benefits for biomedical diagnostics. The ideal is for simple portable systems that display and interpret information from smart integrated probes or MEMS-based devices. In this paper, we will discuss a step towards this vision with a heart bio-monitor case study. An electronic stethoscope is used to record heart sounds and the problem of extracting noise from the signal is addressed via the use of wavelets and averaging. In our example of heartbeat analysis, phonocardiograms (PCGs) have many advantages in that they may be replayed and analysed for spectral and frequency information. Many sources of noise may pollute a PCG including foetal breath sounds if the subject is pregnant, lung and breath sounds, environmental noise and noise from contact between the recording device and the skin. Wavelets can be employed to denoise the PCG. The signal is decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform. Due to the efficient decomposition of heart signals, their wavelet coefficients tend to be much larger than those due to noise. Thus, coefficients below a certain level are regarded as noise and are thresholded out. The signal can then be reconstructed without significant loss of information in the signal. The questions that this study attempts to answer are which wavelet families, levels of decomposition, and thresholding techniques best remove the noise in a PCG. The use of averaging in combination with wavelet denoising is also addressed. Possible applications of the Hilbert Transform to heart sound analysis are discussed.

  17. GMI Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strode, Sarah; Rodriguez, Jose; Steenrod, Steve; Liu, Junhua; Strahan, Susan; Nielsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We describe the capabilities of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM) with a special focus on capabilities related to the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). Several science results based on GMI hindcast simulations and preliminary results from the ATom simulations are highlighted. We also discuss the relationship between GMI and GEOS-5.

  18. Use of biomonitoring to control toxics in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.A.

    1987-09-01

    A biomonitoring program was developed in support of the National Policy for the Development of Water Quality-Based Permit Limitations for Toxic Pollutants. The program focuses on the use of laboratory toxicity tests on aquatic plants and animals to predict ecosystem impact caused by toxic pollutants. Both acute and chronic toxicity tests were developed to test effluents and ambient waters. Laboratory and biological field studies were conducted at nine sites. Single-species laboratory toxicity tests were found to be good predictors of impacts on the ecosystem when two or more species were used. Biomonitoring can be undertaken either on effluents and/or on the receiving waters. In that toxicity related to seeps, leachates, and storm sewers has often been found upstream from dischargers, it is beneficial to conduct both effluent and ambient biomonitoring.

  19. FORUM: Ecological networks: the missing links in biomonitoring science

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clare; Baird, Donald J; Baumgartner, Simone; Jacob, Ute; Jenkins, Gareth B; O'Gorman, Eoin J; Lu, Xueke; Ma, Athen; Pocock, Michael J O; Schuwirth, Nele; Thompson, Murray; Woodward, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring anthropogenic impacts is essential for managing and conserving ecosystems, yet current biomonitoring approaches lack the tools required to deal with the effects of stressors on species and their interactions in complex natural systems. Ecological networks (trophic or mutualistic) can offer new insights into ecosystem degradation, adding value to current taxonomically constrained schemes. We highlight some examples to show how new network approaches can be used to interpret ecological responses. Synthesis and applications. Augmenting routine biomonitoring data with interaction data derived from the literature, complemented with ground-truthed data from direct observations where feasible, allows us to begin to characterise large numbers of ecological networks across environmental gradients. This process can be accelerated by adopting emerging technologies and novel analytical approaches, enabling biomonitoring to move beyond simple pass/fail schemes and to address the many ecological responses that can only be understood from a network-based perspective. PMID:25558087

  20. Capability Disillusionment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Defense AT&L: July–August 2011 22 Capability Disillusionment Cochrane is an operations research analyst and has worked for the past 6 years at the... Disillusionment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...unsup- ported by either academic investigation or practical utility. The definition of “capability” in the literature suggests that capabilities are

  1. PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS IN THE DESIGN OF BIOMONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of chemicals in tissues, blood, or urine can be related to health effects because they are an integrated measure of absorbed dose following exposure. However, the direct relationship between biomonitoring data and pathway-specific exposures is more tenuous. In chem...

  2. Inferring Population Exposure from Biomonitoring Data on Urinary Concentrations (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are valuable to exposure assessment both as sources of data to evaluate exposure models and as training sets to develop heuristics for rapid-exposure-assessment tools. However, linking in...

  3. The One Health Perspective in Trace Elements Biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Bocca, Beatrice; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Health risks in both animals and humans are associated with chronic exposures to levels of trace elements (TE) eliciting toxic and/or antinutritional effects, including excess exposures to some essential elements. Interferences with essential TE may also lead to secondary nutritional deficiencies and/or imbalances. Although research is still required, biomarkers of exposure, including bioavailability, for TE are established tools for human biomonitoring that can also be applied to animal surveillance. Biomarkers of effect as well as, where available, of susceptibility and bioavailability are necessary to understand whether an ongoing exposure may pose a current or future health concern. In the field of animal health the use of biomarkers is less developed and less widespread than in human health; however, under a One Health perspective, animal biomonitoring can provide important information on the interfaces among humans, animals, and the environment, supporting the prevention and management of health risks. Therefore, a transfer of knowledge from human biomonitoring to farm or free-ranging animals is critical in a risk assessment framework from farm to humans. Advantages and critical aspects in designing and conducting integrative biomonitoring activities in humans and animals were critically reviewed focusing on biomarkers of exposure, effect, susceptibility, and bioavailability for toxic and essential TE. Highlighted aspects include TE metabolism, bioaccessibility, and interactions. Farm or free-ranging animals may provide noninvasive matrices suitable for evaluating animal welfare, environmental stressors, food safety, and potential risks for human health, as proposed by the interdisciplinary concept of One Health.

  4. Inferring Population Exposure from Biomonitoring Data on Urinary Concentrations (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are valuable to exposure assessment both as sources of data to evaluate exposure models and as training sets to develop heuristics for rapid-exposure-assessment tools. However, linking in...

  5. Review of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of glyphosate-based formulations

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human and environmental genotoxicity biomonitoring studies involving exposure to glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs) were reviewed to complement an earlier review of experimental genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and GBFs. The environmental and most of the human biomonitoring studies were not informative because there was either a very low frequency of GBF exposure or exposure to a large number of pesticides without analysis of specific pesticide effects. One pesticide sprayer biomonitoring study indicated there was not a statistically significant relationship between frequency of GBF exposure reported for the last spraying season and oxidative DNA damage. There were three studies of human populations in regions of GBF aerial spraying. One study found increases for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus endpoint but these increases did not show statistically significant associations with self-reported spray exposure and were not consistent with application rates. A second study found increases for the blood cell comet endpoint at high exposures causing toxicity. However, a follow-up to this study 2 years after spraying did not indicate chromosomal effects. The results of the biomonitoring studies do not contradict an earlier conclusion derived from experimental genotoxicity studies that typical GBFs do not appear to present significant genotoxic risk under normal conditions of human or environmental exposures. PMID:25687244

  6. Phylogenetic signals and ecotoxicological responses: potential implications for aquatic biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Carew, Melissa E; Miller, Adam D; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2011-05-01

    Macroinvertebrates can be successfully used as biomonitors of pollutants and environmental health because some groups are sensitive whereas, others are relatively tolerant to pollutants. An issue of ongoing debate is what constitutes an appropriate group for biomonitoring; should the group represent species, genera or higher taxonomic levels? A phylogenetic framework can provide new insights into this issue. By developing phylogenies for chironomids and mayflies, this investigation shows that there is strong phylogenetic signal for pollution responses, and that phylogenetic nodes are common to tolerant and sensitive groups of species. A phylogenetic analysis of biotic indices developed for mayflies based on their response to organic pollution shows that mayfly families varied in pollution tolerance. In contrast, based on sediment zinc concentrations as an indicator of pollution tolerance, Australian chironomids tend to vary in tolerance at lower taxonomic levels. Published data on North American chironomids shows much of the signal for pollution responses is contained within genera rather than sub-families. Tools are now available to distinguish whether this signal reflects historical evolutionary constraints or environmental effects leading to common evolved responses. This suggests that ideally higher taxonomic levels should be used for biomonitoring when there are strong phylogenetic constraints at higher levels. Evolutionary considerations can therefore help to guide the development of macroinvertebrate biomonitors and provide insights into processes that produce sensitive and tolerant taxa. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  7. PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS IN THE DESIGN OF BIOMONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of chemicals in tissues, blood, or urine can be related to health effects because they are an integrated measure of absorbed dose following exposure. However, the direct relationship between biomonitoring data and pathway-specific exposures is more tenuous. In chem...

  8. Review of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of glyphosate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Human and environmental genotoxicity biomonitoring studies involving exposure to glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs) were reviewed to complement an earlier review of experimental genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and GBFs. The environmental and most of the human biomonitoring studies were not informative because there was either a very low frequency of GBF exposure or exposure to a large number of pesticides without analysis of specific pesticide effects. One pesticide sprayer biomonitoring study indicated there was not a statistically significant relationship between frequency of GBF exposure reported for the last spraying season and oxidative DNA damage. There were three studies of human populations in regions of GBF aerial spraying. One study found increases for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus endpoint but these increases did not show statistically significant associations with self-reported spray exposure and were not consistent with application rates. A second study found increases for the blood cell comet endpoint at high exposures causing toxicity. However, a follow-up to this study 2 years after spraying did not indicate chromosomal effects. The results of the biomonitoring studies do not contradict an earlier conclusion derived from experimental genotoxicity studies that typical GBFs do not appear to present significant genotoxic risk under normal conditions of human or environmental exposures.

  9. Biomonitoring-based risk assessment for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

    PubMed

    Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2011-06-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant compound that has been the subject of recent interest and risk assessment efforts due to its detection in a variety of environmental media and in human biological matrices. Because the exposure pathways for HBCD may be varied and exposure estimation uncertain, biomonitoring for HBCD in humans shows promise as a means of reflecting integrated human exposures to HBCD with lower uncertainty than through estimation of external exposures via multiple pathways. Data from numerous biomonitoring studies of HBCD over the past decade indicate that the central tendency of lipid-adjusted serum and human milk concentrations is approximately 1ng/g lipid, with upper bound levels of approximately 20 ng/g lipid. Recent risk assessment evaluations from Health Canada and the European Union have identified points of departure of 10 and 20mg/kg day, respectively, from rat repeated dose studies. The corresponding measured or estimated lipid-adjusted tissue concentrations in the laboratory animals at these points of departure range from 120,000 to 190,000 ng/g lipid. In comparison to these concentrations, the biomonitored human serum and milk concentrations indicate margins of exposure (MOEs) of 6000 to more than 100,000, which are greatly in excess of target MOE values. The use of internal dose measures (both from measurements of tissue concentrations in animal toxicology studies and from human biomonitoring studies) provides risk managers with highly relevant exposure information that is less uncertain than estimated external doses.

  10. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    its chemical composition is controlled by the soft parts and that a robust interpretation of the shell record requires a detailed understanding of bivalve physiology, behavior and ecology. This review attempts to bring together the Mussel Watch and sclerochronology communities and lay the foundation of a new subdiscipline of the Mussel Watch: retrospective environmental biomonitoring. For this purpose, we provide an overview of seminal work from both fields and outline potential future research directions.

  11. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Campbell, James A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2004-04-01

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk.

  13. A urinary biomarker-based risk score correlates with multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Rianne J; van der Leest, Marloes M G; Dijkstra, Siebren; Barentsz, Jelle O; Van Criekinge, Wim; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Schalken, Jack A; Mulders, Peter F A; van Oort, Inge M

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics would greatly benefit from more accurate, non-invasive techniques for the detection of clinically significant disease, leading to a reduction of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a novel urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx), multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) outcomes, and biopsy results for PCa detection. This retrospective observational study used data from the validation study of the SelectMDx score, in which urine was collected after digital rectal examination from men undergoing prostate biopsies. A subset of these patients also underwent a mpMRI scan of the prostate. The indications for performing mpMRI were based on persistent clinical suspicion of PCa or local staging after PCa was found upon biopsy. All mpMRI images were centrally reviewed in 2016 by an experienced radiologist blinded for the urine test results and biopsy outcome. The PI-RADS version 2 was used. In total, 172 patients were included for analysis. Hundred (58%) patients had PCa detected upon prostate biopsy, of which 52 (52%) had high-grade disease correlated with a significantly higher SelectMDx score (P < 0.01). The median SelectMDx score was significantly higher in patients with a suspicious significant lesion on mpMRI compared to no suspicion of significant PCa (P < 0.01). For the prediction of mpMRI outcome, the area-under-the-curve of SelectMDx was 0.83 compared to 0.66 for PSA and 0.65 for PCA3. There was a positive association between SelectMDx score and the final PI-RADS grade. There was a statistically significant difference in SelectMDx score between PI-RADS 3 and 4 (P < 0.01) and between PI-RADS 4 and 5 (P < 0.01). The novel urinary biomarker-based SelectMDx score is a promising tool in PCa detection. This study showed promising results regarding the correlation between the SelectMDx score and mpMRI outcomes, outperforming PCA3. Our results suggest that this risk

  14. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  15. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-12-31

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  16. Micronuclei assay: A potential biomonitoring protocol in occupational exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Palanikumar, L; Panneerselvam, N

    2011-09-01

    As micronuclei (MN) derive from chromosomal fragments and whole chromosomes lagging behind in anaphase, the MN assay can be used to show both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. This particularly concerns the use of MN as a biomarker ofgenotoxic exposure and effects, where differences in MN frequencies between exposed subjects and referents are expected to be small. The present paper reviews the use of the MN assay in biomonitoring of occupational exposure studies.

  17. Environmental bioindication, biomonitoring, and bioremediation of organometal(loid)s.

    PubMed

    Thayer, John S

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally occurring organometal(loid)s have generated some severe health and safety problems. Consequently, scientists have been investigating various organisms to show the presence of such compounds (bioindicators), to follow their movement through the environment (biomonitors), and to remove them (bioremediators). Examples of such organisms and the mechanisms of their action(s) are discussed. Also mentioned are those organisms that form organometal(loid)s as a way of removing toxic inorganic species.

  18. Ultrasensitive Multiplexed Immunoassay for Tumor Biomarkers Based on DNA Hybridization Chain Reaction Amplifying Signal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinjin; Wang, Junchun; Zhao, Junqing; Guo, Zilin; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2016-03-23

    In this work, a novel electrochemical immunoassay protocol has been reported for simultaneous determination of multiple tumor biomarkers based on DNA hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were selected as model biomarkers. The immunoassay protocol contained primary antibodies immobilized on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), secondary antibodies conjugated with DNA concatemer from HCR of primer, auxiliary probe, and signal probe labeled with signal molecules (methyleneblue (MB) and ferrocene (Fc)). In the presence of target biomarkers, the sandwich immunocomplex was formed between the primary antibodies and secondary antibodies bioconjugates carrying numerous signal molecules. As a result, two well-resolved reduction peaks, one was at -0.35 V (corresponding to MB) and other was at 0.33 V (corresponding to Fc; both vs SCE), were obtained in differential pulse voltammetry, and peak currents changed were related to the level of biomarkers. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide linear response range (0.5 pg mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1)) and low detection limits (PSA, 0.17 pg mL(-1); AFP, 0.25 pg mL(-1)) (at S/N = 3). In addition, the immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing simulate human serum sample, and the recoveries obtained were within 99.4-107.6% for PSA and 97.9-108.2% for AFP, indicating the immnuoassay could be applied to the simultaneous detection of AFP and PSA in human serum samples.

  19. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  20. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, V.

    1988-01-01

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities.

  1. Biomonitoring of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Drop of Blood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biomonitoring of pollutants and their metabolites and derivatives using biofluids provides new opportunities for spatiotemporal assessment of human risks to environmental exposures. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been used widely in industry and pose significant environmental concerns due to their stability and bioaccumulation in humans and animals. However, current methods for extraction and measurement of PFCs require relatively large volumes (over one hundred microliters) of blood samples, and therefore, are not suitable for frequent blood sampling and longitudinal biomonitoring of PFCs. We have developed a new microassay, enabled by our silicon microfluidic chip platform, for analyzing PFCs in small volumes (less than five microliters) of blood. Our assay integrates on-chip solid-phase extraction (SPE) with online nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) detection. We demonstrated high sample recovery, excellent interday and intraday accuracy and precision, and a limit of detection down to 50 femtogram of PFCs, in one microliter of human plasma. We validated our assay performance using pooled human plasma and NIST SRM 1950 samples. Our microfluidic chip-based assay may enable frequent longitudinal biomonitoring of PFCs and other environmental toxins using a finger prick of blood, thereby providing new insights into their bioaccumulation, bioavailability, and toxicity. PMID:25997583

  2. Internationally harmonized approach to biomonitoring trace element atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Smodis, Borut; Bleise, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been systematically supporting work on biomonitoring air pollution using plants since 1997. Such studies are presently being supported by the IAEA in 14 countries within a co-ordinated research project. The main emphasis of this project is on (1) identification of suitable biomonitors of atmospheric pollution for local and/or regional application, and (2) their validation for general environmental monitoring, whenever possible. Although the participants are using different plants as biomonitors in their research in geographically and climatically diverse parts of the world, they are harmonising sampling approaches and analytical procedures. In this paper, an overview of these activities is given, along with the details, where possible. In all of these activities, proficiency testing and analytical quality assurance are important issues, which merit special attention. Within the scope of an intercomparison exercise, two lichen materials were distributed among the participating laboratories and a proficiency test was organised. The results obtained proved satisfactory performance for most participating laboratories.

  3. Biomonitoring of perfluorinated compounds in a drop of blood.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pan; Wang, Daojing

    2015-06-02

    Biomonitoring of pollutants and their metabolites and derivatives using biofluids provides new opportunities for spatiotemporal assessment of human risks to environmental exposures. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been used widely in industry and pose significant environmental concerns due to their stability and bioaccumulation in humans and animals. However, current methods for extraction and measurement of PFCs require relatively large volumes (over one hundred microliters) of blood samples, and therefore, are not suitable for frequent blood sampling and longitudinal biomonitoring of PFCs. We have developed a new microassay, enabled by our silicon microfluidic chip platform, for analyzing PFCs in small volumes (less than five microliters) of blood. Our assay integrates on-chip solid-phase extraction (SPE) with online nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS) detection. We demonstrated high sample recovery, excellent interday and intraday accuracy and precision, and a limit of detection down to 50 femtogram of PFCs, in one microliter of human plasma. We validated our assay performance using pooled human plasma and NIST SRM 1950 samples. Our microfluidic chip-based assay may enable frequent longitudinal biomonitoring of PFCs and other environmental toxins using a finger prick of blood, thereby providing new insights into their bioaccumulation, bioavailability, and toxicity.

  4. Investigating Jacaranda mimosifolia tree as biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals.

    PubMed

    Olowoyo, J O; van Heerden, E; Fischer, J L

    2010-05-01

    Studies on the use of tree bark as biomonitors for environmental pollutants are still very scarce. We evaluated the reliability of using Jacaranda mimosifolia, a common tree in Tshwane City of South Africa, as a suitable biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals. Bark samples were collected from ten different locations during two sampling periods. The concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the metals were 33.2-1,795 microg/g (Pb), 21.4-210 microg/g (Cu), 68.4-490 microg/g (Zn), 30.6-2,916 microg/g (Cr), 0.12-1.34 microg/g (Cd), and 6.04-68.0 microg/g (V), respectively. The differences obtained for the results from different sites were significant (p < 0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the two sampling periods. The trace metals concentrations suggested that automobile emissions are a major source of these metals. The study also confirms the suitability of J. mimosifolia as a biomonitor of atmospheric deposition of these metals.

  5. Human biomonitoring assessment values: approaches and data requirements.

    PubMed

    Angerer, Jürgen; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M; Heinzow, Birger; Wilhelm, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) data is a very useful metric for assessing human's exposures to chemicals in commerce. To assess the potential health risks associated with the presence of chemicals in blood, urine or other biological matrix requires HBM assessment values. While HBM assessment values based on human exposure-response data remain the most highly valuable and interpretable assessment values, enough data exists for such values for very few chemicals. As a consequence, efforts have been undertaken to derive HBM assessment values in which external dose based guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes have been translated into equivalent biomonitoring levels. The development of HBM values by the German HBM Commission and Biomonitoring Equivalents by Summit Toxicology has resulted in conceptually similar assessment values. The review of the development of these values provided here demonstrates examples and approaches that can be used to broaden the range of chemicals for which such assessment values can be derived. Efforts to date have resulted in the publication of HBM assessment values for more than 80 chemicals, and now provide tools that can be used for the evaluation of HBM data across chemicals and populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogenetic signal in diatom ecology: perspectives for aquatic ecosystems biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Keck, François; Rimet, Frédéric; Franc, Alain; Bouchez, Agnés

    2016-04-01

    Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal trade-off between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment quality. Phylogenetic tools may form the bases of new, more efficient approaches for biomonitoring if relationships between ecology and phylogeny can be demonstrated. We estimated the ecological optima of 127 diatom species for 19 environmental parameters using count data from 2119 diatom communities sampled during eight years in eastern France. Using uni- and multivariate analyses, we explored the relationships between freshwater diatom phylogeny and ecology (i.e., the phylogenetic signal). We found a significant phylogenetic signal for many of the ecological optima that were tested, but the strength of the signal varied significantly from one trait to another. Multivariate analysis also showed that the multidimensional ecological niche of diatoms can be strongly related to phylogeny. The presence of clades containing species that exhibit homogeneous ecology suggests that phylogenetic information can be useful for aquatic biomonitoring. This study highlights the presence of significant patterns of ecological optima for freshwater diatoms in relation to their phylogeny. These results suggest the presence of a signal above the species level, which is encouraging for the development of simplified methods for biomonitoring survey.

  7. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

  8. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (NER) provide information on the presence and concentrations of more than 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment...

  9. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  10. Biomonitoring of boron: Development and characterization of a simple, reliable and quality controlled biomonitoring method.

    PubMed

    Michalke, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    Boron exposure is of interest and concern from an occupational point of view. Usual daily boron intake is related to boron blood plasma concentration <1mg/L and to <3mg/L in urine, but after exposure urine concentrations are quickly elevated. Reliable boron biomonitoring, typically in urine, thus is mandatory for occupational health control institutions. This paper reports on the development of a simple, fast and reliable boron determination procedure based on inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Major aims for this method were simplicity in sample preparation, low risk for artifacts and interferences, high precision and accuracy, possibly low costs, including lower costs for element selective detection, short total analysis time and suitability for occupational health laboratories. Precision data (serial or day-to-day) from urine and doped urine were very good: <1.5 or <2%. Accuracy was calculated from analysis of a certified reference material (ERM-CD 281), as 99% or according to recoveries of doped concentrations ranging from 102 to 109% recovery. For cross-checking ICP-OES determinations, samples were analyzed also by quadrupole ICP-qMS and by sectorfield ICP-sf-MS at low and medium resolution. Both systems confirmed ICP-OES measurements when using (11)B for quantification. Determinations based on (10)B however showed some bias, except with ICP-sf-MS at medium resolution. The observed elevated signals are discussed with respect to the known Ne(++) interference (as an impurity in Ar), which is not separated in low resolving quadrupole ICP-MS systems or ICP-sf-MS at low resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Exposure to Selected Animal Neurocarcinogens: A Biomarker-Based Assessment and Implications for Brain Tumor Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Erdal, Serap; Shimek, Joanna; Goldstein, Jennifer; Doerge, Daniel R.; Myers, Steven R.; Vineis, Paolo; Wishnok, John S.; Swenberg, James A.; Bigner, Darell D.; Davis, Faith G.

    2013-01-01

    This review is based on the proceedings from the Second Lebow Conference held in Chicago in 2007. The conference concentrated on developing a framework for innovative studies in the epidemiology of environmental exposures, focusing specifically on the potential relationship with brain tumors. Researchers with different perspectives, including toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and epidemiological exposure assessment, exchanged information and ideas on the use of biomarkers of exposure in molecular epidemiology studies and summarized the current knowledge on methods and approaches for biomarker-based exposure assessment. This report presents the state of science regarding biomarker-based exposure assessment of the 4 most common neurocarcinogens: acrylamide, 1,3-butadiene, N-nitroso compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Importantly, these chemicals are also carcinogenic in other organs; therefore, this discussion is useful for environmental epidemiologists studying all cancer types. PMID:19466671

  12. Biomarker-based drug safety assessment in the age of systems pharmacology: from foundational to regulatory science.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Huixiao; Mendrick, Donna L; Tang, Yun; Cheng, Feixiong

    2015-01-01

    Improved biomarker-based assessment of drug safety is needed in drug discovery and development as well as regulatory evaluation. However, identifying drug safety-related biomarkers such as genes, proteins, miRNA and single-nucleotide polymorphisms remains a big challenge. The advances of 'omics' and computational technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, systems biology, network biology and systems pharmacology enable us to explore drug actions at the organ and organismal levels. Computational and experimental systems pharmacology approaches could be utilized to facilitate biomarker-based drug safety assessment for drug discovery and development and to inform better regulatory decisions. In this article, we review the current status and advances of systems pharmacology approaches for the development of predictive models to identify biomarkers for drug safety assessment.

  13. Biomonitoring: Measuring Toxins in Our Bodies as a Tool in Protecting Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Sharyle

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a public health tool that has been used by scientists and researchers for decades to test blood, bone, urine, hair, human milk, adipose tissue, and other body substances for the presence of toxic chemicals, in order to assess what is called the "chemical body burden." Biomonitoring helps to: (1) identify which chemicals…

  14. THE USE OF BIOMONITORING DATA IN EXPOSURE AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring utilizes analytical methods which permit the accurate measurement of low levels of environmental chemicals in human tissues. However, depending on the intended use, biomonitoring, like all exposure tools, may not be a stand-alone exposure assessment tool for some o...

  15. California biomonitoring data: Comparison to NHANES and interpretation in a risk assessment context.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Lesa L; Seiber, James N; Hays, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    The California Environmental Biomonitoring Program (also known as Biomonitoring California) has been generating human biomonitoring data and releasing it via their website. The current Biomonitoring California program is a collection of smaller studies, targeting specific populations (e.g., fire fighters, breast cancer patients and controls, etc.). In this paper we compare the results from Biomonitoring California with those from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also compare California's results with Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for those compounds for which BEs exist. In general, the results from California are consistent with the biomonitoring levels found across the US via NHANES. A few notable exceptions are levels of flame retardants amongst fire fighters in California, which are higher than observed in NHANES and some persistent organic chemicals amongst a study of breast cancer patients and controls in California which are higher than in the overall adult population in NHANES. The higher levels amongst fire fighters may be a result of fire fighters being exposed to higher levels of flame retardants while fighting fires. The higher levels of the persistent organics amongst breast cancer patients is likely due to this population being older than the mean age in NHANES. Comparisons to BEs indicate that biomonitoring levels in California are all consistently below levels of concern as established by regulatory agencies.

  16. Citizens' Guide to Biomonitoring in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Lakes United, Buffalo, NY.

    The purpose of this report is to present the issues surrounding biomonitoring of wastewaters discharged into the Great Lakes Basin. Biomonitoring is the process of using organisms to monitor the toxicity of a substance. The report reflects an interest in seeing zero discharge of toxic pollutants in the Great Lakes region. The report is organized…

  17. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  18. MAKING SENSE OF HUMAN BIOMONITORING DATA: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF A WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to measure chemicals in humans (often termed biomonitoring) is far outpacing the ability to reliably interpret these data for public health purposes, creating a major knowledge gap. Until this gap is filled, the great promise of routinely using biomonitoring data to s...

  19. The Use of Biomonitoring Data in Exposure and Human Health Risk Assessment: BENZENE CASE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HESI Biomonitoring Technical Committee A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e., a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment (Albertini et al., 2006). The data-rich chemical b...

  20. The Use of Biomonitoring Data in Exposure and Human Health Risk Assessment: BENZENE CASE STUDY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    HESI Biomonitoring Technical Committee A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e., a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment (Albertini et al., 2006). The data-rich chemical b...

  1. MAKING SENSE OF HUMAN BIOMONITORING DATA: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF A WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to measure chemicals in humans (often termed biomonitoring) is far outpacing the ability to reliably interpret these data for public health purposes, creating a major knowledge gap. Until this gap is filled, the great promise of routinely using biomonitoring data to s...

  2. Citizens' Guide to Biomonitoring in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Lakes United, Buffalo, NY.

    The purpose of this report is to present the issues surrounding biomonitoring of wastewaters discharged into the Great Lakes Basin. Biomonitoring is the process of using organisms to monitor the toxicity of a substance. The report reflects an interest in seeing zero discharge of toxic pollutants in the Great Lakes region. The report is organized…

  3. Biomonitoring: Measuring Toxins in Our Bodies as a Tool in Protecting Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Sharyle

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a public health tool that has been used by scientists and researchers for decades to test blood, bone, urine, hair, human milk, adipose tissue, and other body substances for the presence of toxic chemicals, in order to assess what is called the "chemical body burden." Biomonitoring helps to: (1) identify which chemicals…

  4. Bayesian Baskets: A Novel Design for Biomarker-Based Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Trippa, Lorenzo; Alexander, Brian Michael

    2017-02-20

    Purpose Biomarker-based clinical trials provide efficiencies during therapeutic development and form the foundation for precision medicine. These trials must generate information on both experimental therapeutics and putative predictive biomarkers in the context of varying pretrial information. We generated an efficient, flexible design that accommodates various pretrial levels of evidence supporting the predictive capacity of biomarkers while making pretrial design choices explicit. Methods We generated a randomization procedure that explicitly incorporates pretrial estimates of the predictive capacity of biomarkers. To compare the utility of this Bayesian basket (BB) design with that of a balanced randomized, biomarker agnostic (BA) design and a traditional basket (TB) design that includes only biomarker-positive patients, we iteratively simulated hypothetical multiarm clinical trials under various scenarios. Results BB was more efficient than BA while generating more information on the predictive capacity of putative biomarkers than both BA and TB. For simulations of hypothetical multiarm trials of experimental therapies and associated biomarkers of varying incident frequency, BB increased power over BA in cases when the biomarker was predictive and when the experimental therapeutic worked in all patients in a variety of scenarios. BB also generated more information about the predictive capacity of biomarkers than BA and categorically relative to TB, which generates no new biomarker information. Conclusion The BB design offers an efficient way to generate information on both experimental therapeutics and the predictive capacity of putative biomarkers. The design is flexible enough to accommodate varying levels of pretrial biomarker confidence within the same platform structure and makes clinical trial design decisions more explicit.

  5. Combination of an on-line biomonitor using light emitting bacteria and a UV spectrophotometer probe for homeland security and drinking water safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Joep; Küster, Eberhard; van den Broeke, Joep; Tangena, Ben; de Zwart, Dick; Brandt, Albert

    2007-04-01

    The interest in on-line water quality monitors has increased significantly in the last years, because of the need for rapid, reliable and continuous monitoring. This has resulted in the introduction of new monitors which can provide (near) real-time information on water quality. They can be used for continuous river water quality control as well as for drinking water protection against intentional contamination. Still no universal monitor is yet available which is able to protect against all kinds of threats. The combination of complementary systems into a single integrated monitoring platform would greatly enhance the applicability of real time monitoring devices. Such a combination should be found in the complementary information derived from a chemical analytical technique and from an effect monitor (biomonitor). Where a chemical analytical monitoring system identifies and quantifies specific water contaminants, biomonitoring gives an indication of the total quality, including the effects of unknown toxic substances. This combination was found in using the TOXcontrol, a biological toxicity monitor using luminescent bacteria, and the scan spectroyser TM, a submersible UV-VIS spectrophotometer probe, to evaluate drinking water safety. This combination allows for the verification of alarm signals from one instrument with the signal of the other, reducing false alarm rates. Experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test. It is concluded that the combination of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the toxicity biomonitor comprises a monitoring system with a high added value being capable of detecting a broad range of contaminants at low concentrations.

  6. Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Renato; Marchesini, Roberta; Iacumin, Paola; Brancaleoni, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring air quality by using living organisms as biomonitors has received increasing attention in recent years. However, rather few studies were based on the concomitant use of passive biomonitoring (based on the different sensitivity of living organisms to air pollution) and active biomonitoring (based on their capacity to accumulate pollutants in the tissues). We carried out a repeated survey of an urban area in Northern Italy, with the objective of comparing temporal trends of different kinds of air pollutants with bioindication (passive biomonitoring) and bioaccumulation (active biomonitoring) techniques. During a five-year interval, temporal patterns of moss metal concentrations underwent significant changes probably due to intercurring variations in the importance of different pollution sources. Nitrogen (N) concentration in moss tissues also decreased and was paralleled by increasing diversity of epiphytic lichens. Increasing δ(15)N in moss tissues suggested a higher contribution of oxidized N species compared with reduced N species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qunfang; Zhang, Jianbin; Fu, Jianjie; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-01-14

    Wide occurrence of aquatic metal pollution has caused much attention. Biomonitoring offers an appealing tool for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem. The bioindicators including algae, macrophyte, zooplankton, insect, bivalve mollusks, gastropod, fish, amphibian and others are enumerated and compared for their advantages and disadvantages in practical biomonitoring of aquatic metal pollution. The common biomonitoring techniques classified as bioaccumulation, biochemical alterations, morphological and behavior observation, population- and community-level approaches and modeling are discussed. The potential applications of biomonitoring are proposed to mainly include evaluation of actual aquatic metal pollution, bioremediation, toxicology prediction and researches on toxicological mechanism. Further perspectives are made for the biomonitoring of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem.

  8. CIUDENs Pilot Project for CO2 Biomonitoring Tools (PISCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, D.; Bruno, J.; Credoz, A.; Grandia, F.; Fuentes, J.; Calabuig, E.; Montoto, M.; Ciuden's Co2 Geological Storage Programme

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes CIUDENs Pilot Project for CO2 Biomonitoring Tools (PISCO2) in NW Spain; focusing on the development of biomonitoring of potential CO2 leakages through testing biogeochemical effects of CO2 injection in soils. CIUDEN is a Spanish National foundation created in 2006 dedicated to different projects related to energy and environment. One of the main activities is the construction and operation of various facilities for Research and Development in CCS. The PISCO2 installation consists of 18 cells excavated in the ground and isolated by concrete. Each cell has a 40 m3. The cells will be filled with different soils from various sites in Spain including the Hontomín site in Burgos, where CIUDENs CO2 Storage Technological Development Plant is under construction. The cells are be equipped with systems for (i) controlled CO2 injection at different depths, (ii) control of irrigation and drainage in the unsaturated soil, (iii) sampling of groundwater and gases, and (iv) monitoring of different parameters; such as water content, pH, CO2 flux, microbiological, botanical, and biogeochemical alterations and the chemical composition of water. The main objectives are: the detection of potential diffuse leakage during/after the injection operations; the use of native species as bio-indicators of early leakage; the calibration and optimization of monitoring sensors & methodologies; the optimization of existing multiphase reactive transport models and the comprehension improvement of the biogeochemical processes. The facility is planned to be fully operational in November 2011. Its configuration makes it unique and suitable for international R&D programs. CIUDEN is open for cooperative research projects with institutions all over the world. Results are expected to significantly contribute to the development of new, useful, economical and ecological biomonitoring tools for wide areas. The paper will focus on the presentation of the technical caracteristics and the

  9. Moss and lichen biomonitoring of atmospheric mercury: A review.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Long-range transport and residence time of elemental Hg (Hg°) in air promote global dispersion and deposition in remote ecosystems. Many biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the photoreduction and phytovolatilization of Hg from terrestrial ecosystems, and the assessment of deposition and volatilization fluxes is very challenging. Mosses and lichens are widespread in nature and constitute the dominant vegetation in alpine and polar ecosystems. This review surveys the results of Hg biomonitoring with cryptogams in areas with different Hg sources and deposition processes. Lichen and moss ecophysiology, and factors affecting Hg uptake and bioaccumulation are discussed. Although some laboratory experiments indicate a linear accumulation of Hg in cryptogams exposed to Hg°, without any significant release, in nature the Hg accumulated in cryptogams is in a dynamic equilibrium with Hg in air and decreases when organisms are transplanted to clean environments. Mercury concentrations in mosses and lichens have often been used to estimate concentrations and deposition fluxes of atmospheric Hg; however, Hg° exchanges between cryptogams and air, and the time necessary for mosses and lichens to equilibrate elemental composition with changing atmospheric chemistry, preclude reliable estimates. Biological processes of Hg uptake and exchange with air cannot be reproduced by mechanical collectors, and comparisons between Hg concentrations in biomonitors and those in atmospheric deposition are scarcely reliable. However, the Hg biomonitoring with mosses and lichens is easy and cheap and allows to locate "hot spots" of natural or anthropogenic emissions and to assess spatio-temporal changes in Hg deposition patterns. Climate change is affecting the global Hg cycle through the melting of sea-ice in coastal Polar Regions, and modifying Hg sequestration in mountain ecosystems. Despite limitations, large-scale monitoring of Hg with mosses and lichens may be used as a tool to

  10. Biomonitoring of tropospheric ozone phytotoxicity in rural Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Angela; Peñuelas, Josep

    The ozone (O 3) phytotoxicity in rural areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) and the biomonitoring capacity of Bel-W3 tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars were assessed by determining the percentage of leaf area injured by ozone in plants of this cultivar exposed from spring to autumn since 1995-1999. The study was conducted simultaneously on nine field sites where ground level ozone concentrations and meteorological parameters were continuously monitored. Geographical, seasonal and annual variations of ozone damage rate and their links with meteorological conditions were studied. Ozone concentrations and leaf damage increased at the end of spring and the beginning of summer. Coastal sites generally presented higher O 3 concentrations than inland and mountain sites. These mountain sites were the most sensitive ones to ozone toxicity. The ozone concentrations correlated well with ozone injury. However, at this local scale the ozone levels did not fully account for all the observed injury (only 11%). The response of tobacco plants to ozone concentrations and therefore its biomonitoring capacity depended also on different environmental conditions, mainly those linked to stomatal behaviour such as vapour pressure deficit. The categorization of leaf damage in 10% intervals and its averaging throughout the whole study period and the whole region, strongly improved (99% of variance accounted) the relationship with ozone concentrations expressed as AOT20 (accumulated over a cut-off of 20 ppb v). N. tabacum cultivar Bel-W3 is thus a very good biomonitor of ozone concentrations in the long term at the regional scale. Taking into account the phytotoxical response of this sensitive tobacco cultivar, we propose the 1.28 ppm v h biweekly AOT40 (with a solar radiation threshold of 50 W m -2) as a damage threshold level for sensitive species.

  11. Assessment of deoxynivalenol exposure among Bangladeshi and German adults by a biomarker-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-09-06

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent mycotoxin contaminant in cereal crops worldwide and can cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. Since DON contamination in Bangladeshi food is unexplored, we conducted a biomonitoring study to assess DON exposure in the Bangladeshi population and compare it with that of German adults. In total 214 urines were collected, n=164 in Bangladesh and n=50 in Germany. In Bangladesh rural and urban residents of Rajshahi district provided urines in two seasons (n=69 in summer, n=95 in winter, with 62 participants enrolled in both periods). Urinary DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1 were measured by a previously validated sensitive LC-MS/MS method. In Bangladeshi urines, DON was detectable in 27% (range 0.16-1.78ng/mL) in summer and 31% (range 0.16-1.21ng/mL) in winter season. There was no significant difference at the mean DON level between season (summer 0.17±0.25ng/mL and winter 0.16±0.18ng/mL) and region (rural or urban residents). The metabolite DOM-1 was not detected in any urine from Bangladesh. In contrast, DON and DOM-1 were detected in 100% (range 0.16-38.44ng/mL) and 40% (range 0.10-0.73ng/mL), respectively, of the German urines. The mean DON level in German urines (9.02±6.84ng/mL) was about 53-fold higher than that found in Bangladeshi samples. This indicates a low and high dietary DON exposure among the adult population in Bangladesh and Germany, respectively. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON then served to calculate the daily mycotoxin intake in both cohorts: the mean DON intake in Bangladesh being 6ng/kg b.w., and in Germany a mean of 268 and maximum intake of 975ng/kg b.w., values lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 1μg/kg b.w. set by the WHO/JECFA.

  12. Analytical methods for human biomonitoring of pesticides. A review.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Vicent; Millet, Maurice; Coscolla, Clara; Roca, Marta

    2015-09-03

    Biomonitoring of both currently-used and banned-persistent pesticides is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. In this review, we present current approaches and recent advances in the analytical methods for determining the biomarkers of exposure to pesticides in the most commonly used specimens, such as blood, urine, and breast milk, and in emerging non-invasive matrices such as hair and meconium. We critically discuss the main applications for sample treatment, and the instrumental techniques currently used to determine the most relevant pesticide biomarkers. We finally look at the future trends in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using the pollen viability and morphology for fluoride pollution biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, Behrooz Eshghi; Noori, Mitra; Jafari, Mehrana

    2012-06-01

    The methods using plants for biomonitoring of air and soil quality are simple, cheap, and fast and can supplement the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, biological pollen characterization of some collected legume species from an aluminum smelter area in Iran (IRALCO) was carried out to determine the actual value of pollen as a bioindicator of the effects of soil and atmospheric pollution. Young buds and flowers of six legumes (Cercis siliquastrum L., Medicago sativa L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Melilotus officinalis (L.) lam, Trifolium repens L., and Sophora alopecuroides L.) in polluted and control plants were removed and compared. Studies of light and electron microscopic preparation showed some abnormalities during pollen development in affect of fluoride pollution. The viability of pollen grains estimated by staining with acetocarmine shows sharp differences in smearing advanced pollen grains from abnormal ones. Except M. officinalis, the pollen grains of C. siliquastrum, M. sativa, R. pseudoacacia, T. repens, and S. alopecuroides in polluted areas showed light, partial, or no staining with acetocarmine, whereas almost all of the control ones clearly stained. Observation of the pollen grains by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the significant effect of fluoride on shapes and sizes of pollen grains. The stimulation and inhibition of these pollen characteristics depend on the pollen species as well as on the pollutant and its concentration. Therefore, pollen grains provide essential information on biological impact of pollutants and they are good candidates for biomonitoring the atmospheric and edaphic pollutions.

  14. Bivalve mollusks in metal pollution studies: from bioaccumulation to biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Harper, David A T

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary environmental challenges have emphasized the need to critically assess the use of bivalve mollusks in chemical monitoring (identification and quantification of pollutants) and biomonitoring (estimation of environmental quality). Many authors, however, have considered these approaches within a single context, i.e., as a means of chemical (e.g. metal) monitoring. Bivalves are able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals from ambient water, but evidence for the drastic effects of accumulated metals (e.g. as a TBT-induced shell deformation and imposex) on the health of bivalves has not been documented. Metal bioaccumulation is a key tool in biomonitoring; bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of various metals in relation to bivalves are described in some detail including the development of biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Measuring metal in the whole-body or the tissue of bivalves themselves does not accurately represent true contamination levels in the environment; these data are critical for our understanding of contaminant trends at sampling sites. Only rarely has metal bioaccumulation been considered in combination with data on metal concentrations in parts of the ecosystem, observation of biomarkers and environmental parameters. Sclerochemistry is in its infancy and cannot be reliably used to provide insights into the pollution history recorded in shells. Alteration processes and mineral crystallization on the inner shell surface are presented here as a perspective tool for environmental studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using devitalized moss for active biomonitoring of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Debén, S; Fernández, J A; Carballeira, A; Aboal, J R

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment carried out for the first time in situ to select a treatment to devitalize mosses for use in active biomonitoring of water pollution. Three devitalizing treatments for the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica were tested (i.e. oven-drying at 100 °C, oven-drying with a 50-80-100 °C temperature ramp, and boiling in water), and the effects of these on loss of material during exposure of the transplants and on the accumulation of different heavy metals and metalloids were determined. The suitability of using devitalized samples of the terrestrial moss Sphagnum denticulatum to biomonitor aquatic environments was also tested. The structure of mosses was altered in different ways by the devitalizing treatments. Devitalization by boiling water led to significantly less loss of material (p < 0.01) than the oven-drying treatments. However, devitalization by oven-drying with a temperature ramp yielded more stable results in relation to both loss of material and accumulation of elements. With the aim of standardizing the moss bag technique, the use of F. antipyretica devitalized by oven-drying with a temperature ramp is recommended, rather than other devitalization treatments or use of S. denticulatum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  17. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Bach, Hanne; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie; Rastogi, Suresch; Fauser, Patrik; Krongaard, Teddy; Sorensen, Peter Borgen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need for a structured and integrated environmental and human health surveillance program at national level. In Denmark, the initiative to implement such activities has been taken. The proposed framework of the Danish monitoring program constitutes four scientific expert groups, i.e. i. Prioritization of the strategy for the monitoring program, ii. Collection of human samples, iii. Analysis and data management and iv. Dissemination of results produced within the program. This paper presents the overall framework for data requirements and information flow in the integrated environment and health surveillance program. The added value of an HBM program, and in this respect the objectives of national and European HBM programs supporting environmental health integrated policy-decisions and human health targeted policies, are discussed. In Denmark environmental monitoring has been prioritized by extensive surveillance systems of pollution in oceans, lakes and soil as well as ground and drinking water. Human biomonitoring has only taken place in research programs and few incidences of e.g. lead contamination. However an arctic program for HBM has been in force for decades and from the preparations of the EU-pilot project on HBM increasing political interest in a Danish program has developed. PMID:18541069

  18. Biomonitoring of trace elements in Vietnamese freshwater mussels*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the pollution situation in the northern part of Vietnam with focus on trace elements including heavy metals. A freshwater bivalve species of the Unionidae family ( Pletholophus swinhoei), abundant in this part of the country and frequently used for human consumption, was chosen as biomonitor. Ten specimens each were collected at two rural sites, Duy Minh, approximately 40 km south of the capital Hanoi, and An Thin, situated approximately 11 km south of the Pha Lai power plant. The concentrations of 20 elements were measured using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Significant site-specific differences were found for the elements As, Ba, Be, Br, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, P and Sr. A comparison with other in situ biomonitoring studies using Unionidae bivalves showed that the concentrations of most elements were within the same order of magnitude, whereas heavy metal concentrations were distinctively low, suggesting the absence of major anthropogenic pollution sources in this area. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn were below the levels regarded as harmful according to the international standards for metals in mollusks compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

  19. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bryan L. Barr, Dana B.; Wright, J. Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2008-11-15

    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  20. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan L; Barr, Dana B; Wright, J Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2008-11-15

    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  1. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (<0.03%) is ultimately excreted into milk. The toxicokinetic studies also indicate that human glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast

  2. Heavy metal biomonitoring and phytoremediation potentialities of aquatic macrophytes in River Nile.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Manal Ahmed; Badr, Nadia El-sayed; El-Khatib, Ahmed; Abo-El-Kassem, Amany

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediments, water, and different plant organs of six aquatic vascular plant species, Ceratophyllum demersum L. Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub; Myriophyllum spicatum L.; Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud; and Typha domingensis (Pers.) Poir. ex Steud, growing naturally in the Nile system (Sohag Governorate), were investigated. The aim was to define which species and which plant organs exhibit the greatest accumulation and evaluate whether these species could be usefully employed in biomonitoring and phytoremediation programs. The recorded metals in water samples were above the standard levels of both US Environmental Protection Agency and Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency except for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals in water, sediments, and plants possess the same trend: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd which reflects the biomonitoring potentialities of the investigated plant species. Generally, the variation of heavy element concentrations in water and sediments in relation to site and season, as assessed by two-way repeated measured ANOVA, was significant (p < 0.05). However, insignificant variations were observed in the concentrations of Pb and Cd in sediments in relation to season and of Cu and Zn in relation to site. Results also showed that the selectivity of the heavy elements for the investigated plants varied significantly (p < 0.05) with species variation. The accumulation capability of the investigated species could be arranged according to this pattern: C. demersum > E. crassipes > M. spicatum > E. pyramidalis > T. domingensis > P. australis. On the basis of the element concentrations, roots of all the studied species contain higher concentrations of Cu and Zn than shoots while leaves usually acquire the highest concentrations of Pb. Cd concentrations among different plant organs are comparable except in M. spicatum where the highest Cd concentrations

  3. [The biomonitoring subsystem of the Republic of Bashkortostan for assessing environmental quality].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, S V; Kuramshina, N G; Iur'eva, V V; Iur'eva, E V

    1997-01-01

    General integrated system evaluates the state of soil, waters and atmosphere through natural biotest organisms and monitors anthropogenic changes in environment. The topics discussed are modern methods of soil, waters and atmosphere monitoring, main parameters for ecologic regulation of toxic chemicals, creation of biomonitoring subsystem in whole ecologic control. Efficiency of studies aimed at creation of biomonitoring subsystem depends on systematic investigations of anthropogenic influence on living creatures and on assessment of integral parameters describing biologic environment and characterizing jeopardy of various polluters.

  4. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    PubMed

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  5. Hair Biomonitoring for Exposure to Selected Toxic Elements: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Jervis, R.E.; Barbara, M.

    1999-11-14

    Recently, we conducted a thorough study of hair biomonitoring that has been reported worldwide and that we consider to show that hair analysis, done properly, is a very sensitive and reliable method for assessing exposure of affected individuals and population groups. This study yielded results that clearly mirrored relative environmental exposure, especially for Pb, As, Cd, and Hg. In this paper, the various questions raised about the validity and interpretation of hair trace-element content are addressed, and means to obviate them are presented and discussed. Further, examples of particularly convincing uses of hair monitoring to assess the intake--particularly of four especially hazardous environmental pollutants: As, Cd, Pb, Hg--are outlined in some detail.

  6. Biomonitors of stream quality on agricultural areas: fish versus invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Hilary E.; Rabeni, Charles F.; Boyle, Terence P.

    1986-01-01

    Although the utility of using either fish or benthic invertebrates as biomonitors of stream quality has been clearly shown, there is little comparative information on the usefulness of the groups in any particular situation. We compared fish to invertebrate assemblages in their ability to reflect habitat quality of sediment-impacted streams in agricultural regions of northeast Missouri, USA. Habitat quality was measured by a combination of substrate composition, riparian type, buffer strip width, and land use. Invertebrates were more sensitive to habitat differences when structural measurements, species diversity and ordination, were used. Incorporating ecological measurements, by using the Index of Biological Integrity, increased the information obtained from the fish assemblage. The differential response of the two groups was attributed to the more direct impact of sediments on invertebrate life requisites; the impact of sedimentation on fish is considered more indirect and complex, affecting feeding and reproductive mechanisms.

  7. Do mosses exist outside of Europe? A biomonitoring reflection.

    PubMed

    Boquete, M T; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2017-09-01

    The passive moss biomonitoring technique has been proved a useful environmental tool for the study of the air quality. However, after more than 40years of its discovery, it has not been used yet in decision making when dealing with atmospheric pollution. Scientific efforts and funding are wasted when these sort of findings do not have a meaningful impact on society. Thus, the aim of this review is to showcase the reasons preventing the worldwide application of the moss technique. The results showed that the possible reasons underlying this problem are the lack of standardization of the technique, transmission of a false idea of robustness, and the lack of a theoretical background. Knowing and accepting these problems is the first step to encourage scientists and funding bodies to invest their efforts in really improving the technique for its application in environmental policies and not only in scientific circles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  9. Study of environmental biomonitoring of the Jiaozhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P Q; Wang, W Q; Lu, X L; Chen, C Y; Dong, J H

    1999-01-01

    The content of 34 elements was determined in tissue samples of several marine bivalve species collected from various sites in the Jiaozhou Bay. The scope of the study was to determine the most suitable bivalve species to be used for environmental biomonitoring and to evaluate the environmental status of the bay. Clams exhibited higher elemental contents than oysters and they are the major marine bivalve species in the Jiaozhou Bay; therefore, we consider clams to be more suitable than oysters as bioindicators for evaluating the environmental status of the area. Increased elemental levels in clam tissues indicate polluted sites. Also, increased elemental levels in mussels point to possible pollution from tourism development at one selected site.

  10. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protozoa interaction with aquatic invertebrate: interest for watercourses biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Bigot, A; Aubert, D; Hohweyer, J; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Geffard, A

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia duodenalis are human waterborne protozoa. These worldwide parasites had been detected in various watercourses as recreational, surface, drinking, river, and seawater. As of today, water protozoa detection was based on large water filtration and on sample concentration. Another tool like aquatic invertebrate parasitism could be used for sanitary and environmental biomonitoring. In fact, organisms like filter feeders could already filtrate and concentrate protozoa directly in their tissues in proportion to ambient concentration. So molluscan shellfish can be used as a bioindicator of protozoa contamination level in a site since they were sedentary. Nevertheless, only a few researches had focused on nonspecific parasitism like protozoa infection on aquatic invertebrates. Objectives of this review are twofold: Firstly, an overview of protozoa in worldwide water was presented. Secondly, current knowledge of protozoa parasitism on aquatic invertebrates was detailed and the lack of data of their biological impact was pointed out.

  12. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  13. Quality control in bio-monitoring networks, Spanish Aerobiology Network.

    PubMed

    Oteros, Jose; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2013-01-15

    Several of the airborne biological particles, such as pollen grains and fungal spores, are known to generate human health problems including allergies and infections. A number of aerobiologists have focused their research on these airborne particles. The Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) was set up in 1992, and since then dozens of research groups have worked on a range of related topics, including the standardization of study methods and the quality control of data generated by this network. In 2010, the REA started work on an inter-laboratory survey for proficiency testing purposes. The main goal of the study reported in the present paper was to determine the performance of technicians in the REA network using an analytical method that could be implemented by other bio-monitoring networks worldwide. The results recorded by each technician were compared with the scores obtained for a bounded mean of all results. The performance of each technician was expressed in terms of the relative error made in counting each of several pollen types. The method developed and implemented here proved appropriate for proficiency testing in interlaboratory studies involving bio-monitoring networks, and enabled the source of data quality problems to be pinpointed. The test revealed a variation coefficient of 10%. The relative error was significant for 3.5% of observations. In overall terms, the REA staff performed well, in accordance with the REA Management and Quality Manual. These findings serve to guarantee the quality of the data obtained, which can reliably be used for research purposes and published in the media in order to help prevent pollen-related health problems.

  14. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  15. Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Bond, J A

    1996-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. Butadiene is metabolized to DNA-reactive metabolites, including 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and diepoxybutane. These epoxides are thought to play a critical role in butadiene carcinogenicity. Butadiene and some of its metabolites (e.g., epoxybutene) are volatile. Exhalation of unchanged butadiene and excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine represent major routes of elimination. Therefore, biomonitoring of butadiene exposure could be based on chemical analysis of butadiene in exhaled breath, blood levels of butadiene epoxides, excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine, or adducts of butadiene epoxides with DNA or blood proteins. Mutation induction in specific genes (e.g., HPRT) following butadiene exposure can be potentially used as a biomarker. Excretion of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)butane or the product of epoxybutene with N-7 in guanine in urine, epoxybutene-hemoglobin adducts, and HPRT mutation have been used as biomarkers in recent studies of occupational exposure to butadiene. Data in laboratory animals suggest that diepoxybutane may be a more important genotoxic metabolite than epoxybutene. Biomonitoring methods need to be developed for

  16. Mapping and modeling airborne urban phenanthrene distribution using vegetation biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noth, Elizabeth M.; Katharine Hammond, S.; Biging, Gregory S.; Tager, Ira B.

    2013-10-01

    To capture the spatial distribution of phenanthrene in an urban setting we used vegetation biomonitoring with Jeffrey pine trees (Pinus jeffreyi). The major challenge in characterizing spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations within a metropolitan area has been sampling at a fine enough resolution to observe the underlying spatial pattern. However, field and chamber studies show that the primary pathway through which PAHs enter plants is from air into leaves, making vegetation biomonitoring a feasible way to examine the spatial distribution of these compounds. Previous research has shown that phenanthrene has adverse health effects and that it is one of the most abundant PAHs in urban air. We collected 99 pine needle samples from 91 locations in Fresno in the morning on a winter day, and analyzed them for PAHs in the inner needle. All 99 pine needle samples had detectable levels of phenanthrene, with mean concentration of 41.0 ng g-1, median 36.9 ng g-1, and standard deviation of 28.5 ng g-1 fresh weight. The ratio of the 90th:10th percentile concentrations by location was 3.3. The phenanthrene distribution had a statistically significant Moran's I of 0.035, indicating a high degree of spatial clustering. We implemented land use regression to fit a model to our data. Our model was able to explain a moderate amount of the variability in the data (R2 = 0.56), likely reflecting the major sources of phenanthrene in Fresno. The spatial distribution of modeled airborne phenanthrene shows the influences of highways, railroads, and industrial and commercial zones.

  17. Biomonitoring air pollution with the desert lichen Ramalina maciformis.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Levin, Tal; Cohen, Yehudit; Lehr, Haya

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the environmental impact of anthropogenic activity in the Negev Desert, we monitored the following in order to determine the physiological integrity of the epilithic fruticose lichen Ramalina maciformis: (1) production of ethylene; (2) potential quantum yield of photosystem II expressed as chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm; and (3) electrolyte leakage of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity. The degree of pollution was assessed by measuring the amounts of B, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr and Zn in the lichen thallus. Some of the lichen-carrying stones collected in the relatively unpolluted control site were relocated on the same hill, to test the possible impact of relocation. An additional amount of lichen-carrying stones was marked as controls. The greater part of the lichen-carrying stones was transferred to 10 biomonitoring sites in and around Ramat Hovav, an industrial area in the Negev Desert, Israel. Transplanted lichen in polluted sites contained higher amounts of mineral elements than lichens in the control site after an exposure period of 7 months. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlation of ethylene production and Ni content, negative correlation of Fv/Fm ratios and B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn, and positive correlation of electric conductivity and B, Mn, Ni and Sr. Both elemental content and physiological alterations in transferred samples of R. maciformis point to a high degree of contamination in Ramat Hovav. The present study suggests that the lichen R. maciformis should be classified as a sensitive species endangered by anthropogenic activity in the desert. Furthermore, this lichen species is likely to be suitable as a bioindicator of pollution in other parts of the Negev Desert. Ethylene production and electric conductivity as parameters of lichen-vitality, indicated stress in 5 of the 12 biomonitoring sites (42%) and may therefore be considered as more sensitive than the Fv/Fm ratio, which

  18. Biomonitoring of 1,3-butadiene and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Osterman-Golkar, S; Bond, J A

    1996-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments list several volatile organic chemicals as hazardous air pollutants, including ethylene oxide, butadiene, styrene, and acrylonitrile. The toxicology of many of these compounds shares several common elements such as carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, genotoxicity of the epoxide intermediates, involvement of cytochrome P450 for metabolic activation (except ethylene oxide), and involvement of at least two enzymes for detoxication of the epoxides (e.g., hydrolysis or conjugation with glutathione). These similarities facilitate research strategies for identifying and developing biomarkers of exposure. This article reviews the current knowledge about biomarkers of butadiene. Butadiene is carcinogenic in mice and rats, which raises concern for potential carcinogenicity in humans. Butadiene is metabolized to DNA-reactive metabolites, including 1,2-epoxy-3-butene and diepoxybutane. These epoxides are thought to play a critical role in butadiene carcinogenicity. Butadiene and some of its metabolites (e.g., epoxybutene) are volatile. Exhalation of unchanged butadiene and excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine represent major routes of elimination. Therefore, biomonitoring of butadiene exposure could be based on chemical analysis of butadiene in exhaled breath, blood levels of butadiene epoxides, excretion of butadiene metabolites in urine, or adducts of butadiene epoxides with DNA or blood proteins. Mutation induction in specific genes (e.g., HPRT) following butadiene exposure can be potentially used as a biomarker. Excretion of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl-S)butane or the product of epoxybutene with N-7 in guanine in urine, epoxybutene-hemoglobin adducts, and HPRT mutation have been used as biomarkers in recent studies of occupational exposure to butadiene. Data in laboratory animals suggest that diepoxybutane may be a more important genotoxic metabolite than epoxybutene. Biomonitoring methods need to be developed for

  19. Biomonitoring Data for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in the United States and Canada: Interpretation in a Public Health Risk Assessment Context Using Biomonitoring Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Lesa L.; Morgan, Marsha K.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Barr, Dana B.; Burns, Carol J.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Hays, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several extensive studies of exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using urinary concentrations in samples from the general population, farm applicators, and farm family members are now available. Reference doses (RfDs) exist for 2,4-D, and Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs; concentrations in urine or plasma that are consistent with those RfDs) for 2,4-D have recently been derived and published. Objective We reviewed the available biomonitoring data for 2,4-D from the United States and Canada and compared them with BE values to draw conclusions regarding the margin of safety for 2,4-D exposures within each population group. Data sources Data on urinary 2,4-D excretion in general and target populations from recent published studies are tabulated and the derivation of BE values for 2,4-D summarized. Data synthesis The biomonitoring data indicate margins of safety (ratio of BE value to biomarker concentration) of approximately 200 at the central tendency and 50 at the extremes in the general population. Median exposures for applicators and their family members during periods of use appear to be well within acute exposure guidance values. Conclusions Biomonitoring data from these studies indicate that current exposures to 2,4-D are below applicable exposure guidance values. This review demonstrates the value of biomonitoring data in assessing population exposures in the context of existing risk assessments using the BE approach. Risk managers can use this approach to integrate the available biomonitoring data into an overall assessment of current risk management practices for 2,4-D. PMID:20123603

  20. Biomarker-based strategy for early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rouzé, Anahita; Loridant, Séverine; Poissy, Julien; Dervaux, Benoit; Sendid, Boualem; Cornu, Marjorie; Nseir, Saad

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a biomarker-based strategy on early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment. Prospective randomized controlled single-center unblinded study, performed in a mixed ICU. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to a strategy in which empirical antifungal treatment duration was determined by (1,3)-β-D-glucan, mannan, and anti-mannan serum assays, performed on day 0 and day 4; or to a routine care strategy, based on international guidelines, which recommend 14 days of treatment. In the biomarker group, early stop recommendation was determined using an algorithm based on the results of biomarkers. The primary outcome was the percentage of survivors discontinuing empirical antifungal treatment early, defined as a discontinuation strictly before day 7. A total of 109 patients were analyzed (one patient withdraw consent). Empirical antifungal treatment was discontinued early in 29 out of 54 patients in the biomarker strategy group, compared with one patient out of 55 in the routine strategy group [54% vs 2%, p < 0.001, OR (95% CI) 62.6 (8.1-486)]. Total duration of antifungal treatment was significantly shorter in the biomarker strategy compared with routine strategy [median (IQR) 6 (4-13) vs 13 (12-14) days, p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in the percentage of patients with subsequent proven invasive Candida infection, mechanical ventilation-free days, length of ICU stay, cost, and ICU mortality between the two study groups. The use of a biomarker-based strategy increased the percentage of early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment among critically ill patients with suspected invasive Candida infection. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that early discontinuation of empirical antifungal treatment had no negative impact on outcome. However, further studies are needed to confirm the safety of this strategy. This trial was registered at Clinical

  1. Lunar Capabilities Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Lawrence, D. J.; Neal, C. R.; Clark, P. E.; Green, R. O.; Horanyi, M.; Johnson, M. D.; Kelso, R. M.; Sultana, M.; Thompson, D. R.

    2016-11-01

    A Lunar Capabilities Roadmap (LCR) is required to highlight capabilities critical for science and exploration of the Moon as well as beyond. The LCR will focus mainly on capabilities with examples of specific technologies to satisfy those needs.

  2. [APPLICATION OF BIOMONITORING METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS].

    PubMed

    Ilchenko, I N; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Karamysheva, T V; Kartasheva, A N

    2015-01-01

    In this article there are presented the current views on the technology for the assessment of the exposure to chemical pollutants with the use of the methodology of human biomonitoring and the main advantages of the latter are highlighted. There are presented main problems of the implementation of biomonitoring studies in Russia such as: beginning with the lack of the national system of the biomonitoring, and accomplishing with the inconsistency in the data within the country, the inability to assess the trend according to levels of exposure in the regional or national context. Due to the inconvenience of the Russian regulatory basis on human biomonitoring, there is persisted technological backwardness in terms of the delivery of the design, presentation and evaluation of research results, which results in the decline of the significance of biomonitoring for public health in the country. There is preserved a need for standardization and harmonization of methods and procedures of human biomonitoring (HBM) in Russia with international requirements. A serious concern is the lack of Russian programs on standardization of procedures and interlaboratcy comparison of results according to biomarkers of the exposure, the insufficient involvement of national laboratories in international programs of the comparison, the difficulties with the acquisition of standard samples of the compositionfor different environmental pollutants in biological tissues. The restraint ofthe development of HBM in the Russian Federation is caused by a complex of reasons. The most urgent task is the development of the national concept of the system with subsequent formation of technological, institutional and organizational framework of biomonitoring, as well as the improvement of Russian normative-methodical base.

  3. Combination of an on-line biomonitor using light emitting bacteria and a UV spectrophotometer probe for homeland security and drinking water safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Joep; Küster, Eberhard; van den Broeke, Joep

    2007-10-01

    The interest in on-line water quality monitors has increased significantly in the last years, because of the need for rapid, reliable and continuous monitoring. This has resulted in the introduction of new monitors which can provide (near) real-time information on water quality. They can be used for continuous river water quality control as well as for drinking water protection against intentional contamination. Still no universal monitor is yet available which is able to protect against all kinds of threats. The combination of complementary systems into a single integrated monitoring platform would greatly enhance the applicability of real time monitoring devices. Such a combination should be found in the complementary information derived from a chemical analytical technique and from an effect monitor (biomonitor). Where a chemical analytical monitoring system identifies and quantifies specific water contaminants, biomonitoring gives an indication of the total quality, including the effects of unknown toxic substances. This combination was found in using the TOXcontrol, a biological toxicity monitor using luminescent bacteria, and the s::can spectro::lyser TM, a submersible UV-VIS spectrophotometer probe, to evaluate drinking water safety. This combination allows for the verification of alarm signals from one instrument with the signal of the other, reducing false alarm rates. Experiments were performed in a laboratory setting and in a field test. It is concluded that the combination of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the toxicity biomonitor comprises a monitoring system with a high added value being capable of detecting a broad range of contaminants at low concentrations.

  4. Biomonitoring Data for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in the United States and Canada: Interpretation in a Public Health Risk Assessment Context Using Biomonitoring Equivalents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several extensive studies of exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) using urinary concentrations in samples from the general population, farm applicators, and farm family members are now available. Reference doses (RfDs) exist for 2,4-D, and Biomonitoring Equivalents ...

  5. Epiphytic Moss as a Biomonitor for Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, T.; Deakova, T.; Shortlidge, E.; Rao, M.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Rice, A. L.; George, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tracking nitrogen (N) deposition patterns is important for understanding how anthropogenic sources of nitrogen affect natural habitats, human health, and for evaluating computer models of future N deposition. It can also aid in tracking and modeling anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. This pilot study investigated the use of Orthotrichum lyellii, a common urban epiphytic moss, as a possible bioindicator for N deposition through the analysis of total moss N content and N isotopic fractionation ( δ15N) for evaluating N sources. In the spring/summer of 2013 we collected 168 O. lyellii samples from the trunks of deciduous trees in 53 locations in the Portland metropolitan area. In the winter of 2013-14, we resampled the same locations to investigate the effect of seasonality. The averaged summer moss N content were plotted against a land use regression model (LUR) developed by taking NOx samples from 144 sites in the Portland area within the Urban Growth Boundary. The correlation between moss N and modeled NO2 was found to be significant at p < 0.001, r=0.625. Summer moss samples N content ranged between 0.71% and 3.36% (mean of 1.87%), the δ15N ranged -8.97‰ and 11.78‰ (mean of -0.91‰). Moss winter N content ranged between .77% and 3.12% (mean of 1.71%), and the δ15N ranged -10.40‰ and 10.27‰ (mean of -3.73‰). The average values for %N and δ15N fall within the range of previous studies in other moss samples, however the maximum values are higher than what other studies have typically found for both %N and δ15N. A significant correlation between δ15N and %N was found (r = 0.67). The moss samples showed a similar pattern of higher N content and δ15N near the urban center decreasing with distance from major roadways and other significant sources of fossil fuel derived NOx. These results indicated the sensitivity of O.lyellii to N and the potential for its use as a biomonitor. With sufficient sampling density, using O. lyellii as an inexpensive

  6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL: TECHNICAL WORKSHOP ON HUMAN MILK SURVEILLANCE AND BIOMONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Workshop focused on questions related to interpretation of information gathered from human milk biomonitoring studies. Biomonitoring can measure a person’s exposure to a chemical in his/her tissue. Human milk is a unique biological matrix for biomonitoring because i...

  7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE EXPERT PANEL: TECHNICAL WORKSHOP ON HUMAN MILK SURVEILLANCE AND BIOMONITORING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Workshop focused on questions related to interpretation of information gathered from human milk biomonitoring studies. Biomonitoring can measure a person’s exposure to a chemical in his/her tissue. Human milk is a unique biological matrix for biomonitoring because i...

  8. An integrated biomarker-based strategy for ecotoxicological evaluation of risk in environmental management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Readman, James W; Paul Leonard, D R

    2004-08-18

    Environmental impacts by both natural events and man-made interventions are a fact of life; and developing the capacity to minimise these impacts and their harmful consequences for biological resources, ecosystems and human health is a daunting task for environmental legislators and regulators. A major challenge in impact and risk assessment, as part of integrated environmental management (IEM), is to link harmful effects of pollution (including toxic chemicals) in individual sentinel animals to their ecological consequences. This obstacle has resulted in a knowledge-gap for those seeking to develop effective policies for sustainable use of resources and environmental protection. Part of the solution to this problem may lie with the use of diagnostic clinical-type laboratory-based ecotoxicological tests or biomarkers, utilising sentinel animals as integrators of pollution, coupled with direct immunochemical tests for contaminants. These rapid and cost-effective ecotoxicological tools can provide information on the health status of individuals and populations based on relatively small samples of individuals. In the context of ecosystem status or health of the environment, biomarkers are also being used to link processes of molecular and cellular damage through to higher levels (i.e., prognostic capability), where they can result in pathology with reduced physiological performance and reproductive success. Complex issues are involved in evaluating environmental risk, such as the effects of the physico-chemical environment on the speciation and uptake of pollutant chemicals and inherent inter-individual and inter-species differences in vulnerability to toxicity; and the toxicity of complex mixtures. Effectively linking the impact of pollutants through the various hierarchical levels of biological organisation to ecosystem and human health requires a pragmatic integrated approach based on existing information that either links or correlates processes of pollutant

  9. The Assessment of the Readiness of Molecular Biomarker-Based Mobile Health Technologies for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Phang, Yik Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Shang Ying; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yu Yang; Chen, Yu Zong

    2015-12-08

    Mobile health technologies to detect physiological and simple-analyte biomarkers have been explored for the improvement and cost-reduction of healthcare services, some of which have been endorsed by the US FDA. Advancements in the investigations of non-invasive and minimally-invasive molecular biomarkers and biomarker candidates and the development of portable biomarker detection technologies have fuelled great interests in these new technologies for mhealth applications. But apart from the development of more portable biomarker detection technologies, key questions need to be answered and resolved regarding to the relevance, coverage, and performance of these technologies and the big data management issues arising from their wide spread applications. In this work, we analyzed the newly emerging portable biomarker detection technologies, the 664 non-invasive molecular biomarkers and the 592 potential minimally-invasive blood molecular biomarkers, focusing on their detection capability, affordability, relevance, and coverage. Our analysis suggests that a substantial percentage of these biomarkers together with the new technologies can be potentially used for a variety of disease conditions in mhealth applications. We further propose a new strategy for reducing the workload in the processing and analysis of the big data arising from widespread use of mhealth products, and discuss potential issues of implementing this strategy.

  10. Suitability of Tillandsia usneoides and Aechmea fasciata for biomonitoring toxic elements under tropical seasonal climate.

    PubMed

    Giampaoli, Patricia; Wannaz, Eduardo D; Tavares, Armando R; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    Aechmea fasciata was evaluated for the first time as a biomonitor of toxic elements, in comparison to the biomonitoring capacity of Tillandsia usneoides, a well-established biomonitor bromeliad species. Plants of both species were exposed to air pollutants from industrial, urban, and agricultural sources, under the tropical seasonal climate, from June/2011 to April/2013, in five sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, for 8 consecutive exposure periods of 12 weeks each. The levels of essential and non-essential elements, including trace metals, were quantified at the end of each exposure. T. usneoides and A. fasciata indicated N, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, and V as air contaminants in the studied sites, during wet and dry seasons and both species were recommended for qualitative biomonitoring. Concentration levels of N, Ca, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, B, Co, and Ni were significantly higher in T. usneoides than in A. fasciata. However, A. fasciata showed a higher effective retention capacity of Ni, Pb, V, Cu, Fe, Cr, and Co during field exposure, as indicated by the estimate of enrichment factor relative to basal concentrations. This species is more suitable for detecting the atmospheric pollution level of those metals than the T. usneoides. Both species indicated adequately the seasonal differences in the pollution levels of several elements, but T. usneoides presented higher ability for biomonitoring the spatial variations and for indicating more properly the sources of each element in the studied region than the A. fasciata.

  11. Urinary, circulating, and tissue biomonitoring studies indicate widespread exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. Importantly, results from a large number of biomonitoring studies are at odds with the results from two toxicokinetic studies. We examined several possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. We examined > 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism. The > 80 biomonitoring studies examined included measurements in thousands of individuals from several different countries, and these studies overwhelmingly detected BPA in individual adults, adolescents, and children. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range), and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range). In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Some regulatory agencies have relied solely on these toxicokinetic models in their risk assessments. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.

  12. Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Hays, Sean M.; Robison, Steven; Aylward, Lesa L.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs), the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC), and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context. PMID:22518117

  13. Biomonitoring of air pollution using antioxidative enzyme system in two genera of family Pottiaceae (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Pooja; Verma, Sonam; Srivastava, Alka

    2016-09-01

    Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams and Semibarbula orientalis (Web.) Wijk. & Marg. and assess their suitability as biomonitors. Three different locations viz., Lucknow University, Residency (contaminated sites) and Dilkusha Garden (reference site) within Lucknow city with different levels of air pollutants were used for comparison. Our results indicate that air pollution caused marked enhancement in activity of antioxidative enzymes viz., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. All the three are capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species. In the genus S. orientalis, catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was minimum at the reference site Dilkusha Garden and was significantly higher at the two contaminated sites for catalase and peroxidase, whereas the difference was non significant for superoxide dismutase. In H. rosea the activity of catalase and peroxidase at the three locations was almost similar, however superoxide dismutase activity showed a significant increase in the two contaminated sites when compared to the reference site, the value being highest for Lucknow University site. It was thus observed that the two genera, from the same location, showed difference in the activity of the antioxidative enzymes. Based on our results, we recommend bryophytes as good monitors of air pollution.

  14. Emerging pollutants in the environment: present and future challenges in biomonitoring, ecological risks and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Demnerová, Kateřina; Aamand, Jens; Agathos, Spiros; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    Emerging pollutants reach the environment from various anthropogenic sources and are distributed throughout environmental matrices. Although great advances have been made in the detection and analysis of trace pollutants during recent decades, due to the continued development and refinement of specific techniques, a wide array of undetected contaminants of emerging environmental concern need to be identified and quantified in various environmental components and biological tissues. These pollutants may be mobile and persistent in air, water, soil, sediments and ecological receptors even at low concentrations. Robust data on their fate and behaviour in the environment, as well as on threats to ecological and human health, are still lacking. Moreover, the ecotoxicological significance of some emerging micropollutants remains largely unknown, because satisfactory data to determine their risk often do not exist. This paper discusses the fate, behaviour, (bio)monitoring, environmental and health risks associated with emerging chemical (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, hormones, toxins, among others) and biological (bacteria, viruses) micropollutants in soils, sediments, groundwater, industrial and municipal wastewaters, aquaculture effluents, and freshwater and marine ecosystems, and highlights new horizons for their (bio)removal. Our study aims to demonstrate the imperative need to boost research and innovation for new and cost-effective treatment technologies, in line with the uptake, mode of action and consequences of each emerging contaminant. We also address the topic of innovative tools for the evaluation of the effects of toxicity on human health and for the prediction of microbial availability and degradation in the environment. Additionally, we consider the development of (bio)sensors to perform environmental monitoring in real-time mode. This needs to address multiple species, along with a more effective exploitation of specialised microbes or enzymes

  15. Micronucleus assay in lymphocytes as a tool to biomonitor human exposure to aneuploidogens and clastogens.

    PubMed Central

    Norppa, H; Luomahaara, S; Heikanen, H; Roth, S; Sorsa, M; Renzi, L; Lindholm, C

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of micronuclei (MN) in cultured human lymphocytes is, in principle, able to detect exposure to clastogens and aneuploidogens alike. There is, however, no clear evidence from human biomonitoring studies or animal experiments showing that in vivo exposure of resting lymphocytes to an aneuploidogen could actually be expressed as MN in cultured lymphocytes. In vitro, a pulse treatment of human lymphocytes with vinblastine, an aneuploidogen, did result in MN induction even if performed before mitogen stimulation, although a much more pronounced effect was obtained in actively dividing lymphocyte cultures. On the other hand, it is probable that a considerable portion of "spontaneous" MN contain whole chromosomes, their contribution increasing with age. It also seems that cytochalasin B, used for the identification of second cell cycle interphase cells in the MN assay, is able to slightly increase the level of MN with whole chromosomes. If MN harboring chromosome fragments represent a minority of the total MN frequency, there may be difficulties in detecting a weak effect in this fraction of MN against the background of MN with whole chromosomes. This would reduce the sensitivity of the assay in detecting clastogens, unless MN with whole chromosomes and chromosome fragments are distinguished from each other. That a problem may exist in sensitivity is suggested by the difficulty in demonstrating MN induction by smoking, an exposure capable of inducing chromosome aberrations. The sensitivity of the lymphocyte MN assay could be increased by detecting kinetochore or centromere in MN, or by automation, allowing more cells to be analyzed. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8143606

  16. Analysing the impact of multiple stressors in aquatic biomonitoring data: A 'cookbook' with applications in R.

    PubMed

    Feld, Christian K; Segurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Cayetano

    2016-12-15

    Multiple stressors threaten biodiversity and ecosystem integrity, imposing new challenges to ecosystem management and restoration. Ecosystem managers are required to address and mitigate the impact of multiple stressors, yet the knowledge required to disentangle multiple-stressor effects is still incomplete. Experimental studies have advanced the understanding of single and combined stressor effects, but there is a lack of a robust analytical framework, to address the impact of multiple stressors based on monitoring data. Since 2000, the monitoring of Europe's waters has resulted in a vast amount of biological and environmental (stressor) data of about 120,000 water bodies. For many reasons, this data is rarely exploited in the multiple-stressor context, probably because of its rather heterogeneous nature: stressors vary and are mixed with broad-scale proxies of environmental stress (e.g. land cover), missing values and zero-inflated data limit the application of statistical methods and biological indicators are often aggregated (e.g. taxon richness) and do not respond stressor-specific. Here, we present a 'cookbook' to analyse the biological response to multiple stressors using data from biomonitoring schemes. Our 'cookbook' includes guidance for the analytical process and the interpretation of results. The 'cookbook' is accompanied by scripts, which allow the user to run a stepwise analysis based on his/her own data in R, an open-source language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. Using simulated and real data, we show that the recommended procedure is capable of identifying stressor hierarchy (importance) and interaction in large datasets. We recommend a minimum number of 150 independent observations and a minimum stressor gradient length of 75% (of the most relevant stressor's gradient in nature), to be able to reliably rank the stressor's importance, detect relevant interactions and estimate their standardised effect size. We conclude with

  17. Moss biomonitoring of air pollution with chromium in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Ivana; Spirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the atmospheric deposition of chromium in Croatia by using moss biomonitoring technique and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Moss samples (Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium rutabulum and Homalothecium Sericeum) were collected from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the country, during the summer and autumn of 2010. Collected samples were air dried, then cleaned and digested by using microwave digestion system. The median value obtained in this study (1.94 mg kg⁻¹) compared with the median value of previous investigation performed in 2006 (2.75 mg kg⁻¹) shows that the content of chromium decreased. Higher contents of chromium were found in moss samples collected in the regions of Central Croatia, in/near the cities of Zagreb, Sisak and Kutina, which, in the most of the cases, are result of anthropogenic activities. In Costal Croatia, higher values have a natural origin due to the significantly higher content of Cr in soil from this region. The results were compared with those from similar studies in neighboring and other Balkan countries. It was established that the content of chromium in Croatia is lower than in the most of these countries.

  18. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too. PMID:27212940

  19. Red deer antlers as biomonitors for lead contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Tataruch, F.

    1995-09-01

    Changes in human lead exposure were reconstructed by lead analyses of ancient teeth and bones, as lead accumulates in calcified tissues. As a consequence of research on wildlife species as biomonitors for environmental pollution, red deer antlers were considered as indicators for temporal and regional changes of environmental contamination by pollutants such as lead and strontium-90. The chemical composition of the antler is similar to that of other bony tissues in the body. As many hunters keep antlers as trophies even from a long time ago, without any conservational treatment but with an exact listing of the date and place of shooting, the antlers represent valuable samples for environmental research, especially reconstruction of pollution of the past decades when modern analytical techniques did not exist. The primary focus of this study was to compare pollution by lead before and after the introduction of lead additives to vehicle`s fuel and the impact of radioactive strontium-90 to the environment. Results of {sup 90}Sr analyses will be published in another paper. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Evaluation of a Home Biomonitoring Autonomous Mobile Robot.

    PubMed

    Dorronzoro Zubiete, Enrique; Nakahata, Keigo; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Sekine, Masashi; Sun, Guanghao; Gomez, Isabel; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population age demands more services in healthcare domain. It has been shown that mobile robots could be a potential solution to home biomonitoring for the elderly. Through our previous studies, a mobile robot system that is able to track a subject and identify his daily living activities has been developed. However, the system has not been tested in any home living scenarios. In this study we did a series of experiments to investigate the accuracy of activity recognition of the mobile robot in a home living scenario. The daily activities tested in the evaluation experiment include watching TV and sleeping. A dataset recorded by a distributed distance-measuring sensor network was used as a reference to the activity recognition results. It was shown that the accuracy is not consistent for all the activities; that is, mobile robot could achieve a high success rate in some activities but a poor success rate in others. It was found that the observation position of the mobile robot and subject surroundings have high impact on the accuracy of the activity recognition, due to the variability of the home living daily activities and their transitional process. The possibility of improvement of recognition accuracy has been shown too.

  1. Research highlights: natural passive samplers--plants as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, interest in boosting the collection of data on environmental pollutants while reducing costs has spurred intensive research into passive samplers, instruments that monitor the environment through the free flow of chemical species. These devices, although relatively inexpensive compared to active sampling technologies, are often tailored for collection of specific contaminants or monitoring of a single phase, typically water or air. Plants as versatile, natural passive samplers have gained increased attention in recent years due to their ability to absorb a diverse range of chemicals from the air, water, and soil. Trees, lichens, and other flora have evolved exquisite biological features to facilitate uptake of nutrients and water from the ground and conduct gas exchange on an extraordinary scale, making them excellent monitors of their surroundings. Sampling established plant specimens in a region also provides both historical and spatial data on environmental contaminants at relatively low cost in a non-invasive manner. This Highlight presents several recent publications that demonstrate how plant biomonitoring can be used to map the distribution of a variety of pollutants and identify their sources.

  2. Molecular Barcoding of Aquatic Oligochaetes: Implications for Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vivien, Régis; Wyler, Sofia; Lafont, Michel; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic oligochaetes are well recognized bioindicators of quality of sediments and water in watercourses and lakes. However, the difficult taxonomic determination based on morphological features compromises their more common use in eco-diagnostic analyses. To overcome this limitation, we investigated molecular barcodes as identification tool for broad range of taxa of aquatic oligochaetes. We report 185 COI and 52 ITS2 rDNA sequences for specimens collected in Switzerland and belonging to the families Naididae, Lumbriculidae, Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae. Phylogenetic analyses allowed distinguishing 41 lineages separated by more than 10 % divergence in COI sequences. The lineage distinction was confirmed by Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method and by ITS2 data. Our results showed that morphological identification underestimates the oligochaete diversity. Only 26 of the lineages could be assigned to morphospecies, of which seven were sequenced for the first time. Several cryptic species were detected within common morphospecies. Many juvenile specimens that could not be assigned morphologically have found their home after genetic analysis. Our study showed that COI barcodes performed very well as species identifiers in aquatic oligochaetes. Their easy amplification and good taxonomic resolution might help promoting aquatic oligochaetes as bioindicators for next generation environmental DNA biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25856230

  3. Lolium perenne as a biomonitor of atmospheric levels of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rey-Asensio, A; Carballeira, A

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a standardised protocol for the use of Lolium perenne cultures to biomonitor the surroundings of an aluminium smelter. Five ecological stations, which corresponded to air quality network monitoring sites pertaining to the smelter, were selected for study. Cultures of L. perenne (one at each site) were exposed for approximately 28 days, at different times between August 1999 and October 2000. At the end of the exposure periods, the fluoride concentrations in the cultures were determined. The concentrations of fluoride determined in the L. perenne cultures varied from 4.32 microg g(-1) to 912.22 microg g(-1) and followed a similar trend to concentrations of atmospheric fluoride. However, a wider range of fluoride concentration was observed in the L. perenne cultures than in the air surrounding the smelter. The background levels of fluoride in L. perenne cultures were also calculated, thereby allowing classification of fluoride air pollution in the area under study.

  4. Protist metabarcoding and environmental biomonitoring: Time for change.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil, L; Visco, J; Esling, P

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA and/or RNA proved to be a powerful tool to describe protist diversity. This new approach called also the metabarcoding has totally transformed our view of protist diversity, revealing a large number of novel lineages and expanding the range of protist phylogenetic diversity at almost every taxonomic level. However, until now the objectives of the vast majority of metabarcoding studies were purely academic. Practical applications of protist metabarcoding are surprisingly scarce, despite the fact that several groups of protists are commonly used as bioindicators of environmental impacts in freshwater or marine ecosystems. Here, we are reviewing studies that examine the ecological applications of metabarcoding for two groups of well-known protist bioindicators: diatoms and foraminifera. The results of these studies show that despite some biological and technical biases, molecular data quite faithfully reflect the morphology-based biotic indices and provide a similar assessment of ecosystem status. In view of these results, protist metabarcoding appears as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of aquatic ecosystems. Hence, we plead for integration of protist metabarcoding in future biomonitoring projects as a complement of traditional methods and a source of new biosensors for environmental impact assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Monetary cost of self-reported diet in relation to biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    All previous studies on monetary diet cost have examined the relationship of monetary cost of self-reported diet to self-reported, rather than biomarker-based, estimates of dietary intake. The present cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary costs of self-reported diet and biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake. Monetary diet cost (Japanese yen/1000 kJ) was calculated based on dietary intake information from a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire using retail food prices. Biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake (percentage of energy for protein and mg/1000 kJ for K and Na) were estimated based on 24 h urinary excretion and estimated energy expenditure. A total of fifteen universities and colleges in Japan. A total of 1046 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Total monetary diet cost showed a significant positive association with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na. Vegetables and fish were not only the main contributors to total monetary diet cost (16.4 % and 15.5 %, respectively) but also were relatively strongly correlated with total monetary diet cost (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.70 and 0.68, respectively). Monetary cost of vegetables was significantly positively associated with all three nutrients, while that of fish showed a significant and positive association only with protein. Total monetary cost of self-reported diet was positively associated with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na intake in young Japanese women, and appeared mainly to be explained by the monetary costs of vegetables and fish.

  6. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    SciTech Connect

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  7. Caddisflies as biomonitors identifying thresholds of toxic metal bioavailability that affect the stream benthos.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Hildrew, Alan G; Smith, Brian D; Geatches, Tim; Luoma, Samuel N

    2012-07-01

    It has been proposed that bioaccumulated concentrations of toxic metals in tolerant biomonitors be used as indicators of metal bioavailability that could be calibrated against the ecological response to metals of sensitive biotic assemblages. Our hypothesis was that metal concentrations in caddisfly larvae Hydropsyche siltalai and Plectrocnemia conspersa, as tolerant biomonitors, indicate metal bioavailability in contaminated streams, and can be calibrated against metal-specific ecological responses of mayflies. Bioaccumulated concentrations of Cu, As, Zn and Pb in H. siltalai from SW English streams were related to the mayfly assemblage. Mayflies were always sparse where bioavailabilities were high and were abundant and diverse where bioavailabilities of all metals were low, a pattern particularly evident when the combined abundance of heptageniid and ephemerellid mayflies was the response variable. The results offer promise that bioaccumulated concentrations of metals in tolerant biomonitors can be used to diagnose ecological impacts on stream benthos from metal stressors.

  8. The use of vegetables in the biomonitoring of cadmium and lead pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Bodnar, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Konieczka, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Lead and cadmium emitted from various anthropogenic sources have the ability to accumulate in tissues of living organisms. The phenomenon of accumulation of metals in the body is harmful and undesirable. The ability of plants to accumulate heavy metals from the individual elements of the environment has been used in biomonitoring of pollution. Leaves and roots of vegetables have particular predisposition for accumulating toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and therefore can be used for biomonitoring of the environment, mainly as a tool for assessing the extent of soil contamination. The article discusses information in the literature on entry paths of lead and cadmium into the body, toxic effects of lead and cadmium on the human organism, and the use of vegetables as a tool in the biomonitoring of heavy metals in different elements of the environment.

  9. Saliva as an analytical matrix: state of the art and application for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Caporossi, Lidia; Santoro, Alessia; Papaleo, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Analytical tests to measure chemicals in saliva can be employed for numerous analytes, endogenous compounds or xenobiotics. The objective was to determine which chemicals can be analysed with this matrix, which analytical methods are applicable, and what application is possible for biomonitoring. We reviewed the literature using three databases, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, collecting articles on different kinds of analysis in saliva. Studies were principally about molecules of clinical interest, xenobiotics, especially drugs of abuse, and chemicals used at workplaces; some substances show no relevant correlation with exposure data while others seems to be of particular interest for systematic use for biomonitoring. Currently, saliva is used far less than other biological fluids but its use for biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals might open up new areas for research and would certainly simplify the collection of biological samples.

  10. Guidelines for biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants (POPs), using lichens and aquatic mosses--a review.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    During the last decades, awareness regarding persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has become a cutting-edge topic, due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in air and water has proven to be insufficient to capture deposition and effects of these compounds in the biota. To overcome this limitation, environmental biomonitoring using lichens and aquatic mosses, have aroused as promising tools. The main aim of this work is to provide a review of: i) factors that influence the interception and accumulation of POPs by lichens; ii) how lichens and aquatic bryophytes can be used to track different pollution sources and; iii) how can these biomonitors contribute to environmental health studies. This review will allow designing a set of guidelines to be followed when using biomonitors to assess environmental POP pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Communicating Results in Post-Belmont Era Biomonitoring Studies: Lessons from Genetics and Neuroimaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Varshavsky, Julia; Liboiron, Max; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biomonitoring is a critical tool to assess the effects of chemicals on health, as scientists seek to better characterize life-course exposures from diverse environments. This trend, coupled with increased institutional support for community-engaged environmental health research, challenge established ethical norms related to biomonitoring results communication and data sharing between scientists, study participants, and their wider communities. Methods Through a literature review, participant observation at workshops, and interviews, we examine ethical tensions related to reporting individual data from chemical biomonitoring studies by drawing relevant lessons from the genetics and neuroimaging fields. Results In all three fields ethical debates about whether/how to report-back results to study participants are precipitated by two trends. First, changes in analytical methods have made more data accessible to stakeholders. For biomonitoring, improved techniques enable detection of more chemicals at lower levels, and diverse groups of scientists and health advocates now conduct exposure studies. Similarly, innovations in genetics have catalyzed large-scale projects and broadened the scope of who has access to genetic information. Second, increasing public interest in personal medical information has compelled imaging researchers to address demands by participants to know their personal data, despite uncertainties about their clinical significance. Four ethical arenas relevant to biomonitoring results communication emerged from our review: Tensions between participants’ right-to-know their personal results versus their ability or right-to-act to protect their health; whether and how to report incidental findings; informed consent in biobanking; and open-access data sharing. Conclusion Ethically engaging participants in biomonitoring studies requires consideration of several issues, including scientific uncertainty about health implications and exposure

  12. TBI Rehabilomics Research: an Exemplar of a Biomarker-Based Approach to Precision Care for Populations with Disability.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy K

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of this review is to summarize how "-omics" technologies can inform rehabilitation-relevant outcomes for a range of populations with neurologically related disability by including outcome metrics linked to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) domains of impairments in body function, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. To date, nearly every area of medicine uses biomarkers in some capacity to aid in understanding how personal biology informs clinical care. "-Omics"-based approaches use high throughput genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics assay platforms to tailor and personalize treatments for subgroups of similar individuals based on these results. The recent Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has propelled biomarker-based and genomics research to the forefront of many translational research and care programs addressing a variety of medical populations. Yet, the literature is sparse on precision medicine approaches for those with neurologically related and other disability. We demonstrate how the Rehabilomics Research model represents a translational framework for programs of precision rehabilitation research and care focused on linking personal biology to the biopsychosocial constructs that represent the WHO-ICF model and multidimensional outcome. We provide multiple exemplars from our own research program involving individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to demonstrate how genomics and other biomarkers can be identified and assessed for their capacity to assist with personalized (precision) neurorehabilitation care and management.

  13. Is a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy for invasive aspergillosis cost effective in high-risk haematology patients?

    PubMed

    Macesic, N; Morrissey, C O; Liew, D; Bohensky, M A; Chen, S C-A; Gilroy, N M; Milliken, S T; Szer, J; Slavin, M A

    2017-01-27

    Empirical antifungal therapy is frequently used in hematology patients at high risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with substantial cost and toxicity. Biomarkers for IA aim for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, data on the cost-effectiveness of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (BDS) are limited. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of BDS using results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and individual patient costing data. Data inputs derived from a published RCT were used to construct a decision-analytic model to compare BDS (Aspergillus galactomannan and PCR on blood) with standard diagnostic strategy (SDS) of culture and histology in terms of total costs, length of stay, IA incidence, mortality, and years of life saved. Costs were estimated for each patient using hospital costing data to day 180 and follow-up for survival was modeled to five years using a Gompertz survival model. Treatment costs were determined for 137 adults undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant or receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia in four Australian centers (2005-2009). Median total costs at 180 days were similar between groups (US[Formula: see text] for SDS [IQR US[Formula: see text

  14. Davis Pond Freshwater Prediversion Biomonitoring Study: Freshwater Fisheries and Eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  15. Biomonitoring insecticide pollution using non-target soil microarthropods.

    PubMed

    Joy, V C; Pramanik, R; Sarkar, K

    2005-07-01

    The scope of biomonitoring insecticide pollution in soil is discussed with the help of field and laboratory findings on the density, prey-predator ratio and fecundity of non-target microarthropod fauna. Field experiments were conducted in small plots with mustard, wheat and lady's finger crops and insecticides namely heptachlor 20EC (3.25 kg ai/ha = 16.25 lit/ha) and endosulfan 35EC (0.875 kg ai/ha = 2.5 lit/ha) applied at the seedling stages. Soil microarthropod population estimated at fortnightly intervals in the treated and untreated control plots revealed a general trend of adverse effect of the insecticides, prominently on the density and relative abundance of major prey groups like Collembola and Acari leading to notable decline in prey-predator ratio. Comparison of the percentage reductions of major taxonomic and trophic groups between pre-treatment and post-treatment intervals also demonstrated the ill effect of both heptachlor and endosulfan, notably on Collembola and the prey category. In the laboratory the survival success and fecundity of Cyphoderus javanus (Collembola) and Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari) were compared by exposing freshly emerged adults to sub-lethal concentrations of heptachlor and endosulfan for varying durations. The untreated control sets recorded high fecundity for both C. javanus and A. longisetosus, but chronic toxicity of the insecticides on adults confined to the treated soil resulted into very low fecundity. Even short duration exposure to heptachlor and endosulfan treated soil for 24 or 72 hours only was found to delay the egg-laying and decrease the fecundity of both the species. It is concluded that population responses and reproductive sensitivity in non-target soil microarthropods are potential eco-toxicological parameters for detecting pesticide pollution in soil and for ecological health assessment since the results are based on the bioactivity of toxicants.

  16. An Analysis of Cumulative Risks Indicated by Biomonitoring ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single component of a chemical mixture drives the cumulative risk of a receptor.1 This study used the MCR, the Hazard Index (HI) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) to evaluate co-exposures to six phthalates using biomonitoring data in 2454 individuals aged 6 years and older from the 2011-12 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The values of MCR, HI and phthalate-specific HQs were determined by calculating steady-state doses consistent with the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine and using Tolerable Daily Intake values.2 There were 22 individuals (0.9%) predicted to have at least one HQ value > 1 and an additional 17 (0.7%) with no HQ value > 1 but with an HI value > 1. The percent of individuals with HI values > 1 differed by age (0.9% for individuals between 6 – 17 y and 1.9% for individuals > 17 y). There is a statistically significant negative relationship between HI and MCR values in both age groups (p-values 1 and all HQs 1 were 1.1 (1.0-1.3) and 2.8 (1.1-13.7), respectively. The combined assessment found that 17/39 (43%) of the individuals with HI values > 1 are missed by chemical-by-chemical assessments of the phthalates. These findings suggest that determining combined exposures for the six phthalates has a modest impact on the predictions of the chemicals’ risks. Additional individuals with HI values >1 are identified, but HI values in these individual

  17. Biomonitor of Environmental Stress: Coral Trace Metal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N.; Hughen, K.

    2006-12-01

    Tropical reef corals are extremely sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and, as a result of environmental degradation and global climate change, coral reefs around the globe are severely threatened. Increased human population and development in tropical regions is leading to higher turbidity and silt loading from terrestrial runoff, increased pesticides and nutrients from agricultural land-use and sewage, and the release of toxic trace metals to coastal waters from industrial pollution. The uptake of these metals and nutrients within the coral skeletal aragonite is a sensitive biomonitor of environmental stresses on coral health. We analyzed 18 trace metals from the surface of coral skeletons collected in Bermuda, Indonesia and Belize to assess a range of threats to coral reef health - including climate change, agricultural runoff and pesticides, and coastal development and tourism. This surface sample network also includes samples representing 4 different coral species. Trace metal analysis was performed on an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to a high degree of accuracy and precision at extremely low (ppb) concentrations using a protocol we developed for samples less than 2 mg. Proper cleaning techniques were employed to minimize blank level concentrations for ultra-trace metal ICP-MS solution analysis. However, Zn/Ca and Ni/Ca concentrations remain below analytical detection limits. Initial results indicate that sea surface temperature proxies (e.g., Sr/Ca, B/Ca and Mg/Ca) display similar ratios between the different sites, whereas those metals associated with anthropogenic activities, such as Co, Pb and Cu, are site-specific and are linked to individual environmental stressors. Results from this study will be applied to down core trace metal records in the future. In doing so, we aim to understand the impacts of compounding environmental stresses on coral health, and to identify regional threshold values beyond which corals

  18. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.

    1989-06-01

    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  19. Biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure among stainless steel welders.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, L E; Boisen, T; Christensen, J M; Jelnes, J E; Jensen, G E; Jensen, J C; Lundgren, K; Lundsteen, C; Pedersen, B; Wassermann, K

    1992-05-16

    A biosurvey in the Danish metal industry measured the genotoxic exposure from stainless steel welding. The study comprised measurements of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE), unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in peripheral lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin G. Environmental monitoring of welding fumes and selected metal oxides, biomonitoring of chromium and nickel in serum and urine and mutagenic activity in urine, and evaluation of semen quality were also done. Manual metal arc (MMA) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were the dominant welding processes. A higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations, classified as translocations, double minutes, exchanges and rings, was observed in stainless steel welders than in non-welders. SCE was lower in welders working with both MMA and TIG welding than in reference persons. N-Acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene (NA-AAF)-induced UDS was lower in 23 never-smoking welders than in 19 unexposed never-smokers. Smoking was a confounding factor resulting in significantly higher CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and mutagenic activity in urine. Age was also a confounder: CA, SCE, NA-AAF binding to DNA and UDS increased significantly with age. No significant correlation between SCE and CA or between CA and UDS was found. UDS decreased significantly with increasing lymphocyte count and a higher lymphocyte count was seen in MMA welders than in reference persons and in smokers than in non-smokers. Differences in the composition among lymphocytes in exposed persons compared with non-exposed are suggested. MMA welding gave the highest exposure to chromium, an increased number of chromosomal aberrations and a decrease in SCE when compared with TIG welding. Consequently improvements in the occupational practice of stainless steel welding with MMA is recommended.

  20. Assessing the Quantitative Relationships between Preschool Children's Exposures to Bisphenol A by Route and Urinary Biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited published information exists on young children’s exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) in the United States using urinary biomonitoring. In a previous project, we quantified the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children to BPA in environmental and personal media over 48-h pe...

  1. EVALUATION OF A DAPHNIA BIOMONITOR FOR REAL-TIME DRINKING WATER SOURCE TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health, to national security are under consideration. With advances in electronic and computer technology, biomonitors are being developed that can asses...

  2. Assessing the Quantitative Relationships between Preschool Children's Exposures to Bisphenol A by Route and Urinary Biomonitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited published information exists on young children’s exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) in the United States using urinary biomonitoring. In a previous project, we quantified the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children to BPA in environmental and personal media over 48-h pe...

  3. EVALUATION OF A DAPHNIA BIOMONITOR FOR REAL-TIME DRINKING WATER SOURCE TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health, to national security are under consideration. With advances in electronic and computer technology, biomonitors are being developed that can asses...

  4. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  5. Automated solid-phase extraction approaches for large scale biomonitoring studies.

    PubMed

    Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Ye, Xiaoyun; Needham, Larry L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2009-01-01

    The main value in measuring environmental chemicals in biological specimens (i.e., biomonitoring) is the ability to minimize risk assessment uncertainties. The collection of biomonitoring data for risk assessment requires the analysis of a statistically significant number of samples from subjects with a significant prevalence of detectable internal dose levels. This paper addresses the practical laboratory challenges that arise from these statistical requirements: development of high throughput techniques that can handle, with high accuracy and precision, a large number of samples and can do a trace level analysis of multiple and diverse environmental chemicals (i.e., analytes). We review here examples of high throughput, automated solid-phase extraction methods developed in our laboratory for biomonitoring of analytes with representative hydrophobic properties and for typical biomonitoring matrices. We discuss key aspects of sample preparation, column, and solvent selection for off- and online extractions, and the so-called nuts-and-bolts of online column-switching systems necessary for developing-with minimal sample handling-rugged, automated methods.

  6. Biomonitoring: Uses and Considerations for Assessing Non-Occupational Human Exposure to Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is an important tool that can be used to evaluate human exposure to pesticides by measuring the levels of pesticides, pesticide metabolites, or altered biological structures or functions in biological specimens or tissues (Barr et al., 2005b; Needham et al., 2005, 2...

  7. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  8. A New Method for Generating Distribution of Biomonitoring Equivalents to Support Exposure Assessment and Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring data are now available for hundreds of chemicals through state and national health surveys. Exposure guidance values also exist for many of these chemicals. Several methods are frequently used to evaluate biomarker data with respect to a guidance value. The “biomoni...

  9. Active moss biomonitoring for extensive screening of urban air pollution: Magnetic and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Goryainova, Zoya; Pergal, Miodrag; Škrivanj, Sandra; Samson, Roeland; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-07-15

    In this study, active magnetic biomonitoring of moss for particulate air pollution and an assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the entire metropolitan area of Belgrade. Two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring moss genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (a common moss in the study area), were used. During the summer of 2013, moss bags were exposed at 153 sampling sites, forming a dense network of sites. A type II regression model was applied to test the interchangeable use of the two moss species. Significantly higher levels of all measured pollutants were recorded by S. girgensohnii in comparison with H. cupressiforme. Based on the results, the mosses could not be interchangeably used in urban areas, except for the biomonitoring of Cu. Nevertheless, according to the relative accumulation factors obtained for both moss species, similar city zones related to high, moderate and low levels of air pollution were distinguished. Moreover, new pollution hotspots, omitted by regulatory monitoring, were identified. The results demonstrate that moss magnetic analysis represents an effective first step for obtaining an overview of particulate air pollution before more expensive chemical analyses. Active moss biomonitoring could be applied as a pragmatic approach for optimizing the representativeness of regulatory monitoring networks.

  10. A New Method for Generating Distribution of Biomonitoring Equivalents to Support Exposure Assessment and Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring data are now available for hundreds of chemicals through state and national health surveys. Exposure guidance values also exist for many of these chemicals. Several methods are frequently used to evaluate biomarker data with respect to a guidance value. The “biomoni...

  11. [Biomonitoring of exposure to chemical products in environmental and workplace toxicology].

    PubMed

    Mistretta, Virginie; Charlier, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Biological monitoring, also called biomonitoring, is a process to prevent and assess health risk for individuals exposed to chemical products present in environment or through workplace exposure. Biomonitoring is most often a monitoring of exposure or of effect. The exposure monitoring is currently the most widespread in toxicology. It involves the determination in biological fluids of different biomarkers, most of which are biomarkers of internal dose. These biological indicators are typically measured in blood and urine, but other biological samples can be analyzed. They are used to assess the penetration of environmental pollutants into the body. Assay results are interpreted in relation to reference values which are adapted either to occupationally exposed populations, or to general population. This interpretation and the choice of appropriate biomarker of exposure are not always obvious. Biomonitoring has some limitations despite its many advantages. It is complementary to another health prevention approach: the monitoring of ambient air. To illustrate in practice the biomonitoring of exposure, several examples of toxics and their associated biomarkers are reviewed: benzene, toluene, styrene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chloroform, 2-hexanone and hydrogen cyanide.

  12. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    PubMed

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Online Biomonitoring and Early Warning Systems for Protection of Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to perform real time biomonitoring of behavioral responses and stress levels experienced by fish is important as it could be used for assessing source water toxicity as a first line of defense to protect and encourage recreational use of waterbodies. This paper propos...

  14. Prescribe by risk: the utility of a biomarker-based risk calculation in disease management to prevent heart disease.

    PubMed

    Root, Martin; Smith, Timothy

    2005-04-01

    Preventive treatment for those most at risk of heart disease rather than those with the highest blood pressure or cholesterol values may be a more efficacious strategy for disease management. This depends on accurate biomarker-based risk assessment tools. An evidence-based model of heart disease risk was developed using the Framingham model with an additional five risk factors, including three of the newer blood biomarkers. This was applied to the adult population of the 3rd National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort. Additionally, the selection criteria for therapeutic intervention from the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (for hyperlipidemia) and the 7th Report of the Joint National Committee (for hypertension) were applied to the same subjects. Of this cohort 54% qualified for at least one of these medications while 18% qualified for both. Using this 18% cutoff, the 18% of the subjects with the highest calculated heart disease risk were also identified using the developed risk model. We applied established therapeutic reductions in heart disease probability to those identified by guidelines and to those identified by risk. Applying both drugs to the high-risk group (one third the size of the guidelines group) achieved the same reduction in population risk (about one fourth) as applying the drugs to the guideline groups and required only half as many prescriptions. Intermediate results were found when an intervention group was identified by a combination of both high risk and high levels of risk factors. In this simulation, identifying patients by heart disease risk level resulted in substantially fewer people being treated with fewer drugs and achieving a similar reduction in disease risk.

  15. Flex: RSRE's capability computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. M.

    The Flex capability based computer architecture is described. It supports a multilanguage environment, and compilers for ALGOL 168 and PASCAL exist; an Ada compiler is being completed. The idea of capabilities is used on backing store as well as main store, so that all kinds of structured object which can be held in main store can also be held on any of the packing stores with the same degree of protection. Capabilities are used across a network of Flex computers, so that capabilities for data in one machine may be passed to and held in another. Flex uses true procedure values in the sense of Landin (1964).

  16. CAPABILITIES AND SKILLS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Corbin, Chase O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of recent research on the economics of human development to the work of the Human Development and Capability Association. The recent economics of human development brings insights about the dynamics of skill accumulation to an otherwise static literature on capabilities. Skills embodied in agents empower people. Enhanced skills enhance opportunities and hence promote capabilities. We address measurement problems common to both the economics of human development and the capability approach. The economics of human development analyzes the dynamics of preference formation, but is silent about which preferences should be used to evaluate alternative policies. This is both a strength and a limitation of the approach. PMID:28261378

  17. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Urine: Pilot Study in Mill Workers.

    PubMed

    Föllmann, Wolfram; Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of grains with mycotoxins results in a dietary background exposure of the general population. In occupational settings such as during processing of raw materials as in milling, an additional mycotoxin exposure by inhalation is possible. Biomonitoring is an integrative approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. To investigate possible workplace exposure to mycotoxins, a pilot study was conducted that compared levels of urinary biomarkers in mill workers to those in a control group with dietary mycotoxin intake alone. Workers (n = 17) from three grain mills in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, provided spot urines during shift; volunteers (n = 13, IfADo staff) with matched age structure served as control group. The mycotoxins selected for biomarker analysis were citrinin (CIT) deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEN). Immunoaffinity columns (CIT, DON, ZEN) or liquid-liquid extraction (OTA) was employed for urine sample cleanup prior to targeted analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, mycotoxin metabolites that may be formed in the organism were analyzed, including deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), ochratoxin alpha (OTα), dihydrocitrinone (DH-CIT), and α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZEL), as well as phase II metabolites that were hydrolyzed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase prior to sample cleanup. All analyte concentrations were adjusted for creatinine (crea) content in the spot urine samples. Citrinin, DON, OTA, and ZEN were detected in nearly all urine samples from mill workers and controls. Interestingly, DH-CIT was found at higher mean levels than the parent compound (~0.14 and 0.045 µg/g crea, respectively), suggesting an effective metabolism of CIT in humans. Other metabolites DOM-1, OTα, and α- and β-ZEL were detected less frequently in urine. Deoxynivalenol was detected at the highest

  18. Urine osmolality in the US population: implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Weidemann, Darcy; Weaver, Virginia; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Neu, Alicia; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    approximately 3.3 times more likely to have urine over-dilution than male [the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI)=3.27 (2.10-5.10)]. Although the determinants of urine osmolality were generally similar to those of urine creatinine, the relative influence of socio-demographic and medical conditions was less on urine osmolality than on urine creatinine. Protocols for spot urine sample collection could recommend avoiding excessive and insufficient water intake before urine sampling to improve urine adequacy. The feasibility of adopting urine osmolality adjustment and water intake recommendations before providing spot urine samples for environmental biomonitoring merits further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomonitoring of toxic metals in incinerator workers: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Sbordone, Carmine; Montuori, Paolo; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Iavicoli, Ivo; Manno, Maurizio

    2017-04-15

    Exposure to chemicals released during urban waste disposal and treatment is increasingly regarded as a potential occupational health issue. Indeed, several toxic metals emitted by an incinerator, including As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni and V, have potentially toxic properties and their exposure, therefore, may be of concern for the health of the workers involved. The levels of exposure should therefore be carefully measured. Environmental monitoring, however, may be unable, alone, to assess true exposure, due to its intrinsic limitations mainly concerning its inability to assess oral and dermal absorption. In these cases biological monitoring may represent a fundamental supplementary tool for the definition of the workers' true occupational exposure and for the prevention of the related health effects. There is, therefore, an increasing interest in developing and using, in these workers, sensitive and specific biomarkers for health risk assessment, particularly at low or even very low levels of exposure. Despite the large number of original and review articles present in the literature on the biomonitoring of workers exposed to metals, the data on subjects employed in waste treatment activities are scattered and results are sometimes inconsistent. This is the first systematic review, performed according to PRISMA methodology, of the major studies investigating the levels of different toxic metals measured in the main biological matrices (blood, urine, hair) of incinerator workers. The results show that the levels of metals measured in incinerators' workers are generally low, with some notable exceptions for Cd and Pb. These results, though, can be affected by several confounders related either to non-occupational exposure, including diet, area of residence and others, and/or by a number of methodological limitations, as we found in the reported studies. Future work should focus on an integrated approach, using ideally both biological and environmental monitoring

  20. Mercury in salt marshes ecosystems: Halimione portulacoides as biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Válega, M; Lillebø, A I; Pereira, M E; Caçador, I; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2008-11-01

    the plant organs: old roots are mineralised in situ close to new roots, while leaves are renewed. Previous studies have already shown that H. portulacoides is a bioindicator for mercury and the results from this work sustain that H. portulacoides may also be used as a biomonitor for mercury contamination in salt marshes. Nevertheless, caution should be taken in the application of the models, concerning the life cycle of the species and the spatial variability of the systems.

  1. Occupational exposure to aluminum and its biomonitoring in perspective.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Aitio, Antero

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to aluminum at work is widespread, and people are exposed to several species of aluminum, which differ markedly as to the kinetics and toxicity. Especially welding of aluminum is widely applied and continuously expanding. Inhalation of fine particles of sparsely soluble aluminum results in the retention of deposited particles in the lungs. From the lungs, aluminum is released to the blood and distributed to bones and the brain, and excreted to urine. Soluble aluminum compounds are not accumulated in the lungs. Neurotoxicity is the critical effect of exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum compounds. Studies on workers exposed to aluminum welding fumes have revealed disturbances of cognitive processes, memory and concentration, and changes in mood and EEG. Early pulmonary effects have been observed among aluminum powder-production workers using high-resolution computed tomography. The primary objective of aluminum biomonitoring (BM) is to help prevent the formation of aluminum burden in the lungs and thereby to prevent harmful accumulation of aluminum in target organs. BM of aluminum can be effectively used for this purpose in the production/use of aluminum powders, aluminum welding, as well as plasma cutting, grinding, polishing and thermal spraying of aluminum. BM of aluminum may also be similarly useful in the smelting of aluminum and probably in the production of corundum. BM can help identify exposed individuals and roughly quantitate transient exposure but cannot predict health effects in the production/use of soluble aluminum salts. For urinary aluminum (U-Al) we propose an action limit of 3 µmol/L, corrected to a relative density of 1.021, in a sample collected preshift after two days without occupational exposure, and without use of aluminum-containing drugs. This value corresponds roughly to 2.3 µmol/g creatinine. Compliance with this limit is expected to protect the worker against the critical effect of aluminum in exposure to sparsely soluble

  2. Cytotoxic biomonitored study of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns.

    PubMed

    Luz, Lívia Eidam Camargo; Kanunfre, Carla Cristine; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; da Silva Justo, Aline; Petry, Victor Kubaski; Lemes, Bruna Mikulis; Barison, Andersson; Nepel, Angelita; Wang, Mei; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas Ahmad; Beltrame, Flávio Luís

    2016-05-13

    Euphorbia umbellata latex (sap) has normally been used in folk medicine in southern Brazil to treat different types of cancers. To carry out a biomonitored investigation of partitioned latex using in vitro assay, to identify the main mechanisms related with the action of the most active fraction as well as to develop a phytochemical study with this material. Biological screening was performed with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions from the latex of E. umbellata using MTT, trypan blue, and neutral red assays to determine the cytotoxicity against HRT-18, HeLa and Jurkat cells and flow cytometry, DNA quantification, acridine orange and Hoechst 33342 staining to investigate mechanisms of action for the hexane extract. The phytochemical study of the hexane fraction was performed by chromatographic procedures and the substances were identified by NMR analysis. The isolated terpenes were evaluated using MTT to determine the cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells. All the fractions presented concentration and time dependent cytotoxicity. The hexane fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity; whereas the Jurkat cell was the lineage with the highest sensitivity (IC50 1.87µg/mL). Fragmentation of DNA and apoptosis are two mechanisms related with the toxicity of hexane fraction. The hexane fraction arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, and the selectivity index was 4.30. Phytochemical study of the hexane fraction led to isolation of euphol (main compound) and germanicol acetate. Both substances demonstrated some slight cytotoxic activity against Jurkat cells after 72h; however the activity was minimal compared to vincristine (anticancer standard drug). The current research proves that the fractions of the latex from E. umbellata have a cytotoxic effect against three different cancer cells lines. The hexane fraction showed high in vitro cytotoxic effects against Jurkat cells demonstrating that the effect may be due to non-polar constituents. The two

  3. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R.; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. Importantly, results from a large number of biomonitoring studies are at odds with the results from two toxicokinetic studies. Objective We examined several possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. Data sources We examined > 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism. Data extraction and synthesis The > 80 biomonitoring studies examined included measurements in thousands of individuals from several different countries, and these studies overwhelmingly detected BPA in individual adults, adolescents, and children. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range), and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range). In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Some regulatory agencies have relied solely on these toxicokinetic models in their risk assessments. Conclusions Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes. PMID:20338858

  4. XRCF Testing Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reily, Cary; Kegely, Jeff; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center's X-ray Calibration Facility has been recently modified to test Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) developmental mirrors at cryogenic temperatures (35 degrees Kelvin) while maintaining capability for performance testing of x-ray optics and detectors. The facility's current cryo-optical testing capability and potential modifications for future support of NGST will be presented.

  5. Capability and Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of deliberation in the context of the capability approach to human well-being from the standpoint of the individual doing the reflecting. The concept of a "strong evaluator" is used develop a concept of the agent of capability. The role of values is discussed in the process of deliberating, particularly the nature of…

  6. Testing and technical capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, R.W.; Dill, M.S.

    1984-05-01

    Capabilities of the following are outlined: state-of-the-art-services, measurement control and capabilities coordination, sampling and standard section, analytical technology section, environmental-industrial hygiene section, spectrochemical section, inorganic and production control section, instrumentation and control section, instrument technology, and mass spectrometry-isotopic section.

  7. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  8. Widening Participation; Widening Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that widening participation in higher education might distinctively be conceptualised beyond economically driven human capital outcomes, as a matter of widening capability. Specifically, the paper proposes forming the capability of students to become and to be "strong evaluators", able to make reflexive and informed…

  9. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1997-02-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) mechanical; (2) environmental, gas, liquid; (3) electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (4) optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the report.

  10. A biomonitor as a measure of an ecologically-significant fraction of metals in an industrialized harbour.

    PubMed

    Gall, Mailie L; Poore, Alistair G B; Johnston, Emma L

    2012-03-01

    Biomonitors are commonly used to assess levels of bioavailable contaminants in the environment, however the relationships between biomonitor tissue concentrations and ecological effects are rarely assessed. The present study investigated metal contamination within a highly industrialised harbour and ecological effects on sessile invertebrates. The native oyster Saccostrea glomerata was deployed as a biomonitor across twenty-six sites to test for correlations between metal levels in their tissues and the recruitment of hard-substrate invertebrates. Concentrations of lead and copper in oyster tissues were negatively correlated with densities of the dominant barnacle, Amphibalanus variegatus, and positively correlated with densities of the dominant polychaete, Hydroides elegans, and the two native encrusting bryozoans Celloporaria nodulosa and Arachnopusia unicornis. Results suggest that highly localised events drive contaminant availability and that these events pose a significant risk to fauna. Biomonitoring studies may be enhanced by running concurrent ecological surveys.

  11. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  12. Evaluating Ethanol-based Sample Preservation to Facilitate Use of DNA Barcoding in Routine Freshwater Biomonitoring Programs Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, have the potential in enhance biomonitoring programs worldwide. Altering routinely used sample preservation methods to protect DNA from degradation may pose a potential impediment to application of DNA barcoding and metagenomics for biom...

  13. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  14. Biomarker-Based HIV Incidence in a Community Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Le Vu, Stéphane; Velter, Annie; Meyer, Laurence; Peytavin, Gilles; Guinard, Jérôme; Pillonel, Josiane; Barin, Francis; Semaille, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background Population-based estimates of HIV incidence in France have revealed that men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most affected population and contribute to nearly half of new infections each year. We sought to estimate HIV incidence among sexually active MSM in Paris gay community social venues. Methodology/ Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 in a sample of commercial venues such as bars, saunas and backrooms. We collected a behavioural questionnaire and blood sample. Specimens were tested for HIV infection and positive specimens then tested for recent infection by the enzyme immunoassay for recent HIV-1 infection (EIA-RI). We assessed the presence of antiretroviral therapy among infected individuals to rule out treated patients in the algorithm that determined recent infection. Biomarker-based cross-sectional incidence estimates were calculated. We enrolled 886 MSM participants among which 157 (18%) tested HIV positive. In positive individuals who knew they were infected, 75% of EIA-RI positive results were due to ART. Of 157 HIV positive specimens, 15 were deemed to be recently infected. The overall HIV incidence was estimated at 3.8% person-years(py) [95%CI: 1.5–6.2]. Although differences were not significant, incidence was estimated to be 3.5% py [0.1–6.1] in men having had a negative HIV test in previous year and 4.8% py [0.1–10.6] in men having had their last HIV test more than one year before the survey, or never tested. Incidence was estimated at 4.1% py [0–8.3] in men under 35 years and 2.5% py [0–5.4] in older men. Conclusions/ Significance This is the first community-based survey to estimate HIV incidence among MSM in France. It includes ART detection and reveals a high level of HIV transmission in sexually active individuals, despite a high uptake of HIV testing. These data call for effective prevention programs targeting MSM engaged in high-risk behaviours. PMID:22768150

  15. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  16. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  17. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  18. Metrology measurement capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division's (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  19. Metrology measurement capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1958, the AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: mechanical; environmental, gas, liquid; electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/microwave); and optical and radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. FM and T Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Department of energy`s Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 16 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of the suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in this report.

  20. Metrology measurement capability

    SciTech Connect

    Shroyer, K.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 36 years, the Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major areas of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; Electrical (D.C., A.C., RF/Microwave); and (3) Optical and Radiation. The capabilities developed include unique capabilities in many areas of measurement and engineering expertise to develop measurement techniques and resolve measurement problems in these major areas. KCD Metrology was established in 1958 to provide a measurement base for the Kansas City Plant. The Metrology Engineering Department provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement which falls into the broad areas listed above. The engineering staff currently averages almost 19 years of measurement experience. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. This evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys. The requirements placed on Metrology require traceability of measurements to the National Institute of Standards and Technology or to nationally recognized methods or natural phenomena. A description of Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each of the measurement capabilities is contained in the following pages.

  1. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  2. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  3. Human biomonitoring for metals in Italian urban adolescents: data from Latium Region.

    PubMed

    Pino, Anna; Amato, Antonio; Alimonti, Alessandro; Mattei, Daniela; Bocca, Beatrice

    2012-02-01

    As a part of the activities of the first Italian human biomonitoring survey (PROBE - PROgramme for Biomonitoring general population Exposure), a reference population of adolescents, aged 13-15 years, was examined for their exposure to metals. The study included 252 adolescents living in urban areas, representative of Latium Region (Italy) and blood specimens were analyzed for metals (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ir, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, Tl, U, V and W) by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results obtained will improve the knowledge about the body burden in adolescents and are tentative reference values for Italian young people as a basis for risk evaluation deriving from urban/environmental exposure to metals.

  4. Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Site, Richmond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, Liam D.; Kohn, Nancy P.

    2000-09-05

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in January 1998 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for the first post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and DDT were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared to pre-remediation data available from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Biomonitoring results indicated that pesticides were still bioavailable in the water column, and have not been reduced from pre-remediation levels. Annual biomonitoring will continue to assess the effectiveness of remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Site.

  5. Can predatory bird feathers be used as a non-destructive biomonitoring tool of organic pollutants?

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Veerle L.B; Voorspoels, Stefan; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring of different types of pollutants that are released into the environment and that present risks for both humans and wildlife has become increasingly important. In this study, we examined whether feathers of predatory birds can be used as a non-destructive biomonitor of organic pollutants. We demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are measurable in one single tail feather of common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and that levels in this feather and internal tissues are significantly related to each other (0.35biomonitoring of organic pollutants, although further validation may be necessary. PMID:17148383

  6. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  7. Next-Generation Global Biomonitoring: Large-scale, Automated Reconstruction of Ecological Networks.

    PubMed

    Bohan, David A; Vacher, Corinne; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza; Raybould, Alan; Dumbrell, Alex J; Woodward, Guy

    2017-03-27

    We foresee a new global-scale, ecological approach to biomonitoring emerging within the next decade that can detect ecosystem change accurately, cheaply, and generically. Next-generation sequencing of DNA sampled from the Earth's environments would provide data for the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units or ecological functions. Machine-learning methods would then be used to reconstruct the ecological networks of interactions implicit in the raw NGS data. Ultimately, we envision the development of autonomous samplers that would sample nucleic acids and upload NGS sequence data to the cloud for network reconstruction. Large numbers of these samplers, in a global array, would allow sensitive automated biomonitoring of the Earth's major ecosystems at high spatial and temporal resolution, revolutionising our understanding of ecosystem change.

  8. Motility and ciliary beating frequency detection of cells and invertebrates for environmental biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norina, Svetlana B.; Ageev, Vladimir G.; Rastopov, Stanislav F.

    1998-01-01

    Light microscopic dynamical images and amplitude-frequency spectra by computerized documentation were used for the experimental evidence that the biological rhythms and ciliary beating cycles can be used as relevant tool for the biomonitoring of environmental pollutants and influences. At present work some lower animals, invertebrates: Protozoa cells, Rotifera, Mollusca gill cilia epithelium, Polychaeta served the convenient model biosystem for investigations due there ciliary and contractile organs. The narrow Fourier- spectra bands were revealed for large number of organisms, which were shifted or diffused by heavy metal salts, ATP, Ca-, Mg-ions and organic mixture in concentrations 10-2-10-6 M. The three phase of the ciliary beating were obtained for single cilium. The group of cilia with a good metachronal coordination gave the narrow characteristic Fourier bands, while the perturbances from the external influences led to the spreading and shifting of the main bands. These effects could serve as test-methods for the environmental biomonitoring of pollutants.

  9. Potential use of a roadside fern (Pteris vittata) to biomonitor Pb and other aerial metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Y.B.; Tai, K.M.

    1985-10-01

    Lead, widely used as antiknock additives in gasoline in many parts of the world, is released from vehicular exhausts and contaminates the roadside environment. The Pb-containing particulates often settle onto roadside vegetation by sedimentation, impaction and interception resulting in high Pb content in the vegetation. The concentrations of Pb in such plants in turn are often used to demonstrate the extent of aerial deposition of Pb along roadsides. Hong Kong is a city with high traffic density of over 200 vehicles per kilometer of road. In these studies it was found that some plants could be utilized as biomonitors of atmospheric Pb and other trace metals in the roadside environment. This paper reports on the Pb and other trace metal levels in the fern Pteris vittata growing along roadside and its possible use as biomonitor species for aerial deposition of metals.

  10. Towards improved biomonitoring tools for an intensified sustainable multi-use environment.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-09-01

    The increasing use of our environment for multiple contrasting activities (e.g. fisheries, tourism) will have to be accompanied by improved monitoring of environmental quality, to avoid transboundary conflicts and ensure long-term sustainable intensified usage. Biomonitoring approaches are appropriate for this, since they can integrate biological effects of environmental exposure rather than measure individual compound concentrations. Recent advances in biomonitoring concepts and tools focus on single-cell assays and purified biological components that can be miniaturized and integrated in automated systems. Despite these advances, we are still very far from being able to deploy bioassays routinely in environmental monitoring, mostly because of lack of experience in interpreting responses and insufficient robustness of the biosensors for their environmental application. Further future challenges include broadening the spectrum of detectable compounds by biosensors, accelerate response times and combining sample pretreatment strategies with bioassays. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Testing benthic foraminiferal distributions as a contemporary quantitative approach to biomonitoring estuarine heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Foster, William J; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric; Rogerson, Mike

    2012-05-01

    Biomonitoring of estuarine pollution is the subject of active research, and benthic foraminifera are an attractive group to use for these purposes due to their ubiquitous presence in saline water and wide diversity. Here, we describe a case study of biomonitoring using benthic foraminifera in the French Mediterranean lagoon, Bages-Sigean lagoon. In this case, the major pollutants of interest are heavy metals in the sediment, particularly contaminated by Cu and Cd derived from industrial and agricultural sources. The foraminiferal assemblages of the Bages-Sigean lagoon are typical of normal paralic environments, but unusually almost completely lack agglutinated forms. The density of benthic foraminifera was shown to be more influenced by the sediment characteristics rather than heavy metal pollution. However, the relative abundance of Quinqueloculina bicostata was shown to increase in the most polluted areas and we propose that this taxon may be used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution.

  12. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  13. Environmental barcoding: a next-generation sequencing approach for biomonitoring applications using river benthos.

    PubMed

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Shokralla, Shadi; Zhou, Xin; Singer, Gregory A C; Baird, Donald J

    2011-04-13

    Timely and accurate biodiversity analysis poses an ongoing challenge for the success of biomonitoring programs. Morphology-based identification of bioindicator taxa is time consuming, and rarely supports species-level resolution especially for immature life stages. Much work has been done in the past decade to develop alternative approaches for biodiversity analysis using DNA sequence-based approaches such as molecular phylogenetics and DNA barcoding. On-going assembly of DNA barcode reference libraries will provide the basis for a DNA-based identification system. The use of recently introduced next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches in biodiversity science has the potential to further extend the application of DNA information for routine biomonitoring applications to an unprecedented scale. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using 454 massively parallel pyrosequencing for species-level analysis of freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate taxa commonly used for biomonitoring. We designed our experiments in order to directly compare morphology-based, Sanger sequencing DNA barcoding, and next-generation environmental barcoding approaches. Our results show the ability of 454 pyrosequencing of mini-barcodes to accurately identify all species with more than 1% abundance in the pooled mixture. Although the approach failed to identify 6 rare species in the mixture, the presence of sequences from 9 species that were not represented by individuals in the mixture provides evidence that DNA based analysis may yet provide a valuable approach in finding rare species in bulk environmental samples. We further demonstrate the application of the environmental barcoding approach by comparing benthic macroinvertebrates from an urban region to those obtained from a conservation area. Although considerable effort will be required to robustly optimize NGS tools to identify species from bulk environmental samples, our results indicate the potential of an environmental barcoding

  14. Lessons learnt on recruitment and fieldwork from a pilot European human biomonitoring survey.

    PubMed

    Fiddicke, Ulrike; Becker, Kerstin; Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne Fangel; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Rudnai, Peter; Közepésy, Szilvia; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlová, Katarína; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Rivas, Teresa C; Gómez, Silvia; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Burns, Damien; Kellegher, Anne; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2015-08-01

    Within the European Environment and Health Action Plan an initiative to establish a coherent human biomonitoring approach in Europe was started. The project COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale ) developed recommendations for a harmonized conduct of a human biomonitoring (HBM) survey which came into action as the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). Seventeen European countries conducted a survey with harmonized instruments for, inter alia, recruitment, fieldwork and sampling, in autumn/winter 2011/2012. Based on the countries' experiences of conducting the pilot study, following lessons learnt were compiled: the harmonized fieldwork instruments (basic questionnaire, urine and hair sampling) turned out to be very valuable for future HBM surveys on the European scale. A school approach was favoured by most of the countries to recruit school-aged children according to the established guidelines and country specific experiences. To avoid a low participation rate, intensive communication with the involved institutions and possible participants proved to be necessary. The communication material should also include information on exclusion criteria and offered incentives. Telephone contact to the participants the day before fieldwork during the survey can prevent the forgetting of appointments and first morning urine samples. To achieve comparable results on the European scale, training of interviewers in all issues of recruitment, fieldwork and sampling through information material and training sessions is crucial. A survey involving many European countries needs time for preparation and conduct. Materials for quality control prepared for all steps of recruitment, fieldwork and sampling proved to be important to warrant reliable results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mercury exposure in Ireland: results of the DEMOCOPHES human biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred; Burke, Padraig; Burns, Damien; Flanagan, Andrew; Griffin, Chris; Kellegher, Anne; Mannion, Rory; Mulcahy, Maurice; Ryan, Michael; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Navarro, Carmen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Aerts, Dominique

    2014-09-17

    Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were significantly higher for those with higher education, and those who consumed more fish. The study demonstrates the benefit of human biomonitoring for assessing and comparing internal exposure levels, both on a population and an individual basis. It enables the potential harmful impact of mercury to be minimised in those highly exposed, and can therefore significantly contribute to population health.

  17. Biomonitoring persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere with mosses: performance and application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qimei; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have aroused environmentalists and public concerns due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation and persistency in the environment. However, monitoring atmospheric POPs using conventional instrumental methods is difficult and expensive, and POP levels in air samples represent an instantaneous value at a sampling time. Biomonitoring methods can overcome this limitation, because biomonitors can accumulate POPs, serve as long-term integrators of POPs and provide reliable information to assess the impact of pollutants on the biota and various ecosystems. Recently, mosses are increasingly employed to monitor atmospheric POPs. Mosses have been applied to indicate POP pollution levels in the remote continent of Antarctica, trace distribution of POPs in the vicinity of pollution sources, describe the spatial patterns at the regional scale, and monitor the changes in the pollution intensity along time. In the future, many aspects need to be improved and strengthened: (i) the relationship between the concentrations of POPs in mosses and in the atmosphere (different size particulates and vapor phases); and (ii) the application of biomonitoring with mosses in human health studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The comet assay as a tool for human biomonitoring studies: the ComNet project.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew; Koppen, Gudrun; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Dusinska, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin; Møller, Peter; Rojas, Emilio; Dhawan, Alok; Benzie, Iris; Coskun, Erdem; Moretti, Massimo; Speit, Günter; Bonassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is widely used in human biomonitoring to measure DNA damage as a marker of exposure to genotoxic agents or to investigate genoprotective effects. Studies often involve small numbers of subjects, and design may be sub-optimal in other respects. In addition, comet assay protocols in use in different laboratories vary significantly. In spite of these difficulties, it is appropriate to carry out a pooled analysis of all available comet assay biomonitoring data, in order to establish baseline parameters of DNA damage, and to investigate associations between comet assay measurements and factors such as sex, age, smoking status, nutrition, lifestyle, etc. With this as its major objective, the ComNet project has recruited almost 100 research groups willing to share datasets. Here we provide a background to this project, discussing the history of the comet assay and practical issues that can critically affect its performance. We survey its diverse applications in biomonitoring studies, including environmental and occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, genoprotection by dietary and other factors, DNA damage associated with various diseases, and intrinsic factors that affect DNA damage levels in humans. We examine in depth the quality of data from a random selection of studies, from an epidemiological and statistical point of view.

  19. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary, circulating, and tissue biomonitoring studies indicate widespread exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2012-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism were examined. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range), and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range). In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.

  1. Human biomonitoring in the Arctic. Special challenges in a sparsely populated area.

    PubMed

    Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert

    2012-02-01

    Human biomonitoring in the Arctic creates certain challenges. Important exposure and health issues are: the various mixtures of contaminants found in the Arctic; long-range transport sources; accumulation in the traditional food chain; unique small populations; toxicant-nutrient interactions; genetic susceptibility factors; and multiple non-dietary confounding factors (especially lifestyle issues of the indigenous population groups). Through the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), systematic biomonitoring studies have been implemented since the mid-1990 s. Some concentrations of organic contaminants and toxic metals in human body fluids and tissues have raised concern, leading to the establishment of several mother-and-child cohorts. The aim of these efforts is to clarify possible health effects of the contaminants, especially in relation to pregnancy outcome and child development. The studies are ongoing and will lead to improved knowledge and public health advisories to reduce the risk of adverse health effects for the coming generations. Some of the indigenous population groups of Greenland, Canada, Alaska and Russia, as well as occupationally exposed populations in the Russian Arctic have had special attention during the last 15 years. The biomonitoring programs have resulted in public health interventions and dietary advice for vulnerable groups, like children and pregnant women. The sparsely populated areas where the studies are implemented create special ethical challenges to avoid research fatigue in the small population groups under surveillance. The research teams have a special responsibility to create communication strategies in close cooperation with the local authorities and build all research into a cultural context.

  2. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  3. Integrative evaluation of data derived from biomonitoring and models indicating atmospheric deposition of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Stefan; Schröder, Winfried

    2016-01-07

    Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (HM) can be determined by use of numeric models, technical devices and biomonitors. Mainly focussing on Germany, this paper aims at evaluating data from deposition modelling and biomonitoring programmes. The model LOTOS-EUROS (LE) yielded data on HM deposition at a spatial resolution of 25 km by 25 km throughout Europe. The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) provided model calculations on 50 km by 50 km grids. Corresponding data on HM concentration in moss, leaves and needles and soil were derived from the European Moss Survey (EMS), the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) and the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (iCP Forests). The modelled HM deposition and respective concentrations in moss (EMS), leaves and needles (ESB, iCP Forests) and soil (iCP Forests) were investigated for their statistical relationships. Regression equations were applied on geostatistical surface estimations of HM concentration in moss and then the residuals were interpolated by use of kriging interpolation. Both maps were summed up to a map of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) deposition across Germany. Biomonitoring data were strongly correlated to LE than to EMEP. For HM concentrations in moss, the highest correlations were found for the association between geostatistical surface estimations of HM concentration in moss and deposition (LE).

  4. 25-y study of radionuclide monitoring with terrestrial and aquatic biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Palms, John; Patrick, Ruth; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-03-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray emitting radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long term, independently verified, environmental survey of its kind. Sensitive, environmental, bioaccumulating entities included periphyton, flocculated sediment, lichens, and litterfall-humus. They were used to biomonitor the Susquehanna River and surrounding land areas near the PPL Susquehanna nuclear power plant. Sampling began in 1979, before the first plant start-up, and continued for the next 24 y. Approximately 300 monthly data sets cover this time period. Monitoring began 2 mo after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979, and includes a river monitoring station below Three Mile Island. Ongoing measurements also detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986. Results indicate that periphyton is the best overall biomonitor. Particular radionuclides exhibit preferential sorption in different biomonitors. Lichens and litter-humus are essentially equivalent radionuclide detectors on land. Although rarely a PPL power plant release, (131)I is a river contaminant. (131)I concentrations are not found uniformly along the entire river, but rather higher concentrations are localized near urban areas. Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known negative environmental or human health impact. This entire study can serve as a useful background radiological database.

  5. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  6. Active biomonitoring of palladium, platinum, and rhodium emissions from road traffic using transplanted moss.

    PubMed

    Suoranta, Terhi; Niemelä, Matti; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Meisel, Thomas; Perämäki, Paavo

    2016-08-01

    The use of transplanted moss (Pleurozium schreberi) in active biomonitoring of traffic-related emissions of Pd, Pt, and Rh was studied. Moss mats were transplanted to three locations along highway E75 (in Oulu, Finland) at three different distances from the highway. Five samples were collected from a background site after the same exposure period. Mass fractions of Pd, Pt, and Rh as well as mass fractions of 18 other elements were determined in these samples. The results indicated that P. schreberi is well suited for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Mass fractions above the background values were observed in the samples exposed to traffic-related emissions. When the results were compared with those of the other elements, high correlations of Pd, Pt, and Rh with commonly traffic-related elements (e.g., Cu, Ni, Sb, Zn, etc.) were found. It was also found that the amounts of Pd, Pt, and Rh in moss samples decreased when the distance to the highway increased. This trend gives evidence for the suitability of P. schreberi for active biomonitoring of Pd, Pt, and Rh. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the mass fractions determined in this study provide valuable evidence about the current state of Pd, Pt, and Rh emissions in Oulu, Finland.

  7. The novel approach to the biomonitor survey using one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks.

    PubMed

    Deljanin, Isidora; Antanasijević, Davor; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Tomašević, Milica; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra; Ristić, Mirjana

    2015-10-01

    To compare the applicability of the leaves of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and linden (Tilia spp.) as biomonitors of trace element concentrations, a coupled approach of one- and two-dimensional Kohonen networks was applied for the first time. The self-organizing networks (SONs) and the self-organizing maps (SOMs) were applied on the database obtained for the element accumulation (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, V, As, Cd) and the SOM for the Pb isotopes in the leaves for a multiyear period (2002-2006). A. hippocastanum seems to be a more appropriate biomonitor since it showed more consistent results in the analysis of trace elements and Pb isotopes. The SOM proved to be a suitable and sensitive tool for assessing differences in trace element concentrations and for the Pb isotopic composition in leaves of different species. In addition, the SON provided more clear data on seasonal and temporal accumulation of trace elements in the leaves and could be recommended complementary to the SOM analysis of trace elements in biomonitoring studies.

  8. Mercury Exposure in Ireland: Results of the DEMOCOPHES Human Biomonitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S.; Davidson, Fred; Burke, Padraig; Burns, Damien; Flanagan, Andrew; Griffin, Chris; Kellegher, Anne; Mannion, Rory; Mulcahy, Maurice; Ryan, Michael; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K.; Navarro, Carmen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Aerts, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. Methods: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. Results: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children’s samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were significantly higher for those with higher education, and those who consumed more fish. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the benefit of human biomonitoring for assessing and comparing internal exposure levels, both on a population and an individual basis. It enables the potential harmful impact of mercury to be minimised in those highly exposed, and can therefore significantly contribute to population health. PMID:25233018

  9. Use of homing pigeons as biomonitors of atmospheric metal concentrations in Beijing and Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; You, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring provides direct evidence of the bioavailability and accumulation of toxic elements in the environment and in the current study, homing pigeons were used as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Beijing and Guangzhou, China. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in lung, kidney, and liver tissues of 25 homing pigeons collected from Beijing (n = 15) and Guangzhou (n = 10). Cadmium concentrations in all tissue and lung Pb concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Guangzhou compared to those collected from Beijing. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations corresponded to differences in ambient air concentrations between the two cities, suggesting that homing pigeons are valuable biomonitors of atmospheric metal contamination. Liver and kidney Hg concentrations were significantly greater in pigeons collected from Beijing compared to those collected from Guangzhou, while Hg concentrations in lung tissue were not significantly different. Results of the current study support a conclusion that homing pigeons provide valuable data for evaluating exposure and potential effects to environmental metal concentrations.

  10. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  11. Capability, Enterprise and Entrepreneurship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Brian

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of education for capability, education for enterprise, and entrepreneurship education are outlined in terms of curriculum development. The paper studies the conceptual problems involved and presents a synthesis in the form of suggestions for curriculum development in enterprise/entrepreneurship education across the spectrum of general…

  12. Capabilities and health.

    PubMed

    Anand, P

    2005-05-01

    Sen's capabilities approach offers a radical generalisation of the conventional approach to welfare economics. It has been highly influential in development and many researchers are now beginning to explore its implications for health care. This paper contributes to the emerging debate by discussing two examples of such applications: first, at the individual decision making level, namely the right to die, and second, at the social choice level. For the first application, which draws on Nussbaum's list of capabilities, it is argued that many capabilities are ambiguously or indirectly related to the right to die, but the ability to form a concept of the good life and plan one's own life provides a direct justification for such a right. In the second application, the focus is specifically on healthcare rationing and it is argued that, although not committed to age based rationing, the capabilities approach provides a more natural justification of age related access to health care than the fair innings argument, which is often used to justify the alleged ageism inherent in quality adjusted life years (QALY) maximisation.

  13. Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David; Wu, Jimmy; Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) is an element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP). ExMC's goal is to address the risk of the Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember. This poster highlights the approach ExMC has taken to address this goal and our current areas of interest. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) was created to identify medical conditions of concern during exploration missions. The list was derived from space flight medical incidents, the shuttle medical checklist, the International Space Station medical checklist, and expert opinion. The conditions on the list were prioritized according to mission type by a panel comprised of flight surgeons, physician astronauts, engineers, and scientists. From the prioritized list, the ExMC element determined the capabilities needed to address the medical conditions of concern. Where such capabilities were not currently available, a gap was identified. The element s research plan outlines these gaps and the tasks identified to achieve the desired capabilities for exploration missions. This poster is being presented to inform the audience of the gaps and tasks being investigated by ExMC and to encourage discussions of shared interests and possible future collaborations.

  14. Visual Absorption Capability

    Treesearch

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    Visual absorption capability (VAC) is a tool to assess a landscape's susceptibility to visual change caused by man's activities. This paper explores different descriptive approaches to VAC and addresses in depth the development of the VAC process used on the Klamath National Forest. Four biophysical factors were selected to assess VAC for the lands within the...

  15. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  16. Project CAPABLE: Model Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madawaska School District, ME.

    Project CAPABLE (Classroom Action Program: Aim: Basic Learning Effectiveness) is a classroom approach which integrates the basic learning skills with content. The goal of the project is to use basic learning skills to enhance the learning of content and at the same time use the content to teach basic learning skills. This manual illustrates how…

  17. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  18. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 12 Track to Budget 14 Cost and Funding...Capability Production Document CY - Calendar Year DAB - Defense Acquisition Board DAE - Defense Acquisition Executive DAMIR - Defense Acquisition...13:59 UNCLASSIFIED 3 PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element PEO - Program Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate

  19. Capabilities Composition (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    and support , , processes (including ITIL v3) • Understanding of Governance is still evolving Engineering Acquisition and Operational Governance...L – Logistics • NC – Net-Centric • CPM – Capability Portfolio Management • ITIL v3 – Information Technology • ONR – Office of Naval Research

  20. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  1. Clinical trial simulation to assist in COPD trial planning and design with a biomarker-based diagnostic: when to pull the trigger?

    PubMed

    Gold, David L; Dawson, Michelle; Yang, Harry; Parker, Joseph; Gossage, David L

    2014-04-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease with a wide range of clinical phenotypes that vary from predominantly airway disease (chronic bronchitis) to predominantly parenchymal disease (emphysema). Current advances for the treatment of COPD are increasingly focused on targeted treatments and development of novel biomarker-based diagnostics (Dx)'s to select the patients most likely to benefit. Clinical trial planning and design with biomarkers includes additional considerations beyond those for conventional trials in un-selected populations, e.g., the heterogeneity of COPD phenotypes in the population, the ability of a biomarker to predict clinically meaningful phenotypes that are differentially associated with the response to a targeted treatment, and the data needed to make Go/No Go decisions during clinical development. We developed the Clinical Trial Object Oriented Research Application (CTOORA), a computer-aided clinical trial simulator of COPD patient outcomes, to inform COPD trial planning with biomarkers. CTOORA provides serial projections of trial success for a range of hypothetical and plausible scenarios of interest. In the absence of data, CTOORA can identify characteristics of a biomarker-based Dx needed to provide a meaningful advantage when used in a clinical trial. We present a case study in which CTOORA is used to identify the scenarios for which a biomarker may be used successfully in clinical development. CTOORA is a tool for robust clinical trial planning with biomarkers, to guide early-to-late stage development that is positioned for success.

  2. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N

    2007-09-01

    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  3. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  4. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, speaks, as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, left, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station look on during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, speaks during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, announces the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft as Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida looks on at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    From left, NASA Public Affairs Officer Stephanie Schierholz, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Former astronaut Bob Cabana, director of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Kathy Lueders, program manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, and Astronaut Mike Fincke, a former commander of the International Space Station, are seen during a news conference where it was announced that Boeing and SpaceX have been selected to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Commercial Crew Transportation Capability

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-16

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden listens to a reporter’s question after he announced the agency’s selection of Boeing and SpaceX to transport U.S. crews to and from the International Space Station using the Boeing CST-100 and the SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. on Tuesday, Sept. 16, 2014. These Commercial Crew Transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts are designed to complete the NASA certification for a human space transportation system capable of carrying people into orbit. Once certification is complete, NASA plans to use these systems to transport astronauts to the space station and return them safely to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  12. Layered Composite Analysis Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Cole, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Laminated composite material construction is gaining popularity within industry as an attractive alternative to metallic designs where high strength at reduced weights is of prime consideration. This has necessitated the development of an effective analysis capability for the static, dynamic and buckling analyses of structural components constructed of layered composites. Theoretical and user aspects of layered composite analysis and its incorporation into CSA/NASTRAN are discussed. The availability of stress and strain based failure criteria is described which aids the user in reviewing the voluminous output normally produced in such analyses. Simple strategies to obtain minimum weight designs of composite structures are discussed. Several example problems are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and user convenient features of the capability.

  13. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years.

  14. Defence Capability Plan 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Generator Unit. Background The future management of Seahawk capability was originally to be provided under AIR 9000 Phase 3 as the Seahawk Mid-life...already in service and Battlefield Management Systems intended to be procured under LAND 75 and LAND 125. This phase will assist in the achievement of...and are to be managed regionally. Through-life Support A PSI is to be engaged under the sustainment contract to provide the necessary through-life

  15. Joint Forces Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    for countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space. The Space Operations Center ( SPOC ), USSPACECOM is the single point...of contact for assessing space capabilities. Combatant commanders, subordinate JFCs, and Services can access this information from the SPOC via the...special operations forces SPOC Space Operations Center SSBN fleet ballistic missile submarine SST space support team UJTL Universal Joint Task List UN

  16. Review of CFD Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    growth in wind tunnel testing requirements – Increasingly sensitive/complex designs require more testing/analysis for success … – But, for fixed- wing ...been used to maintain an essentially constant number of wind tunnel test hours for the last 30 years. Also, while the number of different wing designs...not addressed directly • This study did not evaluate wind tunnel facilities or their capabilities – Comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel testing

  17. Joint Defense Capabilities Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    program does not best meet Joint needs, or provide the best value for the nation’s defense investment. Capabilities-Based Process The Study Team...planning function integrates the highly related logistics support functions of supply, maintenance, and transportation . In addition, current logistics...strengthens the role of the Defense Logistics Executive (DLE) as the single Logistics Global Supply Chain Manager with oversight and decision authority

  18. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  19. Ada Compiler Evaluation Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    library functions may be available (and necessary) to exploit the vector processing capabilities. * Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) machine...interested in how well the target machine instructions are utilized: Are available idioms exploited ? To answer this question, specific test problems...different pages) will also be referenced every fourth operation. This pattern can be exploited by locking the root and perhaps the first level directory

  20. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AREA A WORK UNIT NUMUERS 2800 Powder Mill Road Adeiphi, MD 20783 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE N AME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Materiel...both capability and functiongLI UNCLASSIFIED SECUMITY CL.ASSIFCATION OF THIS PAOW% &M & Mabe * 2 ft FOREWORD The following report describes the...Machine..................................................... 51 5.5 Hewlett-Packard (HP) Model 9500D Computer- Controlled Testing System............ 52 8

  1. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  2. Current Range Safety Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    mission objectives, to prevent personnel injury , to minimize property damage, and to preclude incidents having the potential for international... high -speed film cameras in 16 mm, 35 mm, and 70 mm formats. These cameras can operate at frame rates from 6 to 40,000 frames per second. * Bowen ribbon...90, 180, and 360 frames per second. * Ultra- high -speed cameras capable of rates up to 4,500,000 frames per second in the framing mode or write records

  3. National transportable telecommunications capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Bach, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    The chance to integrate two emerging telecommunications technologies together, the Ku-band satellite communication (SATCOM) and cellular, offered the unique opportunity to package a truly stand-alone capability to reconstitute telecommuications service. Terrestrial cellular telephone services have proven to be an essential tool for dealing with local emergencies to the extent that they survive and remain operable, as in the San Francisco earthquake. Cellular telephones can provide emergency coordinators the flexibility of wireless mobility in the field via the Public Switched Network (PSN) to coordinate emergency services. However, not all areas are covered by cellular service; existing cellular and PSN service availability could be limited by the congestion and competition for the dial tone that occurs in emergencies. It was realized that a critical need exists for a rapidly deployable stand-alone cellular capability coupled with alternate connectivity to bypass congested or damaged PSN links. Existing commercial Ku-band satellite communications have provided alternate routing links in some cases to support emergency communications. An emergency operational capability was conceived that integrates these technologies into a rapidly deployable and transportable package that provides both local and long distance telephone services to an area that has suffered widespread telecommunications outages or has been totally isolated from the world.

  4. National transportable telecommunications capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Bach, Beverly

    1991-01-01

    The chance to integrate two emerging telecommunications technologies together, the Ku-band satellite communication (SATCOM) and cellular, offered the unique opportunity to package a truly stand-alone capability to reconstitute telecommuications service. Terrestrial cellular telephone services have proven to be an essential tool for dealing with local emergencies to the extent that they survive and remain operable, as in the San Francisco earthquake. Cellular telephones can provide emergency coordinators the flexibility of wireless mobility in the field via the Public Switched Network (PSN) to coordinate emergency services. However, not all areas are covered by cellular service; existing cellular and PSN service availability could be limited by the congestion and competition for the dial tone that occurs in emergencies. It was realized that a critical need exists for a rapidly deployable stand-alone cellular capability coupled with alternate connectivity to bypass congested or damaged PSN links. Existing commercial Ku-band satellite communications have provided alternate routing links in some cases to support emergency communications. An emergency operational capability was conceived that integrates these technologies into a rapidly deployable and transportable package that provides both local and long distance telephone services to an area that has suffered widespread telecommunications outages or has been totally isolated from the world.

  5. Is there a future for biomonitoring of elemental air pollution? A review focused on a larger-scaled health-related (epidemiological) context.

    PubMed

    Wolterbeek, Bert; Sarmento, Susana; Verburg, Tona

    The present paper focuses on biomonitoring of elemental atmospheric pollution, which is reviewed in terms of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys in an epidemiological context. Based on the literature information, today's availability of solar-powered small air filter samplers and fibrous ion exchange materials is regarded as adequate or an even better alternative for biomonitor transplant materials used in small-scaled set-ups, but biomonitors remain valuable in larger-scaled set-ups and in unforeseen releases and accidental situations. In the latter case, in-situ biomonitoring is seen as the only option for a retrospective study: biomoniors are there before one even knows that they are needed. For biomonitoring, nuclear analytical techniques are discussed as key techniques, especially because of the necessary multi-element assessments in both source recognition and single-element interpretation. To live up to the demands in an epidemiological context, larger-scaled in-situ biomonitoring asks for large numbers of samples, and consequently, for large total sample masses, this all to ensure representation of both local situations and survey area characteristics. Possibly, this point should direct studies into new "easy-to-sample" biomonitor organisms, of which high masses and numbers may be obtained in field work, rather than continue with biomonitors such as lichens. This also means that both sample handling and processing are of key importance in these studies. To avoid problems in comparability of analytical general procedures in milling, homogenization and digestion of samples of large masses, the paper proposes to involve only few but high-quality laboratories in the total element assessment routines. In this respect, facilities that can handle large sample masses in the assessment of element concentrations are to be preferred. This all highlights the involvement of large-sample-volume nuclear facilities, which, however, should be upgraded and automated in their

  6. Quantifying Capability Vectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    at night. The components that enable this capability are a 12-V dry cell battery, a lightbulb , cables, and an on/off switch. The battery is hooked...to the lightbulb by conducting cables. The cables electrically connect the battery to the lightbulb , with the on/off switch connected in-between to...Finally, each succeeding cell that is drained Switch + 1 + -T vT v Ti -T i-T / -T k Lightbulb Dry Cells Figure 2. Components Which Enable the

  7. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  8. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  9. National Transportable Telecommunications Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boheim, Kenneth B.; Dayton, Allen D.

    The National Communications System (NCS) in its role of planning for emergency telecommunications restoration has contracted for a deployable asset to be available for National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NS/EP) uses. This asset, the National Transportable Telecommunications Capability (NTTC) is a transportable package consisting of a cellular switch and base station in a shelter, a microwave radio system, a small telephone switch, and a mobile satellite terminal. This package will operate over a Ku-band domestic satellite back into a gateway station and into the packet switching network. A description of the system is provided, an overview of deployment issues is given, and potential enhancements are presented.

  10. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Kirman, Christopher R.; Schoeny, Rita; Portier, Christopher J.; Hays, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment–based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. Objectives: We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. Methods: We identified available risk assessment–based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates. Conclusions: Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of < 1; however, some (including acrylamide, dioxin-like chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10–4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research. PMID:23232556

  11. The effects of non-native signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) on fine sediment and sediment-biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Turley, Matt D; Bilotta, Gary S; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sera, Francesco; Mathers, Kate L; Humpheryes, Ian; England, Judy

    2017-12-01

    The North American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) has invaded freshwater ecosystems across Europe. Recent studies suggest that predation of macroinvertebrates by signal crayfish can affect the performance of freshwater biomonitoring tools used to assess causes of ecological degradation. Given the reliance on biomonitoring globally, it is crucial that the potential influence of invasive species is better understood. Crayfish are also biogeomorphic agents, and therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether sediment-biomonitoring tool outputs changed following signal crayfish invasions, and whether these changes reflected post-invasion changes to deposited fine sediment, or changes to macroinvertebrate community compositions unrelated to fine sediment. A quasi-experimental study design was employed, utilising interrupted time series analysis of long-term environmental monitoring data and a hierarchical modelling approach. The analysis of all sites (n=71) displayed a small, but statistically significant increase between pre- and post-invasion index scores for the Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates (PSI) index biomonitoring tool (4.1, p<0.001, 95%CI: 2.1, 6.2), which can range from 0 to 100, but no statistically significant difference was observed for the empirically-weighted PSI (0.4, p=0.742, 95%CI: -2.1, 2.9), or fine sediment (-2.3, p=0.227, 95%CI: -6.0, 1.4). Subgroup analyses demonstrated changes in biomonitoring tool scores ranging from four to 10 percentage points. Importantly, these subgroup analyses showed relatively small changes to fine sediment, two of which were statistically significant, but these did not coincide with the expected responses from biomonitoring tools. The results suggest that sediment-biomonitoring may be influenced by signal crayfish invasions, but the effects appear to be context dependent, and perhaps not the result of biogeomorphic activities of crayfish. The low magnitude changes to biomonitoring

  12. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe: a comparison of large-scale programs.

    PubMed

    Buss, Daniel F; Carlisle, Daren M; Chon, Tae-Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S; Keizer-Vlek, Hanneke E; Robinson, Wayne A; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the globe. Despite the spatially diverse range of countries assessed, many aspects of bioassessment structure and protocols were similar, thereby providing evidence of key characteristics that might be incorporated in a global sampling methodology. Similarities were found regarding sampler type, mesh size, sampling period, subsampling methods, and taxonomic resolution. Consistent field and laboratory methods are essential for merging data sets collected by multiple institutions to enable large-scale comparisons. We discuss the similarities and differences among protocols and present current trends and future recommendations for monitoring programs, especially for regions where large-scale protocols do not yet exist. We summarize the current state in one of these regions, Latin America, and comment on the possible development path for these techniques in this region. We conclude that several aspects of stream biomonitoring need additional performance evaluation (accuracy, precision, discriminatory power, relative costs), particularly when comparing targeted habitat (only the commonest habitat type) versus site-wide sampling (multiple habitat types), appropriate levels of sampling and processing effort, and standardized indicators to resolve dissimilarities among biomonitoring methods. Global issues such as climate change are creating an environment where there is an increasing need to have universally consistent data collection, processing and storage to enable large-scale trend analysis. Biomonitoring programs following standardized methods could aid international data sharing and interpretation.

  13. Use of fish farms to assess river contamination: combining biomarker responses, active biomonitoring, and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Valdehita, Ana; Torrent, Fernando; Villarroel, Morris; Hernando, M Dolores; Navas, José M

    2013-09-15

    Here we addressed the possible effects of trace levels of contaminants on fish by means of a combination of biomarker responses, active biomonitoring (ABM), and chemical analysis. In environmental studies, cytochromes P4501A (Cyp1A) and Cyp3A and related enzyme activities (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD, and benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase, BFCOD, respectively) are commonly used as biomarkers for evidencing exposure to a variety of contaminants. In a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish farm that is routinely sampled to obtain references regarding normal levels of such enzyme activities in freshwater fish, we observed a strong and punctual increase in these activities at the end of 2011. In order to shed light on the causes of this induction, we transferred some fish to a fish farm with controlled conditions and examined them using an active biomonitoring (ABM) approach. EROD activity showed a decrease of 80% from the original values after 7 days in the control farm, while BFCOD activity was also reduced after 15 days. Although not significant, a decrease in cyp1A and cyp3A mRNA levels was also observed. To determine the presence of pollutants, water and sediment samples from the river feeding the fish farm were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). The screening study reflected a weak inflow of pollutants in the monitored area, which is located far from any industrial activity or densely populated cities. Trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and personal care products (the polycyclic musk fragrance HHCB, and triclosan) were detected in sediments, at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 38 ng/g dry weight, and in water from 4 to 441 ng/L. The approach followed in this study proved useful as a biomonitoring technique for the early detection of trace contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lichens and mosses as polonium and uranium biomonitors on Sobieszewo Island.

    PubMed

    Boryło, Alicja; Romańczyk, Grzegorz; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    In the study the activities of polonium (210)Po and uranium (234)U, (238)U radionuclides in moss and lichen samples were determined using the alpha spectrometry. Different lichens and mosses were collected around the Sobieszewo Island (northern Poland) and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (238)U deposition. Mosses and lichens have a high efficiency in capturing (210)Po and (238)U from atmospheric fallout. The obtained results showed that (210)Po, (238)U concentrations are changing in analyzed thallophytes samples depending on the type of thallus.

  15. Online integrated solution to collect data, generate information and manage events in the human biomonitoring field.

    PubMed

    Reis, M Fátima; Tedim, João; Aguiar, Pedro; Miguel, J Pereira; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Van Tongelen, Birgit

    2007-05-01

    In the ambit of Work Package 1 of the ESBIO Project, an online integrated solution to collect data, to generate information, and to manage mainly information-sharing events related with human biomonitoring within Europe has been designed and is being implemented. The present paper summarises the methodological approaches used by the authors as proposers, general promoters and disseminators of this strategic concept, as well as the first outcomes and future actions to be taken, in the short and longer term, to face present and future challenges to make this innovative solution happen.

  16. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Belivermiş, Murat; Kiliç, Onder; Cotuk, Yavuz; Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kalayci, Gülşah; Peştreli, Didem

    2010-12-01

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of (137)Cs and natural radionuclides.

  17. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-11-26

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd.

  18. Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

  19. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  20. PHOBICS physics capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center of mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, we outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, we then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that we plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{zeta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi}{r_arrow} K{sup +}K{sup -} decays.

  1. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  2. Facility capability assessment.

    PubMed

    McCandless, J

    1994-06-01

    An inspection and evaluation procedure has been developed to assess the capabilities of contract toxicology laboratories. This procedure has been used for the inspection of 18 different contract toxicology laboratories. There are 10 areas inspected: 1. Facility 2. Personnel 3. Operations 4. Animals/Animal Care 5. Standard Operating Procedures 6. Quality Assurance 7. Equipment 8. Test Article 9. Data 10. Archives. Each of these areas is divided into categories with each category divided further into specific topics. Points are assigned to each topic. The points earned by the laboratory reflect the inspector's assessment of the laboratory's quality in each area. Area scores are added and a percentage score for the facility is calculated. This approach provides a clear distinction among the laboratories evaluated. The facility inspection and rating system played an important role in screening laboratories when the author worked for the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) corporate toxicology department. It highlighted strengths and weaknesses of individual laboratories.

  3. Capability 9.4 Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Rud

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on capability structure 9.4 servicing. The topics include: 1) Servicing Description; 2) Benefits of Servicing; 3) Drivers & Assumptions for Servicing; 4) Capability Breakdown Structure 9.4 Servicing; 5) Roadmap for Servicing; 6) 9.4 Servicing Critical Gaps; 7) Capability 9.4 Servicing; 8) Capability 9.4.1 Inspection; 9) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.1 Inspection; 10) Capability 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 11) State-of-the-Art/Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.2 Diagnostics; 12) Capability 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 13) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.3 Perform Planned Maintenance; 14) Capability 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 15) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.4 Perform Unplanned Repair; 16) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 17) Capability 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 18) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.5 Install Upgrade; 19) Capability 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, Training; and 20) State-of-the-Art /Maturity Level /Capabilities for 9.4.6 Planning, Logistics, & Training;

  4. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H.; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Oldgren, Jonas; Siegbahn, Agneta; Stewart, Ralph A.H.; White, Harvey D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which is currently estimated by clinical characteristics. The cardiac biomarkers N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin high-sensitivity (cTn-hs) are independently associated with risk of stroke in AF. Our objective was to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve prognostication of stroke in patients with AF. Methods and results A new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 701 patients with AF and biomarkers levels determined at baseline, median follow-up of 1.9 years. Biomarkers and clinical variables significantly contributing to predicting stroke or systemic embolism were assessed by Cox-regression and each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. External validation was performed in 1400 patients with AF, median follow-up of 3.4 years. The most important predictors were prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, NT-proBNP, cTn-hs, and age, which were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) stroke risk score. The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score in both the derivation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.62, P < 0.001) and the external validation cohort (0.66 vs. 0.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, the ABC-stroke score consistently provided higher c-indices in several important subgroups. Conclusion A novel biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in AF was successfully developed and internally validated in a large cohort of patients with AF and further externally validated in an independent AF cohort. The ABC-stroke score performed better than the presently used clinically based risk score and may provide improved decision support in AF. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier NCT00412984, NCT00799903. PMID:26920728

  5. Overview of Experimental Capabilities - Supersonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of experimental capabilities applicable to the area of supersonic research. The contents include: 1) EC Objectives; 2) SUP.11: Elements; 3) NRA; 4) Advanced Flight Simulator Flexible Aircraft Simulation Studies; 5) Advanced Flight Simulator Flying Qualities Guideline Development for Flexible Supersonic Transport Aircraft; 6) Advanced Flight Simulator Rigid/Flex Flight Control; 7) Advanced Flight Simulator Rapid Sim Model Exchange; 8) Flight Test Capabilities Advanced In-Flight Infrared (IR) Thermography; 9) Flight Test Capabilities In-Flight Schlieren; 10) Flight Test Capabilities CLIP Flow Calibration; 11) Flight Test Capabilities PFTF Flowfield Survey; 12) Ground Test Capabilities Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics (LITA); 13) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); 14) Ground Test Capabilities Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV); and 15) Ground Test Capabilities EDL Optical Measurement Capability (PIV) for Rigid/Flexible Decelerator Models.

  6. Biomonitoring of a population of Portuguese workers exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    García-Lestón, Julia; Roma-Torres, Joana; Vilares, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Cunha, Luís M; Prista, João; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Mayan, Olga; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca

    2011-03-18

    Lead is a heavy metal that has been used for many centuries and it is still used for various industrial purposes thanks to its physical and chemical characteristics. Human exposure to lead can result in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Despite the fact that lead has been found capable of eliciting genotoxic responses in a wide range of tests, not all studies have been conclusive. Although several experimental studies have shown that lead may modulate immune responses, data in exposed humans are still preliminary. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the genotoxic and immunotoxic effects of lead exposure in a group of 70 male workers from two Portuguese factories. The control group comprised 38 healthy males. The exposed individuals showed significantly higher levels of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin, and significantly lower δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity than the controls, suggesting a relatively high lead exposure. Nevertheless, the limit of 70 μg/dl for lead in blood established by the Portuguese regulation was never reached. Results of the comet assay were not modified by the exposure, but a significant increase in the mutation frequency in the exposed workers was obtained in the T-cell receptor mutation assay. Furthermore, data obtained in the analysis of the different lymphocyte subsets showed a significant decrease in %CD8+ cells and a significant increase in the %CD4+/%CD8+ ratio in exposed individuals with regard to the controls. No clear effect was observed for vitamin D receptor genetic polymorphism on the parameters evaluated. In view of our results showing mutagenic and immunotoxic effects related to lead exposure in occupational settings, it seems that the Portuguese biological exposure limit for lead needs to be revised in order to increase the safety of exposed workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  8. Advanced CLIPS capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is a forward chaining rule based language developed by NASA. CLIPS was designed specifically to provide high portability, low cost, and easy integration with external systems. The current release of CLIPS, version 4.3, is being used by over 2500 users throughout the public and private community. The primary addition to the next release of CLIPS, version 5.0, will be the CLIPS Object Oriented Language (COOL). The major capabilities of COOL are: class definition with multiple inheritance and no restrictions on the number, types, or cardinality of slots; message passing which allows procedural code bundled with an object to be executed; and query functions which allow groups of instances to be examined and manipulated. In addition to COOL, numerous other enhancements were added to CLIPS including: generic functions (which allow different pieces of procedural code to be executed depending upon the types or classes of the arguments); integer and double precision data type support; multiple conflict resolution strategies; global variables; logical dependencies; type checking on facts; full ANSI compiler support; and incremental reset for rules.

  9. Mobile systems capability plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered.

  10. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Can biomonitors effectively detect airborne benzo[a]pyrene? An evaluation approach using modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula were used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF+EMEP+CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. Modelled atmospheric concentrations were used as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated by converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is that the gaps still exist in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows for the effective estimation by the model of concentrations in air and vegetation and of the best approaches to estimate atmospheric levels from values found in vegetation.

  12. Presence of hepatitis E RNA in mussels used as bio-monitors of viral marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Donia, Domenica; Dell'Amico, Maria Chiara; Petrinca, Anna Rita; Martinucci, Ilaria; Mazzei, Maurizio; Tolari, Francesco; Divizia, Maurizio

    2012-12-01

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), collected from a harvesting area approved by European Community Regulation, were transplanted to four polluted sites located in the Northwestern Mediterranean area (Tuscany). They were used as bio-monitors to test the quality of the marine water pollution. At different times after the transplantation, mussels were withdrawn and tested for presence of phages and enteric viruses by molecular tests. 52.4% of the transplanted mussel samples were positive for at least one enteric virus. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was identified in each site (17/37; 45.9%). Three samples were positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV) (8.1%) and two (5.4%) for norovirus (NoV) genogroup I. Coliphages and RYC 2056 phages were detected in all sites, while HSP 40 phages were detected in three sites. Results demonstrate the ability of transplanted mussels in accumulating and retaining different species of enteric microorganisms. Their utility as bio-monitor organisms enables testing for viral marine pollution.

  13. In situ biomonitoring of PAH-contaminated sediments using juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Barbee, Gary C; Barich, John; Duncan, Bruce; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W; Hintze, Christopher J; Autenrieth, Robin L; Zhou, Guo-Dong; McDonald, Thomas J; Cizmas, Leslie; Norton, Dale; Donnelly, Kirby C

    2008-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous marine and freshwater sediment contaminants. Extensive data exist to confirm that PAHs are toxic to aquatic receptors. However, limited information is available regarding the bioavailability and genotoxicity of sediment PAHs to aquatic organisms. This study investigated an integrated biomonitoring approach using chemical analyses and biomarkers to characterize the bioavailability and genotoxicity of a complex PAH mixture in freshwater lake sediments associated with a former manufactured gas plant (MGP). Sediment PAH genotoxicity was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), DNA adduct (32)P-postlabeling, and erythrocyte micronuclei in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in the water column. Significant PAH-induced genotoxicity was observed with FCM and (32)P-postlabeling, but not with erythrocyte micronuclei. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood and hepatic DNA adducts correlated with sediment, but not water column PAH concentrations. Total hepatic DNA adducts in salmon caged nearest the former MGP facility was 39+/-6.5 (RALx10(9)), while salmon caged in a reference lake had 28+/-2.3 total hepatic DNA adducts per 10(9) nucleotides. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring using biomarkers and caged fish can be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic PAHs in sediments.

  14. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Exploratory biomonitoring study among workers of livestock farms of the Taranto Province].

    PubMed

    Iavarone, Ivano; De Felip, Elena; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Iacovella, Nicola; Abballe, Annalisa; Valentini, Silvia; Marra, Valentina; Violante, Nicola; D'Ilio, Sonia; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Majorani, Costanza; Alimonti, Alessandro; Conversano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    to conduct a survey on blood levels of metals and organochlorine compounds (dioxins and PCBs) among workers of livestock farms, and to identify the factors able to explain the magnitude and variability of the measured concentrations. exploratory human biomonitoring study. a sample of 45 workers from farms (masserie) located in the Province of Taranto was included in the study. The farms, located between 6 and 43 km from the industrial area, are family owned and animals (mainly sheep and goats) are locally reared outdoors. The study subjects have similar eating habits, including food consumption resulting from their production. manganese concentrations and, to a lesser extent, arsenic, cadmium and lead are in the medium-high range of levels observed in the Italian general population. This study does not identify factors able to explain the variability in the blood levels of metals. The amount of dioxins and PCBs, on the other hand, is strongly associated both with subjects age and the distance of farm from the industrial site. the results of this survey are suggestive of research hypotheses that need to be confirmed by biomonitoring studies of adequate design and size, in particular the hypothesis that the blood level of dioxins and PCBs decreases with increasing distance from the industrial site. We recommend ad hoc studies to better characterize the exposure of farmers (also associated with agricultural activities), and of the inhabitants of Taranto, to environmental persistent pollutants, also in terms of food matrices locally produced and consumed.

  16. Comparative biomonitors of coastal trace metal contamination in tropical South America (N. Brazil).

    PubMed

    e Silva, Carlos Augusto R; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S

    2006-05-01

    Samples of 5 bivalve molluscs (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Mytella charruana, Anomalocardia brasiliana, Anadara ovalis, Phacoides pectinata), 2 barnacles (Fistulobalanus citerosum, Balanus amphitrite) and leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora mangle were collected from up to 11 sites in two estuaries in Natal, Brazil--the comparatively contaminated Potengi estuary and the comparatively uncontaminated Curimataú estuary. Specimens were analysed for the trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Mn and Ni, and a comparative assessment made of the power of the different species as trace metal biomonitors. Four of the 5 bivalves (not P. pectinata) take up metals from solution and suspended material (food source), while P. pectinata as a lucinid with symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria takes up metals from dissolved sources only. The organisms with the strongest net accumulation of particular metals showed the greatest discrimination between trace metal bioavailabilities between sites. Barnacles (F. citerosum) showed the best discrimination, but oysters (C. rhizophorae) are particularly recommended as biomonitors given their strong accumulation patterns for many trace metals, their large size and their local abundance.

  17. Wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) used as biomonitors in contaminated mining sites.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Ilizaliturri, Cesar; Gonzalez-Mille, Donaji; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Mejia-Saavedra, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities globally; however, mining processes have critical environmental impacts, as mining is a major source of metals and metalloids that contribute significantly to the pollution of soil, sediment, water and air. Heavy metals can impact the health of exposed human populations and nonhuman receptors. This study focused on arsenic because its genotoxicity is well-known. Previously, we proposed a methodology to evaluate and integrate risk from a single source affecting different biologic receptors. Here, we propose an alternative approach estimating arsenic exposure in children and kangaroo rats using probabilistic simulation with Monte Carlo modeling. The estimates are then associated to measured DNA damage and compared to both populations of children and rodents living in contaminated and in reference areas. Finally, based on the integrated analysis of the generated information, we evaluate the potential use of wild rodents (Dipodomys merriami) as a biomonitor at mining sites. Results indicate that the variation of genotoxicity in children of the reference site is approximately 2 units when compared to the children of the contaminated site. In the rodents we observed a variation of approximately 4 units between those of the reference site when compared to those living on the contaminated site. We propose that D. merriami can be used as a biomonitor organism in sites with mining activity, and that a non-lethal test can be used to evaluate risk from metal exposure.

  18. The role of native lichens in the biomonitoring of gaseous mercury at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    López Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Borreguero, Ana M; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-01-15

    Contamination by atmospheric mercury has been assessed in two different areas from Spain (Las Cuevas, Ciudad Real and Flix, Tarragona) using lichens as biomonitors. The relationship established between mercury contents in the soils and the gaseous mercury (GM) was also observed. It was found that the GM is highest in the vicinity of the source and it is dispersed depending on of the distance to the source and the wind directions. The mercury concentration in the gas phase in Flix was higher than that found in Las Cuevas and also higher than the value that the US EPA recommended. The mercury bioaccumulation in the native lichens from genders Ramalina and Xanthoria were used as biomonitors for absorbing mercury in Las Cuevas and Flix, respectively. The mercury uptake by Ramalina was higher than the amount accumulated by Xanthoria, a difference that was mainly due to the lichen characteristics. The content of mercury in lichens in relation to the mercury in gas was fitted by a Freundlich type equation, indicating that the equilibrium between both phases was established. Besides, transplanted Ramalina lichen in Las Cuevas allowed to obtain the kinetic of mercury uptake. A kinetic model of first order based on the equilibrium was proposed and the mass transfer constants for each sampling station were estimated. As it was expected, these values increased with the predominant wind flow direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bivalve omics: state of the art and potential applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Ulloa, Victoria; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Manfrin, Chiara; Gerdol, Marco; Venier, Paola; Eirín-López, José M

    2013-11-01

    The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds.

  20. New specific and sensitive biomonitoring methods for chemicals of emerging health relevance.

    PubMed

    Leng, Gabriele; Gries, Wolfgang

    2016-09-20

    In this publication the challenges to cope for the aim to obtain innovative biomonitoring methods in our laboratory are visualized for di(2-propylheptyl)phthalate, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor, 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, and Hexabromocyclododecane. For these substances new specific markers were explored based on animal or human kinetic data with urine being the preferred matrix compared to blood. The determination of these markers was complex in all cases, because the sample preparation as well as the detection by high performance liquid chromatography, capillary gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometers or high resolution mass spectrometry should enable the lowest possible detection limit by use of minimal biological sample volumes. To get a first hint of a possible background level, the analytical methods were applied to urine samples of about 40 persons for each chemical. For Di(2-propylheptyl)phthalate and 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole first results are presented from population biomonitoring.

  1. Feasibility study of feces for noninvasive biomonitoring of brominated flame retardants in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Sahlström, Leena M O; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A; Lignell, Sanna; Darnerud, Per Ola

    2015-01-06

    This study investigated the feasibility of using feces as a noninvasive matrix to estimate serum concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in toddlers for biomonitoring purposes. Tri- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers (tri-decaBDEs), isomer-specific hexabromocyclododecanes, and 16 emerging BFRs were determined in feces from 22 toddlers (11-15 months of age), and results were compared to previously analyzed matched serum samples. BDE-47, -153, -196, -197, -203, -206, -207, -208, and -209 were detected in the feces creating a matched data set (feces-serum, n = 21). Tetra-octaBDE concentrations were significantly higher (Student's paired comparisons t test, α = 0.05) in serum versus feces with BDE-153 having the highest mean difference between the sample matrices. BDE-209 was found in significantly higher concentrations in feces compared to serum. Significant correlations (Pearson's, α = 0.05) between congener-specific concentrations in feces and serum were found for all BDEs except BDE-197 and -203. The feces-serum associations found can be used to estimate serum concentrations of tetra-decaBDEs from feces concentrations and enable a noninvasive sampling method for biomonitoring BDEs in toddlers.

  2. Biomonitoring of trace elements in the leaves and fruits of wild olive and holm oak trees.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Marañón, Teodoro; M Murillo, José

    2006-02-15

    Biomonitoring of trace elements is essential to assess ecosystem health, in particular in landscapes influenced by human activity. The Guadiamar Valley (SW Spain) was polluted in 1998 by a spill from an open-pit pyrite mine affecting about 55 km2. In this paper, we used two common species of tree, namely wild olive and holm oak, to biomonitor the concentration of nine trace elements-As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn-in this spill-affected area over the 3-year period 1999-2001. We analysed the leaves and fruits of trees growing in the spill-affected terraces, and compared them with adjacent trees in the non-affected upper terraces. The main trace elements polluting the soil were Zn, As, Pb and Cu. In general, the oak leaves were richer in trace elements than the olive leaves, reaching phytotoxic levels for As and Pb, while the olive fruits (pulp) were more polluted than the oak seeds (protected inside a hard pericarp), reaching toxic values for Cd and Pb. The concentration of trace elements in the leaves and fruits decreased with time and, in consequence, the toxicity risk to the food web diminished.

  3. Bivalve Omics: State of the Art and Potential Applications for the Biomonitoring of Harmful Marine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Ulloa, Victoria; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Manfrin, Chiara; Gerdol, Marco; Venier, Paola; Eirín-López, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary progress experienced by sequencing technologies and bioinformatics has made the development of omic studies virtually ubiquitous in all fields of life sciences nowadays. However, scientific attention has been quite unevenly distributed throughout the different branches of the tree of life, leaving molluscs, one of the most diverse animal groups, relatively unexplored and without representation within the narrow collection of well established model organisms. Within this Phylum, bivalve molluscs play a fundamental role in the functioning of the marine ecosystem, constitute very valuable commercial resources in aquaculture, and have been widely used as sentinel organisms in the biomonitoring of marine pollution. Yet, it has only been very recently that this complex group of organisms became a preferential subject for omic studies, posing new challenges for their integrative characterization. The present contribution aims to give a detailed insight into the state of the art of the omic studies and functional information analysis of bivalve molluscs, providing a timely perspective on the available data resources and on the current and prospective applications for the biomonitoring of harmful marine compounds. PMID:24189277

  4. Reprint of "Update of the reference and HBM values derived by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission".

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christine; Wilhelm, Michael; Heudorf, Ursel; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2012-02-01

    In 2007, we reviewed the working principles and working procedures of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission together with the reference values and human biomonitoring (HBM) values derived up to that time. Since then, the Commission has decided to derive additionally HBM I values on the basis of tolerable daily intakes and has used and evaluated this new approach on the metabolites of (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine. Furthermore, the Commission has derived a HBM I value for thallium in urine, has recinded the HBM values for lead in blood, and has updated the HBM values for cadmium in urine. Based on the representative data of the German Environmental Survey on Children from 2003 to 2006 (GerES IV), the Commission has updated the reference values for a large number of environmental pollutants in urine and blood of children in Germany. Since 2007, the Commission has derived new and updated reference values for PFOS and PFOA in human plasma, for thallium in urine, for aromatic amines in urine, for a comprehensive number of phthalate metabolites in urine, and for organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk. Furthermore, the Commission has evaluated background exposure levels for two naphthalene metabolites and acrylamide (using acrylamide-haemoglobin adduct) for the general population. This paper reports the new values, including those already published, in order to provide an updated overview. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Update of the reference and HBM values derived by the German Human Biomonitoring Commission.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christine; Wilhelm, Michael; Heudorf, Ursel; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, we reviewed the working principles and working procedures of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission together with the reference values and human biomonitoring (HBM) values derived up to that time. Since then, the Commission has decided to derive additionally HBM I values on the basis of tolerable daily intakes and has used and evaluated this new approach on the metabolites of (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in urine. Furthermore, the Commission has derived a HBM I value for thallium in urine, has recinded the HBM values for lead in blood, and has updated the HBM values for cadmium in urine. Based on the representative data of the German Environmental Survey on Children from 2003 to 2006 (GerES IV), the Commission has updated the reference values for a large number of environmental pollutants in urine and blood of children in Germany. Since 2007, the Commission has derived new and updated reference values for PFOS and PFOA in human plasma, for thallium in urine, for aromatic amines in urine, for a comprehensive number of phthalate metabolites in urine, and for organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk. Furthermore, the Commission has evaluated background exposure levels for two naphthalene metabolites and acrylamide (using acrylamide-haemoglobin adduct) for the general population. This paper reports the new values, including those already published, in order to provide an updated overview. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Swaen, Gerard M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2,4-D in humans. PMID:22876750

  7. Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol J; Swaen, Gerard M H

    2012-10-01

    A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2,4-D in humans.

  8. Selecting Species Traits for Biomonitoring Applications in light of Phylogenetic Relationships among Lotic Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poff, N.; Vieira, N. K.; Simmons, M. P.; Olden, J. D.; Kondratieff, B. C.; Finn, D. S.

    2005-05-01

    The use of species traits as indicators of environmental disturbance is being considered for biomonitoring programs globally. As such, methods to select relevant and informative traits for inclusion in biometrics need to be developed. In this research, we identified 20 traits of aquatic insects within six trait groups: morphology, mobility, life-history strategy, thermal tolerance, feeding guild and ecology (e.g., habitat preference). We constructed phylogenetic trees for 1) all lotic insect species of North America and 2) all Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera species based on morphology- and molecular-based analyses and classifications. We then measured variability (i.e., plasticity) of the 20 traits and six trait groups across the two phylogenetic trees. Traits with higher degrees of plasticity indicated traits that were less phylogenetically constrained, and were considered informative for biomonitoring purposes. Thermal tolerance, rheophily, body size at maturity and feeding guild showed the highest plasticity across both phylogenetic trees. Two mobility traits, occurrence in drift and adult dispersal distance, showed moderate plasticity. By contrast, adult exiting ability, degree of attachment, adult lifespan and body shape showed low variability and were thus less informative. Plastic species traits that are less phylogenetically constrained may be most useful in detecting community change along environmental gradients.

  9. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies.

  10. A biomonitor for tracking changes in the availability of lakewater cadmium over space and time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hare, L.; Tessier, A.; Croteau, M.-N.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the exposure of organisms to contaminants is a key component of Ecological Risk Assessments (ERAs). Effective estimates of exposure consider not only the total concentrations of contaminants in an organism's surroundings but also the availability of the contaminants to organisms. Contaminant availability can be inferred from mechanistic models and verified by measurements of contaminant concentrations in organisms. We evaluated the widespread lake-dwelling insect Chaoborus as a potential biomonitor for use in exposure assessments for three metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). We show that larvae of this midge maintain constant their concentrations of the essential metals Cu and Zn and thus cannot be used to monitor them. In contrast, larval Cd concentrations varied widely both among lakes and in a given lake over time. We were able to relate these variations in biomonitor Cd to changes in lakewater Cd and pH using the Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM). Our results suggest that Chaoborus larvae could be used as an effective tool for estimating the Cd exposure of organisms in lakes for the purposes of ERAs.

  11. On the use of epigaeic mosses to biomonitor atmospheric deposition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A; Aboal, J R

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum can be used to biomonitor atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N). For this purpose, we first determined whether there are any interspecific differences in the concentrations of total N and δ(15)N between the two species of terrestrial moss most commonly used in biomonitoring studies, P. purum and Hypnum cupressiforme. Second, we determined the spatial distribution of N and δ(15)N at small and large scales: (1) by analysis of 165 samples from the surroundings of an aluminium smelter and (2) by analysis of 149 samples from sites forming part of a regular 15 × 15-km sampling network in Galicia (northwest Spain). We did not find any interspecific differences in either total N or δ(15)N. Analysis of δ(15)N enabled us to identify large-scale spatial patterns of distribution that were congruent with the location of the main N emission sources (unlike the analysis of total N). However, we did not identify any such patterns for the small-scale source of N emission studied. The results show that analysis of δ(15)N has an advantage compared with the analysis of total N in that it provides information about the source of N rather than about the amount of N received. Furthermore, isotope discrimination appears to occur, with the bryophytes preferentially accumulating the N(14) isotope. Although this amplifies the signal of reduced forms, it is not problematical for determining spatial-distribution patterns.

  12. Active biomonitoring with the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum: Comparison between different types of transplants and bulk deposition.

    PubMed

    Ares, A; Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J A

    2015-10-01

    Active biomonitoring with terrestrial mosses can be used to complement traditional air pollution monitoring techniques. Several studies have been carried out to compare the uptake capacity of different types of moss transplants. However, until now the relationship between the uptake of elements in devitalized moss bags and in irrigated transplants has not been explored. In this study, the final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were determined in irrigated and devitalized moss transplants in the surroundings of a steelworks. The concentrations were also compared with those of the same elements in the bulk deposition to determine which type of moss transplant yields the closest correlations. Devitalized moss retained higher concentrations of all of the elements (except Hg) than the irrigated moss. Both irrigated and devitalized moss transplants appear to detect the same type of contamination (i.e. particulate matter and dissolved metals rather than gaseous forms) as significant correlations were found for Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn, whereas, neither type of the moss transplant was sensitive enough to detect changes in the soluble fraction load of bulk deposition. Further studies will be needed to a better understanding of the correlation between the concentrations of elements in moss transplants with the particulate fraction of the bulk deposition. This will enable the establishment of a more robust and accurate biomonitoring tool.

  13. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    PubMed

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  14. The amphipod Hyalella azteca as a biomonitor in field deployment studies for metal mining.

    PubMed

    Couillard, Y; Grapentine, L C; Borgmann, U; Doyle, P; Masson, S

    2008-12-01

    Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were deployed, in June-July 2003, along metal contamination gradients in two rivers affected by metal mining in the Abitibi-James Bay region, northwestern Québec. The amphipods were placed along with natural food items in small, acrylic cages and left in six riverine sites for 17 days. Twelve metals (As, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and CrO4(2-) modelled by WHAM VI) in transplanted H. azteca varied along metal contamination gradients in a consistent manner, i.e., as a function of metal exposure. Bioaccumulation of As, Cr, La, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, U and V, as defined by a field BCF, was significantly correlated with their chronic toxicity potential towards the amphipod. We conclude that H. azteca may be a useful field biomonitor for metal mining. In addition, our results suggest that such biomonitoring programs should include less studied elements such as Se in mining effluents.

  15. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  16. Toxic ignorance and right-to-know in biomonitoring results communication: a survey of scientists and study participants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure assessment has shifted from pollutant monitoring in air, soil, and water toward personal exposure measurements and biomonitoring. This trend along with the paucity of health effect data for many of the pollutants studied raise ethical and scientific challenges for reporting results to study participants. Methods We interviewed 26 individuals involved in biomonitoring studies, including academic scientists, scientists from environmental advocacy organizations, IRB officials, and study participants; observed meetings where stakeholders discussed these issues; and reviewed the relevant literature to assess emerging ethical, scientific, and policy debates about personal exposure assessment and biomonitoring, including public demand for information on the human health effects of chemical body burdens. Results We identify three frameworks for report-back in personal exposure studies: clinical ethics; community-based participatory research; and citizen science 'data judo.' The first approach emphasizes reporting results only when the health significance of exposures is known, while the latter two represent new communication strategies where study participants play a role in interpreting, disseminating, and leveraging results to promote community health. We identify five critical areas to consider in planning future biomonitoring studies. Conclusion Public deliberation about communication in personal exposure assessment research suggests that new forms of community-based research ethics and participatory scientific practice are emerging. PMID:19250551

  17. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  18. Potential External Contamination with Bisphenol A and Other Ubiquitous Organic Environmental Chemicals during Biomonitoring Analysis: An Elusive Laboratory Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. Objectives: We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. Discussions: We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Conclusions: Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid—even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices—the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples. PMID:23458838

  19. Alpine vegetation communities and the alpine-treeline ecotone boundary in New England as biomonitors for climate change

    Treesearch

    Kenneth D. Kimball; Douglas M. Weihrauch

    2000-01-01

    This study mapped and analyzed the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE) boundary and alpine plant communities on the Presidential Range, New Hampshire and Mount Katahdin, Maine. These are sensitive biomonitoring parameters for plant community responses to climatic change. The ATE boundary spans a considerable elevational range, suggesting that shorter growing seasons with...

  20. Biomonitoring Breast Milk Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers as a Function of Environment, Dietary Intake, and Demographics in New Hampshire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk from New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships between PBDE levels in breast milk and stage o...

  1. Concurrent 2,4-D and triclopyr biomonitoring of backpack applicators, mixer/loader and field supervisor in forestry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Acevedo, Sandra; Chao, Yingfu; Chen, Zhenshan; Dinoff, Travis; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John; Williams, Ryan; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Two herbicides, 2,4-D and triclopyr esters (application ratio 1.6:1 acid equivalents) were applied as a tank mix by a crew of 8 backpack sprayer applicators, a mixer/loader, and a field supervisor. The crew was employed in a conifer release program in northern California during the summer of 2002. Biomonitoring (urine, 24 h) utilized 2,4-D and triclopyr (a.e.) as rapidly excreted exposure biomarkers. The absorbed dosages of 2,4-D and triclopyr were calculated based upon cotton whole body suits and biomonitoring. Dosages based upon accumulation of the herbicides on body suits averaged 42.6 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 8.0 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Six consecutive days of concurrent urine collections showed that backpack applicators excreted an average of 11.0 μg (a.e.) 2,4-D/kg-d and 18.9 μg (a.e.) triclopyr/kg-d. Estimates based upon curve fitting were 17.1 and 29.3 μg (a.e.)/kg-d, respectively. Results suggest that passive dosimetry for 2,4-D consistently overestimated the dosage measured using biomonitoring by a factor of 2-3 fold, while for triclopyr, passive dosimetry underestimated the absorbed dose based on biomonitoring by a factor of 2-4 fold.

  2. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  3. Towards biomarker-based tests that can facilitate decisions about prevention and management of preeclampsia in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Acestor, Nathalie; Goett, Jane; Lee, Arthur; Herrick, Tara M; Engelbrecht, Susheela M; Harner-Jay, Claudia M; Howell, Bonnie J; Weigl, Bernhard H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing amount of literature is emerging on candidate urine and blood-based biomarkers associated with incidence and severity of preeclampsia (PE) in pregnant women. While enthusiasm on the usefulness of several of these markers in predicting PE is evolving, essentially all work so far has focused on the needs of high-resource settings and high-income countries, resulting primarily in multi-parameter laboratory assays based on proteomic and metabolomics analysis techniques. These highly complex methods, however, require laboratory capabilities that are rarely available or affordable in low-resource settings (LRS). The importance of quantifying maternal and perinatal risks and identifying which pregnancies can be safely prolonged is also much greater in LRS, where intensive care facilities that can rapidly respond to PE-related health threats for women and infants are limited. For these reasons, simple, low cost, sensitive, and specific point-of-care (POC) tests are needed that can be performed by antenatal health care providers in LRS and that can facilitate decisions about detection and management of PE. Our study aims to provide a comprehensive systematic review of current and emerging blood and urine biomarkers for PE, not only on the basis of their clinical performance, but also of their suitability to be used in LRS-compatible test formats, such as lateral flow and other variants of POC rapid assays.

  4. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study: Focus group work, public engagement and lessons learnt in 17 European countries.

    PubMed

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Dewolf, Marie-Christine; Van de Mieroop, Els; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Cerna, Milena; Krskova, Andrea; Becker, Kerstin; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Seiwert, Margarete; Mørck, Thit A; Rudnai, Peter; Kozepesy, Szilvia; Cullen, Elizabeth; Kellegher, Anne; Gutleb, Arno C; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Kamińska, Joanna; Namorado, Sónia; Reis, M Fátima; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Gurzau, Anca E; Halzlova, Katarina; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Huetos, Olga; López, Ana; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-08-01

    A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results and their public health significance. It identified the audiences and key messages, documented the procedure for dissemination of results and was updated as the project progressed. A communication plan listed the tools and materials such as press releases, flyers, recruitment letters and information leaflets required for each audience with a time frame for releasing them. Public insight research was used to evaluate the recruitment material, and the feedback was used to improve the documents. Dissemination of results was coordinated in a step by step approach by the participating countries within DEMOCOPHES, taking into account specific national messages according to the needs of each country. Participants received individual results, unless they refused to be informed, along with guidance on what the results meant. The aggregate results and policy recommendations were then communicated to the general public and stakeholders, followed by dissemination at European level. Several lessons were learnt that may assist other future human biomonitoring studies. Recruitment took longer than anticipated and so social scientists, to help with community engagement, should be part of the research team from the start. As a European study, involving multiple countries, additional considerations were needed for the numerous organisations, different languages, cultures, policies and priorities

  5. LANL Analytical and Radiochemistry Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E.; Burns, Carol J.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Tandon, Lav

    2012-07-27

    The overview of this presentation is: (1) Introduction to nonproliferation efforts; (2) Scope of activities Los Alamos National Laboratory; (3) Facilities for radioanalytical work at LANL; (4) Radiochemical characterization capabilities; and (5) Bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities.

  6. Study of selenium intake and disposition in various matrices based on mathematical algorithms derived from pooled biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Noisel, Nolwenn; Carrier, Gaétan; Bouchard, Michèle

    2014-09-01

    Biomonitoring is increasingly used to assess exposure to selenium (Se) in the population. However, there is little harmonization among protocols used in the different studies (varying biological matrices, differences in expression of results (concentrations versus amounts, units)). This makes inter-comparison of biomonitoring results across studies difficult. From a public health risk perspective, it also becomes challenging to estimate baseline levels in biological matrices for populations exposed by various sources. The aim of this study was thus to perform a systematic analysis of the relationship between Se intakes and biological concentrations based on published data. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used and led to select 75 published biomonitoring data in humans from an extended review of Se biomonitoring studies. This represents 8 628 individuals who provided biological samples aiming at documenting Se exposure and/or Se concentrations in two or more biological matrices. Mathematical algorithms that relate Se intakes to biological concentrations and establish matrix-to-matrix associations were derived from these pooled biomonitoring data. Logarithmic regressions showed good correlations between Se intakes and whole blood concentrations (R(2)=0.884), plasma concentrations (R(2)=0.863) and urinary excretion rates (R(2)=0.958). Blood and plasma concentrations were also strongly related (R(2)=0.874), as were whole blood concentrations and urinary excretion rates (R(2)=0.953). The interpretation of the log-regression coefficients allowed illustrating Se physiology. Se concentrations in plasma tend to plateau when daily intake exceed 150 μg/d, whereas Se in urine increases rapidly above this threshold. The application of the algorithms to other independent data sets in order to reconstruct past Se intakes confirmed that interpretation of results on the basis of Se in integuments may be misleading if external contamination is not avoided. This approach based

  7. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

    2014-12-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.

  8. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

  9. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, L; Dumez, B; Becker, K; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Den Hond, E; Schoeters, G; Castaño, A; Koch, H M; Angerer, J; Esteban, M; Exley, K; Sepai, O; Bloemen, L; Horvat, M; Knudsen, L E; Joas, A; Joas, R; Biot, P; Koppen, G; Dewolf, M-C; Katsonouri, A; Hadjipanayis, A; Cerná, M; Krsková, A; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Nielsen, J K S; Jensen, J F; Rudnai, P; Közepésy, S; Mulcahy, M; Mannion, R; Gutleb, A C; Fischer, M E; Ligocka, D; Jakubowski, M; Reis, M F; Namorado, S; Lupsa, I-R; Gurzau, A E; Halzlova, K; Jajcaj, M; Mazej, D; Tratnik Snoj, J; Posada, M; López, E; Berglund, M; Larsson, K; Lehmann, A; Crettaz, P; Aerts, D

    2015-08-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother-child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES).(1) Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  10. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population.

  11. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    PubMed Central

    Keune, Hans; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. Methods In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public. Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. Results The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. Conclusion With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. A direct and continuous

  12. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    PubMed

    Keune, Hans; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse

    2008-06-05

    In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium), the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public.Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. A direct and continuous involvement of the social scientist, an

  13. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  14. Financial capability, health and disability.

    PubMed

    Allmark, Peter; Machaczek, Katarzyna

    2015-03-14

    It has been suggested that improving people's ability to deal with their finances, their financial capability, will directly improve their wellbeing and indirectly their health. To this end, financial capability initiatives have been funded by statutory and charitable health bodies, sometimes as part of a practice termed 'social prescribing'. This paper examines financial capability from the perspective of the Capability Approach to welfare and justice. It argues that the Approach shows current conceptions of financial capability to be flawed in that they focus on it as a personal quality in isolation from the socioeconomic environment. Using the Capability Approach as applied to disability the paper argues that financial capability is best viewed as a 'conversion factor' rather than a capability, that is, something necessary to convert resources, particularly money, into something of value to an individual, such as an adequate pension. Often, those judged as lacking financial capability are poor and this fact is at the heart of their inability to, say, plan a pension; by contrast, those who are not poor may find it relatively easy to do so and thus be deemed financially capable. Hence there are two distinct types of financial capability: i) in poverty and ii) not in poverty. To be able to plan a pension or make ends meet in poverty requires distinct and perhaps rare skills in an individual. However, some environmental or social changes may help individuals to improve their financial capability without calling on them to develop extraordinary abilities. Given the potential of such work to improve people's health, making such changes can reasonably be described as Public Health work. The article concludes with a defence of this use of the Capability Approach against possible criticism. The Capability Approach enables analysis of financial capability that is theoretically important to and has practical implications for Public Health.

  15. The ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) stroke risk score: a biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H; Hanna, Michael; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; Oldgren, Jonas; Siegbahn, Agneta; Stewart, Ralph A H; White, Harvey D; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-05-21

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, which is currently estimated by clinical characteristics. The cardiac biomarkers N-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiac troponin high-sensitivity (cTn-hs) are independently associated with risk of stroke in AF. Our objective was to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve prognostication of stroke in patients with AF. A new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 701 patients with AF and biomarkers levels determined at baseline, median follow-up of 1.9 years. Biomarkers and clinical variables significantly contributing to predicting stroke or systemic embolism were assessed by Cox-regression and each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. External validation was performed in 1400 patients with AF, median follow-up of 3.4 years. The most important predictors were prior stroke/transient ischaemic attack, NT-proBNP, cTn-hs, and age, which were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history) stroke risk score. The ABC-stroke score was well calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score in both the derivation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.62, P < 0.001) and the external validation cohort (0.66 vs. 0.58, P < 0.001). Moreover, the ABC-stroke score consistently provided higher c-indices in several important subgroups. A novel biomarker-based risk score for predicting stroke in AF was successfully developed and internally validated in a large cohort of patients with AF and further externally validated in an independent AF cohort. The ABC-stroke score performed better than the presently used clinically based risk score and may provide improved decision support in AF. NCT00412984, NCT00799903. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Heavy - metal biomonitoring by using moss bags in Florence urban area, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    In the last century, pollution has become one of the most important risks for environment. In particular, heavy metal presence in air, water and soil induces toxic effects on ecosystems and human health. Monitoring airborne trace element over large areas is a task not easy to reach since the concentrations of pollutants are variable in space and time. Data from automatic devices are site-specific and very limited in number to describe spatial-temporal trends of pollutants. In addition, especially in Italy, trace elements concentrations are not often recorded by most of the automated monitoring stations. In the last decades, development of alternative and complementary methods as bio-monitoring techniques, allowed to map deposition patterns not only near single pollution sources, but also over relatively large areas at municipal or even regional scale. Bio-monitoring includes a wide array of methodologies finalised to study relationships between pollution and living organisms. Mosses and lichens have been widely used as bio-accumulators for assessing the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in natural ecosystems and urban areas. In this study bio-monitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as bio-indicator for estimating atmospheric traces metal deposition in the urban area of Florence. Moss carpets were collected in a forested area of central Sardinia (municipality of Bolotana - Nuoro), which is characterised by absence of air pollution. Moss bags were located in the urban area of Florence close to three monitoring air quality stations managed by ARPAT (Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Toscana). Two stations were located in high-traffic roads whereas the other one was located in a road with less traffic density. In each site moss bags were exposed during three campaigns of measurement conducted during the periods March-April, May-July, and August-October 2010. Two moss bags, used as control

  17. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  18. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  19. Use of the multispecies freshwater biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to toxicant exposure in sediment.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Anita J; Gerhardt, Almut; Dick, Jaimie T A; McKenna, Maria; Berges, John A

    2006-07-01

    Automated sediment toxicity testing and biomonitoring has grown rapidly. This study tested the suitability of the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) for sediment biomonitoring using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). Two experiments were undertaken to (1) characterize individual behaviors of C. volutator using the MFB and (2) examine behavioral changes in response to sediment spiked with the pesticide Bioban. Four behaviors were visually identified (walking, swimming, grooming and falling) and characterized in the MFB as different patterns of locomotor activity (0-2 Hz range). Ventilation was not visually observed but was detected by the MFB (2-8 Hz). No clear diel activity patterns were detected. The MFB detected an overall increase in C. volutator locomotor activity after Bioban addition to the sediments (56, 100, 121 mg kg(-1)). C. volutator was more active (both locomotion and ventilation) in the water column than the spiked sediment. C. volutator appears a sensitive and appropriate species for behavioral sediment toxicity assessment and biomonitoring.

  20. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  1. Smart electronic yarns and wearable fabrics for human biomonitoring made by carbon nanotube coating with polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Bong Sup; Chen, Wei; Doty, Chris; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The idea of electronic yarns and textiles has appeared for quite some time, but their properties often do not meet practical expectations. In addition to chemicallmechanical durability and high electrical conductivity, important materials qualifications include weavablity, wearability, light weight, and "smart" functionalities. Here we demonstrate a simple process of transforming general commodity cotton threads into intelligent e-textiles using a polyelectrolyte-based coating with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Efficient charge transport through the network of nanotubes (20 omega/cm) and the possibility to engineer tunneling junctions make them promising materials for many high-knowledge-content garments. Along with integrated humidity sensing, we demonstrate that CNT-cotton threads can be used to detect albumin, the key protein of blood, with high sensitivity and selectivity. Notwithstanding future challenges, these proof-of-concept demonstrations provide a direct pathway for the application of these materials as wearable biomonitoring and telemedicine sensors, which are simple, sensitive, selective, and versatile.

  2. Environmental effects of dredging: Wetland animal bioassays/biomonitoring. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Simmers, J.W.; Kay, S.H.; Rhett, R.G.; Lee, C.R.

    1987-03-01

    This note follows Technical Note EEDP-O3-1 and adds support to the concept of using wetland animals as Indicators of bioavailable contaminants in dredged material used to create intertidal wetlands. The text of this tech note was taken from a paper by Kay, Marquenie, and Simmers (1986). Animal bioassay test procedures are being evaluated (field tested) and verified under the Interagency Field Verification of Testing and Predictive Methodologies for Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives in the Field Verification Program (FVP). Bioassays have been shown to be a relatively simple tool for ecological evaluation and environmental assessment of potential contaminant movement within permanent or temporary wetlands, and with field verification, it will be a useful biomonitoring tool as well.

  3. The influence of sexual cycle on the MFO activity: A practical problem in biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S. )

    1988-09-01

    During the last several years the induction of the mixed function oxidases system has been commonly used as a biochemical markers of xenobiotics contamination in aquatic, marine and terrestrial animals. The use of this index of stress in wild animals like birds has directly contributed to their ability to detect and understand the significance of the exposure to liphosoluble contaminants in the environment. Nevertheless, several intrinsic factors, such as for example the hormonal modulation during the sexual cycle, seems to significantly modify the activity of some monooxygenases. The aim of this paper is to underline, using three different examples of studies in wild birds exposed to PCBs, the role of the sexual cycles in the modification of MFO activity and consequently the importance of considering this aspect in planning biomonitoring.

  4. Comparison of two reference systems for biomarker data analysis in a freshwater biomonitoring context.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Piccini, Benjamin; Maillot-Maréchal, Emmanuelle; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2010-05-01

    The usefulness of fish biomarkers for freshwater biomonitoring is now well recognized, but they still pose several questions to ecotoxicology researchers. The present study, designed to assess the effects of a small city located in an agricultural river basin watershed on sticklebacks living in an adjacent river, underlines the importance of reference selection. Two reference systems were used to analyse responses of a set of biomarkers, including biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress parameters, neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption end-points, measured in wild sticklebacks electrofished in a contaminated stream. The results showed that the investigated urban pressure disturbed CYP3A activity but also induced hepatic lipoperoxidation and circulating vitellogenine but this result is strongly influenced by the selected reference system. This work therefore demonstrates the need for further research to identify a robust reference system for stickleback biomarker analysis.

  5. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Hydrocharis Morsus-Ranae L. and Biomonitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    In present study the concentrations of Hg, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu in water, bottom sediments and leaves of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae from 11 oxbow lakes of the Odra River were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Trace metal concentration in water and bottom sediments were below the geochemical background, indicating no anthropogenic impact in the studied area. On average, the concentrations of metals in leaves of H. morsus ranae exceeded natural thresholds. A high bioaccumulation factors for metals were recorded. The significant positive correlations found between the content Zn, Fe and Hg of in water and in the H. morsus ranae indicate the potential use of the species in the biomonitoring of environmental contamination with these metals.

  6. Trace elements biomonitoring in a historical mining district (les Malines, France).

    PubMed

    Saunier, Jean-Baptiste; Losfeld, Guillaume; Freydier, Rémi; Grison, Claude

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the trace elements (TE) contents of potential biomonitors in a historical Zn-Pb mining district: apiary products (honey, royal-jelly and beeswax) lichen and moss were sampled and analysed. In spite of high TE concentrations in mining waste and soil, apiary products are free of TE contamination originating from historical mining. Lichen/moss show high TE levels, which suggest atmospheric input of local dust. Pb isotopes analysis proved the origin of TE found in lichen/moss to be mainly mining waste. These results help discuss the choice of relevant organisms for monitoring TE in the environment and bring additional data on the potential impacts of brownfields left after mining, especially on food products from apiaries.

  7. Biomonitoring of cyanotoxins in two tropical reservoirs by cladoceran toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    da S Ferrão-Filho, Aloysio; Soares, Maria Carolina S; de Freitas Magalhães, Valeria; Azevedo, Sandra M F O

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluates the potential for the use of cladocerans in biomonitoring of cyanobacterial toxins. Two zooplankton species (Daphnia gessneri and Moina micrura) were cultivated in the laboratory for use in acute (48 h) and chronic (10 days) bioassays. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs and diluted in mineral water at four concentrations. Survivorship in the acute bioassays was used to calculate LC50, and survivorship and fecundity in chronic bioassays were used to calculate the intrinsic population growth rate (r) and the EC50. Analysis of phytoplankton in the water samples from one reservoir revealed that cyanobacteria were the dominant group, represented by the genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Microcystis. Results of bioassays showed adverse effects including death, paralysis, and reduced population growth rate, generally proportional to the reservoir water concentration. These effects may be related to the presence of cyanobacteria toxins (microcystins or saxitoxins) in the water.

  8. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  9. Micronuclei and fluctuating asymmetry in brown trout (Salmo trutta): complementary methods to biomonitor freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Galán, S; Linde, A R; Izquierdo, J I; García-Vázquez, E

    1998-02-13

    In this work we measured both micronuclei number in kidney erythrocytes and fluctuating asymmetry in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), caught in different fluvial ecosystems of Asturias (northern Spain) characterized by different levels of anthropic influence. Brown trout samples from rivers with high anthropic influence possessed significantly higher averages of both micronuclei and fluctuating asymmetry than brown trout samples from less anthropic-influenced rivers. These findings demonstrated the sensitivity of the micronucleus test in kidney erythrocytes to biomonitor freshwater ecosystems. The positive association found between micronuclei average and fluctuating asymmetry at the populational level suggests that fluctuating asymmetry tests could be potential indicators of environmental threat. Variation of fish asymmetry with ageing indicates that fluctuating asymmetry surveys of wild populations should be carried out in trouts of the same age class.

  10. [New perspectives in biomonitoring of metallic elements: the example of hexavalent chromium].

    PubMed

    Mutti, A; De Palma, G; Goldoni, M

    2012-01-01

    Plating industry is an important productive sector in all the national territory, because of its contribution to a high number of industrial products and crafts. In the chrome plating sector there is a specific chemical risk due to the exposure to compounds containing hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)]. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been used to study both acute and long term exposure to Cr(VI) in chrome plating workers. Cr-EBC correlates with specific oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, both total Cr and its hexavalent fraction can be measured in EBC, which therefore is a promising biological fluid to assess the absorbed dose at the target organ level, the pulmonary reduction kinetics of Cr(VI) and in general its local pneumotoxic effects. EBC collection and analysis could give additional information to the traditional measures performed during biomonitoring.

  11. A review of human biomonitoring data used in regulatory risk assessment under Canada's Chemicals Management Program.

    PubMed

    Zidek, Angelika; Macey, Kristin; MacKinnon, Leona; Patel, Mikin; Poddalgoda, Devika; Zhang, Yi

    2016-10-21

    As a part of the Chemicals Management Plan launched in 2006, the Government of Canada is assessing and managing, where appropriate, the potential health and ecological risks associated with approximately 4300 substances under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999). Since that time, nearly 3000 substances have been assessed, with human biomonitoring (HBM) data playing an increasingly important role for some substances. Case studies are presented, including both inorganic and organic substances (i.e., selenium, triclosan, phthalates), which highlight the impact and overall role HBM has had in regulatory decision making in Canada for these three substances as well as criteria used in the application of HBM data in human health risk assessment. An overview of its limitations in terms of how and when HBM data can be applied, when assessing human health in a regulatory setting, is discussed as well as the role HBM data can play in priority setting.

  12. Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona

    2013-02-01

    The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects.

  13. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body.

  14. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2007-11-26

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  15. Sampling criteria for identifying human biomonitoring chemical differences in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Human biomonitoring studies in the Canadian Arctic have measured a wide range of metals and persistent organic pollutants in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers during two time periods in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This analysis provides preliminary estimates on sample sizes and sampling frequencies required to measure significant changes in maternal blood concentrations for PCB 153 and total mercury. For example, sample sizes of 35-40 mothers permit the detection of a 40% decrease in these chemical concentrations between two groups (e.g. communities or regions). Improvements in method sensitivity can be achieved by on-going sampling over multiple time periods (e.g. 4 or 5) in these regions, or increasing sample sizes.

  16. The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs.

    PubMed

    Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Fillol, Clémence; Charles, Marie-Aline; Denys, Sébastien

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban). The aim of this manuscript is to present highlights of the French human biomonitoring program with particular focus on the prioritization of biomarkers to be analyzed in the program and the selection of biomarkers applied to both program components. The Delphi method was used to establish a consensual list of prioritized biomarkers in 2011. First results of the perinatal component of the French HBM program have shown that the biomarkers prioritized were relevant, as almost all pregnant women were exposed to them. However, for some biomarkers, levels' decreases have been observed which may partly be explained by measures taken to prohibit some of these chemicals (e.g. atrazine) and by industrial processes evolutions leading to the substitution of others (e.g. bisphenol A, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate/DEHP, dialkyl phosphates). Therefore, the list of biomarkers to be monitored in the French HBM program has been implemented to include some substitutes of biomarkers prioritized in the first instance (e.g. bisphenol S, F). Finally, this method combines rigor and flexibility and helped us to build a prioritized list that will be shared and supported by many if not all actors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Traffic-related air pollution biomonitoring with Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. purpurea Boom in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula M; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; Magosso Takayanagui, Angela M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to verify the capacity of Tradescantia pallida in the biomonitoring of air pollution in urban areas with different traffic intensities and under varying environmental conditions. Experiments were carried out in Ribeirão Preto, in the Southeastern Brazil, with more than 660,000 inhabitants and a fleet of more than 485,000 motor vehicles. Ten seedlings of T. pallida were exposed in three areas in the city, differing in traffic vehicle flow, in two seasons (wet and dry). At the end of each sampling period, which lasted 4 months, samples of leaves were collected, and the content of As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, S, and Zn was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The same elements were determined in soil samples for a seasonal characterization in conjunction with secondary data of environmental parameters. Additionally, micronucleus assay with early pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia (Trad-MN) was conducted by collecting flower buds and analyzing the micronuclei frequencies in pollen mother cells. Although pollutant levels in air were below the Brazilian legal limits, plants exposed in the high-traffic flow area presented higher concentrations of elements related to vehicle emissions, especially under dry conditions, and higher micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells. These results show the sensitivity of T. pallida to low-level urban air pollution and its suitability as bioindicator for trace elements. This alternative tool for biomonitoring can serve as a support methodology for the adoption of more restrictive public environmental policies in Brazil and extendible to other developing countries.

  18. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2016-09-20

    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  19. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Linnabary, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.

  20. Biomonitoring as a tool in the human health risk characterization of dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Boogaard, P J

    2008-04-01

    Dermal exposure is an important factor in risk characterization. In occupational settings it becomes relatively more important because of the continuous reduction in inhalation exposure. In the public health arena, dermal exposure may also form a significant contribution to the total exposure. Dermal exposure, however, is difficult to assess directly because it is determined by a host of factors, which are difficult to quantify. As a consequence, dermal exposure is often estimated by application of models for external exposure. In combination with modeled or measured data for percutaneous penetration, these provide an estimate for the internal exposure that is directly related to the systemic effects. The advantages and drawbacks of EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure) and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure), two models for external exposure that are mentioned in the Technical Guidance Document for the European Union risk assessments performed under the Existing Substances Regulation (EEC/793/93), are discussed. Although new chemicals regulation (REACh, 1907/2006/EC) is now in place in the European Union, the principles applied under the previous legislation do not change and the same models will continue to be used. The results obtained with these models for styrene, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-methoxy-2-propanol in specific exposure scenarios are compared with an alternative method that uses biomonitoring data to assess dermal exposure. Actual external exposure measurements combined with measured or modeled percutaneous penetration data give acceptable results in risk assessment of dermal exposure, but modeled data of external dermal exposure should only be used if no other data are available. However, if available, biomonitoring should be considered the method of choice to assess (dermal) exposure.

  1. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Background Human biomonitoring (HBM) has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental changes in the ways

  2. Active biomonitoring of complex pollution in Taihu Lake with Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Lu, G H; Ji, Y; Zhang, H Z; Wu, H; Qin, J; Wang, C

    2010-04-01

    Carassius auratus bred in clean water were selected to conduct active biomonitoring (ABM) exposures in Meiliang and Gong bays in the northern polluted area of Taihu Lake. The biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GP(X)), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipoperoxidation (as TBARS) in liver were determined as biomarkers during the field exposure period. At the same time, the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in the surface sediments of biomonitoring sites were measured. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 248.8 to 375.9microgkg(-1) dry weight, PCB from 1.26 to 2.41microgkg(-1), OCP from 0.15 to 2.06microgkg(-1), and heavy metal from 126.3 to 210.0mgkg(-1). The results indicate that complex pollution by persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals is present in the northern end of Taihu Lake and the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. Moreover, Meilaing Bay is a more stressful place to fish living there. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated by combining different biomarkers to single value, which can be used to describe the toxically-induced stress level of populations in different areas. Pollutant concentrations were displayed as star plots and compared to IBR star plots. There was a visual correlation between the PCB gradient and the OCP gradient measured in the sediments and the IBR variation.

  3. N-Acetylcysteine as a Potential Antidote and Biomonitoring Agent of Methylmercury Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Aremu, David A.; Madejczyk, Michael S.; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2008-01-01

    Background Many people, by means of consumption of seafood or other anthropogenic sources, are exposed to levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that are generally considered to be quite low, but that may nevertheless produce irreversible brain damage, particularly in unborn babies. The only way to prevent or ameliorate MeHg toxicity is to enhance its elimination from the body. Objectives Using N-acetylcysteine (NAC), we aimed to devise a monitoring protocol for early detection of acute exposure or relatively low MeHg levels in a rodent model, and to test whether NAC reduces MeHg levels in the developing embryo. Results NAC produced a transient, dose-dependent acceleration of urinary MeHg excretion in rats of both sexes. Approximately 5% of various MeHg doses was excreted in urine 2 hr after injection of 1 mmol/kg NAC. In pregnant rats, NAC markedly reduced the body burden of MeHg, particularly in target tissues such as brain, placenta, and fetus. In contrast, NAC had no significant effect on urinary MeHg excretion in preweanling rats. Conclusions Because NAC causes a transient increase in urinary excretion of MeHg that is proportional to the body burden, it is promising as a biomonitoring agent for MeHg in adult animals. In view of this and because NAC is effective at enhancing MeHg excretion when given either orally or intravenously, can decrease brain and fetal levels of MeHg, has minimal side effects, and is widely available in clinical settings, NAC should be evaluated as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent in humans. PMID:18197295

  4. Taxonomy-free molecular diatom index for high-throughput eDNA biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Cordonier, Arielle; Straub, François; Iseli, Jennifer; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2017-03-14

    Current biodiversity assessment and biomonitoring are largely based on the morphological identification of selected bioindicator taxa. Recently, several attempts have been made to use eDNA metabarcoding as an alternative tool. However, until now, most applied metabarcoding studies have been based on the taxonomic assignment of sequences that provides reference to morphospecies ecology. Usually, only a small portion of metabarcoding data can be used due to a limited reference database and a lack of phylogenetic resolution. Here, we investigate the possibility to overcome these limitations using a taxonomy-free approach that allows the computing of a molecular index directly from eDNA data without any reference to morphotaxonomy. As a case study, we use the benthic diatoms index, commonly used for monitoring the biological quality of rivers and streams. We analysed 87 epilithic samples from Swiss rivers, the ecological status of which was established based on the microscopic identification of diatom species. We compared the diatom index derived from eDNA data obtained with or without taxonomic assignment. Our taxonomy-free approach yields promising results by providing a correct assessment for 77% of examined sites. The main advantage of this method is that almost 95% of OTUs could be used for index calculation, compared to 35% in the case of the taxonomic assignment approach. Its main limitations are under-sampling and the need to calibrate the index based on the microscopic assessment of diatoms communities. However, once calibrated, the taxonomy-free molecular index can be easily standardized and applied in routine biomonitoring, as a complementary tool allowing fast and cost-effective assessment of the biological quality of watercourses.

  5. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m(3) in the control area (P < 0.001). In addition, the elements Al, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, and V in Tradescantia pallida and Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, and Zn in Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  6. Mapping Exposure to Multi-Pollutants Using Environmental Biomonitors-A Multi-Exposure Index.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Helena C; Köbel, Melanie; Palma-Oliveira, José; Pinho, Pedro; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Atmosphere is a major pathway for transport and deposition of pollutants in the environment. In industrial areas, organic compounds are released or formed as by-products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F's). Inorganic chemical elements, including lead and arsenic, are also part of the pollutants mixture, and even in low concentrations may potentially be toxic and carcinogenic. However, assessing the spatial pattern of their deposition is difficult due to high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Lichens have been used as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition, because these organisms encompass greater spatial detail than air monitoring stations and provide an integration of overall pollution. Based upon the ability of lichens to concentrate pollutants such as PCDD/F and chemical elements, the main objectives of this study were to develop a new semi-quantitative multi-pollutant toxicity exposure index (TEQ-like), derived from risk estimates, in an attempt to correlate several atmospheric pollutants to human exposure levels. The actual pollutant concentrations were measured in the environment, from biomonitors (organisms that integrate multi-pollutants), enabling interpolation and mapping of contaminant deposition within the region. Thus, the TEQ-like index provides a spatial representation not from absolute accumulation of the different pollutants, but from the accumulation weighted by their relative risk. The assessment of environmental human exposure to multi-pollutants through atmospheric deposition may be applied to industries to improve mitigation processes or to health stakeholders to target populations for a comprehensive risk assessment, epidemiological studies, and health recommendations.

  7. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  8. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring using lichens at urban and rural primary schools.

    PubMed

    Canha, N; Almeida, S M; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring particulate matter (PM) and its chemical constituents in classrooms is a subject of special concern within the scientific community in order to control and minimize child exposure. Regulatory sampling methods have presented several limitations in their application to larger number of classrooms due to operational and financial constraints. Consequently, passive sampling methodologies using filters were developed for indoor sampling. However, such methodologies could not provide parallel information for outdoors, which is important to identify pollution sources and assess outdoor contribution to the indoors. Therefore, biomonitoring with transplanted lichens, a technique usually applied for outdoor studies, was used both indoor and outdoor of classrooms. Three main objectives were proposed, to (i) characterize simultaneously indoor and outdoor of classrooms regarding inorganic air pollutants, (ii) investigate spatial patterns of lichen conductivity, and (iii) assess pollution sources that contribute to a poor indoor air quality in schools. Lichens Flavoparmelia caperata were transplanted to indoor and outdoor of classrooms for 59 d. After exposure, electric conductivity of lichens leachate was measured to evaluate lichen vitality and cell damage. Outdoors lichen conductivity was higher near the main highways, and indoors there was great variability in levels, which indicates different emissions sources and different ventilation patterns. Chemical content of lichens was assessed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, Yb, and Zn were determined. Element accumulation, crustal enrichment factors, and spatial variability of elements were analyzed and contaminants from anthropogenic sources, such as traffic (As, Sb, and Zn) and indoor chalk (Ca) found. Classrooms with potential indoor air quality problems were identified by presenting higher accumulations of

  9. Can Periodic Cicadas be used as a Biomonitor for Arsenical Pesticide Contamination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L.; Hancock, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Widespread use of arsenical pesticides on fruit crops, particularly apple orchards, during the first half of the 20th century is a significant source of arsenic to agricultural soil in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cumulative application rates may be as high as 37 Kg/hectare of arsenic in orchard areas. Brood X 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) emerged at densities up to 30,000 or more individuals per hectare in orchard and forest habitats during May-June, 2004, in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. These cicadas were sampled to evaluate the bioavailability of arsenic in orchard and non-orchard reference site soils. Potentially toxic elements, such as arsenic and other heavy metals bind to sulfhydryl groups, and thus may accumulate in keratin-rich tissues, such as cicada nymphal exuviae and adult exoskeletons. These cicadas feed on plant roots underground for 17 years before emerging to molt into their adult form. Adult cicadas have very limited dispersal, rarely traveling more than 50 m in a flight. As such, their body and exoskeleton keratin has potential value as a biomonitor for arsenic and other metals that is spatially referenced to local conditions for the duration of time the nymphs live in the soil. This study addresses the following research questions: (1) do the soils in and adjacent to orchard sites where arsenical pesticide was used contain elevated concentrations of arsenic and other metals relative to likely background conditions?; (2) can periodic cicadas be used as an easily sampled biomonitor measuring bioavailability of pesticide residues in soils?; and (3) do the concentration levels of arsenical pesticide residues in periodic cicadas emerging from contaminated orchard sites pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events?

  10. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Casteleyn, L.; Dumez, B.; Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Exley, K.; Sepai, O.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; Koppen, G.; Dewolf, M-C.; and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  11. On Building Inexpensive Network Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, Craig A; Kalafut, Prof. Andrew; Allman, Mark; Taylor, Curtis R

    2011-01-01

    There are many deployed approaches for blocking unwanted traffic, either once it reaches the recipient's network, or closer to its point of origin. One of these schemes is based on the notion of traffic carrying capabilities that grant access to a network and/or end host. However, leveraging capabilities results in added complexity and additional steps in the communication process: Before communication starts a remote host must be vetted and given a capability to use in the subsequent communication. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mechanism that turns the answers provided by DNS name resolution---which Internet communication broadly depends on anyway---into capabilities. While not achieving an ideal capability system, we show the mechanism can be built from commodity technology and is therefore a pragmatic way to gain some of the key benefits of capabilities without requiring new infrastructure.

  12. Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. P.

    1981-02-01

    The technical and programmatic aspects of the integrated analysis capability (IAC) are described. The (IAC) is an interdisciplinary analysis system containing a wide range of general purpose analysis programs that are interfaced via a common data base and a unified executive. The system is designed with significant interactive capability as well as the capability to support the entire range of design phases from the definition phase to the verification phase. The system functions as a standalone or interfaced with IPAD.

  13. Transit satellite system timing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finsod, T. D.

    1978-01-01

    Current time transfer capabilities of the Transit Satellite System are reviewed. Potential improvements in the changes in equipment and operational procedures using operational satellites are discussed.

  14. Connecting Curriculum, Capabilities and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian; Depasquale, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reported research aims to examine the extent to which sustainability capabilities have been delivered by a specific example of Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and how important the capabilities have been in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach Students who participated in an…

  15. Connecting Curriculum, Capabilities and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian; Depasquale, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reported research aims to examine the extent to which sustainability capabilities have been delivered by a specific example of Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and how important the capabilities have been in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach Students who participated in an…

  16. Indigenous Research Capability in Aotearoa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Adreanne; Williams, Les R. Tumoana

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by considering the general nature of capability, from some dictionary meanings, then extends to theoretical perspectives related to the capability approach. As a consequence, we arrive at an operational definition that emphasises the ability to solve problems in a systematic way that brings transformation. In these terms,…

  17. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  18. Capability Maturity Model for Software,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    This paper provides a technical overview of the Capability Maturity Model for Software and reflects the most current version. Specifically, this...paper, in combination with the Key Practices of the Capability Maturity Model , is intended to help software organizations use the CMM as a guide to improve the maturity of their software process.

  19. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri`s Old Lead Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Overmann, S.R.; Krajicek, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead (Pb) contamination of aquatic ecosystems was assessed. Thirty-seven snapping turtles were collected from three sites on the Big River, an Ozarkian stream contaminated with Pb mine tailings. Morphometric measurements, tissue Pb concentrations (muscle, blood, bone, carapace, brain, and liver), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD) activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, osmolality, and chloride ion content were measured. The data showed no effects of Pb contamination on capture success or morphological measurements. Tissue Pb concentrations were related to capture location. Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and plasma chloride ion content were not significantly different with respect to capture location. The {delta}-ALAD activity levels were decreased in turtles taken from contaminated sites. Lead levels in the Big River do not appear to be adversely affecting the snapping turtles of the river. Chelydra serpentina is a useful species for biomonitoring of Pb-contaminated aquatic environments.

  20. An assessment of Microtox{trademark} as a biomonitoring tool for whole effluent testing for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Morrow, J.

    1994-06-13

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has special discharge problems relating to potential radioactive content of the effluent discharge waters. Because of this all testing must be performed on-site and results must be rapidly determined. There is a need to examine the development of a real-time procedure for effluent biomonitoring to met these site limitations. The Microtox{trademark} unit for toxicity testing is a microbially-based test system that shows great promise to be used for WET testing. The overall goal of this study is to develop an acceptable protocol for operational biomonitoring using the Microtox {trademark} toxicity test for LANL. The specific objectives include: development of an appropriate toxicity testing protocol using the Microtox{trademark} toxicity test for whole effluent toxicity testing and evaluation of the protocol based on factors such as sensitivity, response time, cost of analysis, and simplicity of operation.

  1. Use of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence in search of a biomonitor for environmental pollution in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Hans; Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Viet Binh, Doan

    2001-11-01

    The concentration of trace elements in tissues of several animals collected in the Ha Nam province, approximately 40 km south of Hanoi, Vietnam, has been investigated using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. We find that the freshwater mussel is probably the optimal choice of biomonitor for the pollution situation in Vietnam, but the freshwater crab, the toad and the catfish are also good candidates. The krait is probably also well suited for this purpose. It is shown that since several elements show a more or less pronounced accumulation tendency in a particular tissue it can be of great use to determine the levels in different tissues. When selecting an organism to be used as a biomonitor, other factors besides the mere concentration of trace elements must be considered, for instance the abundance and feeding habits.

  2. The swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) in Anzali wetland of Iran, a potential biomonitor for Cd and Pb.

    PubMed

    Ganjali, Saeed; Mortazavi, Samar

    2014-08-01

    Protecting wetlands from environmental pollution has been of significant importance, as they are the vital habitats for various kinds of birds and animals. This study has aimed to monitor the contamination of Cd and Pb in Anzali wetland, located in the north of Iran using a mussel biomonitor. The contents of Cd and Pb were measured in the surface sediment, the soft tissue, and the shell of A. cygnea. The samples were collected from four sites in the region. The results demonstrated that the shell of A. cygnea can be employed as a precise case for biomonitoring of Cd and Pb, due to the higher biota-sediment accumulation factor and the lower coefficient of variation values found in the shell compared with the soft tissue, and also according to the positive correlation between Cd and Pb levels in the shell of A. cygnea and the sediment.

  3. NASA Capability Roadmaps Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcoxon, Rita; Thronson, Harley; Varsi, Guilio; Mueller, Robert; Regenie, Victoria; Inman, Tom; Crooke, Julie; Coulter, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This document is the result of eight months of hard work and dedication from NASA, industry, other government agencies, and academic experts from across the nation. It provides a summary of the capabilities necessary to execute the Vision for Space Exploration and the key architecture decisions that drive the direction for those capabilities. This report is being provided to the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) team for consideration in development of an architecture approach and investment strategy to support NASA future mission, programs and budget requests. In addition, it will be an excellent reference for NASA's strategic planning. A more detailed set of roadmaps at the technology and sub-capability levels are available on CD. These detailed products include key driving assumptions, capability maturation assessments, and technology and capability development roadmaps.

  4. Miniaturized video-microscopy system for near real-time water quality biomonitoring using microfluidic chip-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yushi; Nigam, Abhimanyu; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Biomonitoring studies apply biological responses of sensitive biomonitor organisms to rapidly detect adverse environmental changes such as presence of physic-chemical stressors and toxins. Behavioral responses such as changes in swimming patterns of small aquatic invertebrates are emerging as sensitive endpoints to monitor aquatic pollution. Although behavioral responses do not deliver information on an exact type or the intensity of toxicants present in water samples, they could provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than lethal endpoints such as mortality. Despite the advantages of behavioral biotests performed on sentinel organisms, their wider application in real-time and near realtime biomonitoring of water quality is limited by the lack of dedicated and automated video-microscopy systems. Current behavioral analysis systems rely mostly on static test conditions and manual procedures that are time-consuming and labor intensive. Tracking and precise quantification of locomotory activities of multiple small aquatic organisms requires high-resolution optical data recording. This is often problematic due to small size of fast moving animals and limitations of culture vessels that are not specially designed for video data recording. In this work, we capitalized on recent advances in miniaturized CMOS cameras, high resolution optics and biomicrofluidic technologies to develop near real-time water quality sensing using locomotory activities of small marine invertebrates. We present proof-of-concept integration of high-resolution time-resolved video recording system and high-throughput miniaturized perfusion biomicrofluidic platform for optical tracking of nauplii of marine crustacean Artemia franciscana. Preliminary data demonstrate that Artemia sp. exhibits rapid alterations of swimming patterns in response to toxicant exposure. The combination of video-microscopy and biomicrofluidic platform facilitated straightforward recording of fast moving objects. We

  5. Biomonitoring heavy metals in estuaries: a field comparison of two brown algae species inhabiting upper estuarine reaches.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Rodolfo; Picado, Laura; Real, Carlos

    2002-04-01

    Biomonitoring dissolved heavy metals within estuaries, particularly at their upper reaches, frequently has to rely on several biomonitors; rarely a single species thrives all along the salinity gradient. To properly do so, it must be established whether those biomonitors actually accumulate heavy metals alike. In this study, two brown seaweeds from the upper section of three NW Spain estuaries--the widely-known Fucus vesiculosus and the estuarine Fucus ceranoides--were compared as metal biomonitors. Both species were collected at five locations where they either coexist or live close to each other and their heavy metal content (Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, Al) was measured. Analyses were appropriately replicated for each species x location combination to allow a statistically reliable detection of differences in bioaccumulation, with particular emphasis on the magnitude of interspecific differences. The lack of significant differences for Cu, Mn, and Zn contents in F. ceranoides and F. vesiculosus supports the feasibility of their joint use to monitor these metals along the estuaries. Conversely, F. ceranoides concentrated significantly higher levels of Cr, Fe, and Al than F. vesiculosus and hence combining data for both fucoids to monitor these elements seems impractical. The correlation of species differences together with a similar Al:Fe ratio in both weed tissue and sediment suggest that Cr, Fe, and Al tissue-burdens might be considerably biased by sediment retained on the surface of the weed. Parallel analyses of Al and/or Fe in seaweeds and sediments could serve to keep track of this interference and may help to combine data from both fucoids for monitoring elements like Cr.

  6. Biological reference values for chemical compounds in the work area (BARs): an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-07-01

    Biological monitoring is a routine method that has been applied in occupational medical practice for many years. A requirement for its application is the availability of criteria suitable for evaluating biomonitoring data. Health-based threshold values are particularly useful as a criterion, yet only for substances for which effect thresholds can reliably be determined. For substances for which the concept of health-based threshold values is not applicable, the Working Group Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Materials of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has recently established "Biologische Arbeitsstoff-Referenzwerte" (BARs, Biological Reference Values for Chemical Compounds in the Work Area) as an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data. The BAR represents the upper reference concentration of a biomarker in the general adult population without occupational exposure to the agent. It is derived from biomonitoring data of a sample of a defined population group. In general, a BAR corresponds to the 95th percentile of the sample distribution. Ideally, national environmental surveys including human biomonitoring results are used as basis for deriving BARs. The influence of age, sex, social status, residential area and life style factors on background exposure is considered in the evaluation of these values. Because tobacco smoking is the most frequent influencing factor, several BARs have been determined for non-smokers only. To date, BARs for 17 substances or substance groups are listed in the List of MAK and BAT Values 2011. BARs for another five substances have been discussed, but have not been established because of the insufficient scientific database. Establishing the BARs aims to facilitate the evaluation of human exposure to chemical compounds for which no health-based threshold values can be derived but an adequate assessment of exposure is required due to their toxicity. The

  7. Biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens as a complementary method for the study of mercury contamination near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Ljubič Mlakar, Tanja; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Jeran, Zvonka; Vuk, Tomaž; Mrak, Tanja; Fajon, Vesna

    2011-10-01

    The study was focused on understanding the mercury contamination caused by a cement plant. Active and passive biomonitoring with epiphytic lichens was combined with other instrumental measurements of mercury emissions, mercury concentrations in raw materials, elemental mercury concentrations in air, quantities of dust deposits, temperatures, precipitation and other measurements from the cement plant's regular monitoring programme. Active biomonitoring with transplanted lichens Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf was performed at seven of the most representative sites around the cement plant and one distant reference site for periods of 3, 6 and 12 months. In situ lichens of different species were collected at the beginning of the monitoring period at the same sites. Mercury speciation of the plant exhaust gas showed that the main form of emitted mercury is reactive gaseous mercury Hg²⁺, which is specific for cement plants. Elemental mercury in air was measured in different meteorological conditions using a portable mercury detector. Concentrations in air were relatively low (on average below 10 ng m⁻³). In situ lichens showed Hg concentrations comparable to lichens taken from the background area for transplantation, indicating that the local pollution is not severe. Transplanted lichens showed an increase of mercury, especially at one site near the cement plant. A correlation between precipitation and Hg uptake was not found probably due to a rather uniform rainfall in individual periods. Dust deposits did not influence Hg uptake significantly. Lichens vitality was affected over longer biomonitoring periods, probably due to some elements in dust particles, their alkalinity and the influence of other emissions. Mercury uptake measured in vital transplanted lichens was in a good correlation with the working hours (i.e. emitted Hg quantity) of the kiln. The study showed that selected lichens could be used to detect low to moderate Hg emissions from a cement plant

  8. The novel biomarker-based ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history)-bleeding risk score for patients with atrial fibrillation: a derivation and validation study.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Oldgren, Jonas; Lindbäck, Johan; Alexander, John H; Connolly, Stuart J; Eikelboom, John W; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Held, Claes; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; Siegbahn, Agneta; Yusuf, Salim; Granger, Christopher B; Wallentin, Lars

    2016-06-04

    The benefit of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation is based on a balance between reduction in ischaemic stroke and increase in major bleeding. We aimed to develop and validate a new biomarker-based risk score to improve the prognostication of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation. We developed and internally validated a new biomarker-based risk score for major bleeding in 14,537 patients with atrial fibrillation randomised to apixaban versus warfarin in the ARISTOTLE trial and externally validated it in 8468 patients with atrial fibrillation randomised to dabigatran versus warfarin in the RE-LY trial. Plasma samples for determination of candidate biomarker concentrations were obtained at randomisation. Major bleeding events were centrally adjudicated. The predictive values of biomarkers and clinical variables were assessed with Cox regression models. The most important variables were included in the score with weights proportional to the model coefficients. The ARISTOTLE and RE-LY trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00412984 and NCT00262600, respectively. The most important predictors for major bleeding were the concentrations of the biomarkers growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs) and haemoglobin, age, and previous bleeding. The ABC-bleeding score (age, biomarkers [GDF-15, cTnT-hs, and haemoglobin], and clinical history [previous bleeding]) score yielded a higher c-index than the conventional HAS-BLED and the newer ORBIT scores for major bleeding in both the derivation cohort (0·68 [95% CI 0·66-0·70] vs 0·61 [0·59-0·63] vs 0·65 [0·62-0·67], respectively; ABC-bleeding vs HAS-BLED p<0·0001 and ABC-bleeding vs ORBIT p=0·0008). ABC-bleeding score also yielded a higher c-index score in the the external validation cohort (0·71 [95% CI 0·68-0·73] vs 0·62 [0·59-0·64] for HAS-BLED vs 0·68 [0·65-0·70] for ORBIT; ABC-bleeding vs HAS-BLED p<0·0001 and ABC

  9. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens II: Soy isoflavones and zearalenone in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Teeguarden, Justin G

    2016-09-01

    Urine and serum biomonitoring was used to measure internal exposure to selected dietary estrogens in a cohort of 30 pregnant women. Exposure was measured over a period comprising one-half day in the field (6 h) and one day in a clinic (24 h). Biomonitoring of the dietary phytoestrogens genistein (GEN), daidzein (DDZ) and equol (EQ), as well as the mycoestrogen, zearalenone (ZEN) and its congeners, was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS. Biomonitoring revealed evidence of internal exposure to naturally occurring dietary estrogens during pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of total GEN, DDZ and EQ were similar to levels reported for general adult U.S. Measurable concentrations of total (parent and metabolites) GEN, DDZ and EQ were present in 240, 207 and 2 of 270 serum samples, respectively. Six out of 30 subjects had measurable concentrations of unconjugated GEN and/or DDZ in serum between 0.6 and 7.1 nM. Urine to serum total isoflavone ratios for GEN, DDZ and EQ were 13, 47, and 180, respectively. ZEN and its reductive metabolite, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), were present in pregnant women (11 out of 30 subjects) as conjugates at levels near the limit of quantification. The average total urinary concentration was 0.10 μg/L for ZEN and 0.11 μg/L for α-ZEL. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Can nail, hair and urine be used for biomonitoring of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid?

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Yuxin; Zhang, Jialing; Zhong, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2013-03-01

    Because of the disadvantages of invasive sampling, it is desirable to explore non-invasive matrices for human biomonitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of nail, hair and urine for human biomonitoring of PFOS and PFOA. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in matched nail, hair, urine and serum samples collected from 64 donors were measured. The chemicals of interest were detected with high detection frequency in these matrices (90%-100%) except for PFOA in urine samples (56%). Generally, the gender influences on the levels of PFOS and PFOA in these non-invasive matrices were in agreement with that in serum. For PFOS, the coefficients of Spearman correlation between serum samples and nail, hair and urine samples were 0.786 (p<0.001), 0.545 (p<0.001) and 0.302 (p<0.05), respectively. For PFOA, the correlation was only observed between nail samples and serum samples with a correlation coefficient of 0.299 (p<0.05). The results suggested that nail has more potential than hair and urine to be applied in human biomonitoring for PFOS and PFOA in general populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomonitoring studies should be used by regulatory agencies to assess human exposure levels and safety of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2010-08-01

    Within the past 3 years, four major evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA) safety have been undertaken. However, these assessments have arrived at quite different conclusions regarding the safety of BPA at current human exposure levels. We compared the reasons provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BPA risk assessment panel for their conclusion that human exposures are negligible with the conclusions reached by the other panels, with all panels having the same body of literature at their disposal. The EFSA panel dismissed > or = 80 biomonitoring studies that documented significant levels of BPA exposure in humans, including internal exposures to unconjugated BPA, on the basis that they did not match a model of BPA metabolism. Instead, the EFSA panel relied on two toxicokinetic studies-conducted in 15 adults administered BPA-to draw conclusions about exposure levels in the population, including exposures of neonates. As with all exposure assessments, models should be developed to explain actual data that are collected. In the case of BPA, samples from a large number of human subjects clearly indicate that humans are internally exposed to unconjugated BPA. The dismissal of these biomonitoring studies simply because their results do not conform to a model violates scientific principles. Expert panels should evaluate all data-including human biomonitoring studies-to make informed risk assessments.

  12. Results of a biomonitoring program for PCDD/PCDF, PCB, and PAH around an hazardous waste incinerator in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, H.; Fricke, W.; Zimmermann, T.; Hanewald, K.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992 a biomonitoring program was conducted around an hazardous waste incinerator in Hessen, Germany. Atmospheric concentrations of organic pollutants were monitored by analyzing Welsh Ray grass, pine needles, and kale for PCDD, PCDF, PCB, and PAH. Exposure of the biomonitors was done on 21 locations and under controlled conditions, e.g. all plants were placed in a standardized soil of known chemical composition. The results did not show any variance of the pollutant`s concentration or pattern from the main wind direction. Thus, it could be shown that the aerial distribution of the organic compounds was the same in the whole area of investigation and much different from the results obtained for the biomonitors exposed at the control sites, a remote forest area and an open-top chamber. The levels in kale were much lower than those reported in the literature. Whereas concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in pine needles were typical for those found in rural areas in Germany, the PCB levels were much higher. These elevated levels could not be found in kale. Whereas, PCDD/PCDF and PCB showed a very similar accumulation behavior in all plants, no clear picture could be obtained for the PAH. Kale, being exposed in contaminated soil, did not have higher concentrations of PCDD/PCDF, PCB, and PAH than those grown in the standardized soils. The results showed that levels in soil were negligible for plant contamination but underlined the importance of atmospheric deposition.

  13. Derivation of human Biomonitoring Guidance Values for chlorpyrifos using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model of cholinesterase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Morriss, Alistair; Velovitch, Joseph; Juberg, Daland; Burns, Carol J; Bartels, Michael; Aggarwal, Manoj; Poet, Torka; Hays, Sean; Price, Paul

    2015-03-01

    A number of biomonitoring surveys have been performed for chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy); however, there is no available guidance on how to interpret these data in a health risk assessment context. To address this gap, Biomonitoring Guidance Values (BGVs) are developed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model. The PBPK/PD model is used to predict the impact of age and human variability on the relationship between an early marker of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in the peripheral and central nervous systems [10% red blood cell (RBC) ChE inhibition] and levels of systemic biomarkers. Since the PBPK/PD model characterizes variation of sensitivity to CPF in humans, interspecies and intraspecies uncertainty factors are not needed. Derived BGVs represent the concentration of blood CPF and urinary TCPy associated with 95% of the population having less than or equal to 10% RBC ChE inhibition. Blood BGV values for CPF in adults and infants are 6100 ng/L and 4200 ng/L, respectively. Urinary TCPy BGVs for adults and infants are 2100 μg/L and 520 μg/L, respectively. The reported biomonitoring data are more than 150-fold lower than the BGVs suggesting that current US population exposures to CPF are well below levels associated with any adverse health effect. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Application of the BMWP-Costa Rica biotic index in aquatic biomonitoring: sensitivity to collection method and sampling intensity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Lorion, Christopher M

    2014-04-01

    The use of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bio-indicators in water quality studies has increased considerably over the last decade in Costa Rica, and standard biomonitoring methods have now been formulated at the national level. Nevertheless, questions remain about the effectiveness of different methods of sampling freshwater benthic assemblages, and how sampling intensity may influence biomonitoring results. In this study, we compared the results of qualitative sampling using commonly applied methods with a more intensive quantitative approach at 12 sites in small, lowland streams on the southern Caribbean slope of Costa Rica. Qualitative samples were collected following the official protocol using a strainer during a set time period and macroinvertebrates were field-picked. Quantitative sampling involved collecting ten replicate Surber samples and picking out macroinvertebrates in the laboratory with a stereomicroscope. The strainer sampling method consistently yielded fewer individuals and families than quantitative samples. As a result, site scores calculated using the Biological Monitoring Working Party-Costa Rica (BMWP-CR) biotic index often differed greatly depending on the sampling method. Site water quality classifications using the BMWP-CR index differed between the two sampling methods for 11 of the 12 sites in 2005, and for 9 of the 12 sites in 2006. Sampling intensity clearly had a strong influence on BMWP-CR index scores, as well as perceived differences between reference and impacted sites. Achieving reliable and consistent biomonitoring results for lowland Costa Rican streams may demand intensive sampling and requires careful consideration of sampling methods.

  15. A Method to screen U.S. environmental biomonitoring data for race/ethnicity and income-related disparity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental biomonitoring data provide one way to examine race/ethnicity and income-related exposure disparity and identify potential environmental justice concerns. Methods We screened U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2008 biomonitoring data for 228 chemicals for race/ethnicity and income-related disparity. We defined six subgroups by race/ethnicity—Mexican American, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white—and income—Low Income: poverty income ratio (PIR) <2, High Income: PIR ≥ 2. We assessed disparity by comparing the central tendency (geometric mean [GM]) of the biomonitoring concentrations of each subgroup to that of the reference subgroup (non-Hispanic white/High Income), adjusting for multiple comparisons using the Holm-Bonferroni procedure. Results There were sufficient data to estimate at least one geometric mean ratio (GMR) for 108 chemicals; 37 had at least one GMR statistically different from one. There was evidence of potential environmental justice concern (GMR significantly >1) for 12 chemicals: cotinine; antimony; lead; thallium; 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol; p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; methyl and propyl paraben; and mono-ethyl, mono-isobutyl, and mono-n-butyl phthalate. There was also evidence of GMR significantly <1 for 25 chemicals (of which 17 were polychlorinated biphenyls). Conclusions Although many of our results were consistent with the U.S. literature, findings relevant to environmental justice were novel for dichlorophenols and some metals. PMID:24354733

  16. Traffic contribution to air pollution in urban street canyons: Integrated application of the OSPM, moss biomonitoring and spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazić, Lazar; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Mijić, Zoran; Vuković, Gordana; Ilić, Luka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the air pollutant distribution within the ambient of urban street canyon, Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) was used to predict hourly content of NOX, NO, NO2, O3, CO, BNZ and PM10. The study was performed in five street canyons in Belgrade (Serbia) during 10-week summer period. The model receptors were located on each side of street canyons at 4 m, 8 m and 16 m height. To monitor airborne trace element content, the moss bag biomonitors were simultaneously exposed with the model receptors at two heights-4 m and 16 m. The results of both methods, modelling and biomonitoring, showed significantly decreasing trend of the air pollutants with height. The results indirectly demonstrate that biomonitoring, i.e., moss bag technique could be a valuable tool to verify model performance. In addition, spectral analysis was applied to investigate weekly variation of the daily background and modelled data set. Typical periodicities and weekend effect, caused by anthropogenic influences, have been identified.

  17. Should silicone prostheses be considered for specimen banking? A pilot study into their use for human biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Allan, Ian J; Bæk, Kine; Kringstad, Alfhild; Roald, Helge E; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutant (POP) biomonitoring in humans is challenging and generally carried out using blood, breast milk or adipose tissue, with concentrations normalised to the lipid content of the sample matrix. The goal of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the validity and feasibility of explanted silicone prostheses as a matrix for persistent organic pollutant biomonitoring in humans. We postulate that pollutant concentrations in silicone prostheses inserted in the body will equilibrate with that in the body over time and provide a measure of the overall body burden. This study included silicone prostheses from 22 female patients of the Colosseum clinic (Oslo, Norway) collected between September 2010 and April 2012. Absorption of chlorinated and brominated POPs into silicone prostheses during implantation was observed. Relative levels of the different contaminants measured in prostheses were in agreement with those from serum and breast milk analyses from the general Norwegian population. The comparison of serum and breast milk-based literature data with prosthesis concentrations transposed into lipid-normalised concentrations supports the validity of the prosthesis measurements. The median of relative percent differences between measurements with replicate silicone prostheses from 11 patients was below 30%. Observed increases in prosthesis concentrations with patients' age were found to be very similar to literature data from studies of the Norwegian population. Silicone prostheses therefore represent a promising matrix for the biomonitoring of nonpolar and non-ionic pollutants in humans. Sample accessibility and body burden representativeness of the silicone prostheses suggest that specimen banking should be initiated.

  18. Use of an integrated biomarker-based strategy to evaluate physiological stress responses induced by environmental concentrations of caffeine in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Capolupo, Marco; Valbonesi, Paola; Kiwan, Alisar; Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of caffeine (CF), a biologically active drug, has widely been documented in coastal waters, and whether its environmental concentrations do represent a threat for marine organisms is unclear. The present study aimed at assessing sub-lethal effects induced by a 7-day exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of CF (5, 50 and 500ng/L) in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. CF in water and mussel tissues, and a battery of biomarkers, including lysosomal parameters of general stress, oxidative stress responses and endpoints of neurological and genetic damages, were evaluated and tested for significance vs controls (p<0.05). CF exposure triggered a significant decrease of lysosomal membrane stability in both haemocytes and digestive gland (at 50 and 500ng/L CF) and a significant increase of lysosomal content of neutral lipids (at 500ng/L CF), indicating the onset of a stress syndrome. No effects were noted on lipid peroxidation parameters, such as malondialdehyde and lipofuscin content. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase was unmodified in gills, while a significant increase of GST activity was observed in digestive gland (at 5 and 500ng/L CF), suggesting the occurrence of GST-mediated phase II detoxifying processes. CF did not induce geno/neurotoxicity, as shown by the lack of effects on primary DNA damages and acetylcholinesterase activity. In line with its high hydrophilicity, CF did not bioaccumulate in mussel tissues. Data were integrated using the Mussel Expert System, which assigned a low stress level to mussels exposed to 500ng/L CF, whereas no alterations of animal health status were highlighted at lower dosages. This study revealed a low profile of toxicity for environmental concentrations of CF, and confirmed the suitability of an integrated biomarker-based approach to provide a comprehensive picture of the degree of stress induced by emerging contaminants in marine

  19. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - New capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, William G.

    1987-10-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program is reviewed with reference to the current status of the program, vehicle description, and mission capabilities. The OMV, which will be available in 1991, will be able to economically deliver and retreive spacecraft from orbits beyond the practical limits of the Shuttle. It will be capable of meeting the present needs of the Space Transportation System and its payloads and the future space activities associated with the Space Station. In addition to the inherent capability of the OMV, it can be enhanced by the addition of special purpose mission kits to meet special mission needs, such as servicing, refueling, and recovery of tumbling satellites.

  20. Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle - New capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, William G.

    1987-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program is reviewed with reference to the current status of the program, vehicle description, and mission capabilities. The OMV, which will be available in 1991, will be able to economically deliver and retreive spacecraft from orbits beyond the practical limits of the Shuttle. It will be capable of meeting the present needs of the Space Transportation System and its payloads and the future space activities associated with the Space Station. In addition to the inherent capability of the OMV, it can be enhanced by the addition of special purpose mission kits to meet special mission needs, such as servicing, refueling, and recovery of tumbling satellites.

  1. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  2. Soviet Naval War Fighting Capabilities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    This paper attempts to determine the levels of major Soviet combat forces in each of the ocean areas of the world and assess the capability of those forces to conduct warfighting operations from a standing, walking, or running start.

  3. Capability 9.2 Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrasjek, June

    2005-01-01

    Modern operational concepts require significant bandwidths and multipoint communication capabilities. Provide voice, video and data communications among vehicles moving along the surface, vehicles in suborbital transport or reconnaissance, surface elements, and home planet facilities.

  4. MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.

  5. NORSOF Military Assistance Capability Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    define policy as the declared objectives that a government seeks to achieve in the pursuit of national security. In order to enhance NORSOF’s...courses of action that demonstrate how NORSOF’s enhanced MA capabilities can be pursued in order to achieve strategic objectives for Norway in the...courses of action that demonstrate how NORSOF’s enhanced MA capabilities can be pursued in order to achieve strategic objectives for Norway in the

  6. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  7. Raman Spectrometer with Microprobe Capability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-15

    CLASSIFICATION O UNCLASSIFIEOIUNLIMITED 0 SAME AS RPT. DTIC USERS Unclassified 22# NAME OF RESPONSIBLE oiNDiviDu? 2jkL TELEPHONE (Include Area Cd)2.OFFICE...spectrometer with microprobe capability. The microprobe capability allows Raman measurements to be performed on a localized area with a resolution of 1.0...first our purchase process. The instrument actually purchased is then described. Preliminary Raman spectral data in several of the above areas is

  8. Capability Test Design and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-13

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Joint Test and Evaluation Methodology (JTEM),Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING...refinement process for testing in a joint environment (TIJE) 2. Review the methods and processes for an evaluation strategy refinement process 3...Environment System Design Document (SDD) JTEM Capability Test Methodology (CTM) v2.0 Event Management Plan Test Plan Joint Capability Evaluation (JCE

  9. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  10. Ranking terrestrial vertebrate species for utility in biomonitoring and vulnerability to environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of contaminant tissue concentrations or exposure-related effects in biota has been used extensively to monitor pollution and environmental health. Terrestrial vertebrates have historically been an important group of species in such evaluations, not only because many are excellent sentinels of environmental contamination, but also because they are valued natural resources in their own right that may be adversely affected by toxicant exposure. Selection of appropriate vertebrates for biomonitoring studies frequently relies on expert opinion, although a few rigorous schemes are in use for predicting vulnerability of birds to the adverse effects of petroleum crude oil. A Utility Index that ranks terrestrial vertebrate species as potential sentinels of contaminants in a region, and a Vulnerability Index that assesses the threat of specific groups of contaminants to these species, have been developed to assist decision makers in risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants, cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, petroleum crude oil, mercury, and lead shot. Twenty-five terrestrial vertebrate species commonly found in Atlantic Coast estuarine habitat were ranked for their utility as biomonitors of contamination and their vulnerability to pollutants in this region. No single species, taxa or class of vertebrates was found to be an ideal sentinel for all groups of contaminants. Although birds have overwhelmingly been used to monitor contaminants compared to other terrestrial vertebrate classes, the non-migratory nature and dietary habits of the snapping turtle and mink consistently resulted in ranking these species excellent sentinels as well. Vulnerability of Atlantic Coast populations of these species varied considerably among groups of contaminants. Usually a particular species was found to be at high risk to only one or two groups of contaminants, although a noteworthy exception is the bald eagle that is highly vulnerable to all five of the

  11. Predictive value of human biomonitoring in environmental medicine: experiences at the outpatient unit of environmental medicine (UEM) of the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Straff, Wolfgang; Möller, Manfred; Jakobi, Nikolaus; Weishoff-Houben, Michaela; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2002-07-01

    There is little data on the distribution of biomonitoring parameters in patients at outpatient Units of Environmental Medicine (UEM). We evaluated the biomonitoring parameters of 646 UEM outpatients from our University Hospital 1988-1998. Few patients were exposed to specific substances. Data of patients who were not obviously exposed was analysed statistically (geometric mean, standard deviation, median, 95th percentile). Results were compared with reference values in literature. Normal distribution of biomonitoring parameters was rare. 95th percentiles for arsenic, chromium, selenium, zinc, phenol and toluene were below standard, 95th percentiles for copper and mercury above, and 95th percentiles for lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane were within the published range of reference values. Thallium as well as most volatile organic compounds analyzed were below detection levels. Aluminum and fluorine exposure was rarely analysed. In view of these results, it is concluded that the indication for biomonitoring needs to be stringent as levels of biomonitoring parameters are generally not risen in patients of the UEM.

  12. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  13. Real-time automated measurement of Xenopus leavis tadpole behavior and behavioral responses following triphenyltin exposure using the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB).

    PubMed

    Schriks, Merijn; van Hoorn, Melissa K; Faassen, Elisabeth J; van Dam, Joost W; Murk, Albertinka J

    2006-05-10

    The present study examines whether behavior of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, when measured with the multispecies freshwater biomonitor (MFB), can be a sensitive and practical parameter for quantification of behavioral effects induced by toxic compounds. The MFB system is capable of automated simultaneous recording and integration of different types of movement over time. Basic tadpole behavior was studied under standard ambient temperature and colder conditions. At lower temperatures the time spent on low frequency behavior such as swimming and ventilation decreased, while at higher frequency movements associated with subtle tail tip oscillations it increased. Changes in behavior were also studied during the process of metamorphosis when both the morphology and physiology of tadpoles change. In the course of metamorphosis the tadpoles decreased the time spent on swimming and increased tail tip oscillations, especially in the period shortly before and during metamorphic climax. Additional experiments were performed to investigate whether the MFB could be used to quantify behavioral effects of exposure to a toxic compound. A 48 h exposure to a sublethal concentration of 1.25 microg L(-1) triphenyltin (TPT) significantly increased low frequency behavior, whereas 5 microg L(-1) TPT significantly reduced this type of behavior while the number of periods of total inactivity increased. One week after transferring the animals to clean water, registered behavior of tadpoles in the highest TPT group (5 microg L(-1)) was normal again for this developmental stage. The results show that the MFB can be used as a new tool for automated registration of sublethal toxic effects on tadpole behavior including recovery.

  14. Towards expanding megasonic cleaning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhenxing; Ferstl, Berthold; Oetter, Günter; Dietze, Uwe; Samayoa, Martin; Dattilo, Davide

    2016-10-01

    Megasonic cleaning remains the industry's workhorse technology for particle removal on advanced 193i and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photomasks. Several megasonic cleaning technologies and chemistries have been proposed and implemented over the years in diverse production environments. The operational range of these process technologies, over a wide array of applications, is ultimately defined by measurable capability limits. As geometries continue to scale-down and new materials are introduced, existing cleaning technologies will naturally fade out of range and new capability is ultimately required. This paper presents a novel fundamental approach for expanding cleaning capability by use of high-frequency megasonics and tenside-based additives (BASF SELECTIPUR C-series). To this end, a sonoluminescence-based experimental test bench was configured to characterize and study the effects of various process parameters on cleaning performance, with a particular emphasis on cavitation-induced damage and enhancement of particle removal capabilities. The results from the fundamental studies provide a path forward towards delivering new cleaning capability by enabling high-frequency megasonic systems and tenside-based additives.

  15. Biomarker-Based Risk Model to Predict Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Daniel; Lindbäck, Johan; Armstrong, Paul W; Budaj, Andrzej; Cannon, Christopher P; Granger, Christopher B; Hagström, Emil; Held, Claes; Koenig, Wolfgang; Östlund, Ollie; Stewart, Ralph A H; Soffer, Joseph; White, Harvey D; de Winter, Robbert J; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Siegbahn, Agneta; Kleber, Marcus E; Dressel, Alexander; Grammer, Tanja B; März, Winfried; Wallentin, Lars

    2017-08-15

    Currently, there is no generally accepted model to predict outcomes in stable coronary heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated and compared the prognostic value of biomarkers and clinical variables to develop a biomarker-based prediction model in patients with stable CHD. In a prospective, randomized trial cohort of 13,164 patients with stable CHD, we analyzed several candidate biomarkers and clinical variables and used multivariable Cox regression to develop a clinical prediction model based on the most important markers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular (CV) death, but model performance was also explored for other key outcomes. It was internally bootstrap validated, and externally validated in 1,547 patients in another study. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 591 cases of CV death. The 3 most important biomarkers were N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, where NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT had greater prognostic value than any other biomarker or clinical variable. The final prediction model included age (A), biomarkers (B) (NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and clinical variables (C) (smoking, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral arterial disease). This "ABC-CHD" model had high discriminatory ability for CV death (c-index 0.81 in derivation cohort, 0.78 in validation cohort), with adequate calibration in both cohorts. This model provided a robust tool for the prediction of CV death in patients with stable CHD. As it is based on a small number of readily available biomarkers and clinical factors, it can be widely employed to complement clinical assessment and guide management based on CV risk. (The Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy Trial [STABILITY]; NCT00799903). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Samantha K; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E; Singh, Kuldeep; Lehner, Andreas; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Bluett, Robert D; Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan E

    2014-02-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a biomonitor for organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) associated with a wide range of deleterious health effects in wildlife and humans. We determined concentrations of twenty OHCs in livers of 23 river otters salvaged by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources from 2009 to 2011, determined sex-dependent distribution of OHCs, and compared our results to the reported concentrations of four OHCs in Illinois river otters from 1984 to 1989. Since these contaminants have been banned for over 30 years, we predicted smaller mean concentrations than those previously reported in Illinois otters. We detected eleven of twenty OHCs; PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, and 4,4'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) were present in the greatest mean concentrations. We report the largest mean concentration of dieldrin to date in the liver of North American river otters (mean: 174, range: 14.4-534 parts per billion wet wt [ppb]). Mean PCB concentrations were significantly higher in males (mean: 851; range: 30-3450 ppb) than females (mean: 282; range: 40-850 ppb; p=0.04). Mean concentrations of dieldrin were greater than those detected in otters from 1984 to 1989 (mean: 90; range: 30-130 ppb; p<0.05). Our results suggest OHC exposure remains a concern. Future research in Illinois should focus on evaluating OHCs exposures, particularly dieldrin, at the watershed level.

  17. Animal excrement: a potential biomonitor of heavy metal contamination in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuebin; Xia, Lijun; Sun, Liguang; Luo, Honghao; Wang, Yuhong

    2008-07-25

    To assess the feasibility of using animal excrement to biomonitor the extent of heavy metal contamination in the marine environment, concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the fresh excrement of seabirds and marine mammals, along with other biomaterials, from the Arctic, Antarctica (West and East), and Xisha Archipelago of the South China Sea were determined. Results show that the excrement of marine animals at higher trophic levels generally contained high levels of Hg, demonstrating the biomagnification of Hg through food chains in different remote regions. Significant variations in metal accumulation in the excrements were observed among the distinctive geographical areas, with the highest Hg concentration in Xisha Archipelago and the highest Pb concentration in the Arctic, which reflects different levels of air metal pollution at various sampling locations. Concentrations of Cu in the excrements primarily correlate to the geochemical background levels in the regions. High Cu concentrations were found near the Great Wall Station in West Antarctica where a copper mineralized belt exists. No clear spatial variation pattern was found for Zn accumulation in the excrement. This study shows that animal excrement can be used as bioindicators for the level of metal contamination in the marine environment, with the advantages of easy sampling, accurate detection (i.e., with high levels of metal accumulation), and reconstructing historical metal contamination trends by long-term monitoring of sedimentary excrements.

  18. Teeth as biomonitors of soft tissue mercury concentrations in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

    SciTech Connect

    Outridge, P.M.; Wagemann, R.; McNeely, R.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports relationships between bulk Hg concentrations in the tooth cementum and soft tissues of free-living beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Total Hg levels were determined in slivers of cementum using a solid-sample Hg analyzer, a recent advance in Hg analysis that avoids acid predigestion. Tooth Hg concentrations ranged up to about 350 ng/g dry weight and were significantly correlated with Hg levels in kidneys, liver, muscle, and muktuk (skin) and with the age of the animals. The Hg/Se ratio in liver, the organ with the highest Hg concentrations, may have been an important determinant of tooth Hg. At hepatic Hg/Se molar ratios {ge}0.6, tooth Hg increased steeply, suggesting that Hg in teeth may reflect physiologically available Hg that was not bound in the liver and that was circulating in the bloodstream. This Hg/Se ratio was exceeded in most beluga aged {ge}20 years. The results indicate that teeth can be used as biomonitors to reconstruct temporal and geographic trends in the soft tissue Hg concentrations of beluga, provided that the age structures of the different populations are known.

  19. Different extraction approaches for the biomonitoring of pesticides in pine needles.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rita; Ratola, Nuno; Moreira, José Luís; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2012-01-01

    An ultrasonic extraction (USE) procedure followed by two alternative clean-up approaches using solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (ENVI 18 and Florisil) and QuEChERS extraction and clean-up methodology were tested and compared for the determination of20 pesticides in Pinus pinea needles. The analysis and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion storage (SIS) mode, using triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as the internal standard. One sample mass (5 g) and two pesticide spiking levels (20 and 100 ng g(-1)) were used in the validation assays. The limits of detection (LODs) were lower than 15.96 ng g(-1) for ENVI 18, 11.36 ng g(-1) for Florisil and 16.67 ng g(-1) for QuEChERS. Florisil yielded higher coefficients of variation for replicated analysis as did QuEChERS for the intermediate precision. To test pine needles' capacity as biomonitors for these pesticides, naturally contaminated needle samples were analyzed. With a 34% overall detection rate, concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 17.73 ng g(-1) (dry weight). USE + ENVI 18 and USE + Florisil were overall the best options for pesticide assessment in pine needles.

  20. Evaluation of ginkgo as a biomonitor of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Michio; Abe, Maho; Kakumoto, Yoriko; Kawano, Hiromi; Fukasawa, Hiroko; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2012-07-01

    The utility of ginkgo leaves as biomonitors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated. We investigated PAH concentrations among tree species, the effect of variations in leaf position in a tree, tissue distributions, correlations between ginkgo leaves and air, and seasonal variations. Among the five species examined (Ginkgo biloba L., Zelkova serrata Makino, Liriodendron tulipifera L., Prunus yedoensis Matsum, and Magnolia kobus DC.), ginkgo accumulated the greatest amount of PAHs from roadside air. Most PAHs (˜80%) were accumulated in the wax fraction, and most of the remainder (17%) penetrated the inner tissues of the leaves. PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves decreased with increasing height and distance from the road, reflecting the derivation of PAHs from vehicle emissions. Seasonal time-series sampling showed that PAH concentrations in ginkgo leaves increased with time, attributable to the effects of temperature and accumulation through long-term exposure. Concentrations in ginkgo leaves collected from various roads showed a strong and significant correlation with those in air collected by a high-volume air sampler (r2 = 0.68, P < 0.01). Ginkgo leaf data clearly showed a dramatic decrease in the ratio of low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs to high-molecular-weight PAHs from 2001 or 2002 to 2006, indicating that on-road diesel emission regulations effectively reduced LMW PAH concentrations in air.

  1. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively.

  2. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dekant, Wolfgang Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 {mu}g/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 {mu}g per person (< 0.1 {mu}g/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

  4. Small mammals as biomonitors of metal pollution: a case study in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kopušar, Nataša; Kryštufek, Boris

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, copper and molybdenum from soil to the tissues of small mammals inhabiting differently polluted areas in Slovenia was investigated. Metals were determined in soil samples and in the livers of 139 individuals of five small mammal species, collected in 2012 in the vicinity of a former lead smelter, the largest Slovenian thermal power plant, along a main road and in a control area. The area in the vicinity of former lead smelter differs considerably from other study areas. The soil from that area is heavily polluted with Pb and Cd. The mean metal concentrations in the liver, irrespective of species, varied in the following ranges-Pb: 0.40-7.40 mg/kg fw and Cd: 0.27-135 mg/kg fw and reached effect concentrations at which toxic effects can be expected in a significant proportion of the livers of the small mammal specimens (Pb 40 %, Cd 67 %). These findings indicate that the majority of small mammals trapped in the area of the former lead smelter are at risk of toxic effects due to the very high bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd in the organism. On the contrary, Pd and Cd concentrations in the livers of small mammals sampled in the vicinity of the thermal power plant and along the main road were comparable with reference values and considerably lower than effect concentrations. Additionally, the study suggests that Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus are very suitable biomonitors of metal pollution.

  5. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of fixed wavelength fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry as a biomonitoring tool of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S

    2004-01-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate whether polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) could be measured using fluorescence spectrometry. Crabs were collected as part of an integrated study to assess PAH contamination in Southampton Water, UK. Urine was collected from crabs via a non-destructive technique and analysed using fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry (SFS) in order to determine the presence of PAH metabolites, indicative of PAH exposure. By scanning at wavelength pairs specific to a variety of PAH groups the fluorescence of metabolites was analysed and attributed to the following PAH groups; naphthalenes, pyrenes and benzo[a]pyrene (BAP). Naphthalene-type, pyrene-type and BAP-type metabolites were detected using FF and SFS techniques and two distinct parameters were measured; Peak Intensity and Peak Area. Results showed that crabs obtained near a petroleum refinery, a point source of PAH discharge, exhibited significantly higher PAH metabolites for all PAH groups, than at sites sampled along the estuary (ANOVA, p<0.05). This study highlights the effectiveness of using FF and SFS as a rapid and cost-effective biomonitoring tool for detecting PAH contamination.

  7. Isocyanate Exposure Assessment Combining Industrial Hygiene Methods with Biomonitoring for End Users of Orthopedic Casting Products

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Ronald L.; Logan, Perry W.; Kore, Anita M.; Strom, Constance M.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Kingston, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a ‘dry’ and ‘wet’ application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat. PMID:23680587

  8. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development.

  9. Use of Nematodes as Biomonitors of Nonfumigant Nematicide Movement through Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gourd, T. R.; Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Three field experiments were established in a loamy sand soil in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina to determine downward movement of aldicarb and fenamiphos with a nematode bioassay. Penetration of bioassay plant roots by Meloidogyne incognita was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after treatment in the greenhouse as a means of determining nematicide effectiveness. Chemical movement was similar in planted and fallow soil. Nematicidal activity was greater in soil collected from the 0 to 10 cm depth than from the 10 to 20 cm depth. Fenamiphos suppressed host penetration by the nematode more than aldicarb under the high rainfall (19 cm) and low soil temperatures that occurred soon after application in the spring. During the summer, which had 13 cm precipitation and warmer soil temperatures, both chemicals performed equally well at the 0 to 10 cm depth. At the lower soil level (10 to 20 cm), aldicarb limited nematode penetration of host roots more quickly than fenamiphos. Both of these chemicals moved readily in the sandy soil in concentrations sufficient to control M. incognita. Although some variability was encountered in similar experiments, nematodes such as M. incognita have considerable potential as biomonitors of nematicide movement in soil. PMID:19279744

  10. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  11. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Clochiatti, Roberto; Carrot, Francine; Daudin, Laurent; Bennett, James P

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 microm. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  12. Comparative Use of Tree Leaves, Needles, Tree Barks and Lichens for Air Pollution Biomonitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoukhi, T.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chouak, A.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Senhou, A.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Chakir, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the most suitable bioaccumulators for air pollution survey in Morocco. For this, we compare in this paper heavy metals uptake efficiencies for different types of biomonitors: leaves of oak and eucalyptus trees, needles of coniferous trees, tree-barks and lichens collected at the same site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis using the k0 method (INAA-k0) was used for its adequate characteristics to analyze accurately a wide number of elements. Reference materials were analyzed to check the reliability and the accuracy of this technique. The results obtained for all these bioaccumulators lead to the following conclusions. For the major elements, leaves and needles are more accumulating than tree barks and lichens. While for the intermediate and trace elements, there is an obvious accumulation in lichens in comparison with tree barks, leaves and needles. This work shows the possibility to use these four bioaccumulators according to their availability in an area. It will be useful however to set up an inter calibration between these bioaccumulators.

  13. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  14. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using Mytilus galloprovincialis in Safi coastal waters, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Maanan, Mohamed

    2007-10-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cooper, nickel, manganese, and chromium in Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated to provide information on pollution of Safi coastal area, since these metals have the highest toxic potential. The concentration of Hg and Pb was determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Ni) were quantified by AAS. High lead, cadmium, chromium, and mercury levels were registered in tissue samples collected from two stations near the Jorf Lihoudi and Safi city, while elevated concentration of manganese and zinc (14.70-25.30 mg kg(-1) and 570-650 mg kg(-1) dry wt, respectively) were found in mussel specimens from Cap Cantin. The high levels of nickel found respectively in the areas near the industrial area being of concern in terms of environmental health need frequent monitoring. The metal concentrations recorded at the clean stations may be considered as useful background levels to which to refer for comparison within the Atlantic coast. M. galloprovincialis are suitable biomonitors to investigate the contamination levels of heavy metals pollution face a different human activity in this coastal area of the Atlantic coast.

  15. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  16. Non-invasive saliva human biomonitoring: development of an in vitro platform.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas J; Smith, Jordan N; Carver, Zana A; Timchalk, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Direct measurements of exposure represent the most accurate assessment of a subject's true exposure. The clearance of many drugs and chemicals, including pesticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), can be detected non-invasively in saliva. Here we have developed a serous-acinar transwell model system as an in vitro screening platform to prioritize chemicals for non-invasive biomonitoring through salivary clearance mechanisms. Rat primary serous-acinar cells express both α-amylase and aquaporin-5 proteins and develop significant tight junctions at postconfluence - a feature necessary for chemical transport studies in vitro. CPF exhibited bidirectional passage across the serous-acinar barrier that was disproportional to the passage of a cell impermeable chemical (lucifer yellow), consistent with a hypothesized passive diffusion process. CPF was metabolized to trichlorpyridinol (TCPy) by serous-acinar cells, and TCPy also displayed bidirectional diffusion in the transwell assay. This model system should prove useful as an in vitro screening platform to support the non-invasive monitoring of toxicons and pharmacons in human saliva and provide guidance for development of advanced in vitro screening platforms utilizing primary human salivary gland epithelial cells.

  17. [The waterpipe (shisha) - indoor air quality, human biomonitoring, and health effects].

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking, also known as shisha or hookah smoking, is growing in western countries as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that shisha smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking.In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include well-known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and there are indications that WP smoke is associated with cancer. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk.More research on the health effects of WP is urgently needed and more preventive measures for public health protection. Moreover, public WP facilities should be implemented under specific nonsmoker protection laws and consequently controlled.This review summarizes recent data on exposure to WP smoking in indoor environments, the results of biomonitoring data, and the known health effects based on currently available toxicological or epidemiological studies.

  18. Multi-element atmospheric deposition in Macedonia studied by the moss biomonitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Barandovski, Lambe; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Ostrovnaya, Tatyana M

    2015-10-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique using moss species Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) Robins and Hypnum cupressiforme (Hedw.) was applied to air pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia. The study was performed in the framework of the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The presence of 47 elements was determined by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Normality of the datasets of elements was investigated, and Box-Cox transformation was used in order to achieve normal distributions of the data. Different pollution sources were identified and characterized using principal component analysis (PCA). Distribution maps were prepared to point out the regions most affected by pollution and to relate this to the known sources of contamination. The cities of Veles, Skopje, Tetovo, Radoviš and Kavadarci were determined to experience particular environmental stress. Moreover, three reactivated lead-zinc mines were also shown to contribute to a high content of lead and zinc in the eastern part of the country. However, a comparison with the previous moss survey conducted in 2005 showed a decreasing trend of pollution elements that are usually associated with emission from industrial activities.

  19. Temporal and spatial biomonitoring of heavy metals in eastern Aegean coastal waters using Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Onen, S Aydin; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F

    2011-11-01

    This biomonitoring study presents the spatial and temporal distributions of heavy metals in the soft tissues of a major fouling species Amphibalanus amphitrite living on hard substrate at different sites along the eastern Aegean coast. A. amphitrite has been chosen as a strong candidate for monitoring heavy metals. Sediment and seawater samples were also collected to detect their metal contents in order to gain more information on the environmental conditions and possible bioaccumulation patterns. The physico-chemical characteristics of sampling stations have been measured in order to characterize the sampling area. The order of metal concentrations in barnacles, sediment and seawater decreased in the following order Cu>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cd>Cr>Pb>Hg, Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Hg>Cd and Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd>Hg, respectively. These results showed that barnacles accumulate Cu in a higher degree than both sediment and seawater. Moreover, metal concentrations in barnacle have the potential for use in any future regulatory framework monitoring and eventually controlling ambient metal pollution levels.

  20. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution.

  1. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of exhaled air as an improved biomonitoring method to assess perchloroethylene short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cláudia M; Menezes, Helvécio C; Cardeal, Zenilda L

    2017-03-22

    This paper shows the use of exhaled air as a biomonitoring method to assess perchloroethylene (PERC) environmental and occupational exposure. A sensitive, fast, and solvent free analytical method was developed to determine PERC in ambient and exhaled air of individuals occupationally exposed. The developed method used cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) as the sampling technique, and a standard permeation method to simulation of air matrix. The analysis were conducted by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The methods were validated and were found to be precise, linear and sensitive for environmental and biological monitoring. The developed methods were applied to twenty-seven sampling points spread across Belo Horizonte city, Brazil, twenty four dry cleaners, an electroplating industry, a research laboratory, and an automotive paint preparation shop. The results of ambient air analyses ranging from 14.0 to 3205.0µgm(-3) with median concentration of 599.0µgm(-3). Furthermore, sampling of exhaled air of individuals occupationally exposed presented results ranging from 6.0 to 2635.0µgm(-3) with median concentration of 325.0µgm(-3). The strong correlation observed between ambient and exhaled air (r =0.930) demonstrates that exhaled air is a suitable biomarker for evaluating occupational exposure to PERC.

  3. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    SciTech Connect

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  4. Translocation of isotopically distinct macroalgae: A route to low-cost biomonitoring?

    PubMed

    Gröcke, Darren R; Racionero-Gómez, Blanca; Marschalek, James W; Greenwell, H Chris

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) in macroalgae are often used to identify sources of nitrogenous pollution in fluvial and estuarine settings. This approach assumes that the macroalgal δ(15)N is representative of the sources of the pollution averaged over a timespan in the order of days to weeks. The preferential uptake of a particular nitrogen compound or potential for fractionation in the water column or during uptake and assimilation by the macroalgae could make this assumption invalid. Laboratory studies were therefore performed to investigate the uptake and assimilation of both nitrate and ammonium at a variety of concentrations using the vegetative (non-fertile) tips of the brown macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus. Nitrate appeared to fractionate at high concentrations, and was found to be taken up more rapidly than ammonia; within 13 days, the macroalgae tips were in isotopic equilibrium with the nitrate solution at 500 μM. These experiments were complemented by an investigation involving the translocation of macroalgae collected from a site enriched in (15)N relative to natural levels (Staithes, UK), to the River Tees, Middlesbrough (UK), a site depleted in (15)N relative to natural levels. The nitrogen isotope signature shifted by ∼50% within 7 days, with samples deployed nearer the surface subject to greater change. These findings suggest that the translocation of macroalgae with isotopically distinct signatures can be used as a rapid, cost-efficient method for nitrogen biomonitoring in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomonitoring of trace metal pollution using the bivalve molluscs, Villorita cyprinoides, from the Cochin backwaters.

    PubMed

    George, Rejomon; Martin, G D; Nair, S M; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2013-12-01

    Trace metal concentrations in the muscle of the bivalve Villorita cyprinoides from the Cochin backwaters (southwest coast of India) were investigated during the monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon periods. The seasonal average ranges of metals (μg g(-1), dry weight) in the bivalve were as follows: Fe (18,532.44-28,267.05), Co (23.25-37.58), Ni (10.56-19.28), Cu (3.58-11.35), Zn (48.45-139.15), Cd (1.06-1.50) and Pb (3.05-4.35). The marginally elevated metal concentrations in bivalve muscles are probably related to high influx of metals as a result of pollution from the industries and agricultural fields with consequent increased bioavailability of metals to the bivalve. Evaluation of the risks to human health associated with consumption of the bivalves suggested that there is no health risk for moderate shellfish consumers. A regular and continuous biomonitoring program is recommended to establish V. cyprinoides as a bioindicator for assessing the effects of trace metal pollution and to identify future changes to conserve the "health" of this fragile ecosystem.

  6. Biomonitoring of pesticides by pine needles--chemical scoring, risk of exposure, levels and trends.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Araújo, Rita; Amigo, José Manuel; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2014-04-01

    Vegetation is a useful matrix for the quantification of atmospheric pollutants such as semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In particular, pine needles stand out as effective biomonitors due to the excellent uptake properties of their waxy layer. Having previously validated an original and reliable method to analyse pesticides in pine needles, our work team set the objective of this study to determine the levels of 18 pesticides in Pinus pinea needles collected in 12 different sampling sites in Portugal. These compounds were selected among a total of 70 pesticides by previous chemical scoring, developed to assess their probability to occur in the atmosphere. The risk of exposure was evaluated by the binomial chemical score/frequency of occurrence in the analysed samples. Levels and trends of the chemical families and target of the pesticides were obtained regarding the type of land occupation of the selected sites, including the use of advanced statistics (principal component analysis, PCA). Finally, some correlations with several characteristics of the sampling sites (population, energy consumption, meteorology, etc.) were also investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M; Robinson, Brett

    2004-11-01

    Trees can be used to monitor the level of pollution of trace elements in the soil and atmosphere. In this paper, we surveyed the content of eight trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in leaves and stems of white poplar (Populus alba) trees. We selected 25 trees in the riparian forest of the Guadiamar River (S. Spain), one year after this area was contaminated by a mine spill, and 10 trees in non-affected sites. The spill-affected soils had significantly higher levels of available cadmium (mean of 1.25 mg kg(-1)), zinc (117 mg kg(-1)), lead (63.3 mg kg(-1)), copper (58.0 mg kg(-1)) and arsenic (1.70 mg kg(-1)), than non-affected sites. The concentration of trace element in poplar leaves was positively and significantly correlated with the soil availability for cadmium and zinc, and to a lesser extent for arsenic (log-log relationship). Thus, poplar leaves could be used as biomonitors for soil pollution of Cd and Zn, and moderately for As.

  8. Human Biomonitoring of food contaminants in Spanish children: Design, sampling and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rosa; Domenech, Eva; Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent

    2017-08-12

    Human Biomonitoring (HBM) studies are highly useful for evaluating population exposure to environmental contaminants and are being carried out in increasing numbers all over the world. The use of HBM in the field of food safety, in a risk assessment context, presents a growing interest as more health-based guidance values (HBGV) in biological matrices are derived, and can be used in a complementary way to the external exposure approaches such as total diet studies or surveillance programmes. The aims of the present work are: i) to describe the methodological framework of the BIOVAL study, a cross-sectional HBM program carried out by the Health Department of the Regional Government of Valencia (Spain), that is linked to the food safety official control, and is focused on children from 6 to 11 years of age ii) to explain and discuss the pre-analytical results iii) to report and discuss on lessons learned from its design and implementation. The study population included 666 children from whom urine and hair were taken in order to analyse different biomarkers of exposure to food pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Terrestrial gastropods (Helix spp) as sentinels of primary DNA damage for biomonitoring purposes: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Dario; Sebbio, Claudia; Carere, Claudio; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Pepe, Gaetano; Mosesso, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    We validated the alkaline comet assay in two species of land snail (Helix aspersa and Helix vermiculata) to test their suitability as sentinels for primary DNA damage in polluted environments. The study was conducted under the framework of a biomonitoring program for a power station in Central Italy that had recently been converted from oil to coal-fired plant. After optimizing test conditions, the comet assay was used to measure the % Tail DNA induced by in vitro exposure of hemocytes to different concentrations of a reactive oxygen species (H2 O2 ). The treatment induced significant increases in this parameter with a concentration effect, indicating the effectiveness of the assay in snail hemocytes. After evaluating possible differences between the two species, we sampled them in three field sites at different distances from the power station, and in two reference sites assumed to have low or no levels of pollution. No species differences emerged. Percent Tail DNA values in snails from the sites near the power station were higher than those from control sites. An inverse correlation emerged between % Tail DNA and distance from the power station, suggesting that the primary DNA damage decreased as distance increased away from the pollution source. Detection of a gradient of heavy metal concentration in snail tissues suggests that these pollutants are a potential cause of the observed pattern. The comet assay appears to be a suitable assay and Helix spp. populations suitable sentinels to detect the genotoxic impact of pollutants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Urinary Biomonitoring of Phosphate Flame Retardants: Levels in California Adults and Recommendations for Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are abundant and found at the highest concentrations relative to other flame retardant chemicals in house dust; however, little is known about the biological levels of PFRs and their relationship with house dust concentrations. These relationships provide insight into major exposure pathways and potential health risks. We analyzed urine samples from 16 California residents in 2011 for 6 chlorinated and nonchlorinated dialkyl or diaryl phosphates (DAPs), the expected major metabolites of the most prominent PFRs, and qualitatively screened for 18 other metabolites predicted from in vitro studies. We detected all 6 DAPs within the range of previously reported levels, although very few comparisons are available. We found weakly positive nonsignificant correlations between urine and dust concentrations and maxima urine corresponding to maxima dust for the pairs bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP)-tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (BCEP)-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Metabolite levels of PFRs were correlated for many PFR combinations, suggesting they commonly co-occur. As far as we know, this is the first study to measure these 6 DAP metabolites simultaneously and to detect other PFR metabolites in US urine samples. We recommend biomonitoring studies include these 6 DAPs as well as several additional compounds detected through qualitative screening and previous ADME studies. PFRs represent a class of poorly studied commercial chemicals with widespread exposure and raise concerns for health effects including carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity. PMID:25388620

  11. Development of biomonitoring methods for assessment of occupational exposures to an atypical isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, F.C.; Henningsen, G.M.; Biagini, R.E.; MacKenzie, B.A.; Mastin, J.P.; Orgel, D.L.; Newman, M.A.; Reh, C.M. )

    1991-03-15

    Employees at a plastics manufacturing facility requested assistance from NIOSH in investigating possible job-related causes for respiratory complaints. Environmental samples were found to contain two potentially sensitizing chemicals: diisopropylphenyl isocyanate (PPI), and toluene diisocyanate (TDI). While only traces of TDI were found, quantifiable levels of PPI were present in breathing zone air samples of some workers. Hapten-protein conjugates of PPI and TDI with human serum albumin (HSA) were prepared. Native polyacrylamide electrophoretic analysis on gradient gels confirmed successful protein conjugation with both chemicals. Epitope densities of 36:1 (PPI-HSA) and 30:1 (TDI-HSA) were found using trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS) to determine free protein sulfhydryl groups. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays showed 43% of 35 exposed workers had positive IgG titers to PPI-HSA while 17% had positive serum titers to TDI-HSA. One symptomatic worker was found to have a positive IgE titer to PPI while two workers (6%) had positive IgG{sub 4} titers to TDI. Both conjugates yielded positive IgG titers in a positive control serum sample known to contain antibodies to typical isocyanates such as diphenylmethane isocyanate (MDI) and TDI. These results suggest that isocyanate-protein conjugates can be used to screen for anti-PPI-HSA IgG and IgE antibodies in occupationally exposed cohorts, and can be used as a biomonitoring probe for occupational exposure (IgG) and as an indicator of allergy (IgE).

  12. Urinary stones as a novel matrix for human biomonitoring of toxic and essential elements.

    PubMed

    Kuta, J; Smetanová, S; Benová, D; Kořistková, T; Machát, J

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring of body burden of toxic elements is usually based on analysis of concentration of particular elements in blood, urine and/or hair. Analysis of these matrices, however, predominantly reflects short- or medium-term exposure to trace elements or pollutants. In this work, urinary stones were investigated as a matrix for monitoring long-term exposure to toxic and essential elements. A total of 431 samples of urinary calculi were subjected to mineralogical and elemental analysis by infrared spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effect of mineralogical composition of the stones and other parameters such as sex, age and geographical location on contents of trace and minor elements is presented. Our results demonstrate the applicability of such approach and confirm that the analysis of urinary calculi can be helpful in providing complementary information on human exposure to trace metals and their excretion. Analysis of whewellite stones (calcium oxalate monohydrate) with content of phosphorus <0.6 % has been proved to be a promising tool for biomonitoring of trace and minor elements.

  13. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric sulfur in an industrial region using biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Barros, Ceres; Pinho, Pedro; Durão, Rita; Augusto, Sofia; Máguas, Cristina; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2015-02-17

    Despite reductions in atmospheric sulfur (S) concentrations due to abatement policies in some countries, modeling the dispersion of this pollutant and disentangling anthropogenic sources from natural ones is still of great concern. Lichens have been used as biomonitors of the impacts of S for over 40 years, but their potential as source-tracers of specific sources, including natural ones, remains unexplored. In fact, few attempts have been made to try to distinguish and spatially model different sources of S using lichens. We have measured S concentrations and isotopic values in lichens within an industrial coastal region where different sources of S, natural and anthropogenic, interplay. We detected a prevailing influence of natural sea-originated S that mixed with anthropogenic sources of S. We were then able to disentangle the sources of S, by removing the ocean influence on S isotopic values, enabling us to model the impact of different anthropogenic sources on S deposition and highlighting the potential use of lichens to evaluate the weight of different types of anthropogenic sources.

  14. [Biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides: development and application of method detecting imidacloprid in urine].

    PubMed

    Fedorova, N e; Rakitskiy, V n; Goryacheva, Lv; Chistova, A

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide in neonicotinoids chemical class with neuroactivity in insects, being one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. For biomonitoring in workers exposed to pesticides, the authors designed a method detecting low levels of Imidacloprid in urine of operators, based on tandem liquid mass-spectrometry with ionization source--electrostatic dispersion (positive ionization) in multi-reaction monitoring regime with subsidiary ion (mass/charge) 209 for quantitative assessment and ion 175.1 for confirmation onion ratio. The study incorporated diurnal urine, about 100 ml of average sample was frozen and kept at temperature -20C for analysis. Before extraction, the sample was unfrozen, an aliquot of 5 ml was selected, diluted with 5 ml of 0.1% formic acid. The substance was concentrated out of the urine samples via solid-phase extraction with application of cartridges based on octadecylsilane, eluition--1 ml of methanol. Lower limit of Imidacloprid detection in urine is 0.02 ng/ml, of the quantitative assessment--0.1 ng/ ml, linear range of concentrations measured 0.1-10 ng/ml. The method was tested for monitoring in workers exposed to Imidacloprid preparations in natural conditions of pesticides application in agriculture, with various processing technologies. Imidacloprid was identified in urine of two professional operators after work in seed treatment and the subsequent seeding at lower limit of detection (0.02 ng/ml) and 0.34 ng/ml.

  15. Air pollution study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring and ICP-AES and AAS analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Vučković, Ivana; Stafilov, Trajče; Kušan, Vladimir; Frontasyeva, Marina

    2013-07-01

    Moss biomonitoring technique was applied in a heavy-metal pollution study of Croatia in 2006 when this country participated in the European moss survey for the first time. This survey was repeated in 2010, and the results are presented in this study. For this purpose, 121 moss samples were collected during summer and autumn 2010. The content of 21 elements was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Principal component analyses was applied to show the association between the elements. Six factors (F1-F6) were determined, of which two are anthropogenic (F3 and F6), two are mixed geogenic-anthropogenic (F1 and F5), and two are geogenic factors (F2 and F4). Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information systems technology. Comparison of the median values of some of the anthropogenic elements-such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc-with those from the 2006 study shows that anthropogenic pollution has changed insignificantly during the last 5 years. The data obtained in the investigation in Norway are taken for comparison with pristine area, which indicates that Croatia is somewhat polluted but still, shows a more favourable picture when compared with two neighbouring countries.

  16. A mine of information: benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum as biomonitor of trace element availability in the water column during dredging.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    This work reports changes of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the dissolved fraction, suspended particulate matter and immobilised Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyceae), as well as of microalgae specific growth rates, during a 5-month period dredging operation in a contaminated area of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Trace element concentrations showed broad variations in the dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter, presumably reflecting rapid exchanges of redox-sensitive elements between water and particles, in conjunction with the dilution effect caused by the tidal excursion. Immobilised cells exposed to dredging environmental conditions showed significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb than under no dredging conditions. Concomitantly, specific cell growth was significantly lower, suggesting that elements released with dredging affect the microalgae physiology. The results obtained in this in situ work imply that the dissolved fraction and the suspended particulate matter are relatively ineffective indicators of the trace element enhancement during dredging and pointed out immobilised P. tricornutum as a reliable and efficient biomonitoring tool for the assessment of trace element remobilisation.

  18. The Applicability of Biomonitoring Data for Perfluorooctanesulfonate to the Environmental Public Health Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Butenhoff, John L.; Olsen, Geary W.; Pfahles-Hutchens, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts (PFOS) are derived from perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the basic chemical building block for many sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals used as surfactants and for their repellent properties. PFOS is highly persistent in the environment and has a long serum elimination half-life in both animals and humans. PFOS has been detected globally in the environment and in blood serum in various populations throughout the world, with the majority of human sampling done in the United States and Japan. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve both direct exposures to PFOS or chemicals and materials that can degrade to PFOS, either in the environment or from industrial and commercial uses. In 2000 the 3M Company, a major manufacturer, announced a phaseout of PFOS-related materials. Animal studies indicate that PFOS is well absorbed orally and distributes mainly in blood serum and the liver. Several repeat-dose toxicology studies in animals consistently demonstrated that the liver is the primary target organ. In addition there is a steep dose response for mortality in sexually mature rats and primates as well as in neonatal rats and mice exposed in utero. Several biomonitoring research needs that have been identified on PFOS include additional data from general populations pertaining to other matrices besides blood; matched serum and urine samples from humans and research animals; and comparison of whole blood, serum, and plasma concentrations from the same individuals. PMID:17107867

  19. The applicability of biomonitoring data for perfluorooctanesulfonate to the environmental public health continuum.

    PubMed

    Butenhoff, John L; Olsen, Geary W; Pfahles-Hutchens, Andrea

    2006-11-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts (PFOS) are derived from perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, the basic chemical building block for many sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals used as surfactants and for their repellent properties. PFOS is highly persistent in the environment and has a long serum elimination half-life in both animals and humans. PFOS has been detected globally in the environment and in blood serum in various populations throughout the world, with the majority of human sampling done in the United States and Japan. The mechanisms and pathways leading to the presence of PFOS in human blood are not well characterized but likely involve both direct exposures to PFOS or chemicals and materials that can degrade to PFOS, either in the environment or from industrial and commercial uses. In 2000 the 3M Company, a major manufacturer, announced a phaseout of PFOS-related materials. Animal studies indicate that PFOS is well absorbed orally and distributes mainly in blood serum and the liver. Several repeat-dose toxicology studies in animals consistently demonstrated that the liver is the primary target organ. In addition there is a steep dose response for mortality in sexually mature rats and primates as well as in neonatal rats and mice exposed in utero. Several biomonitoring research needs that have been identified on PFOS include additional data from general populations pertaining to other matrices besides blood; matched serum and urine samples from humans and research animals; and comparison of whole blood, serum, and plasma concentrations from the same individuals.

  20. Large-Scale Biomonitoring of Remote and Threatened Ecosystems via High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Joel F.; Shokralla, Shadi; Curry, Colin; Baird, Donald J.; Monk, Wendy A.; King, Ian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness, estimation of proportional abundance, and calculation of biodiversity metrics using a set of 24 benthic samples collected in the Peace-Athabasca Delta region of Canada. The high-throughput sequencing approach was able to recover all metrics with a higher degree of taxonomic resolution than morphological analysis. The reduced cost and increased capacity of DNA sequence-based approaches will finally allow environmental monitoring programs to operate at the geographical and temporal scale required by industrial and regulatory end-users. PMID:26488407