Science.gov

Sample records for biomedical radiography

  1. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. (latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation protection methods and techniques are described for both patients and operators. Safety techniques for dental radiology, routine x-rays, radiotherapy, thoracic radiography and other radiology procedures are included. Radiation exposure limits for patients and healthcare workers are defined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  3. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  4. Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  5. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. January 1970-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation-protection methods and techniques are described, and safety techniques for specific radiology procedures are detailed. Radiation exposure of health workers and patients is discussed. Safety limits are defined. (Contains 166 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H.; Iddings, F.

    1998-08-01

    Neutron radiography is becoming a well established nondestructive testing (NDT) method. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recognized the method through its recommended practice SNT-TCIA which outlines training, knowledge, and experience necessary to obtain levels of competency in the method. Certification of nondestructive testing personnel is also covered in a military standard. Technical publications in the field of NDT and nuclear technology carry articles on neutron radiography and technical meetings include papers or even entire sessions on neutron radiography. There is an on-going series of international conferences on neutron radiography. Many books are available to provide introductory and advanced material on neutron radiographic techniques and applications. Neutron radiography as a service for hire is available, similar to that offered for other NDT services. The method is being adopted to solve NDT problems in specialty areas. The objective of this report is to provide a brief survey of the current state of the art in the use of neutron radiography. The survey will include information on the technique including principles of the method, sources of neutrons, detection methodology, standards and image quality indicators, and representative applications. An extensive reference list provides additional information for those who wish to investigate further and a Glossary is included which provides definitions for terms used in Neutron Radiography.

  7. Digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available.

  8. Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  9. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  10. [Digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Haendle, J

    1983-03-01

    Digital radiography is a generally accepted term comprising all x-ray image systems producing a projected image which resembles the conventional x-ray film image, and which are linked to any type of digital image processing. Fundamental criteria of differentiation are based on the production and detection method of the x-ray image. Various systems are employed, viz. the single-detector, line-detector or fanbeam detector and the area-beam or area-detector image converters, which differ from one another mainly in the manner of conversion of the radiation produced by the x-ray tube. The article also deals with the pros and cons of the various principles, the multitude of systems employed, and the varying frequency of their use in x-ray diagnosis work.

  11. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  12. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  13. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  14. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  15. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  16. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Radiography of the Paranasal Sinuses

    MedlinePlus

    ... your back or over your lap. This head. Radiography of the paranasal sinuses apron will protect your ... face, especially when lowering his or her head. Radiography of sitting and others while you are standing. ...

  18. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  19. Transitioning to digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Drost, Wm Tod

    2011-04-01

    To describe the different forms of digital radiography (DR), image file formats, supporting equipment and services required for DR, storage of digital images, and teleradiology. Purchasing a DR system is a major investment for a veterinary practice. Types of DR systems include computed radiography, charge coupled devices, and direct or indirect DR. Comparison of workflow for analog and DR is presented. On the surface, switching to DR involves the purchase of DR acquisition hardware. The X-ray machine, table and grids used in analog radiography are the same for DR. Realistically, a considerable infrastructure supports the image acquisition hardware. This infrastructure includes monitors, computer workstations, a robust computer network and internet connection, a plan for storage and back up of images, and service contracts. Advantages of DR compared with analog radiography include improved image quality (when used properly), ease of use (more forgiving to the errors of radiographic technique), speed of making a complete study (important for critically ill patients), fewer repeat radiographs, less time looking for imaging studies, less physical storage space, and the ability to easily send images for consultation. With an understanding of the infrastructure requirements, capabilities and limitations of DR, an informed veterinary practice should be better able to make a sound decision about transitioning to DR. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  20. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Biomedical informatics].

    PubMed

    Capurro, Daniel; Soto, Mauricio; Vivent, Macarena; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Herskovic, Jorge R

    2011-12-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a new discipline that arose from the need to incorporate information technologies to the generation, storage, distribution and analysis of information in the domain of biomedical sciences. This discipline comprises basic biomedical informatics, and public health informatics. The development of the discipline in Chile has been modest and most projects have originated from the interest of individual people or institutions, without a systematic and coordinated national development. Considering the unique features of health care system of our country, research in the area of biomedical informatics is becoming an imperative.

  2. Biomedical Imaging,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    precision required from the task. This report details the technologies in surface and subsurface imaging systems for research and commercial applications. Biomedical imaging, Anthropometry, Computer imaging.

  3. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  4. Forensic radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the first instance of forensic radiography occurred in the 1890s when Professor AW Wright of Yale University tested Wilhelm Roentgen's newly discovered x-ray photography on a deceased rabbit. Of interest were small, round objects inside the rabbit that appeared as dark spots on the positive film. The objects were extracted and identified as bullets, thereby helping to determine the cause of the rabbit's death. In the years since Roentgen's discovery, the use of radiography and other medical imaging specialties to aid in investigating civil and criminal matters has increased as investigators realize how radiologic technology can yield information that otherwise is unavailable. Radiologic technologists can play a key role in forensic investigations.

  5. Quantitative film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-02-26

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

  6. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  7. Digital radiography in space.

    PubMed

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  8. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  9. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  10. Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Emma

    This chapter builds on the basic principles of THz spectroscopy and explains how they can be applied to biomedical systems as well as the motivation for doing so. Sample preparation techniques and measurement methods for biomedical samples are described in detail. Examples of medical applications investigated hitherto including breast cancer and skin cancer are also presented.

  11. Biomedical image processing.

    PubMed

    Huang, H K

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that

  12. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography ... GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, ...

  13. Neutron Induced Beta Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, A. M.; Shylaja, D.

    2011-07-15

    In the present paper we give a new methodology named, 'neutron induced beta radiography-NIBR' which makes use of neutron activated Dy or In foils as source of (3-radiation. Radiographs are obtained with an aluminium cassette containing image plate, a sample under inspection and the activated Dy or In foil kept in tight contact. The sensitivity of the technique to thickness was evaluated for different materials in the form of step wedges. Some radiographs are presented to demonstrate potential of method to inspect thin samples.

  14. Student Incivility in Radiography Education.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin R

    2017-07-01

    To examine student incivility in radiography classrooms by exploring the prevalence of uncivil behaviors along with the classroom management strategies educators use to manage and prevent classroom disruptions. A survey was designed to collect data on the severity and frequency of uncivil student behaviors, classroom management strategies used to address minor and major behavioral issues, and techniques to prevent student incivility. The participants were educators in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. Findings indicated that severe uncivil student behaviors in radiography classrooms do not occur as often as behaviors classified as less severe. Radiography educators in this study used a variety of strategies and techniques to manage and prevent student incivility; however, radiography educators who received formal training in classroom management reported fewer incidents of student incivility than those who had not received formal training. The participants in this study took a proactive approach to addressing severe behavioral issues in the classroom. Many radiography educators transition from the clinical environment to the classroom setting with little to no formal training in classroom management. Radiography educators are encouraged to attend formal training sessions to learn how to manage the higher education classroom effectively. Student incivility is present in radiography classrooms. This study provides a foundation for future research on incivility. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Biomedical Telectrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    Compact transmitters eliminate need for wires to monitors. Biomedical telectrode is small electronic package that attaches to patient in manner similar to small adhesive bandage. Patient wearing biomedical telectrodes moves freely, without risk of breaking or entangling wire connections. Especially beneficial to patients undergoing electrocardiographic monitoring in intensive-care units in hospitals. Eliminates nuisance of coping with wire connections while dressing and going to toilet.

  16. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice.

  17. Radiography students' clinical learning styles.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patti; Makela, Carole

    2010-01-01

    To examine the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Descriptive research methodology, using a single self-report questionnaire, helped to identify common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. The results indicated that 3 learning styles predominate among radiography students during clinical practice: task oriented, purposeful and tentative. Insight into clinical practice learning styles can help students understand how they learn and allow them to recognize ways to maximize learning. It also heightens awareness among clinical instructors and technologists of the different learning styles and their relevance to clinical practice education.

  18. Biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical problems encountered by man in space which have been identified as a result of previous experience in simulated or actual spaceflight include cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone loss, muscle atrophy, red cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte loss, radiation effects, radiation protection, behavior, and performance. The investigations and the findings in each of these areas were reviewed. A description of how biomedical research is organized within NASA, how it is funded, and how it is being reoriented to meet the needs of future manned space missions is also provided.

  19. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  20. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  1. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  2. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  3. Accelerator system for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B; Hall, J

    2000-09-21

    The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented.

  4. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. Digital Radiography: A Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ben A.

    1982-12-01

    Digital radiography, a term hardly recognized two years ago, has grown to become the talk of the radiology community and the excitement of many commercial companies. M2st of this attention has been directed toward digital subtraction intravenous angiography), although during this same time period, a variety of digital radiography apparatus and image processing techniques have been under development. In November of 1980 at the RSNA Conference in Chicago, three commercial digital angiography systems were announced by Philips, Technicare and ADAC Corporations. During this same time period, the University of Arizona was discussing the concept of a photo electronic radiology department2, the University of Pittsburg and Stanford University were investigating line scan radiography3,4 and approximately five laboratories were carrying out clinical IV angiography with digital video systems.5-9 These developments followed basic research programs in digital electronic and computerized imaging at various locations around the world. 10-18 In the spring of 1981 we attempted to review the state of digital radiography, focusing on the various detector systems and image acquisition approaches.19 Since that time, rapid advancements in digital radiography have occurred. A major conference was held on digital radiography at Stanford UniversityzO, a new area detector system for digital radiography was announced by Fuji Film Corporation, clinical testing began on the Picker line scan digital chest unit21, and improvements were made in selenium detectors for digital radiography. Several additional companies announced digital video angiography systems, bringing the total now to approximately 15 companies worldwide. Digital video subtraction angiography is now well established as an important clinical diagnostic procedure and a variety of improvements and extensions of digital angiography systems are now ongoing. Digital acquisition and storage systems are increasing in both speed and

  6. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very ... limitations of Chest Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the ...

  7. Grating-based X-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Bamberg, Fabian

    2013-09-01

    In this review article we describe the development of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with particular emphasis on potential biomedical applications of the technology. We review the basics of image formation in grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with laboratory X-ray sources. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical concepts to extend grating-based multimodal radiography to quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

  8. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  9. Embossed radiography utilizing energy subtraction.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Aizawa, Katsuo; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ehara, Shigeru; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Currently, it is difficult to carry out refraction-contrast radiography by using a conventional X-ray generator. Thus, we developed an embossed radiography system utilizing dual-energy subtraction for decreasing the absorption contrast in unnecessary regions, and the contrast resolution of a target region was increased by use of image-shifting subtraction and a linear-contrast system in a flat panel detector (FPD). The X-ray generator had a 100-microm-focus tube. Energy subtraction was performed at tube voltages of 45 and 65 kV, a tube current of 0.50 mA, and an X-ray exposure time of 5.0 s. A 1.0-mm-thick aluminum filter was used for absorbing low-photon-energy bremsstrahlung X-rays. Embossed radiography was achieved with cohesion imaging by use of the FPD with pixel sizes of 48 x 48 microm, and the shifting dimension of an object in the horizontal direction ranged from 100 to 200 microm. At a shifting distance of 100 mum, the spatial resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions measured with a lead test chart were both 83 microm. In embossed radiography of non-living animals, we obtained high-contrast embossed images of fine bones, gadolinium oxide particles in the kidney, and coronary arteries approximately 100 microm in diameter.

  10. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  11. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  12. Clinical radiography education across Europe.

    PubMed

    England, A; Geers-van Gemeren, S; Henner, A; Kukkes, T; Pronk-Larive, D; Rainford, L; McNulty, J P

    2017-09-01

    To establish a picture of clinical education models within radiography programmes across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiography Societies (EFRS). An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: practical training, supervisory arrangements, placement logistics, quality assurance processes, and the assessment of clinical competencies. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All educational institutions who were affiliate members at the time of the study were invited to participate (n = 46). Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. A response rate of 82.6% (n = 38) was achieved from educational institutions representing 21 countries. Over half of responding institutions (n = 21) allocated in excess of 60 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits to practical training. In nearly three-quarters of clinical placements there was a dedicated clinical practice supervisor in place; two-thirds of these were employed directly by the hospital. Clinical practice supervisors were typically state registered radiographers, who had a number of years of clinical experience and had received specific training for the role. Typical responsibilities included monitoring student progress, providing feedback and completing paperwork, this did however vary between respondents. In almost all institutions there were support systems in place for clinical placement supervisors within their roles. Similarities exist in the provision of clinical radiography education across Europe. Clinical placements are a core component of radiography education and are supported by experienced clinical practice supervisors. Mechanisms are in place for the selection, training and support of clinical practice supervisors. Professional societies should work collaboratively to establish guidelines for effective clinical placements. Copyright © 2017 The

  13. Biomedical ultrasonoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The combination of a "C" mode scan electronics in a portable, battery powered biomedical ultrasonoscope having "A" and "M" mode scan electronics, the latter including a clock generator for generating clock pulses, a cathode ray tube having X, Y and Z axis inputs, a sweep generator connected between the clock generator and the X axis input of the cathode ray tube for generating a cathode ray sweep signal synchronized by the clock pulses, and a receiver adapted to be connected to the Z axis input of the cathode ray tube. The "C" mode scan electronics comprises a plurality of transducer elements arranged in a row and adapted to be positioned on the skin of the patient's body for converting a pulsed electrical signal to a pulsed ultrasonic signal, radiating the ultrasonic signal into the patient's body, picking up the echoes reflected from interfaces in the patient's body and converting the echoes to electrical signals; a plurality of transmitters, each transmitter being coupled to a respective transducer for transmitting a pulsed electrical signal thereto and for transmitting the converted electrical echo signals directly to the receiver, a sequencer connected between the clock generator and the plurality of transmitters and responsive to the clock pulses for firing the transmitters in cyclic order; and a staircase voltage generator connected between the clock generator and the Y axis input of the cathode ray tube for generating a staircase voltage having steps synchronized by the clock pulses.

  14. Radiography of Chaotically Moving Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin

    2007-11-26

    Radiography of moving objects is an advanced problem when the dynamic range of acquired radiograms is restricted by a limited exposition time. Exposition time has to be short to avoid image blurring due to object moving. It is possible to increase the dynamic range by summing short time radiograms set when the periodical object movement is presented as in the case of heart beating for instance. On the other hand a non periodical movement can be studied using tools of X-ray Digital Image Correlation technique. Short time radiograms are fitted into corresponding positions and consequently summed for higher data statistics as it is presented in this work.

  15. Patient risk from interproximal radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.J.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Chen, T.S.; Malcolm, A.W.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Computer simulation methods for determining patient dose from dental radiography have demonstrated that patient risk from a two-film interproximal examination ranges from 1.1 X 10(-8) to 3.4 X 10(-7) using 90-kVp beams, depending on film speed, projection technique, and age and sex of the patient. Further, changing from a short-cone round-beam to a long-cone technique with rectangular collimation reduces risk by a factor of 2.9, independent of other factors.

  16. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  17. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  18. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG).

  19. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  20. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  1. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie ({mu}Ci) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory`s routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance.

  2. Reference doses for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Napier, I D

    1999-04-24

    To establish reference doses for use within dental radiography. Retrospective analysis, single centre. UK General Dental Practice, 1995-1998. A statistical analysis was performed on the results from NRPB evaluations of dental x-ray equipment within general practice. The third quartile patient entrance dose was determined from 6,344 assessments of intra-oral x-ray equipment. The third quartile dose-width product was determined from 387 assessments of panoramic x-ray equipment. The third quartile patient entrance dose for an adult mandibular molar intra-oral radiograph is 3.9 mGy. The third quartile dose-width product for a standard adult panoramic radiograph is 66.7 mGy mm. NRPB recommends the adoption of reference doses of 4 mGy for an adult mandibular molar intra-oral radiograph and 65 mGy mm for a standard adult panoramic radiograph. These reference values can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice. Where radiography is carried out using doses above these reference values, a thorough review of radiographic practice should be made to either improve techniques, or justify keeping the current techniques. However, attainment of doses at or below the reference values cannot be construed as achievement of optimum performance; further dose reductions below the reference value are still practicable.

  3. Quality assurance in film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bellegem, L.; Vaessen, B.

    1993-12-31

    The ISO 9000 standards were originally developed during the 1980`s to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The EC (European Communities) adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to ``conformity assessment`` procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications) which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the supplier`s ability to produce consistently. The requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary Q.C. tools in film radiography to comply with Q.A. specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the user`s level. The main topics for such a Q.A. package are: (1) standard for Film System classification for industrial radiography; (2) film system certification; and (3) standard for control of film processing by means of reference values i.e. pre-exposed film wedges and archiving quality control method.

  4. Perceptions regarding biomedical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James E.

    1995-10-01

    Perceptions of biomedical engineering are important because they can influence private and public decisions on R&D funding and public policy. A survey was conducted of a group of persons active in biomedical engineering research in an attempt to determine the perceptions of the general public and of the biomedical community regarding biomedical engineering. The public is believed to have 'a little' knowledge of biomedical engineering, and to have a wide range of opinions on what biomedical engineers do. The survey respondents believe they are in general agreement with the public on several questions regarding biomedical engineering. However, the public is believed to be more inclined than workers in the field to think that biomedical engineering increases the cost of health care, and to be less supportive of increased R&D funding for health care technology.

  5. Image enhancement for radiography inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wong, Brian Stephen; Guan, Tui Chen

    2005-04-01

    The x-ray radiographic testing method is often used for detecting defects as a non-destructive testing method (NDT). In many cases, NDT is used for aircraft components, welds, etc. Hence, the backgrounds are always more complex than a piece of steel. Radiographic images are low contrast, dark and high noise image. It is difficult to detect defects directly. So, image enhancement is a significant part of automated radiography inspection system. Histogram equalization and median filter are the most frequently used techniques to enhance the radiographic images. In this paper, the adaptive histogram equalization and contrast limited histogram equalization are compared with histogram equalization. The adaptive wavelet thresholding is compared with median filter. Through comparative analysis, the contrast limited histogram equalization and adaptive wavelet thresholding can enhance perception of defects better.

  6. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.; Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P.

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  8. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  9. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.

    2010-02-01

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy).

  10. Digital radiography image quality: image acquisition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark B; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Strauss, Keith J; Breeden, William K; Rzeszotarski, Mark S; Applegate, Kimberly; Wyatt, Margaret; Bjork, Sandra; Seibert, J Anthony

    2007-06-01

    This article on digital radiography image acquisition is the first of two articles written as part of an intersociety effort to establish image quality standards for digital and computed radiography. The topic of the other paper is digital radiography image processing and display. The articles were developed collaboratively by the ACR, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine. Increasingly, medical imaging and patient information are being managed using digital data during acquisition, transmission, storage, display, interpretation, and consultation. Data management during each of these operations has a direct impact on the quality of patient care. These articles describe what is known to improve image quality for digital and computed radiography and make recommendations on optimal acquisition, processing, and display. The practice of digital radiography is a rapidly evolving technology that will require the timely revision of any guidelines and standards. This document provides a basis for the technologies available today in clinical practice and may be useful in guiding the future clinical practice of digital radiography.

  11. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  12. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Bashkirov, V.; Schulte, R.

    2010-01-01

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  13. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  14. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  15. Comparison of Conventional Radiography and Digital Computerized Radiography in Patients Presenting to Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Ozcete, Enver; Boydak, Bahar; Ersel, Murat; Kiyan, Selahattin; Uz, Ilhan; Cevrim, Ozgur

    2015-03-01

    To compare the differences between conventional radiography and digital computerized radiography (CR) in patients presenting to the emergency department. The study enrolled consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department who needed chest radiography. Quality score of the radiogram was assessed with visual analogue score (VAS-100 mm), measured in terms of millimeters and recorded at the end of study. Examination time, interpretation time, total time, and cost of radiograms were calculated. There were significant differences between conventional radiography and digital CR groups in terms of location unit (Care Unit, Trauma, Resuscitation), hour of presentation, diagnosis group, examination time, interpretation time, and examination quality. Examination times for conventional radiography and digital CR were 45.2 and 34.2 minutes, respectively. Interpretation times for conventional radiography and digital CR were 25.2 and 39.7 minutes, respectively. Mean radiography quality scores for conventional radiography and digital CR were 69.1 mm and 82.0 mm. Digital CR had a 1.05 TL cheaper cost per radiogram compared to conventional radiography. Since interpretation of digital radiograms is performed via terminals inside the emergency department, the patient has to be left in order to interpret the digital radiograms, which prolongs interpretation times. We think that interpretation of digital radiograms with the help of a mobile device would eliminate these difficulties. Although the initial cost of setup of digital CR and PACS service is high at the emergency department, we think that Digital CR is more cost-effective than conventional radiography for emergency departments in the long-term.

  16. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  17. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  18. Biomedical ground lead system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and verification tests for the biomedical ground lead system of Apollo biomedical monitors are presented. Major efforts were made to provide a low impedance path to ground, reduce noise and artifact of ECG signals, and limit the current flowing in the ground electrode of the system.

  19. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  20. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  1. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  2. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-10-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  3. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  4. The Delphi technique in radiography education research.

    PubMed

    John-Matthews, J St; Wallace, M J; Robinson, L

    2017-09-01

    To describe and review the Delphi technique as a tool for radiographers engaged in mixed-methods research whereby agreement is required on the proficiencies needed by educational programmes for pre- and post- registration radiographers. This is achieved through a description offering a brief history of the technique. Through a literature search, radiography education research using this technique is identified. A protocol for a research project using the technique is presented. Using this worked example, advantages and disadvantages of the method are explored including sampling of participants, sample size, number of rounds and methods of feedback. There are limited examples of the use of the Delphi technique in radiography literature including considerations on how to select experts and panel size. The Delphi technique is a suitable method for establishing collective agreement in the design of radiography educational interventions. Additional research is needed to deepen this evidence-based knowledge. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital radiography: a survey of pediatric dentists.

    PubMed

    Russo, Julie M; Russo, James A; Guelmann, Marcio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the popularity of digital radiography among members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD); and (2) report the most common systems in use. An AAPD-approved, voluntary, and anonymous electronic survey was developed and sent to 923 board certified pediatric dentists. Years in practice and in-office x-ray technology (digital or conventional) were inquired about initially. If negative for the use of digital radiography, future consideration for converting to digital radiography was ascertained. For positive responses, more in-depth information was requested. Information on type of system (sensor or phosphor plate), user friendliness, diagnostic ability, patient's comfort, general costs, durability, and parental and overall satisfaction was collected. For most of the questions, a 5-point assessment scale was used. Opportunity for additional comments was provided upon survey completion. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A 32% (296/923) response rate was obtained. Twenty-six percent of practitioners (78/296) implemented digital radiography in their practices, whereas 71% considered future acquisition. Similar distribution for sensor and phosphor plate users was found. Sensor technology was reported to produce faster images, but was less tolerable by young children due to size and thickness. Phosphor plates were considered more children friendly, less expensive, and less durable. Parental satisfaction was very high with great marketing value. Picture quality was comparable to conventional film. Overall, digital radiography users would recommend it to other pediatric dentists. Digital radiography is not yet popular among pediatric dentists. Cost reduction and technology advancement may enhance utilization.

  6. The current status of panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, P N

    1987-03-01

    The current status of dental panoramic tomography (rotational panoramic radiography) is reviewed. This technique is based on a combination of tomography and slit-beam radiography to provide an image of both jaws on a single film. There is a greater degree of image degradation when compared with conventional radiographic techniques due to tomographic blurring, magnification and distortion, secondary images and burn-out. Meticulous patient position is essential to accommodate their jaws to the image layer determined by the manufacturers. The absorbed doses from panoramic radiography are of a similar order to that from bitewing radiography and lower than those from a full-mouth periapical series. The individual risk of 1.3 X 10(-6) is compared with that from other radiographic examinations and smoking. The collective risk, 1.04 deaths in the UK in 1981, is relatively insignificant as is the genetic dose. The risk to the dentist and his staff is also low compared to other risks. The methods of dose limitation currently available are reviewed. The clinical indications are considered in relation to the guidelines of the American Dental Association and the Dental Estimates Board in the UK. The problems associated with attempts to measure diagnostic yield are considered. In view of the world-wide public concern at the potential dangers of ionising radiation, dentists are urged to maximize the diagnostic yield from their panoramic radiography by taking such radiographs only when clinically necessary, ensuring meticulous positioning and processing, followed by scrupulous assessment of the radiography for any sign of pathological change.

  7. Statistical uncertainty in quantitative neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegsa, Florian M.; Kaestner, Anders; Antognini, Aldo; Eggenberger, Andreas; Kirch, Klaus; Wichmann, Gunther

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel procedure to calibrate neutron detection systems commonly used in standard neutron radiography. This calibration allows determining the uncertainties due to Poisson-like neutron counting statistics for each individual pixel of a radiographic image. The obtained statistical errors are necessary in order to perform a correct quantitative analysis. This fast and convenient method is applied to data measured at the cold neutron radiography facility ICON at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Moreover, from the results the effective neutron flux at the beam line is determined.

  8. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  9. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-10-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities.

  10. New developments in proton radiography at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher; Proton Radiography Team

    2014-09-01

    In a new application of nuclear physics, a facility for using proton for flash radiography has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Protons have proven far superior to high energy x-rays for flash radiography. Although this facility is primarily used for studying very fast phenomena such as high explosive driven experiments, it is finding increasing application to other fields, such as tomography of static objects, phase changes in materials, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The advantages of protons will be discussed and data from some of the recent experiments will be presented.

  11. Californium-252: A New Isotopic Source for Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    2001-08-29

    This report discusses a new isotopic source for neutron radiography, Californium-252. Nuclear reactors are the usual source of neutrons for radiography, primarily because of their intense neutron beams. If neutron radiography is to have widespread use, intense transportable neutron sources are required that can be used in plants, in laboratories and in the field.

  12. Digital radiography. A comparison with modern conventional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, G J

    2006-01-01

    The development of computed radiography over the past two decades has transformed radiological imaging. The radiology departments in the 21st century will look very different from those in the preceding period. In this review, the development of digital radiography is presented with a description of its various forms and a comparison with screen film radiography. PMID:16822918

  13. [Biomedical investigation in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research as a professional specialty developed in the Western World in the following four stages: 1) primitive medicine based on magico-religious concepts; 2) hippocratic medicine (500 AD), which renounced supernatural ideas on disease; 3) scientific medicine (1543), which eschewed tradition and authority, and 4) finally in 1813, the first full-time professional biomedical investigator Claude Bernard was appointed in France. Notheless, the first full-time professional biomedical investigator in Mexico did not appear until 1939, and the number is still growing despite present restrictions to investigator growth and development.

  14. The Image Gently pediatric digital radiography safety checklist: tools for improving pediatric radiography.

    PubMed

    John, Susan D; Moore, Quentin T; Herrmann, Tracy; Don, Steven; Powers, Kevin; Smith, Susan N; Morrison, Greg; Charkot, Ellen; Mills, Thalia T; Rutz, Lois; Goske, Marilyn J

    2013-10-01

    Transition from film-screen to digital radiography requires changes in radiographic technique and workflow processes to ensure that the minimum radiation exposure is used while maintaining diagnostic image quality. Checklists have been demonstrated to be useful tools for decreasing errors and improving safety in several areas, including commercial aviation and surgical procedures. The Image Gently campaign, through a competitive grant from the FDA, developed a checklist for technologists to use during the performance of digital radiography in pediatric patients. The checklist outlines the critical steps in digital radiography workflow, with an emphasis on steps that affect radiation exposure and image quality. The checklist and its accompanying implementation manual and practice quality improvement project are open source and downloadable at www.imagegently.org. The authors describe the process of developing and testing the checklist and offer suggestions for using the checklist to minimize radiation exposure to children during radiography. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  15. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  16. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-09-29

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements.

  17. Technique and interpretation in tree seed radiography

    Treesearch

    Howard B. Kriebel

    1966-01-01

    The study of internal seed structure by radiography requires techniques which will give good definition. To establish the best procedures, we conducted a series of experiments in which we manipulated the principal controllable variables affecting the quality of X-radiographs: namely, focus-to-film distance, film speed (grain), exposure time, kilovoltage, and...

  18. Satisfaction of Search in Chest Radiography 2015.

    PubMed

    Berbaum, Kevin S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Schartz, Kevin M; Caldwell, Robert T; Madsen, Mark T; Hur, Seung; Laroia, Archana T; Thompson, Brad H; Mullan, Brian F; Franken, Edmund A

    2015-11-01

    Two decades have passed since the publication of laboratory studies of satisfaction of search (SOS) in chest radiography. Those studies were performed using film. The current investigation tests for SOS effects in computed radiography of the chest. Sixty-four chest computed radiographs half demonstrating various "test" abnormalities were read twice by 20 radiologists, once with and once without the addition of a simulated pulmonary nodule. Receiver-operating characteristic detection accuracy and decision thresholds were analyzed to study the effects of adding the nodule on detecting the test abnormalities. Results of previous studies were reanalyzed using similar modern techniques. In the present study, adding nodules did not influence detection accuracy for the other abnormalities (P = .93), but did induce a reluctance to report them (P < .001). Adding nodules did not affect inspection time (P = .58) so the reluctance to report was not associated with reduced search. Reanalysis revealed a similar decision threshold shift that had not been recognized in the early studies of SOS in chest radiography (P < .01) in addition to reduced detection accuracy (P < .01). The nature of SOS in chest radiography has changed, but it is not clear why. SOS may be changing as a function of changes in radiology education and practice. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Feline dental radiography and radiology: A primer.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2014-11-01

    Information crucial to the diagnosis and treatment of feline oral diseases can be ascertained using dental radiography and the inclusion of this technology has been shown to be the best way to improve a dental practice. Becoming familar with the techniques required for dental radiology and radiography can, therefore, be greatly beneficial. Novices to dental radiography may need some time to adjust and become comfortable with the techniques. If using dental radiographic film, the generally recommended 'E' or 'F' speeds may be frustrating at first, due to their more specific exposure and image development requirements. Although interpreting dental radiographs is similar to interpreting a standard bony radiograph, there are pathologic states that are unique to the oral cavity and several normal anatomic structures that may mimic pathologic changes. Determining which teeth have been imaged also requires a firm knowledge of oral anatomy as well as the architecture of dental films/digital systems. This article draws on a range of dental radiography and radiology resources, and the benefit of the author's own experience, to review the basics of taking and interpreting intraoral dental radiographs. A simplified method for positioning the tubehead is explained and classic examples of some common oral pathologies are provided. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  20. Film radiography -- The lone star of quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kochakian, R.

    1995-12-31

    In this year of 1995, 100 years of x-ray photography are being celebrated. The reason film radiography is still the number one NDT technique is because of its quality. In this paper the author discusses: (1) fundamentals of image quality and (2) status of new draft ASRM film system classification standard.

  1. Radiography Student Participation in Professional Organizations.

    PubMed

    Michael, Kimberly; Tran, Xuan; Keller, Shelby; Sayles, Harlan; Custer, Tanya

    2017-09-01

    To gather data on educational program requirements for student membership in a state or national professional society, organization, or association. A 10-question online survey about student involvement in professional societies was emailed to 616 directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)-accredited radiography programs. A total of 219 responses were received, for a 36% response rate. Of these, 89 respondents (41%) answered that their programs require students to join a professional organization. The society respondents most often required (70%) was a state radiography society. Sixty respondents (68%) answered that students join a society at the beginning of the radiography program (from matriculation to 3 months in). Of programs requiring student membership in professional societies, 42 (49%) reported that their students attend the state or national society annual conference; however, participation in activities at the conferences and in the society throughout the year is lower than conference attendance. Some directors stated that although their programs' policies do not allow membership mandates, they encourage students to become members, primarily so that they can access webinars and other educational materials or information related to the profession. Survey data showed that most JRCERT-accredited radiography programs support but do not require student membership in professional organizations. The data reveal that more programs have added those requirements in recent years. Increased student participation could be realized if programs mandated membership and supported it financially. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  2. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  3. Comparison of computed radiography and conventional radiography in detection of small volume pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Marolf, Angela; Blaik, Margaret; Ackerman, Norman; Watson, Elizabeth; Gibson, Nicole; Thompson, Margret

    2008-01-01

    The role of digital imaging is increasing as these systems are becoming more affordable and accessible. Advantages of computed radiography compared with conventional film/screen combinations include improved contrast resolution and postprocessing capabilities. Computed radiography's spatial resolution is inferior to conventional radiography; however, this limitation is considered clinically insignificant. This study prospectively compared digital imaging and conventional radiography in detecting small volume pneumoperitoneum. Twenty cadaver dogs (15-30 kg) were injected with 0.25, 0.25, and 0.5 ml for 1 ml total of air intra-abdominally, and radiographed sequentially using computed and conventional radiographic technologies. Three radiologists independently evaluated the images, and receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis compared the two imaging modalities. There was no statistical difference between computed and conventional radiography in detecting free abdominal air, but overall computed radiography was relatively more sensitive based on ROC analysis. Computed radiographic images consistently and significantly demonstrated a minimal amount of 0.5 ml of free air based on ROC analysis. However, no minimal air amount was consistently or significantly detected with conventional film. Readers were more likely to detect free air on lateral computed images than the other projections, with no significant increased sensitivity between film/screen projections. Further studies are indicated to determine the differences or lack thereof between various digital imaging systems and conventional film/screen systems.

  4. MRI versus radiography of acromioclavicular joint dislocation.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ursula; Oberleitner, Gerhard; Nemec, Stefan F; Gruber, Michael; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Krestan, Christian R

    2011-10-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are usually diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. In view of the implementation of MRI for visualization of the acromioclavicular joint, the purpose of this study was to describe the MRI findings of acromioclavicular joint dislocation in comparison with the radiographic findings. Forty-four patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint dislocation after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography and 1-T MRI with a surface phased-array coil. MRI included coronal proton density-weighted turbo spin-echo and coronal 3D T1-weighted fast field-echo water-selective sequences. The Rockwood classification was used to assess acromioclavicular joint injuries at radiography and MRI. An adapted Rockwood classification was used for MRI evaluation of the acromioclavicular joint ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint dislocations diagnosed with radiography and MRI were compared. Among 44 patients with Rockwood type I-IV injuries on radiographs, classification on radiographs and MR images was concordant in 23 (52.2%) patients. At MRI, the injury was reclassified to a less severe type in 16 (36.4%) patients and to a more severe type in five (11.4%) patients. Compared with the findings according to the original Rockwood system, with the adapted system that included MRI findings, additional ligamentous lesions were found in 11 (25%) patients. In a considerable number of patients, the MRI findings change the Rockwood type determined with radiography. In addition to clinical assessment and radiography, MRI may yield important findings on ligaments that may influence management.

  5. Dental radiography in New Zealand: digital versus film.

    PubMed

    Ting, N A; Broadbent, J M; Duncan, W J

    2013-09-01

    Digital x-ray systems offer advantages over conventional film systems, yet many dentists have not adopted digital technology. To assess New Zealand dental practitioners' use of--and preferences for--dental radiography systems. Cross-sectional survey. General and specialist dental practice. Postal questionnaire survey of a sample of 770 dentists (520 randomly selected general dental practitioners and all 250 specialists) listed in the 2012 NZ Dental Council Register. Type of radiography systems used by dentists. Dentists' experiences and opinions of conventional film and digital radiography. The participation rate was 55.2%. Digital radiography systems were used by 58.0% of participating dentists, most commonly among those aged 31-40 years. Users of digital radiography tended to report greater satisfaction with their radiography systems than users conventional films. Two-thirds of film users were interested in switching to digital radiography in the near future. Reasons given by conventional film users for not using digital radiography included cost, difficulty in integrating with other software systems, concern about potential technical errors, and the size and nature of the intra-oral sensors. Many dental practitioners have still not adopted digital radiography, yet its users are more satisfied with their radiography systems than are conventional film users. The latter may find changing to a digital system to be satisfying and rewarding.

  6. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  7. Supporting undergraduate biomedical entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2004-01-01

    As biomedical innovations become more sophisticated and expensive to bring to market, an approach is needed to ensure the survival of the best ideas. The tactic used by Iowa State University to provide entrepreneurship opportunities for undergraduate students in biomedical areas is a model that has proven to be both distinctive and effective. Iowa State supports and fosters undergraduate student entrepreneurship efforts through the Pappajohn Center for Entrepreneurship. This unique partnership encourages ISU faculty, researchers, and students to become involved in the world of entrepreneurship, while allowing Iowa's business communities to gain access to a wide array of available resources, skills, and information from Iowa State University.

  8. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  9. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  10. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  11. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. A biomedical engineer's library.

    PubMed

    Webster, J G

    1982-01-01

    A survey resulted in a list of the 101 textbooks used by 62 biomedical engineering educational programs. A second list shows the textbooks used by each school. A third list shows the 27 textbooks used at two or more schools and the number of times each is used. This selected compilation should be useful to (a) biomedical engineering curriculum committees considering program revision, (b) teachers considering course revision, (c) university and industrial librarians updating their collections, (d) individuals building a personal library, and (e) students desiring information about the emphasis of various educational programs.

  13. Biomedical materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hanker, J. S. ); Giammara, B. L. )

    1989-01-01

    This conference reports on how biomedical materials and devices are undergoing important changes that require interdisciplinary approaches, innovation expertise, and access to sophisticated preparative and analytical equipment and methodologies. The interaction of materials scientists with biomedical, biotechnological, bioengineering and clinical scientists in the last decade has resulted in major advances in therapy. New therapeutic modalities and bioengineering methods and devices for the continuous removal of toxins or pathologic products present in arthritis, atherosclerosis and malignancy are presented. Novel monitoring and controlled drug delivery systems and discussions of materials such as blood or plasma substitutes, artificial organs, and bone graft substitutes are discussed.

  14. Biomedical implantable microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Meindl, J D

    1980-10-17

    Innovative applications of microelectronics in new biomedical implantable instruments offer a singular opportunity for advances in medical research and practice because of two salient factors: (i) beyond all other types of biomedical instruments, implants exploit fully the inherent technical advantages--complex functional capability, high reliability, lower power drain, small size and weight-of microelectronics, and (ii) implants bring microelectronics into intimate association with biological systems. The combination of these two factors enables otherwise impossible new experiments to be conducted and new paostheses developed that will improve the quality of human life.

  15. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society.

  16. Doses to critical organs from dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Antoku, S; Kihara, T; Russell, W J; Beach, D R

    1976-02-01

    Participants in the jointly sponsored Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Japanese National Institute of Health (ABCC-JNIH) Adult Health Study, a fixed-population sample under continual observation for late effects of the atomic bombs, are also being evaluated for their exposure to other sources of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the subjects' thyroid, lens, pituitary, bone marrow, and gonadal doses acquired during dental radiography were estimated from dosimetry of simulated human material exposed according to technical factors as ascertained in previously reported surveys of patients, dental clinics and hospitals, and dosimetry with phantom human material containing lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeters and ionization chambers. Dental radiography comprised a relatively small segment of the contaminating sources of ionizing radiation exposure among this population sample. Efforts should be made to improve exposure conditions, especially in view of the increasing frequency of dental x-ray examinations.

  17. Radiography Students' Learning: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Anneli; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari

    2016-01-01

    To describe research methodology and findings concerning radiography students' learning. Health sciences databases were searched to perform a traditional narrative literature review. Thirty-five peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed using thematic analysis. Specific methods of learning were found to be of the most interest. The studies focused primarily on the use and usability of a method or the students' general experiences of it. The most commonly studied methods were e-learning and interprofessional learning, which students perceived as positive methods for theoretical studies and clinical training. Students' learning regarding research was the focus of only one article reporting a wide variety of students' research interests. Most studies reported quantitative research gathered from questionnaires and surveys. Additional research, especially from a qualitative point of view, is needed to deepen the evidence-based knowledge of radiography student learning.

  18. Monte Carlo calculation for microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    2000-09-01

    In radiography the scattered radiation from the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. We propose that a bundle of collimated, closely spaced, microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and eliminate the effect of secondary electron dose, thus increasing the image dose contrast in the detector. The lateral and depth dose distributions of 20-200 keV microplanar beams are investigated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code to calculate the depth doses and dose profiles in a 6 cm x 6 cm x 6 cm tissue phantom. The maximum dose on the primary beam axis (peak) and the minimum inter-beam scattered dose (valley) are compared at different photon energies and the optimum energy range for microbeam radiography is found. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can give superior contrast imaging to a single macrobeam of the same overall area.

  19. Contrast enhancement in microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    1999-12-01

    In x-ray radiography, the target produces a useful shadow from absorption of the primary beam, while the scattered radiation into the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. A bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and give superior image contrast compared with a single macrobeam of the same dimensions. To further reduce the scattered radiation and increase the image contrast, we place an air gap between the tissue phantom and the detector. The primary and scattered photon flux of a single microplanar beam is measured as a function of thickness inside the phantom and in the air gap. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced, microplanar beams increase the image contrast by 22% and a 2 cm air gap decreases the scattered photon flux by about half, improving the contrast by an additional 16%. Thus an overall improvement of 41% in contrast can be achieved with microplanar beam radiography.

  20. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10{sup 10} neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10{sup 7} to 3.8x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} depending on the type of screen and film.

  1. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Progress in thermal neutron radiography at LENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jack; Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. NSF.

  3. Digital radiography: image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2008-11-01

    Digital radiography devices, rapidly replacing analog screen-film detectors, are now common in diagnostic radiological imaging, where implementation has been accelerated by the commodity status of electronic imaging and display systems. The shift from narrow latitude, fixed-speed screen-film detectors to wide latitude, variable-speed digital detectors has created a flexible imaging system that can easily result in overexposures to the patient without the knowledge of the operator, thus potentially increasing the radiation burden of the patient population from radiographic examinations. In addition, image processing can be inappropriately applied causing inconsistent or artifactual appearance of anatomy, which can lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, many advantages can be obtained from the variable-speed digital detector, such as an ability to lower dose in many examinations, image post-processing for disease-specific conditions, display flexibility to change the appearance of the image and aid the physician in making a differential diagnosis, and easy access to digital images. An understanding of digital radiography is necessary to minimize the possibility of overexposures and inconsistent results, and to achieve the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for the safe and effective care of all patients. Thus many issues must be considered for optimal implementation of digital radiography, as reviewed in this article.

  4. Dual energy scanning beam X-radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Randolph Frank

    Dual energy X-radiography is a method first developed in the mid-1970's by which one uses the information contained in the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-ray flux through an object. With this information one can distinguish the types of materials present in a radiograph and thus allow a computer to subtract them from the image enhancing the contrast of the remaining materials. Using this method, one can see details, which would have been hidden by overlying structures of other materials such as seen in radiographs of parts, made up of mixtures of metals and composites. There is also great interest in this technique for medical imaging of the chest where images of the organs are significantly improved by subtracting the bones. However, even with the enhanced capabilities realized with this technique, the majority of X-radiography systems only measures the bulk transmitted X-ray intensity and ignores the information contained in the energy spectrum. This is due to the added expense, time requirements, and registration problems incurred using standard radiographic methods to obtain dual energy radiographs. This dissertation describes a novel method which overcomes these problems and allows one to perform inexpensive, near real time, single shot dual energy X-radiography. The work of this thesis resulted in US patent #5,742,660.

  5. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; Tucker, Tim J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Smith, James L.; Teter, David F.

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

  6. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amy; Imhoff, Seth; Gibbs, Paul; Cooley, Jason; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Hollander, Brian; Mariam, Fesseha; Ott, Thomas; Barker, Martha; Tucker, Tim; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian; Clarke, Kester; Montalvo, Joel; Field, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Smith, James; Teter, David

    2013-01-01

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models. PMID:23779063

  7. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Roberts, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry.

  8. Newer imaging methods in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Wandtke, J C

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the application of computers to chest radiography has resulted in a wide variety of innovative research. Major research efforts have resulted in the development of new types of x-ray detectors, such as storage phosphor technology, for use with computers. Storage phosphor imaging is one of the most promising new techniques, and almost 100 systems have been installed worldwide. Radiologists are quickly evaluating the image quality provided by this new detector system, which has the potential to improve image quality. It has wide latitude and is coupled with a computer to perform image processing. Another promising technology, originally studied in the form of scan equalization radiography, is now commercially available in the form of advanced multiple-beam equalization radiography. This film technique uses computers to modulate the x-ray exposure to take maximum advantage of the imaging capabilities of radiographic film. Digital solid-state detectors have been studied in conjunction with computerized image enhancement systems. These currently show improvement in nodule detection and quantification of the calcium content of a lesion. Application of large image intensifiers to a digital image system is being studied, but there are currently limitations on spatial resolution.

  9. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; ...

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification.more » We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.« less

  10. Impact of digital radiography on clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    May, G A; Deer, D D; Dackiewicz, D

    2000-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that digital radiography (DR) improves workflow and patient throughput compared with traditional film radiography or computed radiography (CR). DR eliminates the film development step and the time to acquire the image from a CR reader. In addition, the wide dynamic range of DR is such that the technologist can perform the quality-control (QC) step directly at the modality in a few seconds, rather than having to transport the newly acquired image to a centralized QC station for review. Furthermore, additional workflow efficiencies can be achieved with DR by employing tight radiology information system (RIS) integration. In the DR imaging environment, this provides for patient demographic information to be automatically downloaded from the RIS to populate the DR Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image header. To learn more about this workflow efficiency improvement, we performed a comparative study of workflow steps under three different conditions: traditional film/screen x-ray, DR without RIS integration (ie, manual entry of patient demographics), and DR with RIS integration. This study was performed at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) using a newly acquired amorphous silicon flat-panel DR system from Canon Medical Systems (Irvine, CA). Our data show that DR without RIS results in substantial workflow savings over traditional film/screen practice. There is an additional 30% reduction in total examination time using DR with RIS integration.

  11. Emergency skull radiography: the effect of restrictive criteria on skull radiography and CT use

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.; Gaylord, G.M.; Lantos, G.; Tabaddor, K.; Gallagher, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the effect of restrictive criteria on the use of emergency skull radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head. Emergency skull radiography required the completion of a special requisition form. Emergency CT of the head was done at the request of senior consultants and was available on a full-time basis. Over 1 year, 2758 skull studies were performed, a decrease of 39.1% when compared with the year before restrictive criteria were instituted, during which 4587 skull examinations were done. In the same period, the number of emergency CT scans of the head increased by 45.7%, from 471 in the control year to 686 in the experimental year. With the use of restrictive criteria, a net savings of $164,000 was achieved. Our results suggest that the use of restrictive criteria is a cost-effective means of limiting skull radiography when CT of the head is readily available.

  12. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  13. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  14. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  15. What is biomedical informatics?

    PubMed

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Smith, Jack W; Johnson, Todd R

    2010-02-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically-grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine.

  16. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  17. Implantable CMOS Biomedical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Jun; Tokuda, Takashi; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The results of recent research on our implantable CMOS biomedical devices are reviewed. Topics include retinal prosthesis devices and deep-brain implantation devices for small animals. Fundamental device structures and characteristics as well as in vivo experiments are presented. PMID:22291554

  18. Biomedical Results of Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S. (Editor); Dietlein, L. F. (Editor); Berry, C. A. (Editor); Parker, James F. (Compiler); West, Vita (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical program developed for Apollo is described in detail. The findings are listed of those investigations which are conducted to assess the effects of space flight on man's physiological and functional capacities, and significant medical events in Apollo are documented. Topics discussed include crew health and inflight monitoring, preflight and postflight medical testing, inflight experiments, quarantine, and life support systems.

  19. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  20. Texture in Biomedical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Maria

    An overview of texture analysis methods is given and the merits of each method for biomedical applications are discussed. Methods discussed include Markov random fields, Gibbs distributions, co-occurrence matrices, Gabor functions and wavelets, Karhunen-Loève basis images, and local symmetry and orientation from the monogenic signal. Some example applications of texture to medical image processing are reviewed.

  1. Careers in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Madrid, R E; Rotger, V I; Herrera, M C

    2010-01-01

    Although biomedical engineering was started in Argentina about 35 years ago, it has had a sustained growth for the last 25 years in human resources, with the emergence of new undergraduate and postgraduate careers, as well as in research, knowledge, technological development, and health care.

  2. [Ethics and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Goussard, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research took off from the 1947 Nuremberg Code to its own right in the wake of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Since then, (inter)national regulations and guidelines providing a framework for clinical studies and protection for study participants have been drafted and implemented, while ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies have sprung up throughout the world. These two developments were crucial in bringing about the protection of rights and safety of the participants and harmonization of the conduct of biomedical research. Ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies deliver ethical and scientific assessments on the quality and safety of the projects submitted to them and issue respectively approvals and authorizations to carry out clinical trials, while ensuring that they comply with regulatory requirements, ethical principles, and scientific guidelines. The advent of biomedical ethics, together with the responsible commitment of clinical investigators and of the pharmaceutical industry, has guaranteed respect for the patient, for whom and with whom research is conducted. Just as importantly, it has also ensured that patients reap the benefit of what is the primary objective of biomedical research: greater life expectancy, well-being, and quality of life.

  3. Digital biomedical. Photojournalism.

    PubMed

    Saine, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the strategies used to successfully complete a digitally based biomedical photojournalism assignment. A multi-step approach is suggested which includes project and funding identification, photographic planning, on-site photography and post project follow-up. Practical suggestions for utilizing digital imaging are included.

  4. Biomedical applications in EELA.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Miguel; Hernández, Vicente; Mayo, Rafael; Blanquer, Ignacio; Perez-Griffo, Javier; Isea, Raul; Nuñez, Luis; Mora, Henry Ricardo; Fernández, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The current demand for Grid Infrastructures to bring collabarating groups between Latina America and Europe has created the EELA proyect. This e-infrastructure is used by Biomedical groups in Latina America and Europe for the studies of ocnological analisis, neglected diseases, sequence alignments and computation plygonetics.

  5. Biomedical technology in Franconia.

    PubMed

    Efferth, T

    2000-01-01

    Medical instrumentation and biotechnology business is developing rapidly in Franconia. The universities of Bayreuth, Erlangen-Nürnberg, and Würzburg hold upper ranks in biomedical extramural funding research. They have a high competence in biomedical research, medical instrumentation, and biotechnology. The association "BioMedTec Franken e.V" has been founded at the beginning of 1999 both to foster the information exchange between universities, industry and politics and to facilitate the establishment of biomedical companies by means of science parks. In the IGZ (Innovation and Foundation Center Nürnberg-Fürth-Erlangen) 4,500 square meters of space are currently shared by 19 novel companies. Since 1985 60 companies in the IGZ had a total turnover of about 74 Mio Euro. The TGZ (Technologie- und Gründerzentrum) in Würzburg provides space for 11 companies. For the specific needs of biomedical technology companies further science parks will be set up in the near future. A science park for medical instrumentation will be founded in Erlangen (IZMP, Innovations- und Gründerzentrum für Medizintechnik und Pharma in der Region Nürnberg, Fürch, Erlangen). Furthermore, a Biomedical Technology Center and a Research Center for Bicompatible Materials are to be founded in Würzburg and Bayreuth, respectively. Several communication platforms (Bayern Innovativ, FORWISS, FTT, KIM, N-TEC-VISIT, TBU, WETTI etc.) allow the transfer of local academic research activities to industrial utilization and open new co-operation possibilities. International pharmaceutical companies (Novartis, Nürnberg; Pharmacia Upjohn, Erlangen) are located in Franconia. Central Franconia represents a national focus for medical instrumentation. The Erlangen settlement of the Medical Engineering Section of Siemens employs 4,500 people including approximately 1,000 employees in the Siemens research center.

  6. First experimental research in low energy proton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jun; Li, Yi-Ding; Long, Ji-Dong; He, Xiao-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Ding; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Ma, Chao-Fan; Zhao, Liang-Chao; Yang, Xing-Lin; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yuan; Pang, Jian; Li, Hong; Li, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Fu-Xin; Shi, Jin-Shui; Zhang, Kai-Zhi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Lin-Wen; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Proton radiography is a new scatheless diagnostic tool providing a potential development direction for advanced hydrotesting. Recently a low energy proton radiography system has been developed at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Phyiscs (CAEP). This system has been designed to use an 11 MeV proton beam to radiograph thin static objects. This system consists of a proton cyclotron coupled to an imaging beamline, which is the first domestic beamline dedicated to proton radiography experiments. Via some demonstration experiments, the radiography system is confirmed to provide clear pictures with spatial resolution ~100 μm within 40 mm field-of-view.

  7. Graphene for Biomedical Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas; Podila, Ramakrishna; Alexis, Frank; Rao, Apparao; Clemson Bioengineering Team; Clemson Physics Team

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we used graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms, to modify the surfaces of existing implant materials to enhance both bio- and hemo-compatibility. This novel effort meets all functional criteria for a biomedical implant coating as it is chemically inert, atomically smooth and highly durable, with the potential for greatly enhancing the effectiveness of such implants. Specifically, graphene coatings on nitinol, a widely used implant and stent material, showed that graphene coated nitinol (Gr-NiTi) supports excellent smooth muscle and endothelial cell growth leading to better cell proliferation. We further determined that the serum albumin adsorption on Gr-NiTi is greater than that of fibrinogen, an important and well understood criterion for promoting a lower thrombosis rate. These hemo-and biocompatible properties and associated charge transfer mechanisms, along with high strength, chemical inertness and durability give graphene an edge over most antithrombogenic coatings for biomedical implants and devices.

  8. Sharing big biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Toga, Arthur W; Dinov, Ivo D

    The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent datasets; however there are significant technical, social, regulatory, and institutional barriers that need to be overcome to ensure the power of Big Data overcomes these detrimental factors. Pragmatic policies that demand extensive sharing of data, promotion of data fusion, provenance, interoperability and balance security and protection of personal information are critical for the long term impact of translational Big Data analytics.

  9. Biochemiluminescence and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Champiat, D; Roux, A; Lhomme, O; Nosenzo, G

    1994-12-01

    Although used for analytical purposes for more than 40 years it is only recently that biochemiluminescence (BCL) has found widespread acceptance. Methods employing BCL reactions now play an important role in biomedical research and laboratory medicine. The main attractions for the assay technology include exquisite sensitivity (attomole-zeptomole), high selectivity, speed and simplicity. In biomedical research, the most important applications of BCL are: (1) to estimate microbial numbers and to assess cellular states (e.g., after exposure to antibiotic or cytotoxic agents) and in reporter gene studies (firefly luciferase gene); (2) NAD(P)H involved in redox/dehydrogenase studies using Vibrio luciferase complex; (3) BCL labels and CL detection of enzyme labels in immunoassays are the most widespread routine application for this technology. BCL enzyme immunoassays represent the most active area of development, e.g., enhanced BCL method for peroxidase and BCL assays for alkaline phosphatase labels using adamantyl 1,2-dioxetane.

  10. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  11. Biomedical applications of photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Barbara Pui

    2010-10-01

    Photochemistry is the study of photochemical reactions between light and molecules. Recently, there have been increasing interests in using photochemical reactions in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering. This work revisits the components and mechanisms of photochemistry and reviews biomedical applications of photochemistry in various disciplines, including oncology, molecular biology, and biosurgery, with particular emphasis on tissue engineering. Finally, potential toxicities and research opportunities in this field are discussed.

  12. Biomedical Applications of Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shen, He; Zhang, Liming; Liu, Min; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene exhibits unique 2-D structure and exceptional phyiscal and chemical properties that lead to many potential applications. Among various applications, biomedical applications of graphene have attracted ever-increasing interests over the last three years. In this review, we present an overview of current advances in applications of graphene in biomedicine with focus on drug delivery, cancer therapy and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:22448195

  13. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation.

    PubMed

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  14. Glyconanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chang-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Over the past two decades, glycosylated nanoparticles (i.e., glyconanoparticles having sugar residues on the surface) received much attention for biomedical applications such as bioassays and targeted drug delivery. This minireview focuses on three aspects: (1) glycosylated gold nanoparticles, (2) glycosylated quantum dots, and (3) glyconanoparticles self-assembled from amphiphilic glycopolymers. The synthetic methods and the multivalent interactions between glyconanoparticles and lectins is shortly illustrated.

  15. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  16. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  17. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  18. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  19. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Momot, G. V.; Podurets, K. M.; Pogorelyi, D. K.; Somenkov, V. A.; Yakovenko, E. V.

    2011-12-15

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  20. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license for...

  1. Balloon Kyphoplasty under Three-dimensional Radiography Guidance.

    PubMed

    Umebayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yu; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Hara, Masahito

    2017-09-15

    Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty (PBKP) is generally performed under two-dimensional (2D) radiography guidance (lateral- and anteroposterior (A-P) views) using C-arm fluoroscopy. However, 2D images taken by single-plane or bi-plane fluoroscopy cannot provide information regarding axial views, particularly the Z axis. Lack of information regarding the Z axis prevents the creation of three-dimensional (3D) images. Currently, there has been a progress in interventional X-ray systems, and they are capable of providing 3D radiographic images using a rotational angiography mode which is used to create 3D angiographies. In this report, we described the usefulness of 3D radiography guidance. Patients treated by PBKP was designed to evaluate the efficacy of 3D radiography guidance. These patients experienced osteoporotic vertebral fractures with severe pain. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent PBKP from February to December 2016. All patients had a single-level vertebral fracture and underwent surgery by 2D or 3D radiography guidance. We performed 16 patients in 3D radiography guidance, and 10 patients in traditional 2D radiography guidance. This 3D radiography guided PBKP increase the amount of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) injection compared with ordinary 2D method. As a result, postoperative vertebral height and alignment were significantly improved. Both groups have no complication. To confirm the final results and make PBKP more effective, 3D radiography guidance is feasible and safe for balloon kyphoplasty.

  2. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Mathy, F.; Schumm, A.

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  3. Neutron Radiography of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This paper describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  4. Using ytterbium-169 for safe and economical industrial radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dowalo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Safety has become an issue of paramount importance for industrial radiography. Many NDE facilities and suppliers are finding the cost of performing radiography Prohibitive due to heightened safety concerns for radiation area protection. The most common sources used in radiography, Iridium-192 and Cobalt-60, result in high radiation fields over a large area. Even when collimators are used large radiation fields can result from multicurie source radiography. Radiographic operations are being forced to find alternative test methods and techniques to the use of the old stand-by sources. These alternate methods are not always as comprehensive a test as full volumetric examination with radiography. Since Iridium and Cobalt are in such wide spread use, they are sometimes called upon to perform test of materials which are not in their optimum sensitivity range.

  5. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  6. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; ...

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  7. [The use of a thyroid collar for intraoral radiography].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Velders, X L; van Ginkel, F C; van der Stelt, P F

    1998-06-01

    To determine whether a thyroid collar is a reasonable measure to reduce patient exposure from intraoral radiography (cost benefit analysis). In the thyroid gland of a Rando phantom dose measurements were carried out to determine the effect of a thyroid collar during intraoral radiography. Department of Oral Radiology at ACTA, Amsterdam. Dose measurements were carried out using LTDs. The average absorbed dose to the thyroid gland with and without thyroid collar from intraoral radiography was compared using an analysis of variance. For periapical radiographs the equivalent dose to the thyroid gland was significantly lower (p < 0.05) when a thyroid collar was used. For bitewing radiography there were no significant effects of the thyroid collar (p > 0.05). The cost benefit analysis showed that it takes more than 40 years before the benefits of a thyroid collar exceed the costs. Collective use of thyroid collars therefore does not seem to be a reasonable measure to optimize radiological protection during intraoral radiography.

  8. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; ...

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  9. Advances in digital radiography: physical principles and system overview.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Weber, Christof H; Wirth, Stefan; Pfeifer, Klaus-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Treitl, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, digital radiography has supplanted screen-film radiography in many radiology departments. Today, manufacturers provide a variety of digital imaging solutions based on various detector and readout technologies. Digital detectors allow implementation of a fully digital picture archiving and communication system, in which images are stored digitally and are available anytime. Image distribution in hospitals can now be achieved electronically by means of web-based technology with no risk of losing images. Other advantages of digital radiography include higher patient throughput, increased dose efficiency, and the greater dynamic range of digital detectors with possible reduction of radiation exposure to the patient. The future of radiography will be digital, and it behooves radiologists to be familiar with the technical principles, image quality criteria, and radiation exposure issues associated with the various digital radiography systems that are currently available.

  10. Digital radiography image quality: image processing and display.

    PubMed

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Williams, Mark B; Andriole, Katherine; Strauss, Keith J; Applegate, Kimberly; Wyatt, Margaret; Bjork, Sandra; Seibert, J Anthony

    2007-06-01

    This article on digital radiography image processing and display is the second of two articles written as part of an intersociety effort to establish image quality standards for digital and computed radiography. The topic of the other paper is digital radiography image acquisition. The articles were developed collaboratively by the ACR, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine. Increasingly, medical imaging and patient information are being managed using digital data during acquisition, transmission, storage, display, interpretation, and consultation. The management of data during each of these operations may have an impact on the quality of patient care. These articles describe what is known to improve image quality for digital and computed radiography and to make recommendations on optimal acquisition, processing, and display. The practice of digital radiography is a rapidly evolving technology that will require timely revision of any guidelines and standards.

  11. Positioning long lines: contrast versus plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Reece, A; Ubhi, T; Craig, A; Newell, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the value of contrast versus plain radiography in determining radio-opaque long line tip position in neonates.
METHODS—In a prospective study, plain radiography was performed after insertion of radio-opaque long lines. If the line tip was not visible on the plain film, a second film with contrast was obtained in an attempt to visualise the tip.
RESULTS—Sixty eight lines were inserted during the study period, 62 of which were included in the study. In 31, a second radiographic examination with contrast was necessary to determine position of the tip. In 29 of these, the line tip was clearly visualised with contrast. On two occasions, the line tip could not be seen because the contrast had filled the vein and obscured the tip from view. Eight of the lines that required a second radiograph with contrast were repositioned.
CONCLUSION—Intravenous contrast should be routinely used in the assessment of long line position in the neonate.

 PMID:11207231

  12. Utility of thyroid collars in cephalometric radiography

    PubMed Central

    Sansare, KP; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-01-01

    Objective A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram. Methods A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study. Results 50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram. Conclusions TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed. PMID:22065795

  13. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  14. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-04-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm.

  15. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  16. Dental digital radiography: a survey of quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina; Rohlin, Madeleine; Petersson, Arne

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the experiences of Swedish general dental practitioners (GDPs) with digital radiography and their opinion on the same, particularly regarding quality issues. A letter was sent to all GDPs in private care in Region Skåne, Sweden, asking whether they used digital radiography (n=513). The response rate was 79%. The number of private GDPs who replied that they used digital radiography was 106. The Public Dental Service in Region Skåne listed 33 GDPs who worked with digital radiography. Based on these answers, a questionnaire was sent to the GDPs working with digital radiography (n=139). The questionnaire comprised 27 questions about the dentists, the system of intra-oral digital radiography, and the GDPs' experiences of and opinions on issues regarding image quality and quality control. The response rate to the questionnaire was 94%. Almost all, 92%, worked with charge-coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors. Most GDPs were satisfied with their digital radiographic system. The majority (65%) experienced problems. Detector failure and trouble with the software were common. The GDPs wrote that they used lower exposure times in digital radiography than traditional film radiography. The estimated reduction in exposure time was said to be between 51% and 75%. Thirty-five per cent continued to use film parallel with digital radiography. The answers indicated that less than half of the equipment (40%) underwent quality control. Quality controls, when conducted, were undertaken once or twice a year, mainly by technicians from the companies that had sold the digital equipment. Based on the results of the questionnaire, there seems to be a need to improve the maintenance and the quality of digital radiography. It is also important that the GDPs become more aware of the problems that can occur when a new technique is introduced and that they develop the skills to handle these problems.

  17. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  18. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  19. Securing quality of camera-based biomedical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guse, Frank; Kasper, Axel; Zinter, Bob

    2009-02-01

    As sophisticated optical imaging technologies move into clinical applications, manufacturers need to guarantee their products meet required performance criteria over long lifetimes and in very different environmental conditions. A consistent quality management marks critical components features derived from end-users requirements in a top-down approach. Careful risk analysis in the design phase defines the sample sizes for production tests, whereas first article inspection assures the reliability of the production processes. We demonstrate the application of these basic quality principles to camera-based biomedical optics for a variety of examples including molecular diagnostics, dental imaging, ophthalmology and digital radiography, covering a wide range of CCD/CMOS chip sizes and resolutions. Novel concepts in fluorescence detection and structured illumination are also highlighted.

  20. The PRIME Lab biomedical program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, George S.; Elmore, David; Rickey, Frank A.; Musameh, Sharif M.; Sharma, Pankaj; Hillegonds, Darren; Coury, Louis; Kissinger, Peter

    2000-10-01

    The biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) initiative at PRIME Lab including the status of equipment and sample preparation is described. Several biomedical projects are underway involving one or more of the nuclides: 14C, 26Al and 41Ca. Routine production of CaF 2 and graphite is taking place. Finally, the future direction and plans for improvement of the biomedical program at PRIME Lab are discussed.

  1. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Richard

    Biomedical imaging, and in particular MRI and CT, is often identified as among the top 10 most significant advances in healthcare in the 20th century. This presentation will describe some of the recent advances in medical physics and imaging being funded by NIH in this century and current funding opportunities. The presentation will also highlight the role of multidisciplinary research in bringing concepts from the physical sciences and applying them to challenges in biological and biomedical research.. NIH Funding for Biomedical Imaging.

  2. China's growing biomedical industry.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei

    2009-06-01

    The biomedical industry in China is developing rapidly, and new biological drugs are increasing their share of the pharmaceutical market based on people's needs. China is the largest producer and user of vaccines in the world, but the existing production of vaccines is far from enough to meet the needs of the market. The entire market of biological drugs in China is still smaller than that for traditional medicines and chemicals. Therefore, the biopharmaceutical industry has the potential to be the rising star in the pharmaceutical market in the future.

  3. Anatomy for biomedical engineers.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephen W; Robb, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that were of particular interest to them. Following completion of all the dissections, the students presented what they had learned to the entire class in the anatomy laboratory. This course has fulfilled an important need for our students.

  4. Biomedical systems analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Biomedical monitoring programs which were developed to provide a system analysis context for a unified hypothesis for adaptation to space flight are presented and discussed. A real-time system of data analysis and decision making to assure the greatest possible crew safety and mission success is described. Information about man's abilities, limitations, and characteristic reactions to weightless space flight was analyzed and simulation models were developed. The predictive capabilities of simulation models for fluid-electrolyte regulation, erythropoiesis regulation, and calcium regulation are discussed.

  5. Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact.

    PubMed

    Daly, J W

    2007-08-01

    Caffeine, widely consumed in beverages, and many xanthine analogs have had a major impact on biomedical research. Caffeine and various analogs, the latter designed to enhance potency and selectivity toward specific biological targets, have played key roles in defining the nature and role of adenosine receptors, phosphodiesterases, and calcium release channels in physiological processes. Such xanthines and other caffeine-inspired heterocycles now provide important research tools and potential therapeutic agents for intervention in Alzheimer's disease, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Such compounds also have activity as analgesics, antiinflammatories, antitussives, behavioral stimulants, diuretics/natriuretics, and lipolytics. Adverse effects can include anxiety, hypertension, certain drug interactions, and withdrawal symptoms.

  6. Biomedical applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Aerospace technology transfer to biomedical research problems is discussed, including transfer innovations and potential applications. Statistical analysis of the transfer activities and impact is also presented.

  7. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  8. Personal computer equipment for dental digital subtraction radiography vs. industrial computer equipment and conventional radiography.

    PubMed

    Möystad, A; Svanaes, D B; Larheim, T A

    1992-04-01

    A "low-cost" personal computer (PC) system used to digitize dental radiographs was tested by assessing the accuracy of its subtraction images versus those of "high-cost" industrial equipment and conventional radiography. Subtraction images were made of artificial lesions in human femur bone and subsequently evaluated by students and teachers. The observations were analyzed in terms of true positive and false positive reports. "Low-cost" and "high-cost" subtraction images revealed only small differences in diagnostic accuracy. Compared to conventional radiography, the diagnostic accuracy of the subtraction images with the "low-cost" PC system was significantly higher for all observers. The interexaminer variance was similar for the subtraction and the conventional images for both students and teachers, except for a significantly reduced interexaminer variance for the teachers concerning the true positive reports with the "low-cost" PC subtraction technique.

  9. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma. PMID:25628802

  10. Using athletic training clinical education standards in radiography.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Shelley; Harris, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The selection of clinical education sites for radiography students is based on availability, access to radiographic examinations, and appropriate student-to-technologist ratio. Radiography program directors are not required to evaluate sites based on their educational validity (eg, the clinical instructor's knowledge of basic teaching and learning principles, how well the site communicates with the program, or the clinical instructor's involvement in professional organizations). The purpose of this study was to determine if a set of 12 clinical education standards used in athletic training would be applicable and beneficial to radiography program directors when selecting clinical sites for students. A survey concerning the applicability of the athletic training standards to radiography site selection was completed by 270 directors of radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. The survey results indicated the athletic training clinical education standards were considered applicable to the selection of clinical sites for radiography students and would be beneficial to radiography program directors when selecting sites.

  11. Regulation of biomedical products.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Saville-Cook, Donald

    2010-05-01

    Two recent decisions, one from Australia and one from Canada, should cause us to examine the ethical issues surrounding the regulation of biomedical products. The protection of vulnerable consumers from variable quality and poorly prepared drugs with uncertain parameters of safety and efficacy is a priority for any community and should not have to be weighed against possible costs based on restrictions of trade. However, the possibility of an environment in which the multinational biomedical industry edges out any other players in the treatment of various illnesses has its own dangers. Not least is the apparent collusion between regulators and industry that ramps up the costs and intensity of licensing and risk management so that only an industry-type budget can sustain the costs of compliance. This has the untoward effect of delivering contemporary health care into the hands of those who make immense fortunes out of it. An approach to regulation that tempers bureaucratic mechanisms with a dose of common sense and realistic evidence-based risk assessment could go a long way in avoiding the Scylla and Charybdis awaiting the clinical world in these troubled waters.

  12. Nuclear microscopy: biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Frank; Landsberg, Judith P.

    1993-05-01

    Recent developments in high energy ion beam techniques and technology have enabled the scanning proton microprobe (SPM) to make advances in biomedical research. In particular the combination of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to measure the elemental concentrations of inorganic elements, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to characterise the organic matrix, and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) to provide information on the density and structure of the sample, represents a powerful set of techniques which can be applied simultaneously to the specimen under investigation. This paper reviews briefly the biomedical work using the proton microprobe that has been carried out since the 2nd Int. Conf. on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications held in Melbourne, 1990. Three recent and diverse examples of medical research are also presented from work carried out using the Oxford SPM. The first is a preliminary experiment carried out using human hair as a monitor for potential toxicity, using PIXE elemental mapping across the hair cross section to differentiate between elements contained within the hair and contamination from external sources. The second example is in the use of STIM to map individual cells in freeze-dried tissue, showing the possibility of the in situ microanalysis of cells and their extracellular environment. The third is the use of PIXE, RBS and STIM to identify and analyse the elemental constituents of neuritic plaque cores in untreated freeze-dried Alzheimer's tissue. This work resolves a current controversy by revealing an absence of aluminium levels in plaque cores at the 15 ppm level.

  13. Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project: BIP (Biomedical Instrumentation Package) User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described is the Biomedical Instrument Package (BIP) and its use. The BIP was developed for use in understanding colorimetry, sound, electricity, and bioelectric phenomena. It can also be used in a wide range of measurements such as current, voltage, resistance, temperature, and pH. Though it was developed primarily for use in biomedical science…

  14. Biomedical ontology improves biomedical literature clustering performance: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Illhoi; Hu, Xiaohua; Song, Il-Yeol

    2007-01-01

    Document clustering has been used for better document retrieval and text mining. In this paper, we investigate if a biomedical ontology improves biomedical literature clustering performance in terms of the effectiveness and the scalability. For this investigation, we perform a comprehensive comparison study of various document clustering approaches such as hierarchical clustering methods, Bisecting K-means, K-means and Suffix Tree Clustering (STC). According to our experiment results, a biomedical ontology significantly enhances clustering quality on biomedical documents. In addition, our results show that decent document clustering approaches, such as Bisecting K-means, K-means and STC, gains some benefit from the ontology while hierarchical algorithms showing the poorest clustering quality do not reap the benefit of the biomedical ontology.

  15. Computed radiography for the radiological technologist.

    PubMed

    Artz, D S

    1997-01-01

    CR has emerged as a general imaging technology for successful imaging of the chest, abdominal, musculoskeletal, and pediatric anatomy. For the general radiographer, CR is both celebrated and scorned for its complex function, and requires thorough ongoing training for the technologists to produce consistently high image quality. Digital radiography's unique separation of detector, display, and archive add a flexibility over screen-film technology for moving, storing, printing, and viewing plain radiographic images. CR technology is now a viable solution for those wishing to embrace the electronic and digital revolution in medicine. Although the system has less spatial resolution than screen-film technology, the strength of postacquisition image processing to enhance pathology and view obscured anatomy makes CR imaging attractive to technologists and radiologists. CR is a new modality for the general radiographer that, when put into the hands of a well-trained technologist, produces images of beautiful diagnostic quality.

  16. SOLAR: student oriented learning about radiography.

    PubMed

    Baird, Marilyn; Wells, Peter

    2001-07-01

    The success or otherwise of a radiographic examination is like other health-related interventions, crucially dependent upon the knowledge base of the radiographer and the quality of his/her clinical acumen. Traditional curricular approaches are limited in their ability to assist students to make vital connections between science and clinical decision making. This paper describes a computer-based case-oriented program called SOLAR (student oriented learning about radiography) that has been designed to achieve the necessary level of integration. The key feature of SOLAR is the requirement for students to construct a clinical action plan in response to a scenario provided. Upon submitting this plan, the student can then compare his/her plan to that prepared by an expert. The browsing configuration of SOLAR makes it highly attractive for other health professions as well. Student feedback indicates a high degree of approval for this approach.

  17. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review.

    PubMed

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-01

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  18. Reject analysis in direct digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind Richter; Jorde, Jannike; Taoussi, Nadia; Yaqoob, Sadia Halima; Konst, Bente; Seierstad, Therese

    2012-03-01

    Reject analysis can be used as a quality indicator, and is an important tool in localizing areas where optimization is required. Reducing number of rejects is important yielding reduced patient exposure and increased cost-effectiveness. To determine rejection rates and causes in direct digital radiography. Data were collected during a three-month period in spring 2010 at two direct digital laboratories in Norway. All X-ray examinations, types, numbers, and reasons for rejections were obtained using automatic reject analysis software. Thirteen causes for rejection could be selected. Out of the 27,284 acquired images, 3206 were rejected, yielding an overall rejection rate of 12%. Highest rejection rates were found for examination of knees, shoulders, and wrist. In all, 77% of the rejected images arose from positioning errors. An overall rejection rate of 12% indicates a need for optimizing radiographic practice in the department.

  19. Intraoral digital radiography: elements of effective imaging.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Intraoral digital imaging has evolved from an experimental and sometimes disparaged technique in the mid 1980s to a reliable and ubiquitously used technology today. There are many advantages for use of digital radiographic techniques in dentistry, one of the chief ones being patient dose reduction. However, as important as dose reduction is for safe and effective radiography, practicing dentists would also like to understand the fundamental differences between digital system configurations so they may be able to make an informed choice as to which system best fits their needs. In addition, there has been considerable debate on the following topics: sensor technology; factors associated with image display; optimum techniques for image manipulation; and image storage, retrieval, and archiving. This article provides insight into these and other elements of effective imaging in intraoral digital imaging.

  20. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  1. Cancer imaging by scanned projection radiography.

    PubMed

    Cassel, D M; Young, S W; Brody, W R; Hall, A L

    1981-08-01

    We have evaluated scanned projection radiography (SPR) for the diagnosis of cancer. Four rabbits with V2 thigh carcinomas and nine patients with a variety of malignant neoplasms were studied with a GE CT/T 8800 scanner modified for SPR. Images were made before injection of intravenous contrast medium, and additional scans were taken after injection. Temporal subtraction was then performed on the digitized data. Rabbit thigh V2 carcinomas and human lung, liver, and extremity neoplasms were visualized. Contrast enhancement was phasic with early vessel demonstration and subsequent visualization of low density central areas of tumoral necrosis. Liver metastases appeared as poorly defined areas of low density. Because of the combination of high contrast sensitivity plus capability of imaging large tissue volumes on one scan, SPR may be valuable in cancer screening.

  2. Polarized neutron radiography with a periscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Michael; Neubauer, Andreas; Mühlbauer, Martin; Calzada, Elbio; Schillinger, Burkhard; Pfleiderer, Christian; Böni, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the magnetic moment of the neutron with magnetic fields provides a powerful probe for spatially resolved magnetisation measurements in magnetic materials. We have tested a periscope as a new type of polarizer providing neutron beams with a high polarization and a low divergence. The observed inhomogeneity of the beam caused by the waviness of the glass substrates was quantified by means of Monte-Carlo simulations using the software package McStas. The results show that beams of high homogeneity can be produced if the waviness is reduced to below 1.0·10-5 rad. Finally, it is shown that radiography with polarized neutrons is a powerful method for measuring the spatially resolved magnetisation in optically float-zoned samples of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni3Al, thereby aiding the identification of the appropriate growth parameters.

  3. Digital mammography performed with computed radiography technology.

    PubMed

    Jouan, B

    1999-07-01

    Introduced by Fuji Photo Film Japan in the early 1980s, computed radiography (CR) technology has developed considerably since then to become the mature widely installed technology it is today (about 7500 systems worldwide). Various mammographic examinations require high performance results to which CR complies on demand or following some procedures such as geometrical magnification carried out during the examination. The basic CR principles and digital image processing as well as technical improvements are detailed in this study, which also includes a synthesis of the articles on CR mammographic applications referenced in the bibliography, focusing on strong points, limits and current methods of surpassing these limits. New CR technology development perspectives in mammography and computed assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms will allow wider use of this method in the near future.

  4. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  5. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  6. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  7. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  8. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-10-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality.

  9. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography.

  10. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  11. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    PubMed

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  12. Biomedical Knowledge and Clinical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    A study examined the application and availability of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the clinical reasoning of physicians as well as possible mechanisms responsible for changes in the organization of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the development from novice to expert. Subjects were 28 students (10 second year, 8 fourth year, and 10…

  13. Space Biomedical Research in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Ryutaro; Ogawa, Megumi; Kawashima, Shino; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazunari; Mukai, Chiaki; Tachibana, Shoichi

    This paper introduces the activity of the newly launched JAXA Space Biomedical Research Office, including ongoing space clinical medicine research. It also explains the new office's goals, policy, criteria for prioritizing research themes, and process for conducting research, as well as some topics of space biomedical research.

  14. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  15. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n = 97 for old system and n = 93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8 ± 2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23 ± 10.2 min for old system; p < 0.0001), with the efficiency improved by 70 %. The implementation of the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system can enhance the workflow of portable radiography by reduction of procedural steps.

  16. The Use of Slides in Biomedical Speeches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Betty Lou

    1980-01-01

    Describes study of biomedical papers read at 63rd Annual Meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Concludes slides play broader role in biomedical speeches than nonlinguistic visual devices do in biomedical journal articles. (Author/BK)

  17. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams. PMID:20187952

  18. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  19. Customization of biomedical terminologies.

    PubMed

    Homo, Julien; Dupuch, Laëtitia; Benbrahim, Allel; Grabar, Natalia; Dupuch, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Within the biomedical area over one hundred terminologies exist and are merged in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, which gives over 1 million concepts. When such huge terminological resources are available, the users must deal with them and specifically they must deal with irrelevant parts of these terminologies. We propose to exploit seed terms and semantic distance algorithms in order to customize the terminologies and to limit within them a semantically homogeneous space. An evaluation performed by a medical expert indicates that the proposed approach is relevant for the customization of terminologies and that the extracted terms are mostly relevant to the seeds. It also indicates that different algorithms provide with similar or identical results within a given terminology. The difference is due to the terminologies exploited. A special attention must be paid to the definition of optimal association between the semantic similarity algorithms and the thresholds specific to a given terminology.

  20. Biomedical studies by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afarideh, H.; Amirabadi, A.; Hadji-Saeid, S. M.; Mansourian, N.; Kaviani, K.; Zibafar, E.

    1996-04-01

    In the present biomedical research, PIXE a powerful technique for elemental analysis was employed to illustrate the importance of multi-elemental determination of serum trace elements in two cases of great medical interest. Those are evaluation of the desferroxamine drug (DPO), a widely used therapy for patient with β-thalassemia-Major (β-thal-M), and investigation of elemental variations in blood-serum in hyperbilirubinamia new-borns before and after blood transfusion (BT). The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the various aspects of PIXE analysis by some practical examples as well as to draw some general conclusions regarding the cure of those patients with the above mentioned disorders or diseases. To present in details each case, we divide the paper in two parts: part 1 and part 2 to consider the experimental procedure as well as the results individually.

  1. Biomedical applications of collagens.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, John A M

    2016-05-01

    Collagen-based biomedical materials have developed into important, clinically effective materials used in a range of devices that have gained wide acceptance. These devices come with collagen in various formats, including those based on stabilized natural tissues, those that are based on extracted and purified collagens, and designed composite, biosynthetic materials. Further knowledge on the structure and function of collagens has led to on-going developments and improvements. Among these developments has been the production of recombinant collagen materials that are well defined and are disease free. Most recently, a group of bacterial, non-animal collagens has emerged that may provide an excellent, novel source of collagen for use in biomaterials and other applications. These newer collagens are discussed in detail. They can be modified to direct their function, and they can be fabricated into various formats, including films and sponges, while solutions can also be adapted for use in surface coating technologies.

  2. Skylab biomedical hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffstetler, W. J., Jr.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The development of hardware to support biomedical experimentation and operations in the Skylab vehicle presented unique technical problems. Designs were required to enable the accurate measurement of many varied physiological parameters and to compensate for zero g such that uninhibited equipment operation would be possible. Because of problems that occurred during the orbital workshop launch, special tests were run and new equipment was designed and built for use by the first Skylab crew. Design concepts used in the development of hardware to support cardiovascular, pulmonary, vestibular, body, and specimen mass measuring experiments are discussed. Additionally, major problem areas and the corresponding design solutions, as well as knowledge gained that will be pertinent for future life sciences hardware development, are presented.

  3. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  4. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Improving Radiation Protection in Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, Quentin T

    2016-09-01

    To determine improvement approaches that can be routinely incorporated in digital radiography to ensure that radiation protection practices are based on current equipment capabilities. A literature review was conducted on digital radiography as it pertains to radiation protection, quality improvement, evidence-based practice, and interdisciplinary approaches. Transitioning from film-screen radiography to digital radiography has resulted in confusion in applying appropriate techniques and abiding by the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept. Clinically effective research should be continually reviewed and incorporated into practice as routine. Applying quality improvement approaches and implementing practice improvement projects will help facilities achieve radiation-based benchmarks to improve imaging practices. Developing interdisciplinary quality improvement workgroups that include a variety of imaging stakeholders will allow for improvement in applying radiation protection research. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients with minor blunt chest trauma and suspected rib fractures presenting in Imam Reza Hospital located in Mashhad-Iran, between April 2013 and October 2013 were assessed by USG and radiography. The radiography was performed in a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection and oblique rib view centered over the area of trauma. The time duration spent in taking USG and radiography were recorded. The prevalence and location of fractures revealed by USG and radiography were compared. Sixty-one suspected patients were assessed. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1 (43 men and 18 women) with a mean ± SD age of (44.3 ± 19.7) years. There were totally 59 rib fractures in 38 (62.3%) patients based on radiography and USG, while 23 (37.7%) patients had no diagnostic evidence of rib lesions. USG revealed 58 rib fractures in 33 (54.1%) of 61 suspected patients and radiographs revealed 32 rib fractures in 20 (32.8%) of 61 patients. A total of 58 (98.3%) rib fractures were detected by USG, whereas oblique rib view and PA chest radiography showed 27 (45.8%) and 24 (40.7%) rib fractures, respectively. The average duration of USG was (12 ± 3) min (range 7-17 min), whereas the duration of radiography was (27 ± 6) min (range 15-37 min). The kappa coefficient showed a low level of agreement between both USG and PA chest radiography (kappa coefficient = 0.28), and between USG and oblique rib view (kappa coefficient = 0.32). USG discloses more fractures than radiography in

  6. A Commentary on the Biomedical Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph, III; Hayes, Robert M.

    1970-01-01

    The Biomedical Information System is described as one which includes closed intermediate and open data, mobilizing all biomedical information for physicians, teachers, students and administrators. (Editor/IE)

  7. Radiography with the Fission Neutrons from Californium-252

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    iftD-Ao45 3^ m-77-B1i2i TECHNICAL 7󈧖 LIBRARY lADfto^^^ RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 JOHN J. ANTAL and...TITLE C«id Sub(l(/«J RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 5. TYPE OF REPORT it PERIOD COVERED Final Report 6...Cellulose nitrate Californium -252 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide 11 necessary and identity by block number) (SEE REVERSE SIDE) DD 1

  8. Simple methods to reduce patient exposure during scoliosis radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.F.; Thomas, A.W.; Thompson, W.E.; Wollerton, M.A.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposure to the breasts of adolescent females can be reduced significantly through the use of one or all of the following methods: fast, rare-earth screen-film combinations; specially designed compensating filters; and breast shielding. The importance of exposure reduction during scoliosis radiography as well as further details on the above described methods are discussed. In addition, the early results of a Center for Devices and Radiological Health study, which recorded exposure and technique data for scoliosis radiography, is presented.

  9. Quality assurance tests for digital radiography in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Greenall, Chris; Drage, Nicholas; Ager, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is essential in dental radiography. Digital radiography is becoming more common in dentistry, so it is important that appropriate QA tests are carried out on the digital equipment, including the viewing monitor. The aim of this article is to outline the tests that can be carried out in dental practice. Quality assurance for digital equipment is important to ensure consistently high quality images are produced.

  10. Digital radiography in dentistry: a survey of Indiana dentists.

    PubMed

    Brian, J N; Williamson, G F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the number of Indiana dental practices that utilize digital radiography and to identify the reasons for using or not using digital radiography. A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 300 licensed dentists in the State of Indiana. Demographic, clinical and digital technology responses were obtained. The data were analysed using SPSS 12.0 (Statistical Package Social Sciences) software; t-tests and Pearson's chi(2) test were performed on several variables with significance levels set at P< 0.05. One hundred and fifty-two dental practices (51%) responded to the survey. Thirty dental practices (19.7%) used digital radiography in their office. Twenty-two (73%) of the dentists using digital radiography were general practitioners. The number of dentists in a practice was a significant factor in predicting the use of digital radiography (t=2.57, P=0.011). The results of this study indicate that digital radiography is more commonly used by general dentists in group practices.

  11. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  12. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  13. Biomedical education for clinical engineers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Francois; Donadey, Alain; Hadjes, Pierre; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical equipment Master's degree is recognized by the French Ministry of Health, since its creation in 1975 under the denomination of "Specialization for Hospital Biomedical Engineers". Since the new national status of technical staff in the public service by decree of September 5th of 1991, it allows to access directly to the level of Chief Hospital Engineer (first category, second class, by ordinance of October 23rd, 1992). Biomedical Engineers jobs in French hospitals are selected after an examination organized by the recruiting hospital. Master's graduates are most often the best qualified.

  14. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  15. Musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging: importance of radiography.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Hunter, Tim B; Fitzpatrick, Kimberly A; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Pope, Thomas L

    2003-07-01

    To determine the usefulness of radiography for interpretation of musculoskeletal (MSK) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. DESIGNS AND PATIENTS: In a 1-year period, 1,030 MSK MRI studies were performed in 1,002 patients in our institution. For each study, the interpreting radiologist completed a questionnaire regarding the availability and utility of radiographs, radiological reports and clinical information for the interpretation of the MRI study. Radiographs were essential, very important or added information in 61-75% of all MSK MRI cases. Radiographs were judged as essential for reading of MRI studies more often for trauma, infection/inflammation and tumors than for degenerative and miscellaneous/normal diagnoses (chi(2)=60.95, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical information was rated as "essential" or "useful" significantly more often than not (chi(2)=93.07, df=16, P<0.0001). The clinical and MRI diagnoses were the same or partially concordant significantly more often for tumors than for trauma, infection/inflammation and degenerative conditions, while in the miscellaneous/normal group they were different in 64% of cases. When the diagnoses were different, there were more instances in which radiographs were not available. Radiographs are an important, and sometimes essential, initial complementary study for reading of MSK MRI examinations. It is highly recommended that radiographs are available when MSK MRI studies are interpreted.

  16. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  17. Patient information extraction in digitized radiography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Huang P

    2002-03-01

    Digital imagery is gradually replacing the traditional radiograph with the development of digital radiography and film scanner. This report presents a new method to extract the patient information number (PIN) field automatically from the film-scanned image using image analysis technique. To evaluate the PIN field extraction algorithm, 2 formats of label acquired from 2 different hospitals are tested. Given the available films with no constraints on the way the labels are written and positioned, the correct extraction rates are 73% and 84%, respectively. This extracted PIN information can link with Radiology Information System (RIS) or Hospital Information System (HIS), and the image scanned from the film then can be filed into the database automatically. The efficiency this method offers can simplify greatly the image filing process and improve the user friendliness of the overall image digitization system. Moreover, compared with the bar code reader, it solves the automatic information input problem in a very economical way. The authors believe the success of this technique will benefit the development of the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and teleradiology.

  18. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Connolly, P A; Hughes, D; Moores, B M

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer set-up; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components.

  19. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  20. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  1. Developments in digital radiography: an equipment update.

    PubMed

    James, J J; Davies, A G; Cowen, A R; O'Connor, P J

    2001-01-01

    Digital X-ray imaging technology has advanced rapidly over the past few years. This review, particularly aimed at those involved in using and purchasing such technology, is an attempt to unravel some of the complexities of this potentially confusing subject. The main groups of X-ray imaging devices that are considered are digitisers of conventional radiographs, image-intensifier-based fluorography systems, photostimulable phosphor computed radiography, amorphous selenium-based technology for thorax imaging and flat-panel systems. As well as describing these different systems, we look at ways of objectively assessing their image quality. Concepts that are used and explained include spatial resolution, grey-scale bit resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency. An understanding of these basic parameters is vital in making a scientific assessment of a system's performance. Image processing and techniques are also briefly discussed, particularly with reference to their potential effects on image quality. This review aims to provide a basic understanding of digital X-ray imaging technology and enables the reader to make an independent and educated assessment of the relative merits of each system.

  2. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons.

  3. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  4. Issues in biomedical ethics.

    PubMed

    Vevaina, J R; Nora, L M; Bone, R C

    1993-12-01

    Bioethics is the discipline of ethics dealing with moral problems arising in the practice of medicine and the pursuit of biomedical research. Physicians may confront ethical dilemmas regularly in their individual relationships with patients and in institutional and societal decisions on health care policy. Ethical problem solving requires the application of certain ethical rules and principles to specific situations. Although ethical theories differ, certain ethical rules and principles appear consistently. These include nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for individual autonomy, confidentiality, and justice. This article discusses some of the ethical issues that arise in clinical practice, including informed consent, do-not-resuscitate orders, noninitiation and termination of medical therapy, genetic intervention, allocation of scarce health resources, and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some of these problems require ethical analysis at the bedside; others require physician involvement on a broader level. Perspectives on the different ethical issues are presented; however, absolute answers to these ethical dilemmas are not provided. Interpretation of the ethical principles and the application of these principles to each clinical situation demands the thoughtful attention of the practitioner.

  5. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  6. Biomedical research publications, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcik, C.; Pleasant, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research are covered in a bibliography of 444 items.

  7. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  8. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  9. Towards automated biomedical ontology harmonization.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Gustavo A; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomedical ontologies is increasing, especially in the context of health systems interoperability. Ontologies are key pieces to understand the semantics of information exchanged. However, given the diversity of biomedical ontologies, it is essential to develop tools that support harmonization processes amongst them. Several algorithms and tools are proposed by computer scientist for partially supporting ontology harmonization. However, these tools face several problems, especially in the biomedical domain where ontologies are large and complex. In the harmonization process, matching is a basic task. This paper explains the different ontology harmonization processes, analyzes existing matching tools, and proposes a prototype of an ontology harmonization service. The results demonstrate that there are many open issues in the field of biomedical ontology harmonization, such as: overcoming structural discrepancies between ontologies; the lack of semantic algorithms to automate the process; the low matching efficiency of existing algorithms; and the use of domain and top level ontologies in the matching process.

  10. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  11. The future of biomedical materials.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James M

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this communication is to present the author's perspectives on the future of biomedical materials that were presented at the Larry L. Hench Retirement Symposium held at Imperial College, London, in late September 2005. The author has taken a broad view of the future of biomedical materials and has presented key ideas, concepts, and perspectives necessary for the future research and development of biomedical polymers and their future role as an enabling technology for the continuing progress of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, prostheses, and medical devices. This communication, based on the oral presentation, is meant to be provocative and generate discussion. In addition, it is targeted for students and young scientists who will play an ever-increasing role in the future of biomedical materials.

  12. Summer Biomedical Engineering Institute 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloatch, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The five problems studied for biomedical applications of NASA technology are reported. The studies reported are: design modification of electrophoretic equipment, operating room environment control, hematological viscometry, handling system for iridium, and indirect blood pressure measuring device.

  13. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  14. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    PubMed

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  15. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images.

  16. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) sponsors and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research with the mission of leading a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan. It focuses on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This will be accomplished by: designing, implementing, and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the benefit of mankind in space and on Earth, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry, and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through Johnson Space Center.

  17. NASA's Biomedical Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The biomedical research program has been established to investigate the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes spaceflight. The program seeks to obtain a better definition of each problem, an understanding of its underlying mechanism, and ultimately a means of prevention. In pursuing these goals the program also includes a major effort to develop the research tools and procedures it needs where these are not being developed elsewhere. After almost twenty years of manned spaceflight activities and after a much longer period of space related ground-based research, the program now recognizes two characteristics of spaceflight which are truly unique to space. These are weightlessness and one specific form of radiation. In its present stage of maturity much of the research focuses on mechanisms underlying the basic responses of man and animals to weightlessness. The program consists of nine elements. Eight of these are referable to specific physiological problems that have either been encountered in previous manned spaceflight or which are anticipated to occur as spaceflights last longer, traverse steeper orbital inclinations, or are otherwise different from previous missions. The ninth addresses problems that have neither arisen nor can be reasonably predicted but are suspected on the basis of theoretical models, ground-based animal research, or for other reasons. The program's current emphasis is directed toward the motion sickness problem because of its relevance to Space Shuttle operations. Increased awareness and understanding of the radiation hazard has resulted in more emphasis being placed on the biological effects of high energy, high mass number particulate radiation and upon radiation protection . Cardiovascular and musculoskeleta1 studies are pursued in recognition of the considerable fundamental knowledge that must be acquired in these areas before effective countermeasures to the effects of repetitive or long

  18. Biomimicry in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ge

    2012-01-01

    Biomimicry (literally defined as the imitation of life or nature) has sparked a variety of human innovations and inspired countless cutting-edge designs. From spider silk-made artificial skin to lotus leaf-inspired self-cleaning materials, biomimicry endeavors to solve human problems. Biomimetic approaches have contributed significantly to advances biomedical research during recent years. Using polyacrylamide gels to mimic the elastic modulus of different biological tissues, Disher’s lab has directed meschymal stem cell differentiation into specific lineages.1 They have shown that soft substrates mimicking the elastic modulus of brain tissues (0.1~1 kPa) were neurogenic, substrates of intermediate elastic modulus mimicking muscle (8 ~17 kPa) were myogenic, and substrates with bone-like elastic modulus (25~40 kPa) were osteogenic. This work represents a novel way to regulate the fate of stem cells and exerts profound influence on stem cell research. Biomimcry also drives improvements in tissue engineering. Novel scaffolds have been designed to capture extracellular matrix-like structures, binding of ligands, sustained release of cytokines, and mechanical properties intrinsic to specific tissues for tissue engineering applications.2,3 For example, tissue engineering skin grafts have been designed to mimic the cell composition and layered structure of native skin.4 Similarly, in the field of regenerative medicine, researchers aim to create biomimetic scaffolds to mimic the properties of a native stem cell environment (niche) to dynamically interact with the entrapped stem cells and direct their response.5 PMID:23275257

  19. Biomedical photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Beard, Paul

    2011-08-06

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, also called optoacoustic imaging, is a new biomedical imaging modality based on the use of laser-generated ultrasound that has emerged over the last decade. It is a hybrid modality, combining the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. In essence, a PA image can be regarded as an ultrasound image in which the contrast depends not on the mechanical and elastic properties of the tissue, but its optical properties, specifically optical absorption. As a consequence, it offers greater specificity than conventional ultrasound imaging with the ability to detect haemoglobin, lipids, water and other light-absorbing chomophores, but with greater penetration depth than purely optical imaging modalities that rely on ballistic photons. As well as visualizing anatomical structures such as the microvasculature, it can also provide functional information in the form of blood oxygenation, blood flow and temperature. All of this can be achieved over a wide range of length scales from micrometres to centimetres with scalable spatial resolution. These attributes lend PA imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine, preclinical research and basic biology for studying cancer, cardiovascular disease, abnormalities of the microcirculation and other conditions. With the emergence of a variety of truly compelling in vivo images obtained by a number of groups around the world in the last 2-3 years, the technique has come of age and the promise of PA imaging is now beginning to be realized. Recent highlights include the demonstration of whole-body small-animal imaging, the first demonstrations of molecular imaging, the introduction of new microscopy modes and the first steps towards clinical breast imaging being taken as well as a myriad of in vivo preclinical imaging studies. In this article, the underlying physical principles of the technique, its practical

  20. Biomedical photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, also called optoacoustic imaging, is a new biomedical imaging modality based on the use of laser-generated ultrasound that has emerged over the last decade. It is a hybrid modality, combining the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. In essence, a PA image can be regarded as an ultrasound image in which the contrast depends not on the mechanical and elastic properties of the tissue, but its optical properties, specifically optical absorption. As a consequence, it offers greater specificity than conventional ultrasound imaging with the ability to detect haemoglobin, lipids, water and other light-absorbing chomophores, but with greater penetration depth than purely optical imaging modalities that rely on ballistic photons. As well as visualizing anatomical structures such as the microvasculature, it can also provide functional information in the form of blood oxygenation, blood flow and temperature. All of this can be achieved over a wide range of length scales from micrometres to centimetres with scalable spatial resolution. These attributes lend PA imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine, preclinical research and basic biology for studying cancer, cardiovascular disease, abnormalities of the microcirculation and other conditions. With the emergence of a variety of truly compelling in vivo images obtained by a number of groups around the world in the last 2–3 years, the technique has come of age and the promise of PA imaging is now beginning to be realized. Recent highlights include the demonstration of whole-body small-animal imaging, the first demonstrations of molecular imaging, the introduction of new microscopy modes and the first steps towards clinical breast imaging being taken as well as a myriad of in vivo preclinical imaging studies. In this article, the underlying physical principles of the technique, its practical

  1. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Tickner, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance.

  2. Calibrating automatic exposure control devices for digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Doyle, P; Martin, C J

    2006-11-07

    The energy responses of digital radiography detectors differ from those of screen-film systems. To provide a consistent level of image quality at different tube potentials automatic exposure control (AEC) devices must be calibrated to suit the energy response of the image receptor with which they are intended for use. AEC calibration for digital radiography systems requires an alternative parameter to optical density, ideally one related to the quality of a digital image. Energy responses of computed radiography (CR) and indirect digital radiography (IDR) image receptors have been calculated, and compared with those for screen-film systems. Practical assessments of the relative sensitivities of a CR detector made using the detector dose indicator (DDI), pixel value and signal-to-noise ratio showed similar variations with tube potential. The DDI has been used to determine the correct kV compensation curve required to calibrate the AECs for the loss in detector sensitivity with tube potential. AECs are set up relative to a predetermined air kerma incident on the detector at 80 kV for CR and IDR systems using this curve and the method used is described. Factors influencing the calibration of AECs for digital radiography including techniques, types of phantom and contributions from scatter are reviewed, and practical methods recommended for use.

  3. Evaluation of a Noise Reduction Procedure for Chest Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Ryohei; Ishii, Rie; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Suyama, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masanari; Nakamoto, Masaki; Fukuoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of noise reduction procedure (NRP), a function in the new image processing for chest radiography. Methods A CXDI-50G Portable Digital Radiography System (Canon) was used for X-ray detection. Image noise was analyzed with a noise power spectrum (NPS) and a burger phantom was used for evaluation of density resolution. The usefulness of NRP was evaluated by chest phantom images and clinical chest radiography. We employed the Bureau of Radiological Health Method for scoring chest images while carrying out our observations. Results NPS through the use of NRP was improved compared with conventional image processing (CIP). The results in image quality showed high-density resolution through the use of NRP, so that chest radiography examination can be performed with a low dose of radiation. Scores were significantly higher than for CIP. Conclusion In this study, use of NRP led to a high evaluation in these so we are able to confirm the usefulness of NRP for clinical chest radiography. PMID:24574577

  4. Spectrum optimization for computed radiography mammography systems.

    PubMed

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-08-01

    Technical quality assurance is a key issue in breast screening protocols. While full-field digital mammography systems produce excellent image quality at low dose, it appears difficult with computed radiography (CR) systems to fulfill the requirements for image quality, and to keep the dose below the limits. However, powder plate CR systems are still widely used, e.g., they represent ∼30% of the devices in the Austrian breast cancer screening program. For these systems the selection of an optimal spectrum is a key issue. We investigated different anode/filter (A/F) combinations over the clinical range of tube voltages. The figure-of-merit (FOM) to be optimized was squared signal-difference-to-noise ratio divided by glandular dose. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat 3000 with a Fuji Profect reader (SiFu) and on a GE Senograph DMR with a Carestream reader (GECa). For 50mm PMMA the maximum FOM was found with a Mo/Rh spectrum between 27kVp and 29kVp, while with 60mm Mo/Rh at 28kVp (GECa) and W/Rh 25kVp (SiFu) were superior. For 70mm PMMA the Rh/Rh spectrum had a peak at about 31kVp (GECa). FOM increases from 10% to >100% are demonstrated. Optimization as proposed in this paper can either lead to dose reduction with comparable image quality or image quality improvement if necessary. For systems with limited A/F combinations the choice of tube voltage is of considerable importance. In this work, optimization of AEC parameters such as anode-filter combination and tube potential was demonstrated for mammographic CR systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Deterministic simulation of thermal neutron radiography and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Chowdhury, Rajarshi; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, thermal neutron radiography and tomography have gained much attention as one of the nondestructive testing methods. However, the application of thermal neutron radiography and tomography is hindered by their technical complexity, radiation shielding, and time-consuming data collection processes. Monte Carlo simulations have been developed in the past to improve the neutron imaging facility's ability. In this paper, a new deterministic simulation approach has been proposed and demonstrated to simulate neutron radiographs numerically using a ray tracing algorithm. This approach has made the simulation of neutron radiographs much faster than by previously used stochastic methods (i.e., Monte Carlo methods). The major problem with neutron radiography and tomography simulation is finding a suitable scatter model. In this paper, an analytic scatter model has been proposed that is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  7. [Significance of plain radiography in shoulder pain diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Botser, Itamar Busheri; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Avivi, Eran; Pritsch, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint--almost 20% of the population will suffer shoulder pain during their life time. Despite the availability of newer imaging techniques for evaluation of the shoulder, the first imaging study should be radiography. Recently, ultrasonography of the shoulder has become one of the first studies performed. Sometimes, ultrasonography is conducted before radiography; moreover, many patients are being referred to a shoulder specialist without performing an X-ray. There is a plethora of pathologies that can cause shoulder pain--rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, calcified tendinitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, neoplasms and more. This review aims to show the significance of plain radiography in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies, in order to encourage the use of this modality. In this paper we shall review the different causes of shoulder pain and their radiographic characteristics.

  8. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Economides, S; Tritakis, P; Papadomarkaki, E; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2006-01-01

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included.

  9. Application of Neutron Radiography to Flow Visualization in Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Takami, S.; Sugioka, K.; Tsukada, T.; Adschiri, T.; Saito, Y.

    Supercritical water is used in various chemical reaction processes including hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles, oxidation, chemical conversion of biomass and plastics. Density of the super critical water is much less than that of the sub-critical water. By using neutron radiography, Peterson et al. have studied salt precipitation processes in supercritical water and the flow pattern in a reverse-flow vessel for salt precipitation, and Balasko et al. have revealed the behaviour of supercritical water in a container. The nano-particles were made by mixing the super critical flow and the sub critical water solution. In the present study, neutron radiography was applied to the flow visualization of the super and sub critical water mixture in a T-junction made of stainless steel pipes for high pressure and temperature conditions to investigate their mixing process. Still images by a CCD camera were obtained by using the neutron radiography system at B4 port in KUR.

  10. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin; Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2014-02-12

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

  11. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  12. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  13. Limiting the use of routine radiography for acute ankle injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cockshott, W. P.; Jenkin, J. K.; Pui, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the diagnosis of ankle injuries routine radiography is often productive. An international survey of the average number of radiographs made of injured ankles suggested that two projections are adequate to detect fractures. This was confirmed in a prospective study of 242 patients coming to a hospital emergency department with recent ankle injuries. All the fractures could be identified on an anteroposterior or a lateral projection, although some were more obvious on an oblique view. As well, all the fractures were associated with malleolar soft-tissue swelling. Thus, radiography for acute ankle injuries could safely be restricted to patients with soft-tissue swelling, and fractures could be diagnosed using only two routine projections, though for management purposes additional projections might be needed. With a policy of limiting the use of radiography substantial cost reductions are possible. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6407744

  14. [Cost-effectiveness evaluation of a digital radiography system].

    PubMed

    Guillaume, L; Joris, T; Mandry, D; Kammacher, L; Claudon, M

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a completely automated digital radiography (DR) unit in a pediatric radiology department on productivity. Materials and methods. Comparative evaluation of DR and computerized radiography (CR) units on 193 patients imaged in a pediatric radiology department. The time to complete each step of all examinations was recorded. Half of the exams were performed using CR and the other half was performed using DR. There was a 52% time gain for simple projection exams using DR and a 51% time gain for dual projection exams using DR (p<0.001). A workflow study performed a 9 month period showed that DR could absorb 84% of work previously performed on two conventional radiography units. DR is necessary for digital imaging departments to increase productivity, while providing added ergonomic comfort and flexibility. It is particularly well suited for pediatric imaging departments.

  15. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography.

    PubMed

    Merrill, F E; Campos, E; Espinoza, C; Hogan, G; Hollander, B; Lopez, J; Mariam, F G; Morley, D; Morris, C L; Murray, M; Saunders, A; Schwartz, C; Thompson, T N

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  16. Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-04-15

    Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position.

  17. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor

  18. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  19. Comparative evaluation of digital radiography versus conventional radiography of fractured skulls.

    PubMed

    Langen, H J; Klein, H M; Wein, B; Stargardt, A; Günther, R W

    1993-08-01

    The authors assessed the relative efficacy of conventional and digital storage-phosphor radiographs for the detection of skull fractures. Fifty conventional film-screen radiographs (FSR) and 50 digital storage-phosphor radiographs (DR) with 66 fractures were compared. Five radiologists evaluated image quality and fracture detectability. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. With a standard exposure, the ability to evaluate skull fractures was equally good with either technique (ROC area for DR, 0.8954; for FSR, 0.8870). Digital radiography was superior in evaluating nasal bone. For petrosal bone, the DR image simulates an underexposure. This disadvantage compared with FSR can be compensated by image postprocessing. In evaluation of skull fractures, radiologists performance with DR is equivalent to FSR.

  20. Evaluation of simulated external root resorptions with digital radiography and digital subtraction radiography.

    PubMed

    Ono, Evelise; Medici Filho, Edmundo; Faig Leite, Horacio; Tanaka, Jefferson Luis Oshiro; De Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; De Melo Castilho, Julio Cezar

    2011-03-01

    Root resorption can cause damage in orthodontic patients. Digital subtraction radiography (DSR) is a useful resource for the detection of mineral losses. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of digital radiography (DR) and DSR in detecting simulated external root resorption. Examiner agreement between the 2 techniques was also evaluated. Root resorptions of various sizes were simulated on the apical and lingual aspects of 49 teeth from 9 dry human mandibles. The teeth were radiographed in standardized conditions. The radiographs were registered with Regeemy Image Registration and Mosaicking (version 0.2.43-RCB, DPI-INPE, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil) and subtracted with Image Tool (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio). The subtracted images and the digital radiographs were evaluated by 3 oral radiologists. No statistically significant differences were found for the methods in the detection of apical root resorptions, independently from lesion size, and of lingual resorptions of 1.2 mm or greater. DSR was significantly better than DR for detection of lingual resorptions up to 1 mm. Resorptions less than 0.5 mm were not precisely detected by either method. DSR provided better intraexaminer and interexaminer agreement than did DR. Both methods are precise for detection of apical root resorptions as small as 0.5 mm and lingual resorptions of 1 mm or more. However, DSR frequently performed better than did DR. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  2. Quantitative radiography of magnetic fields using neutron spin phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Piegsa, F M; van den Brandt, B; Hautle, P; Kohlbrecher, J; Konter, J A

    2009-04-10

    We report on a novel neutron radiography technique that uses the Ramsey principle, a method similar to neutron spin echo. For the first time quantitative imaging measurements of magnetic objects and fields could be performed. The strength of the spin-dependent magnetic interaction is detected by a change in the Larmor precession frequency of the neutron spins. Hence, one obtains in addition to the normal attenuation radiography image a so-called neutron spin phase image, which provides a two-dimensional projection of the magnetic field integrated over the neutron flight path.

  3. Energy-selective neutron radiography and tomography at FRM.

    PubMed

    Kardjilov, Nikolay; Schillinger, Burkhard; Steichele, Erich

    2004-10-01

    At the reactor FRM at Technical University of Munich energy-selective neutron radiography and tomography experiments were performed. For an energy separation of the neutrons from the primary beam a mechanical velocity selector was used. The radiography images show a different contrast of the investigated elements for neutron energies below and above their Bragg-cutoff energy. A comparison between the standard and energy-selective neutron tomography is presented. In spite of a reduction of the neutron intensity due to the velocity selector technique a realistic experimental time in order of some hours for the tomography experiment was achieved.

  4. Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    AD-A142 726 SUBTRACTION RADIOGRAPHY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BONE • LESIONS IN DOGS (U) ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC M P RETHMRN ET AL. 31...11sk01 o -py- Rt one. Lesions in Dogs 11,4 -OG. 3(0?NUL AU THOR~q caraACT 0R GRANT NUMBER,&) * * __ M.P. Rethman, U.E. Ruttiman, R.B. O’Neal, R.I...research article titled "Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs " solely to the Journal of Periodontology for review and

  5. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  6. Pilot study of bovine interdigital cassetteless computed radiography.

    PubMed

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed Ahmed Awad; Aoki, Takahiro; Ishii, Mitsuo; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-one limbs of bovine cadavers (42 digits) were exposed to interdigital cassetteless imaging plate using computed radiography. The radiographic findings included exostosis, a rough planta surface, osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx and widening of the laminar zone between the distal phalanx and the hoof wall. All these findings were confirmed by computed tomography. The hindlimbs (19 digits) showed more changes than the forelimbs (10 digits), particularly in the lateral distal phalanx. The cassetteless computed radiography technique is expected to be an easily applicable method for the distal phalanx rather than a conventional cassette-plate and/or the film-screen cassetteless methods.

  7. Pilot Study of Bovine Interdigital Cassetteless Computed Radiography

    PubMed Central

    EL-SHAFAEY, El-Sayed Ahmed Awad; AOKI, Takahiro; ISHII, Mitsuo; YAMADA, Kazutaka

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Twenty-one limbs of bovine cadavers (42 digits) were exposed to interdigital cassetteless imaging plate using computed radiography. The radiographic findings included exostosis, a rough planta surface, osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx and widening of the laminar zone between the distal phalanx and the hoof wall. All these findings were confirmed by computed tomography. The hindlimbs (19 digits) showed more changes than the forelimbs (10 digits), particularly in the lateral distal phalanx. The cassetteless computed radiography technique is expected to be an easily applicable method for the distal phalanx rather than a conventional cassette-plate and/or the film-screen cassetteless methods. PMID:23782542

  8. Californium Multiplier Part I: design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail.

  9. Phosphor plate radiography: an integral component of the filmless practice.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Scott

    2010-11-01

    The federal government has mandated that all dental and medical patient records be electronic in 3 years. Practices using film radiography will be unable to comply with this mandate. PSP radiography is not only a surprisingly convenient way to transition from film to digital imaging, it can also greatly enhance the practice's productivity, profitability, and patient satisfaction. Modern, forward-thinking practices will want to take full advantage of PSP's superiority by making this transition now rather than waiting until they are forced to.

  10. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a digital radiography...

  11. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  12. Graduate Program in Biomedical Communication *

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Susan M.

    1969-01-01

    The need for harnessing the achievements of communication technology to the burgeoning mass of biomedical information is critical. Recognizing this problem and aware of the short supply of professionals with the skills necessary for the job, a group of leaders from the fields of medicine and communications formed a consortium in 1967 and have developed a twelve month graduate program in biomedical communication. Designed to ground the advanced student in the development and administration of biomedical communication programs, the curriculum focuses on the principles and practice of communication and the development of communications media. Courses are given in the control and communication of information; the printed and spoken word; visual media of photographic arts, television, and motion pictures; computer science; and administration and systems analysis. PMID:5823505

  13. Biomedical Publishing and the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The Internet is challenging traditional publishing patterns. In the biomedical domain, medical journals are providing more and more content online, both free and for a fee. Beyond this, however, a number of commentators believe that traditional notions of copyright and intellectual property ownership are no longer suited to the information age and that ownership of copyright to research reports should be and will be wrested from publishers and returned to authors. In this paper, it is argued that, although the Internet will indeed profoundly affect the distribution of biomedical research results, the biomedical publishing industry is too intertwined with the research establishment and too powerful to fall prey to such a copyright revolution. PMID:10833159

  14. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell-cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future.

  15. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  16. Flexible sensors for biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Romeo, Agostino; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-02-07

    Flexible sensing devices have gained a great deal of attention among the scientific community in recent years. The application of flexible sensors spans over several fields, including medicine, industrial automation, robotics, security, and human-machine interfacing. In particular, non-invasive health-monitoring devices are expected to play a key role in the improvement of patient life and in reducing costs associated with clinical and biomedical diagnostic procedures. Here, we focus on recent advances achieved in flexible devices applied on the human skin for biomedical and healthcare purposes.

  17. Biomedical Polar Research Workshop Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop was conducted to provide a background of NASA and National Science Foundation goals, an overview of previous and current biomedical research, and a discussion about areas of potential future joint activities. The objectives of the joint research were: (1) to develop an understanding of the physiological, psychological, and behavioral alterations and adaptations to extreme environments of the polar regions; (2) to ensure the health, well-being, and performance of humans in these environments; and (3) to promote the application of biomedical research to improve the quality of life in all environments.

  18. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Mooney, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Alginate is a biomaterial that has found numerous applications in biomedical science and engineering due to its favorable properties, including biocompatibility and ease of gelation. Alginate hydrogels have been particularly attractive in wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering applications to date, as these gels retain structural similarity to the extracellular matrices in tissues and can be manipulated to play several critical roles. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of general properties of alginate and its hydrogels, their biomedical applications, and suggest new perspectives for future studies with these polymers. PMID:22125349

  19. Applications of Neutron Radiography for the Nuclear Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are under construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in the WCNR and ITMNR conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, applications of neutron radiography techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques, in general, can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  20. Neutron radiography determination of water diffusivity in fired clay brick.

    PubMed

    El Abd, A; Czachor, A; Milczarek, J

    2009-04-01

    The real time neutron and gamma radiography station at Maria reactor, Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, Poland, was used to investigate the isothermal water absorption into fired clay brick samples. The investigated brick is different from the bricks reported in El Abd and Milczarek [2004. Neutron radiology study of water absorption in porous building materials: anomalous diffusing analysis. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 2305-2313] in density and chemical composition. Neutron radiography images were acquired regularly as the absorption time elapses. The water content, theta, along the flow direction, x, namely the water profiles theta(x,t) and the water front position as a function of the absorption time, t, were extracted from neutron radiography images. The results were discussed in terms of the macroscopic theory of water infiltration in unsaturated porous media. It was shown that the water front position followed the square root t-scaling (x(m)=phi(m) square root t) and the profiles (theta-phi) converged to a universal one master curve. The water diffusivity was analytically determined from the experimental results. It has the so-called hypo-diffusive character, namely its gradient with respect to the water content is positive. Neutron radiography is a powerful method to distinguish among the unsaturated flow in different porous construction materials.

  1. Heavy-ion radiography and heavy-ion computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; McFarland, E.W.; Tobias, C.a.

    1982-02-01

    Heavy-ion projection and CT radiography is being developed into a safe, low-dose, noninvasive radiological procedure that can quantitate and image small density differences in human tissues. The applications to heavy-ion mammography and heavy-ion CT imaging of the brain in clinical patients suggest their potential value in cancer diagnosis.

  2. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell; Garnett, Robert William; Chapman, Catherine A. B; Salazar, Harry Richard; Otoole, Joseph Alfred; Barber, Ronald L.; Gomez, Tony Simon

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  3. The value of preplacement screening radiography of the low back.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E S

    1988-01-01

    Because there has not been a randomized controlled trial on the validity of preplacement screening radiography of the low back, the author assesses this procedure indirectly by reviewing empirical evidence concerning its usefulness in industrial settings and by evaluating it against the basic requirements of a successful screening test.

  4. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  5. Beam Physics in X-Ray Radiography Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Falabella, S; Goldin, F J; Guethlein, G; Lauer, E L; McCarrick, J F; Neurath, R; Richardson, R A; Sampayan, S; Weir, J T

    2002-12-02

    Performance of x-ray radiography facilities requires focusing the electron beams to sub-millimeter spots on the x-ray converters. Ions extracted from a converter by impact of a high intensity beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the final focusing system. We will discuss these ion effects and mitigation.

  6. Point Scattered Function (PScF) for fast neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed H.

    2009-08-01

    Fast neutron radiography opened up a new range of possibilities to image extremely dense objects. The removal of the scattering effect is one of the most challenging problems in neutron imaging. Neutron scattering in fast neutron radiography did not receive much attention compared with X-ray and thermal neutron radiography. The purpose of this work is to investigate the behavior of the Point Scattered Function (PScF) as applied in fast neutron radiography. The PScF was calculated using MCNP as a spatial distribution of scattered neutrons over the detector surface for one emitting source element. Armament and explosives materials, namely, Rifle steel, brass, aluminum and trinitrotoluene (TNT) were simulated. Effect of various sample thickness and sample-to-detector distance were considered. Simulated sample geometries included a slab with varying thickness, a sphere with varying radii, and a cylinder with varying base radii. Different neutron sources, namely, Cf-252, DT as well as DD neutron sources were considered. Neutron beams with zero degree divergence angle; and beams with varying angles related to the normal to the source plane were simulated. Curve fitting of the obtained PScF, in the form of Gaussian function, were given to be used in future work using image restoration codes. Analytical representation of the height as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the obtained Gaussian functions eliminates the need to calculate the PScF for sample parameters that were not investigated in this study.

  7. A technique for pelvic radiography in the standing horse.

    PubMed

    Barrett, E L; Talbot, A M; Driver, A J; Barr, F J; Barr, A R S

    2006-05-01

    An alternative technique of radiographing the pelvis in the standing horse is required, to avoid the risks associated with general anaesthesia. That lateral oblique radiography in the standing horse would be a useful technique in the investigation of pelvic injury. To describe the technique of lateral oblique pelvic radiography in the standing horse and demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of this technique. A technique for lateral oblique radiography in the standing horse was devised and retrospective review made of radiographic findings in 18 clinical cases. The caudal iliac shaft, greater trochanter of the femur, femoral head, acetabulum and coxofemoral articulation on the side under investigation were visualised consistently using this technique. Of the 18 cases, 3 iliac shaft fractures, 1 acetabular fracture, 2 coxofemoral luxations and 4 horses with new bone formation around the coxofemoral joint and/or proximal femur were identified. Lateral oblique radiography in the standing, conscious horse can be used to investigate conditions affecting the caudal iliac shaft, coxofemoral articulation and proximal femur in the horse. The technique is straightforward, noninvasive and useful in the investigation of horses with suspected pelvic injury. However, not all pelvic injuries would be identified, and normal radiographic findings do not rule out injury or fractures elsewhere in the pelvis.

  8. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  9. Organ dose variability and trends in tomosynthesis and radiography.

    PubMed

    Hoye, Jocelyn; Zhang, Yakun; Agasthya, Greeshma; Sturgeon, Greg; Kapadia, Anuj; Segars, W Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between patient attributes and organ dose for a population of computational phantoms for 20 tomosynthesis and radiography protocols. Organ dose was estimated from 54 adult computational phantoms (age: 18 to 78 years, weight 52 to 117 kg) using a validated Monte-Carlo simulation (PENELOPE) of a system capable of performing tomosynthesis and radiography. The geometry and field of view for each exam were modeled to match clinical protocols. For each protocol, the energy deposited in each organ was estimated by the simulations, converted to dose units, and then normalized by exposure in air. Dose to radiosensitive organs was studied as a function of average patient thickness in the region of interest and as a function of body mass index. For tomosynthesis, organ doses were also studied as a function of x-ray tube position. This work developed comprehensive information for organ dose dependencies across a range of tomosynthesis and radiography protocols. The results showed a protocol-dependent exponential decrease with an increasing patient size. There was a variability in organ dose across the patient population, which should be incorporated in the metrology of organ dose. The results can be used to prospectively and retrospectively estimate organ dose for tomosynthesis and radiography.

  10. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed.

  11. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  12. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  13. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  14. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) activities during FY 2001, the fourth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI).

  15. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the National Space Biomedical Research Institute's (NSBRI) activities during FY 2004, the Institute's seventh year. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  16. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 2003, the sixth year of the NSBRI's programs. It is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC 9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Institute's lead institution, Baylor College of Medicine.

  17. The Politics of Biomedical Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course designed to explicate the political dimensions of biomedical issues now emerging in American society. The course combines a rigorous overview of the technologies and the accompanying value changes which are producing these issues with a discussion of the problems being raised. (RM)

  18. Biocompatibility of implantable biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Suping

    2008-03-01

    Biomedical devices have been broadly used to treat human disease, especially chronic diseases where pharmaceuticals are less effective. Heart valve and artificial joint are examples. Biomedical devices perform by delivering therapies such as electric stimulations, mechanical supports and biological actions. While the uses of biomedical devices are highly successful they can trigger adverse biological reactions as well. The property that medical devices perform with intended functions but not causing unacceptable adverse effects was called biocompatibility in the early time. As our understanding of biomaterial-biological interactions getting broader, biocompatibility has more meanings. In this talk, I will present some adverse biological reactions observed with implantable biomedical devices. Among them are surface fouling of implantable sensors, calcification with vascular devices, restenosis with stents, foreign particle migration and mechanical fractures of devices due to inflammation reactions. While these effects are repeatable, there are very few quantitative data and theories to define them. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce this biocompatibility concept to biophysicists to stimulate research interests at different angles. An open question is how to quantitatively understand the biocompatibility that, like many other biological processes, has not been quantified experimentally.

  19. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  20. Biomedical Engineering Education in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the health care industry and their impact on the future of biomedical engineering education. Indicates that a more thorough understanding of the complex functions of the living organism can be acquired through the application of engineering techniques to problems of life sciences. (CC)

  1. Sparse Methods for Biomedical Data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jieping; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Following recent technological revolutions, the investigation of massive biomedical data with growing scale, diversity, and complexity has taken a center stage in modern data analysis. Although complex, the underlying representations of many biomedical data are often sparse. For example, for a certain disease such as leukemia, even though humans have tens of thousands of genes, only a few genes are relevant to the disease; a gene network is sparse since a regulatory pathway involves only a small number of genes; many biomedical signals are sparse or compressible in the sense that they have concise representations when expressed in a proper basis. Therefore, finding sparse representations is fundamentally important for scientific discovery. Sparse methods based on the [Formula: see text] norm have attracted a great amount of research efforts in the past decade due to its sparsity-inducing property, convenient convexity, and strong theoretical guarantees. They have achieved great success in various applications such as biomarker selection, biological network construction, and magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art sparse methods and their applications to biomedical data.

  2. Biomedical research publications: 1980 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasant, L. G.; Limbach, L.

    1982-01-01

    Publications concerning the major physiological and psychological problems encountered by man when he undertakes space flight are listed. Nine research areas are included: cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, blood cell alterations, fluid and eletrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, and general biomedical research.

  3. Sparse Methods for Biomedical Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jieping; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Following recent technological revolutions, the investigation of massive biomedical data with growing scale, diversity, and complexity has taken a center stage in modern data analysis. Although complex, the underlying representations of many biomedical data are often sparse. For example, for a certain disease such as leukemia, even though humans have tens of thousands of genes, only a few genes are relevant to the disease; a gene network is sparse since a regulatory pathway involves only a small number of genes; many biomedical signals are sparse or compressible in the sense that they have concise representations when expressed in a proper basis. Therefore, finding sparse representations is fundamentally important for scientific discovery. Sparse methods based on the ℓ1 norm have attracted a great amount of research efforts in the past decade due to its sparsity-inducing property, convenient convexity, and strong theoretical guarantees. They have achieved great success in various applications such as biomarker selection, biological network construction, and magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art sparse methods and their applications to biomedical data. PMID:24076585

  4. Ellipsoidal reflectors in biomedical diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglyi, M. A.; Bezuglaya, N. V.

    2013-11-01

    In this work were considered photometric tools for biomedical diagnostics, which contain a mirror ellipsoid of revolution. Proposed schemes with ellipsoidal reflectors for diagnostics in reflected and in reflected and transmitted light. A comparative analysis of measurement standards scattering surfaces was held.

  5. The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Wu, Elizabeth; Wong, Gwen; Ocana, Marco; Kinoshita, June; Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

  6. Remotely-actuated biomedical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

  7. Quality aspects of digital radiography in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The number of dentists who have converted from conventional film radiography to digital radiography continues to grow. A digital system has numerous advantages, but there are also many new aspects to consider. The overall aim of this thesis was to study how digital radiography was used in general dental practices. The specific aims were to study how different factors affected image quality. To determine whether there were any differences in image quality between conventional film radiographs and digital radiographs, 4863 images (540 cases) were evaluated. The cases had been sent to the Swedish Dental Insurance Office for prior treatment approval. The image quality of digital radiographs was found to be significantly lower than that of film radiographs. This result led to a questionnaire study of dentists experienced in digital radiography. In 2003, a questionnaire was sent to the 139 general practice dentists who worked with digital radiography in Skine, Sweden; the response rate was 94%. Many general practice dentists had experienced several problems (65%), and less than half of the digital systems (40%) underwent some kind of quality control. One of the weaker links in the technical chain of digital radiography appeared to be the monitor. A field study to 19 dentists at their clinics found that the brightness and contrast settings of the monitors had to be adjusted to obtain the subjectively best image quality. The ambient light in the evaluation room was also found to affect the diagnostic outcome of low-contrast patterns in radiographs. To evaluate the effects of ambient light and technical adjustments of the monitor, a study using standardised set-ups was designed. Seven observers evaluated radiographs of 100 extracted human teeth for approximal caries under five different combinations of brightness and contrast settings on two different occasions with high and low ambient light levels in the evaluation room. The ability to diagnose carious lesions was found

  8. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  9. Biomedical engineering degrees at Lyon 1 University.

    PubMed

    Perrin, E; Berger-Vachon, C; Ray, C; Canet-Soulas, E; Hartmann, D; Oudin-Dardun, F; Briguet, A

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical diploma degrees have a long tradition at Lyon 1, Claude Bernard University. Since 2004, the transition towards the LMD system leaded to a unified Bachelor and Master Degree in Biomedical Engineering. A next evolution plans the creation of a Biomedical Engineering Department in the future Polytechnic School of Claude Bernard University. This department will form professionals in Biomedical Engineering, Medical Physics and for academic employment in Universities and research structures.

  10. Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Han, Won-Jeong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Jung, Yun-Hoa; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Lee, Jae-Seo

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm(2) (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm(2) (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05). We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm(2) (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea.

  11. Repeat rates in digital chest radiography and strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Fintelmann, Florian; Pulli, Benjamin; Abedi-Tari, Faezeh; Trombley, Maureen; Shore, Mary-Theresa; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    2012-05-01

    To determine the repeat rate (RR) of chest radiographs acquired with portable computed radiography (CR) and installed direct radiography (DR) and to develop and assess strategies designed to decrease the RR. The RR and reasons for repeated digital chest radiographs were documented over the course of 16 months while a task force of thoracic radiologists, technologist supervisors, technologists, and information technology specialists continued to examine the workflow for underlying causes. Interventions decreasing the RR were designed and implemented. The initial RR of digital chest radiographs was 3.6% (138/3818) for portable CR and 13.3% (476/3575) for installed DR systems. By combining RR measurement with workflow analysis, targets for technical and teaching interventions were identified. The interventions decreased the RR to 1.8% (81/4476) for portable CR and to 8.2% (306/3748) for installed DR. We found the RR of direct digital chest radiography to be significantly higher than that of computed chest radiography. We believe this is due to the ease with which repeat images can be obtained and discarded, and it suggests the need for ongoing surveillance of RR. We were able to demonstrate that strategies to lower the RR, which had been developed in the era of film-based imaging, can be adapted to the digital environment. On the basis of our findings, we encourage radiologists to assess their own departmental RRs for direct digital chest radiography and to consider similar interventions if necessary to achieve acceptable RRs for this modality.

  12. Digital radiography: a survey of dentists in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Brady, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of digital radiography among dentists in Hawai'i and report their experiences using it. A 20-question survey was developed and used to interview dentists in Hawai'i. Approximately 500 dentists were contacted. The survey asked whether or not the dentist uses digital radiography. For those not using digital equipment, reasons were given as well as proposed future use. For users of digital equipment, further information was requested: group or solo practice, length of time with digital equipment, length of time to decide, brand of dental software, brand and type of digital equipment, how many different systems, satisfaction, would they do it again, financially worth it, advantages, disadvantages, diagnostic or not, use of special features, sensor replacement and maintenance costs, and any other comments about digital radiography. 102 dentists responded to the survey. 36 percent utilize digital radiography. Only 40 percent of nonusers have any inclination of converting to digital, cost being the most common reason not to convert. Average length of time with digital was 3.4 years and about 2 years to make the decision. Dentrix was the most popular software and Dexis the most popular equipment. The overwhelming majority are satisfied with systems, feel they are financially worth it, feel it is diagnostic, and would purchase them again. Advantages included things such as speed, no use of chemicals, and lower radiation. Disadvantages included cost, sensor-related issues, and computer issues. Digital users find special features helpful and utilize them regularly. Maintenance costs include annual software upgrades, sensor replacement, and barriers and bitetabs. Digital radiography is becoming more prevalent in Hawai'i. The big obstacle seems to be cost for most dentists, although users believe it is a good financial investment.

  13. Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP

    Cancer.gov

    The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.

  14. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.

    PubMed

    Saha, S; Saha, P S

    1997-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. [Application of elastin in biomedical materials].

    PubMed

    Chang, Decai; Wang, Xiaoli; Hou, Xin; Yao, Kangde

    2008-12-01

    Elastin is a natural biomedical material of great potential. Being endowed with the special crosslinking and hydrophobic structure, elastin retains many good properties such as good elasticity, ductibility, biocompatibility, biodegradability and so on. Nowadays, elastin as a material, which is gradually attracting people' s attention in the biomedical materials field, has been used as tissue engineering scaffolds, derma substitutes and other biomedical materials. In this context, a systematic review on the characteristics of elastin as a biomedical material and on the actuality of its application is presented. Future developments of elastin in the field of biomedical applications are also discussed.

  17. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  18. Managing biomedical uncertainty: the technoscientific illness identity.

    PubMed

    Sulik, Gayle A

    2009-11-01

    This paper analyses how the biomedical uncertainty of breast cancer contributes to the development of a new type of illness identity that is grounded in biomedical knowledge, advanced technology, and biomedical health and risk surveillance. The technoscientific identity (TSI) develops through the application of sciences and technologies to one's sense of self. Analysing narrative data from 60 in-depth interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer, this research demonstrates how women diagnosed with breast cancer develop and maintain TSIs through four processes: (1) immersion in professional biomedical knowledge, (2) locating themselves within a technoscientific framework, (3) receiving support for the emerging TSI from the medical system and support networks, and (4) eventually prioritising their biomedical classifications over their suffering. Developing a TSI enables people to make sense of biomedical information, make decisions, and manage medical processes and relationships in the face of biomedical and personal uncertainty even as it extends the reach of technoscience and biomedicalisation.

  19. Polymeric coatings for biomedical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, H.; Chang, B.-J.; Prucker, O.; Dahm, M.; Rühe, J.

    2004-10-01

    To improve the properties of materials in biomedical applications and to allow a better interaction of the medical device with the biological system surrounding it, frequently polymeric coatings are applied. However, the adhesion of the coating to the substrate usually poses a problem as the materials involved have either rather inert surfaces or strongly varying surface chemistries. We describe a new approach which allows to attach a wide variety of polymer films to organic substrates either of polymeric or biological origin. The technique is based on photochemical processes occurring in benzophenone group containing polymers, which lead to simultaneous crosslinking of the polymer in the coating and surface-attachment of the forming polymer network. The synthesis and characterization of monolayers and surface-attached polymer networks through this route are described and possible applications of this approach in the biomedical area are discussed.

  20. Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels mimic native tissue microenvironment due to their porous and hydrated molecular structure. An emerging approach to reinforce polymeric hydrogels and to include multiple functionalities focuses on incorporating nanoparticles within the hydrogel network. A wide range of nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic, and metallic nanomaterials can be integrated within the hydrogel networks to obtain nanocomposites with superior properties and tailored functionality. Nanocomposite hydrogels can be engineered to possess superior physical, chemical, electrical, and biological properties. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels with emphasis on biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In particular, we discuss synthesis and fabrication of nanocomposite hydrogels, examine their current limitations and conclude with future directions in designing more advanced nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24264728

  1. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  2. Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite /BESS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Tremor, J. W.; Aepli, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) program is proposed to provide a long-duration, earth-orbiting facility to expose selected specimens in a series of biomedical experiments through the 1980's. Launched and retrieved by the Space Transportation System, the fully reusable, free-flying BESS will contain all systems necessary to conduct a six-month to one-year spaceflight mission. The spacecraft system will consist of a large pressurized experiment module and a standard NASA service module currently conceived as the Goddard Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS). The experiment module will contain the life-support systems, waste management system, specimen-holding facilities, and monitoring, evaluating, and data-handling equipment. Although a variety of specimens will be flown in basic biological and medical studies, the primate was taken as the principal design driver since it has a maximal life-support demand.

  3. Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite /BESS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Tremor, J. W.; Aepli, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) program is proposed to provide a long-duration, earth-orbiting facility to expose selected specimens in a series of biomedical experiments through the 1980's. Launched and retrieved by the Space Transportation System, the fully reusable, free-flying BESS will contain all systems necessary to conduct a six-month to one-year spaceflight mission. The spacecraft system will consist of a large pressurized experiment module and a standard NASA service module currently conceived as the Goddard Multi-Mission Spacecraft (MMS). The experiment module will contain the life-support systems, waste management system, specimen-holding facilities, and monitoring, evaluating, and data-handling equipment. Although a variety of specimens will be flown in basic biological and medical studies, the primate was taken as the principal design driver since it has a maximal life-support demand.

  4. Carbon nanotubes: engineering biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Burgos, Juan C; Yu, Jiamei; Balbuena, Perla B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylinder-shaped allotropic forms of carbon, most widely produced under chemical vapor deposition. They possess astounding chemical, electronic, mechanical, and optical properties. Being among the most promising materials in nanotechnology, they are also likely to revolutionize medicine. Among other biomedical applications, after proper functionalization carbon nanotubes can be transformed into sophisticated biosensing and biocompatible drug-delivery systems, for specific targeting and elimination of tumor cells. This chapter provides an introduction to the chemical and electronic structure and properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, followed by a description of the main synthesis and post-synthesis methods. These sections allow the reader to become familiar with the specific characteristics of these materials and the manner in which these properties may be dependent on the specific synthesis and post-synthesis processes. The chapter ends with a review of the current biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes, highlighting successes and challenges.

  5. On-Chip Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Göröcs, Zoltán; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been rapidly emerging to pave the way toward ultra-compact, efficient, mass producible and cost-effective biomedical research and diagnostic tools. Although such microfluidic and micro electromechanical systems achieved high levels of integration, and are capable of performing various important tasks on the same chip, such as cell culturing, sorting and staining, they still rely on conventional microscopes for their imaging needs. Recently several alternative on-chip optical imaging techniques have been introduced, which have the potential to substitute conventional microscopes for various lab-on-a-chip applications. Here we present a critical review of these recently emerging on-chip biomedical imaging modalities, including contact shadow imaging, lensfree holographic microscopy, fluorescent on-chip microscopy and lensfree optical tomography. PMID:23558399

  6. Effects of radiographic techniques on the low-contrast detail detectability performance of digital radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Alsleem, Haney; U, Paul; Mong, Kam Shan; Davidson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the radiation exposure factors kilovolt peak and tube current time (milliampere seconds) on the low-contrast detail detectability performance of 3 types of planar digital radiography systems. Detectability performance of an imaging system refers to its ability to detect and present the low-contrast details of organs in the acquired image. The authors also compare detectability performance between computed radiography, indirect digital radiography, and direct digital radiography by evaluating low-contrast details of the obtained images. A low-contrast detail phantom was inserted within 10-cm thicknesses of Perspex plastic sheets. The images were obtained with various kilovolt peak and milliampere second settings for each of the 3 digital radiography systems. Artinis CDRAD Analyser software was used to score the images and calculate the inverse image quality figure (IQFinv). The higher milliampere second levels in each kilovolt peak selection resulted in higher IQFinv in computed radiography and indirect and direct digital radiography. IQFinv values significantly increased in indirect digital radiography with increasing kilovolt peak in only 1 and 2 mAs. There were insignificant differences in IQFinv values when altering kilovolt peak in each milliampere second level in direct digital radiography. The indirect digital radiography system generally demonstrated better detectability performance than computed radiography and direct digital radiography. However, direct digital radiography demonstrated better detectability performance than indirect digital radiography at lower kilovolt peak and milliampere second settings, as did computed radiography at lower kilovolt peak settings. Higher milliampere second settings increase photon count, which results in a higher signal-to-noise ratio and thus increased detectability. Lower milliampere second settings increase noise level on images, which increases the risk of diagnostic detail loss. Changing

  7. New biomedical applications of radiocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-12-01

    The potential of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and radiocarbon in biomedical applications is being investigated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A measurement of the dose-response curve for DNA damage caused by a carcinogen in mouse liver cells was an initial experiment. This demonstrated the sensitivity and utility of AMS for detecting radiocarbon tags and led to numerous follow-on experiments. The initial experiment and follow-on experiments are discussed in this report. 12 refs., 4 figs. (SM)

  8. Figure mining for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Iossifov, Ivan

    2009-08-15

    Figures from biomedical articles contain valuable information difficult to reach without specialized tools. Currently, there is no search engine that can retrieve specific figure types. This study describes a retrieval method that takes advantage of principles in image understanding, text mining and optical character recognition (OCR) to retrieve figure types defined conceptually. A search engine was developed to retrieve tables and figure types to aid computational and experimental research. http://iossifovlab.cshl.edu/figurome/.

  9. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research.

  10. Micromachining technology and biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Fujimasa, I

    1993-03-01

    Medical science and clinical medicine include many microscopic environments. Recent micromachining techniques fit the microscopic environments and are applied to microsurgery, fiberscopic operation, micromanipulation, artificial organs, and drug delivery systems. Microactuators, microsensors, and micro mechanical parts will be prepared for such medical devices and techniques. Virtual reality, stereovision, and fiber imaging support handling of cells and small targets of living body. The paper reports some perspectives of microtechnologies in biomedical engineering.

  11. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H; Bug, Bill; Chibucos, Marcus C; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N; Stoeckert, Christian J; Taylor, Chris F; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  12. The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bandrowski, Anita; Brinkman, Ryan; Brochhausen, Mathias; Brush, Matthew H.; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Clancy, Kevin; Courtot, Mélanie; Derom, Dirk; Dumontier, Michel; Fan, Liju; Fostel, Jennifer; Fragoso, Gilberto; Gibson, Frank; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra; Haendel, Melissa A.; He, Yongqun; Heiskanen, Mervi; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Jensen, Mark; Lin, Yu; Lister, Allyson L.; Lord, Phillip; Malone, James; Manduchi, Elisabetta; McGee, Monnie; Morrison, Norman; Overton, James A.; Parkinson, Helen; Peters, Bjoern; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Schober, Daniel; Smith, Barry; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Taylor, Chris F.; Torniai, Carlo; Turner, Jessica A.; Vita, Randi; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI) is an ontology that provides terms with precisely defined meanings to describe all aspects of how investigations in the biological and medical domains are conducted. OBI re-uses ontologies that provide a representation of biomedical knowledge from the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) project and adds the ability to describe how this knowledge was derived. We here describe the state of OBI and several applications that are using it, such as adding semantic expressivity to existing databases, building data entry forms, and enabling interoperability between knowledge resources. OBI covers all phases of the investigation process, such as planning, execution and reporting. It represents information and material entities that participate in these processes, as well as roles and functions. Prior to OBI, it was not possible to use a single internally consistent resource that could be applied to multiple types of experiments for these applications. OBI has made this possible by creating terms for entities involved in biological and medical investigations and by importing parts of other biomedical ontologies such as GO, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) and Phenotype Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) without altering their meaning. OBI is being used in a wide range of projects covering genomics, multi-omics, immunology, and catalogs of services. OBI has also spawned other ontologies (Information Artifact Ontology) and methods for importing parts of ontologies (Minimum information to reference an external ontology term (MIREOT)). The OBI project is an open cross-disciplinary collaborative effort, encompassing multiple research communities from around the globe. To date, OBI has created 2366 classes and 40 relations along with textual and formal definitions. The OBI Consortium maintains a web resource (http://obi-ontology.org) providing details on the people, policies, and issues being addressed

  13. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review).

    PubMed

    Turcheniuk, K; Mochalin, Vadym N

    2017-06-23

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics-two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  14. Superhydrophobic Materials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Yolonda L.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air state at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors’ future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic surfaces for biomedical applications. PMID:27449946

  15. ISIFC - dual Biomedical Engineering School.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Soto-Romero, Georges; Duffaud, Jacques; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    The Superior Institute for Biomedical Engineering (ISIFC), created in 2001, is part of the Franche-Comté University and is accredited by the French Ministry of National Education. Its originality lies in its innovative course of studies, which trains engineers in the scientific and medical fields to get both competencies. The Institute therefore collaborates with the University Hospital Centre of Besançon (CHU), biomedical companies and National Research Centres (CNRS and INSERM). The dual expertise trainees will have acquired at the end of their 3 years course covers medical and biological skills, scientific and Technical expertises. ISIFC engineers answer to manufacturer needs for skilled scientific and technical staff in instrumentation and techniques adapted to diagnosis, therapeutics and medical control, as well as the needs of potential users for biomedical devices, whether they are doctors, hospital staff, patients, laboratories, etc... Both the skills and the knowledge acquired by an ISIFC engineer will enable him/her to fulfil functions of study, research and development in the industrial sector.

  16. Biomedical signal and image processing.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  17. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcheniuk, K.; Mochalin, Vadym N.

    2017-06-01

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics—two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  18. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NSBRI partners with NASA to develop countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long duration space flight. NSBRI's science and technology projects are directed toward this goal, which is accomplished by: 1. Designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight. 2. Defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures. 3. Establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level and deliver quality medical care. 4. Transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of humankind; including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth. and 5. ensuring open involvement of the scientific community,industry and the public in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through JSC.

  19. Biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cabuzu, Daniela; Cirja, Andreea; Puiu, Rebecca; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles may be used in different domains, one of most important being the biomedical field. They have suitable properties for controlled drug delivery, cancer treatment, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and many others, due to their excellent compatibility with the human organism, low toxicity and tunable stability, small dimensions, and possibility to interact with a variety of substances. They also have optical properties, being able to absorb infrared light. Moreover, due to their large surface and the ability of being coated with a variety of therapeutic agents, gold nanoparticles have been showed a great potential to be used as drug delivery systems. Gold nanoparticles are intensively studied in biomedicine, and recent studies revealed the fact that they can cross the blood-brain barrier, may interact with the DNA and produce genotoxic effects. Because of their ability of producing heat, they can target and kill the tumors, being used very often in photodynamic therapy. Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized in many ways, but the most common are the biological and chemical methods, however the chemical method offers the advantage of better controlling the size and shape of the nanoparticles. In this review, we present the principal applications of gold nanoparticles in the biomedical field, like cancer treatment, amyloid-like fibrillogenesis inhibitors, transplacental treatment, the development of specific scaffolds and drug delivery systems.

  20. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NSBRI partners with NASA to develop countermeasures against the deleterious effects of long duration space flight. NSBRI's science and technology projects are directed toward this goal, which is accomplished by: 1. Designing, testing and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight. 2. Defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures. 3. Establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level and deliver quality medical care. 4. Transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the general benefit of humankind; including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth. and 5. ensuring open involvement of the scientific community,industry and the public in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through JSC.

  1. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Alrick, K. R.; Buescher, K. L.; Cagliostro, D. J.; Clark, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Espinoza, C. J.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gomez, J. J.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Liljestrand, R. P.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Mottershead, C. T.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.

    2011-05-15

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 {mu}m at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  2. Study of a Loop Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    C. Thomas Conroy; A. A. El-Ganayni; David R. Riley; John M. Cimbala; Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.; Abel Po-Ya Chuang; Shane Hanna

    2001-08-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, has been identified with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  3. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  4. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    SciTech Connect

    Antoku, S.; Hoshi, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kihara, T.; Sawada, S.; Takeshita, K.; Otake, M.; Yoshinaga, H.; Beach, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  5. Monte Carlo Modeling of High-Energy Film Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C., Jr.; Cochran, J.L.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2003-03-28

    High-energy film radiography methods, adapted in the past to performing specific tasks, must now meet increasing demands to identify defects and perform critical measurements in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Although film provides unequaled resolution for most components and assemblies, image quality must be enhanced with much more detailed information to identify problems and qualify features of interest inside manufactured items. The work described is concerned with improving current 9 MeV nondestructive practice by optimizing the important parameters involved in film radiography using computational methods. In order to follow important scattering effects produced by electrons, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used with advanced, highly parallel computer systems. The work has provided a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high X-ray energies, and suggests that improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail in images of fine features.

  6. Proton Radiography of a Thermal Explosion in PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; Romero, Jerry; Asay, Blaine; Sandstrom, Mary

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of thermal explosions and burn propagation lags that of detonations and shock propagation. Diagnostics such as high energy radiography have been used to image shocks, but have been previously precluded from use in thermal explosions due to their stringent timing requirements: shock propagation can be synchronized to an external diagnostic while thermal explosion can not. This issue is solved by following the evolution of the ignition volume in a thermal explosion and using a laser pulse to provide a temperature jump in that central volume during the final thermal runaway leading to ignition. Details of the laser heating which minimize the perturbation of the thermal explosion will be discussed with comparisons between auto-ignited and laser ignited tests. Thermal explosion experiments have been conducted at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography facility and have yielded images of the evolution of ignition, post-ignition burn propagation, and case failure in a radially confined cylinder of PBX 9501.

  7. Radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks: installation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, D; Dolan, K

    2000-03-24

    The radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks are intended to assist Level I, II and III NDE personnel in calculations used in routine job applications. These workbooks are an upgraded version of Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheets, which were originally set up in October 1988, using a Macintosh Plus{reg_sign} computer and Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} version 1.5. A description of these was released as ''Computerized Calculations for Radiography and Ultrasonics'', UCRL-JC-105419 in November 1990 and published in Materials Evaluation, Volume 49/Number 4, in April 1991. Over the years as Microsoft improved the capabilities of the Excel program to include the abilities to make sketches and to have multiple tabbed pages in a document called a ''workbook'' we have now modified the calculation spreadsheets to include these enhancements. Following is a short description on how to install and use these workbooks on a Macintosh or PC.

  8. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX.

  9. Proton radiography of a shock-compressed target

    SciTech Connect

    Ravasio, A.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Loupias, B.; Ozaki, N.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Romagnani, L.; Cecchetti, C.; Borghesi, M.; Le Pape, S.; Hicks, D.; MacKinnon, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Boehly, T.; Gremillet, L.; Henry, E.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we report on the radiography of a shock-compressed target using laser produced proton beams. A low-density carbon foam target was shock compressed by long pulse high-energy laser beams. The shock front was transversally probed with a proton beam produced in the interaction of a high intensity laser beam with a gold foil. We show that from radiography data, the density profile in the shocked target can be deduced using Monte Carlo simulations. By changing the delay between long and short pulse beams, we could probe different plasma conditions and structures, demonstrating that the details of the steep density gradient can be resolved. This technique is validated as a diagnostic for the investigation of warm dense plasmas, allowing an in situ characterization of high-density contrasted plasmas.

  10. Lung nodules detection in chest radiography: image components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin; Yang, Ying; Yan, Hao

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of different components of chest image on performances of both human observer and channelized Fisher-Hotelling model (CFH) in nodule detection task. Irrelevant and relevant components were separated from clinical chest radiography by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods. Human observer performance was evaluated in two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) on original clinical images and anatomical structure only images obtained by PCA methods. Channelized Fisher-Hotelling model with Laguerre-Gauss basis function was evaluated to predict human performance. We show that relevant component is the primary factor influencing on nodule detection in chest radiography. There is obvious difference of detectability between human observer and CFH model for nodule detection in images only containing anatomical structure. CFH model should be used more carefully.

  11. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Caputo, A.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; D'Auria, L.; de La Taille, C.; Energico, S.; Garufi, F.; Giudicepietro, F.; Lauria, A.; Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Montesi, M. C.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Starodubtsev, O.; Strolin, P.; Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Vanzanella, A.

    2013-12-01

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  12. Modeling the Performance Characteristics of Computed Radiography (CR) Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) using storage phosphors is widely used in digital radiography and mammography. A cascaded linear systems approach wherein several parameter values were estimated using Monte Carlo methods was used to model the image formation process of a single-side read ‘flying spot’ CR system using a granular phosphor. Objective image quality metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were determined using this model and show good agreement with published empirical data. A model such as that addressed in this work could allow for improved understanding of the effect of storage phosphor physical properties and CR reader parameters on objective image quality metrics for existing and evolving CR systems. PMID:20199915

  13. Digital radiography: update for oral health care workers.

    PubMed

    Noffke, C E E; Nzima, N; Chabikuli, N J

    2004-08-01

    Digital Radiography is an imaging system that does away with the use of films. It constitutes an advance in computer technology and has made a significant impact on the field of Maxillofacial- and Dental Radiology. This paper presents an overview of the basic concepts and applications of dental digital radiography and compares it with conventional film-based imaging. In addition, it provides a thorough understanding of the direct, semi-direct and indirect dental digital imaging systems with their advantages and disadvantages. Universal acceptance of digital radiographic imaging as a diagnostic tool makes it important for oral health care workers to understand the principles thereof and to master the techniques involved in acquiring a diagnosable digital radiographic image.

  14. A new scanner for in situ digital radiography of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impallaria, Anna; Evangelisti, Federico; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Tisato, Flavia; Castelli, Lisa; Taccetti, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    X-ray radiography is one of the most widely used imaging techniques in the field of cultural heritage, both for conservation and for investigation purposes. Performing radiographies in museums, thus avoiding movements of works of art, has been recently made easy by digital acquisition of images, but when the whole scan of a large painting is required, technical solutions for a portable device are still not at hand. The inherent weight of the X-ray tube and of the high-voltage generator makes the design of a portable device very difficult. In this project, the solution of the puzzle was separating devices devoted to different tasks, in order to maintain each item under 60 kg weight, thus being transportable with reasonable effort.

  15. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  16. High-resolution computed radiography by scanned luminescent toner xeroradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, John W.; Lubinsky, Anthony R.

    1993-09-01

    A new computed radiography system is described in which a charged selenium photoconductive plate is exposed to x-rays to create an electrostatic latent image, developed with a luminescent toner, and scanned with a stimulating laser beam to produce emitted light, which is filtered and detected. The resulting electronic signals are processed, and converted to hard copy using a laser film printer. The system is characterized by high x-ray sensitivity and by very high spatial resolution, which makes it particularly suitable for applications such as mammography and bone radiography. The image luminescence is bright and its decay time is extremely short, enabling rapid scanning with an inexpensive laser source. Also, the electronic capture of image data permits enhancement of the displayed contrast of image structures by image processing techniques.

  17. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  18. Comparison of Digital Imaging Systems for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Pugliesi, Fábio; Stanojev Pereira, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution.

  19. Study of a loop heat pipe using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cimbala, John M; Brenizer, Jack S; Chuang, Abel Po-Ya; Hanna, Shane; Thomas Conroy, C; El-Ganayni, A A; Riley, David R

    2004-10-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, is potentially identifiable with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  20. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography.

  1. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  2. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-09-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues.

  3. An improved method for profile radiography of piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.S.; Haupt, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Petro-Chemical industry has used profile radiography for more than thirty years to find, and evaluate, corrosion in piping systems. The technique offers a method of ``seeing into`` a piece of pipe. This allows the inspector to see the ``whole picture``. Single point ultrasonic measurements cannot provide this degree of information. Shell`s objective for studying the use of this method centered on optimizing their profile radiography technique to improve accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness measurements. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are particularly important when used to determine corrosion rates. To help achieve this objective, the authors developed an inspection procedure to minimize the more prominent sources of inaccuracies associated with this technique. Along with this procedure, they also developed an associated training program. All of Shell Oil`s Pressure Equipment inspectors and key contract employees have received this training.

  4. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  5. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  6. X-Ray Radiography of Gas Turbine Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-20

    Microfocus X - ray equipment. 1a4ihe definition of equipment concepts for a computer assisted tomography (CAT) system; and 4ffthe development of a CAT...were obtained from these test coupons using Microfocus X - ray and image en- hancement techniques. A Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) design concept...conventional ultrasonics (45 MHz), very high frequency ultrasonics (250 MHz), neutron radiography, Microfocus X - ray , image enhancement, microwave

  7. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L; Armstrong, Jerawan C

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  8. Technique for Performing Lumbar Puncture in Microgravity Using Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Lerner, David J; Parmet, Allen J; Don, Steven; Shimony, Joshua S; Goyal, Manu S

    2016-08-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure Syndrome (VIIP) has caused symptomatology during and after long duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Only indirect measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP), such as ultrasound, have been performed on ISS. Discussion and interest has happened at NASA about performing lumbar puncture (LP) in microgravity. Only the "blind" palpation approach and the ultrasound-assisted approach have been discussed. This article, as proof of concept, discusses the possibility of portable radiography to assist lumbar punctures in microgravity. An anthropomorphic radiological phantom of an adult lumbar spine was made containing a fluid-filled space in the spinal canal with a latex membrane which simulated the dural sac and cerebrospinal fluid. A portable direct-digital radiography system with wireless transmitting image receptor and screen was used to perform image-guided lumbar puncture. Using the same equipment and technique, this procedure was then performed on a cadaver for final proof of concept. Technical success was achieved in all approaches on the first try without needle redirection. There was no difference between the cadaver model and the phantom model in terms of difficulty in reaching the fluid space or visually confirming needle location. Portable radiography via proof of concept has the potential to guide lumbar puncture while minimizing volume and mass of equipment. This could be ideal for assisting in performing lumbar puncture in microgravity, as this is the standard of care on Earth for difficult or failed "blind" lumbar punctures. Lerner DJ, Parmet AJ, Don S, Shimony JS, Goyal MS. Technique for performing lumbar puncture in microgravity using portable radiography. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):745-747.

  9. Pediatric digital radiography education for radiologic technologists: current state.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Gregory; John, Susan D; Goske, Marilyn J; Charkot, Ellen; Herrmann, Tracy; Smith, Susan N; Culbertson, John; Carbonneau, Kira

    2011-05-01

    Digital radiography (DR) is one of several new products that have changed our work processes from hard copy to digital formats. The transition from analog screen-film radiography to DR requires thorough user education because of differences in image production, processing, storage and evaluation between the forms of radiography. Without adequate education, radiologic technologists could unknowingly expose children to higher radiation doses than necessary for adequate radiograph quality. To evaluate knowledge about image quality and dose management in pediatric DR among radiologic technologists in the U.S. This communication describes a survey of 493 radiologic technologists who are members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and who evaluated the current state of radiological technologist education in image quality and dose management in pediatric DR. The survey included 23 survey questions regarding image acquisition issues, quality assurance, radiation exposure and education in DR of infants and children. Radiologic technologists express many needs in areas of training and education in pediatric DR. Suggested improvements include better tools for immediate feedback about image quality and exposure, more information about appropriate technique settings for pediatric patients, more user-friendly vendor manuals and educational materials, more reliable measures of radiation exposure to patients, and more regular and frequent follow-up by equipment vendors. There is a clear and widespread need for comprehensive and practical education in digital image technology for radiologic technologists, especially those engaged in pediatric radiography. The creation of better educational materials and training programs, and the continuation of educational opportunities will require a broad commitment from equipment manufacturers and vendors, educational institutions, pediatric radiology specialty organizations, and individual imaging specialists.

  10. Non-damaging, portable radiography: Applications in arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Apt, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    The state-of-the-technology necessary to perform portable radiography in support of arms control verification is evaluated. Specific requirements, such as accurate measurements of the location of features in a treaty-limited object and the detection of deeply imbedded features, are defined in three scenarios. Sources, detectors, portability, mensuration, and safety are discussed in relation to the scenarios. Examples are given of typical radiographic systems that would be capable of addressing the inspection problems associated with the three scenarios.

  11. Advances in pulsed-power-driven radiography system design.

    SciTech Connect

    Portillo, Salvador; Hinshelwood, David D.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Cordova, Steve Ray; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Weber, Bruce V.; Welch, Dale Robert; Shelton, Bradley Allen; Sceiford, Matthew E.; Cooperstein, Gerald; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Puetz, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David Vincent; Barker, Dennis L.; Van De Valde, David M.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Molina, Isidro; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Swanekamp, Stephen Brian; Commisso, Robert J.; Bailey, Vernon Leslie; Maenchen, John Eric; Johnson, David Lee; Griffin, Fawn A.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Smith, Ian

    2004-07-01

    Flash x-ray radiography has undergone a transformation in recent years with the resurgence of interest in compact, high intensity pulsed-power-driven electron beam sources. The radiographic requirements and the choice of a consistent x-ray source determine the accelerator parameters, which can be met by demonstrated Induction Voltage Adder technologies. This paper reviews the state of the art and the recent advances which have improved performance by over an order of magnitude in beam brightness and radiographic utility.

  12. Fast neutron radiography research at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Natale, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    Thirty-seven different elements were tested for their suitability as converter screens for direct and indirect fast neutron radiography. The use of commercial X-ray scintillator screens containing YTaO{sub 4}, LaOBr:Tm, YTaO{sub 4}:Nb, YTaO{sub 4}:Tm, CaWO{sub 4}, BaSO{sub 4}:Sr, and GdO{sub 2}S:Tb was also explored for direct fast neutron radiography. For the indirect radiographic process, only one element, holmium, was found to be better than copper. Iron was also found to work as well as copper. All other elements that were tested were inferior to copper for indirect fast neutron radiography. For direct fast neutron radiography, the results were markedly different. Copper was found to be a poor material to sue, as thirty-two of the elements performed better than the copper. Tantalum was found to be the best material to use. Several other materials that also performed remarkably well include, in order of decreasing utility, gold, lutetium, germanium, dysprosium, and thulium. Several interesting results were obtained for the commercial X-ray scintillator screens. Most notably, useful radiographs were produced with all of the various scintillation screens. However, the screens containing YTaO{sub 4}:Nb offered the greatest film densities for the shortest exposure times. Screens using GdSO{sub 4}:Tb provided the best resolution and clearest images at the sacrifice of exposure time. Also, as previous researchers found, scintillator screens offered significantly shorter exposure times than activation foils.

  13. Imaging Brunelleschi's cupola wall using muon scattering radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guardincerri, Elena

    2015-09-16

    This PowerPoint presentation describes the cupola's structure and current reinforcements, reasoning behind why muon radiography would be helpful. A demonstration project is described where a similar wall was constructed to illustrate the potential benefits to Italian authorities; Requirements and a potential plan were created and collaboration to make it happen was deemed to be possible among LANL, Toshiba, the Parma and Florence Universities and the Opera del Duomo,

  14. ADVANCEMENTS IN NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY WITHIN THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    inspection shows the next evolution in nondestructive examination that many areas within the Department of Defense (DoD) require. The NR has the...Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Inspection Constraints 1 Product Design Applications 2 Advanced Neutron Generators 6 Evolution of Neutron Radiography 6...construction of the beam ports 14 15 An image comparison of the early evolution of the beam ports 15 16 The completed assembly and the general placement of

  15. Investigation of noise sources for digital radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Lutfi; Olgar, Turan

    2017-06-01

    The performance of digital radiography systems can be evaluated in terms of spatial resolution and noise. Noise plays an important role in the achievable image quality for detecting small and low-contrast structures in digital images created by these systems. Our aim in this study was to investigate the noise sources both in the spatial and frequency domain for three digital radiography systems, one digital fluoroscopy system, and one digital mammography system, and to obtain information about the effective operating dose range of these detectors. Noise evaluation in the spatial domain was done with the relative standard deviation-detector air kerma relationship evaluation method. The characterization of the noise in the spatial domain gives information about the types of noise, but does not give information about the noise power distribution in frequency space. Therefore, noise evaluation in the frequency domain was carried out by noise power spectrum measurement. The observed dominant noise component at lower detector doses was electronic noise for the digital mammography system, whereas structured noise was observed to make up nearly half of the total noise at higher detector doses for one of the digital radiography systems. The structured noise component was increased by use of a grid in these systems, independent of the grid ratio and grid frequency, but this increase was lower for higher grid frequencies. Furthermore, the structured noise coefficient was decreased with gain and offset calibrations. The five systems which we evaluated behaved as a quantum noise limited for clinically used detector doses.

  16. [Plain-film radiography in the study of spinal pain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Guzmán Alvarez, L; Tello Moreno, M; Navarrete González, P J

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of tomographic imaging techniques, fundamentally computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, has led to a gradual decrease in the indications for plain-film radiography, resulting in fewer patients studied and fewer projections for each patient. Consequently, plain-film studies of the spine have received less attention and radiologists are less familiar with the typical findings in normal and pathologic conditions of the spine. Nevertheless, plain-film radiography continues to be widely used in both primary and specialized care. Thus, radiologists still need to be aware of the normal radiologic anatomy of the spine and of the radiologic manifestations of the diverse pathological processes that can affect the spinal column and that can cause pain. The aim of this article is to review the manifestations on plain-film radiography of a wide variety of diseases that can cause back pain, including congenital, traumatic, degenerative, tumor-related, inflammatory, and infectious diseases and processes. Copyright 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton radiography based on near-threshold Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    van Bibber, Karl A.; Dietrich, Frank S.

    2003-01-01

    A Cerenkov imaging system for charged particle radiography that determines the energy loss of the charged particle beam passing through an object. This energy loss information provides additional detail on target densities when used with traditional radiographic techniques like photon or x-ray radiography. In this invention a probe beam of 800 MeV to 50 GeV/c charged particles is passed through an object to be imaged, an imaging magnetic spectrometer, to a silicon aerogel Cerenkov radiator where the charged particles emitted Cerenkov light proportional to their velocity. At the same beam focal plane, a particle scintillator produces a light output proportional to the incident beam flux. Optical imaging systems relay the Cerenkov and scintillator information to CCD's or other measurement equipment. A ratio between the Cerenkov and scintillator is formed, which is directly proportional to the line density of the object for each pixel measured. By rotating the object, tomographic radiography may be performed. By applying pulses of beam, discrete time-step movies of dynamic objects may be made.

  18. Radiography Inspection Technology of CPR1000 Nuclear Power Unit Pressurizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jingyun; Deng, Dong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuangyin; Hua, Xiongfei

    This article takes the first in-service inspection of the 3rd Unit nuclear island pressurizer (PZR) radiography inspection of Ling Ao nuclear power station for example. It is introduced that the gamma radiographic inspection technology of CPR1000 nuclear power island PZR welds which include the cylinder weld, the tube welds and the head connection welds, the safe-end-welds of PZR tube, and the thermal sleeve, mainly focused on the exposure mode, the film layout and other content in each weld inspection. Meanwhile according to the site operating experience by the inspectors, it is summarized that the technical difficulties and key points which the PZR radiography inspection technology has. Combined with the related sections of the French design and construction rules for mechanical components of PWR nuclear Islands (the RCC-M standard) and the in-service inspection rules for mechanical components of PWR nuclear islands (the RSE-M specification), it makes analysis, calculation and discussion of the technical parameters and crucial details about the ray source selection, the identification of the film and the location markers, the focal length and the times of exposures at least, aiming the characteristics of the PZR ray inspection, which can provide reference method and the suggestion for the similar container radiography inspection.

  19. Use of dental radiography among Lithuanian general dentists.

    PubMed

    Peciuliene, Vytaute; Rimkuviene, Jurate; Maneliene, Rasma; Drukteinis, Saulius

    2009-01-01

    To gather information about the radiographic facilities and techniques used by Lithuanian general dentists. Questionnaires were sent to all 2879 Lithuanian dental practitioners registered on the Lithuanian Dental Chamber licence registry data list. The questionnaire was made with multiple-choice answers. Respondents were invited to choose the only one category of answer that best fitted their clinical attitude. Questions included in the present survey concerned general and specific information regarding peculiarities of radiographic imaging. Only answers of respondents who are licensed as general dentists were included in this study. From the 2850 questionnaires mailed 1532 were returned. The response rate was 53.8%. Of the total responses 1431 questionnaires were received from licensed general dentists. Of total 956 dentists practiced in urban and 576 dentists in rural areas. 61.6% of respondents had access to an intra-oral radiographic unit in their practice and 91.5% of them used dental radiography always or often as the diagnostic tool. To support the film packet in the patient's mouth alternatively film holder or patient's finger was used by 48% of respondents, while film holder was used only by 19.3% of dentists. Recently graduated dental practitioners more common used diagnostic radiography in endodontic pathology than dentists with a longer time from graduation. Film holder was not a popular device among general dental practitioners to perform periapical radioraphs. It is important to improve the existing dental curriculum to ensure the necessary competency when using dental radiography and film holders routinely in clinical practice.

  20. Detection of gastritis by single- and double-contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''

  1. Reduction of radiation exposure during radiography for scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.E.; Hoffman, A.D.; Peterson, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    To reduce the radiation exposure received by young scoliosis patients during treatment, six changes in technique were instituted: (1) a posteroanterior projection, (2) specially designed leaded acrylic filters, (3) a high-speed screen-film system, (4) a specially designed cassette-holder and grid, (5) a breast-shield, and (6) additional filtration in the x-ray tube the thyroid, breast, and abdominal areas were made on an Alderson phantom. They revealed an eightfold reduction in abdominal exposure for both the posteroanterior and the lateral radiographys. There was a twentyfold reduction in exposure to the thyroid for the posteroanterior radiography from 100 to less than five milliroentgens and for the lateral radiograph there was a 100-fold reduction from 618 to six milliroentgens. For the breasts there was a sixty-ninefold reduction from 344 to less than five milliroentgens for the posteroanterior radiography and a fifty-fivefold reduction from 277 to less than five milliroentgens for the lateral radiograph. These reductions in exposure were obtained without significant loss in the quality of the radiographs and in most instances with an improvement in the over-all quality of the radiograph due to the more uniform exposure.

  2. Applications of neutron radiography for the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    2016-11-01

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are in construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity further by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in this conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Included are reviews of the diverse techniques being applied in Europe, Japan, the United States, and at many other centers. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, the techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  3. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Agfa computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Schaetzing, R

    2004-10-01

    Radiation dose to patients and its management have become important considerations in modern radiographic imaging procedures, but they acquire particular significance in the imaging of children. Because of their longer life expectancy, children exposed to radiation are thought to have a significantly increased risk of radiation-related late sequelae compared to adults first exposed to radiation later in life. Therefore, current clinical thinking dictates that dose in pediatric radiography be minimized, while simultaneously ensuring sufficient diagnostic information in the image, and reducing the need for repeat exposures. Dose management obviously starts with characterization and control of the exposure technique. However, it extends farther through the imaging chain to the acquisition system, and even to the image processing techniques used to optimize acquired images for display. Further, other factors, such as quality control procedures and the ability to handle special pediatric procedures, like scoliosis exams, also come into play. The need for dose management in modern radiography systems has spawned a variety of different solutions, some of which are similar across different manufacturers, and some of which are unique. This paper covers the techniques used in Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) systems to manage dose in a pediatric environment.

  4. [Analysis of epidermoid carcinomas using panoramic radiography and computerized tomography].

    PubMed

    Pereira, A C; Cavalcanti, M G; Tossato, P S; Guida, F J; Duaik, M C; Kuroishi, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare radiographic findings, such as localization and extension of tumors toward the bone and soft tissues, in panoramic radiography and computed tomography (CT). Four radiologists assessed the radiographic findings of 48 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of the maxillofacial region. Panoramic radiographs and computed tomographs were obtained at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, at FUNDECTO-USP and at the hospital of the University of São Paulo (USP). We observed a considerable limitation of the panoramic radiography in determining the localization and extension of tumors, since it revealed unclear delimitations. Regarding CT, better results were obtained: it was possible to observe the invasion of the tumor toward adjacent soft tissues, as well as the extension of bone destruction and the depth of the lesion, which were confirmed by surgical findings. We concluded that computed tomography demonstrated to be a sensitive radiographic technique for the detection of the involvement of bone and soft tissues, contributing for a more precise diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention. On the other hand, panoramic radiography was considered less sensitive and less efficient than CT, since it shows only unclear borders of the lesions and is not able to assess the involvement of soft tissues.

  5. The implementation of digital sensors in maxillofacial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Stelt, Paul F.

    2001-03-01

    Systems for intra-oral digital radiography in dentistry can be divided into two main groups: direct sensor systems and semi-direct or indirect sensor systems. Direct imaging is performed by a two-dimensional array of sensor elements. The size of a typical intra-oral CCD-sensor is approximately from 18 mm×24 mm to 30 mm×40 mm; the active area is somewhat smaller, because of the thickness of the packaging of the sensor. CCD-based imaging is now also available for panoramic and cephalometric radiography. Indirect (semi-direct) imaging is based on storage phosphor plates (SPP) imaging. The plate is positioned in the mouth of the patient behind the teeth, and exposed to radiation. The positioning of the sensor plate resembles very much the way conventional radiographic films are handled. SPP technology is also available for panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The purpose of radiography is to provide information to solve a particular diagnostic task. It is therefore very likely that the role of dedicated diagnostic software will become essential in the near future. The importance of dedicated software for diagnostic imaging will increase. As a result of worldwide research, more procedures will become available, for research as well as for use in general practice.

  6. Practical contour segmentation algorithm for small animal digital radiography image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fang; Hui, Gong

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a practical, automated contour segmentation technique for digital radiography image is described. Digital radiography is an imaging mode based on the penetrability of x-ray. Unlike reflection imaging mode such as visible light camera, the pixel brightness represents the summation of the attenuations on the photon thoroughfare. It is not chromophotograph but gray scale picture. Contour extraction is of great importance in medical applications, especially in non-destructive inspection. Manual segmentation techniques include pixel selection, geometrical boundary selection and tracing. But it relies heavily on the experience of the operators, and is time-consuming. Some researchers try to find contours from the intensity jumping characters around them. However these characters also exist in the juncture of bone and soft tissue. The practical way is back to the primordial threshold algorithm. This research emphasizes on how to find the optimal threshold. A high resolution digital radiography system is used to provide the oriental gray scale image. A mouse is applied as the sample of this paper to show the feasibility of the algorithm.

  7. A New Neutron Radiography / Tomography / Imaging Station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.; Davidson, G.; Pangelis, S.; Kennedy, S. J.

    A new neutron radiography / tomography / imaging instrument DINGO was built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument is designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defense, industrial, cultural heritage and archaeology applications. In the industrial field it provides a useful tool for studying cracking and defects in steel or other metals. The instrument construction was completed at the end of June 2013 and it is currently in the hot commissioning stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The instrument position for DINGO is the thermal neutron beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The measured flux (using gold foil) for an L/D of approximately 500 at HB-2 is 5.3*107 [n/cm2s], which is in a similar range to other facilities. A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator position in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 500 and 1000. A secondary collimator separates the two beams by blocking one and positions another aperture for the other beam. The whole instrument operates in two different positions, one for high resolution and one for high speed. In the current configuration DINGO measured first radiography and tomography data sets on friendly user test samples.

  8. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  9. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  10. Studies on novel radiopaque methyl methacrylate: glycidyl methacrylate based polymer for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dawlee, S; Jayakrishnan, A; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    A new class of radiopaque copolymer using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers was synthesized and characterized. The copolymer was made radiopaque by the epoxide ring opening of GMA using the catalyst o-phenylenediamine and the subsequent covalent attachment of elemental iodine. The copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, energy dispersive X-ray analysis using environmental scanning electron microscope (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray visibility of the copolymer was checked by X-radiography. Blood compatibility and cytotoxicity of the newly synthesized copolymer were also evaluated. The iodinated copolymer was thermally stable, blood compatible, non-cytotoxic, and highly radiopaque. The presence of bulky iodine group created a new copolymer with modified properties for potential use in biomedical applications.

  11. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Securing a biomedical communications future: thinking strategically.

    PubMed

    Stein, D

    1985-11-01

    Ensuring continued growth and viability of the biomedical communication function has become a critical task of the biomedical communications director. Thinking strategically is a cognitive process which assists a director in visualizing programs and tactics which meet clients needs, creates competitive advantages for the biomedical communications unit and builds on existing unit strengths. Thinking strategically can be divided into five phases: strategic vision, strategy development, strategic plan implementation, strategic plan dissemination, and strategic plan evaluation. Each sequence leads the biomedical communications director through a process designed to increase the effectiveness of the biomedical unit and to meet the challenges posed by an environment characterized by diminished financial, material, and human resources as well as respond to threats and opportunities posed by increased competition in the biomedical communications product and marketplace.

  13. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    PubMed

    Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  14. Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Philip R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed via the design and

  15. Mini Review: Nanosheet Technology towards Biomedical Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Sunami, Yuta; Hashimoto, Hiromu

    2017-08-31

    The fabrication technique of ultrathin film (commonly known as nanosheets) has been significantly developed over the years. Due to the mechanical properties of nanosheets, such as high levels of adhesion and flexibility, this made nanosheets the ideal candidate in biomedical applications. In this review, innovative biomedical applications of nanosheets are discussed, which include, drug delivery, wound treatment, and functional nanosheets towards flexible biodevices, etc. Finally, the future outlook of nanosheet technology towards a biomedical application is discussed.

  16. External-beam methods in biomedical work.

    PubMed

    Räisänen, J

    1987-04-01

    The useability of external-beam proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) and gamma-ray (PIGE) emission, backscattering spectrometry (BS), and the particle-particle method in biomedical work is demonstrated. Detection limit values obtainable by the methods for typical biomedical samples under practical conditions are given and compared. Advantages, drawbacks, and restrictions of the methods are discussed. Examples of the applications of the methods in biomedical work are given.

  17. Series: Practical Evaluation of Clinical Image Quality (2): Image Quality Measurements for Digital Radiography Systems.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Reiji

    In recent years, the manuals and data analysis tools to evaluate the basic imaging properties of medical imaging systems, such as digital radiography system, CT, and MRI, are easily available. For the image quality evaluation of digital radiography systems, special measurement system, such as a microdensitometer, required for the analysis of analog radiography system, is not needed. This enabled anyone to perform the evaluation of digital radiography system.On the other hand, to make accurate measurements, obtaining appropriate image data is a must. To enable this, appropriate setting of the hardware and the software is also required. In addition, we are asked to acquire sufficient knowledge to make highly reproducible measurements.

  18. Methodology for digital radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Souza, E M; Correa, S C A; Silva, A X; Lopes, R T; Oliveira, D F

    2008-05-01

    This work presents a methodology for digital radiography simulation for industrial applications using the MCNPX radiography tally. In order to perform the simulation, the energy-dependent response of a BaFBr imaging plate detector was modeled and introduced in the MCNPX radiography tally input. In addition, a post-processing program was used to convert the MCNPX radiography tally output into 16-bit digital images. Simulated and experimental images of a steel pipe containing corrosion alveoli and stress corrosion cracking were compared, and the results showed good agreement between both images.

  19. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  20. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) during FY 1999, the second full year of existence of the NSBRI's research program, and is prepared in accordance with Cooperative Agreement NCC9-58 between NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine (NSBRI). The report consists of progress reports on projects related to the effects of microgravity and space on physiology. The research is broken up in nine areas: (1) Bone loss, (2) Cardiovascular alterations, (3) human performance, (3) immunology, infection and hematology, (4) muscle alterations and atrophy,(5) Neurovestibular adaptation, radiation effects, (6) technology development, and (7) synergy projects.

  1. Microfabrication materials for biomedical microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansford, Derek James

    Major hurdles to the implementation of microfabricated devices for therapeutic applications include materials processing and biocompatibility issues. This dissertation reports research on improving the materials selection and fabrication for biomedical microdevices, using a microfabricated immunoisolation biocapsule as an example. Two material classes in the microfabrication protocol were examined based on the requirements determined for biomedical microdevices: the adhesive layer for bonding devices to encapsulate delicate biological substances and the thin film structural materials for surface structures, such as the biocapsule membrane. The major requirements for the adhesive layer material included non-cytotoxicity during bonding, adhesive strength, and durability under physiological conditions. Low glassy-phase transition temperature (Tg) methacrylates were found to be suitable candidates for adhesives of biomedical microdevices. A comparison study of poly propy1methacrylate (PPMA), poly (butyl, ethyl) methacrylate (PBEMA), and the higher Tg PMMA showed that all of the methacrylates had similar biocompatibility, adhesive strength, and durability. The adhesive strengths were found to be suitable for the adhesion of biomedical microdevices, as shown by measurement using a pressurized plate test and the current use of PMMA as bone cement. None of the methacrylates showed evidence of cytotoxicity, as measured by both optical and cytometric cell culture cytotoxicity tests. A protocol for the selective placement of smooth, thin films of PPMA using a Gel-PakTM transfer substrate was developed and demonstrated. The major requirements determined for the thin film structural materials were based on processing, mechanical, and biological parameters. Several candidates were identified as for structural materials based on these requirements: polycrystalline silicon. silicon nitride, fluoropolymers, PMMA, and silicone. A new fabrication protocol was developed to allow the

  2. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  3. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  4. Superhydrophobic materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Falde, Eric J; Yohe, Stefan T; Colson, Yolonda L; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are actively studied across a wide range of applications and industries, and are now finding increased use in the biomedical arena as substrates to control protein adsorption, cellular interaction, and bacterial growth, as well as platforms for drug delivery devices and for diagnostic tools. The commonality in the design of these materials is to create a stable or metastable air layer at the material surface, which lends itself to a number of unique properties. These activities are catalyzing the development of new materials, applications, and fabrication techniques, as well as collaborations across material science, chemistry, engineering, and medicine given the interdisciplinary nature of this work. The review begins with a discussion of superhydrophobicity, and then explores biomedical applications that are utilizing superhydrophobicity in depth including material selection characteristics, in vitro performance, and in vivo performance. General trends are offered for each application in addition to discussion of conflicting data in the literature, and the review concludes with the authors' future perspectives on the utility of superhydrophobic biomaterials for medical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reviewing manuscripts for biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Garmel, Gus M

    2010-01-01

    Writing for publication is a complex task. For many professionals, producing a well-executed manuscript conveying one's research, ideas, or educational wisdom is challenging. Authors have varying emotions related to the process of writing for scientific publication. Although not studied, a relationship between an author's enjoyment of the writing process and the product's outcome is highly likely. As with any skill, practice generally results in improvements. Literature focused on preparing manuscripts for publication and the art of reviewing submissions exists. Most journals guard their reviewers' anonymity with respect to the manuscript review process. This is meant to protect them from direct or indirect author demands, which may occur during the review process or in the future. It is generally accepted that author identities are masked in the peer-review process. However, the concept of anonymity for reviewers has been debated recently; many editors consider it problematic that reviewers are not held accountable to the public for their decisions. The review process is often arduous and underappreciated, one reason why biomedical journals acknowledge editors and frequently recognize reviewers who donate their time and expertise in the name of science. This article describes essential elements of a submitted manuscript, with the hopes of improving scientific writing. It also discusses the review process within the biomedical literature, the importance of reviewers to the scientific process, responsibilities of reviewers, and qualities of a good review and reviewer. In addition, it includes useful insights to individuals who read and interpret the medical literature.

  6. International coordination of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Owen, S G

    1976-01-01

    Recent efforts at international coordination in biomedical research have taken place at two levels. At the level of the working clinician and scientist, European regionalism has become increasingly manifest in such organizations as the European Society for Clinical Investigation, the European Organization for Research into the Treatment of Cancer, the European Molecular Biology Organization and many others. These have developed largely, though not entirely, independently of government funding. At the level of science policy, i.e. of bodies supporting biomedical research mainly from public funds, the major developments have been the Comité de la Recherche Médicale of the European Community and the much wider association of European Medical Research Councils, based on the whole of Western Europe; in October 1975 the latter group became incorporated into the new European Science Foundation as the first Standing Committee of that body. Wider, interregional, cooperation presents greater problems, though there have been some modest successes, and the multinational drive on research into six of the major health problems of the Third World now being proposed by WHO holds further promise for the future.

  7. Monitoring of Biomedical License Agreements

    PubMed Central

    Keller, George H.; Ferguson, Steven M.; Pan, Percy

    2009-01-01

    Because technology licensed from research organizations can play a significant role in drug innovation and the generation of novel biomedical products, licensee performance under such agreements must be effectively monitored. This is necessary so that resultant benefits, including public health improvement, may be returned to the innovator(s) as well as society at large. The tasks that comprise monitoring are varied, but all come under the general heading of ‘enforcement of license provisions’. Since 1996, the license monitoring and enforcement program established by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Group has collected about $US17 million in unpaid and underpaid license royalties through formal financial audits and other investigative activities. During the same period, the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT) settled more than 60 cases of suspected patent infringement, generating around 60 new licenses and collected both back and ongoing royalties. As these numbers show, an active and effective monitoring program is an essential part of any technology transfer or biomedical licensing program. PMID:19960074

  8. Reviewing Manuscripts for Biomedical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Garmel, Gus M

    2010-01-01

    Writing for publication is a complex task. For many professionals, producing a well-executed manuscript conveying one's research, ideas, or educational wisdom is challenging. Authors have varying emotions related to the process of writing for scientific publication. Although not studied, a relationship between an author's enjoyment of the writing process and the product's outcome is highly likely. As with any skill, practice generally results in improvements. Literature focused on preparing manuscripts for publication and the art of reviewing submissions exists. Most journals guard their reviewers' anonymity with respect to the manuscript review process. This is meant to protect them from direct or indirect author demands, which may occur during the review process or in the future. It is generally accepted that author identities are masked in the peer-review process. However, the concept of anonymity for reviewers has been debated recently; many editors consider it problematic that reviewers are not held accountable to the public for their decisions. The review process is often arduous and underappreciated, one reason why biomedical journals acknowledge editors and frequently recognize reviewers who donate their time and expertise in the name of science. This article describes essential elements of a submitted manuscript, with the hopes of improving scientific writing. It also discusses the review process within the biomedical literature, the importance of reviewers to the scientific process, responsibilities of reviewers, and qualities of a good review and reviewer. In addition, it includes useful insights to individuals who read and interpret the medical literature. PMID:20740129

  9. Information extraction from biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jerry R

    2002-08-01

    Information extraction is the process of scanning text for information relevant to some interest, including extracting entities, relations, and events. It requires deeper analysis than key word searches, but its aims fall short of the very hard and long-term problem of full text understanding. Information extraction represents a midpoint on this spectrum, where the aim is to capture structured information without sacrificing feasibility. One of the key ideas in this technology is to separate processing into several stages, in cascaded finite-state transducers. The earlier stages recognize smaller linguistic objects and work in a largely domain-independent fashion. The later stages take these linguistic objects as input and find domain-dependent patterns among them. There are now initial efforts to apply this technology to biomedical text. In other domains, the technology plateaued at about 60% recall and precision. Even if applications to biomedical text do no better than this, they could still prove to be of immense help to curatorial activities.

  10. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  11. Characterization of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaqueline M; Crispim, Verginia Reis; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; Furtado, Vanessa Rodrigues; Duarte, Rafael Da Silva

    2013-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with Corynebacterium and Actinomyces genera, among which the genomic guanine plus cytosine content and the production of long branched-chain fatty acids, known as mycolic acids are enhanced. Growth rate and optimal temperature of mycobacteria are variable. The genus comprises more than 140 known species; however Mycobacterium fortuitum, a fast growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is clinically significant, because it has been associated to several lesions following surgery procedures such as liposuction, silicone breast and pacemaker implants, exposure to prosthetic materials besides sporadic lesions in the skin, soft tissues and rarely lungs. The objective of the present study is to reduce the time necessary for M. fortuitum characterization based on its morphology and the use of the neutron radiography technique substituting the classical biochemical assays. We also aim to confirm the utility of dendrimers as boron carriers. The samples were sterilized through conventional protocols using 10% formaldehyde. In the incubation process, two solutions with different molar ratios (10:1 and 20:1) of sodium borate and PAMAM G4 dendrimer and also pure sodium borate were used. After doping and sterilization procedures, the samples were deposited on CR-39 sheets, irradiated with a 4.6×10(5) n/cm(2)s thermal neutron flux for 30 min, from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta IEN/CNEN reactor. The images registered in the CR-39 were visualized in a Nikon E400 optical transmission microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Developing the nuclear tracks registered in the CR-39 allowed a 1000× enlargement of mycobacterium images, facilitating their characterization, the use of more sophisticated equipment not being necessary. The use of neutron radiography technique reduced the time necessary for characterization. Doping with PAMAM dendrimer improved the visualization of NTM in neutron radiography

  12. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  13. The role of postoperative chest radiography in pediatric tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Sulek, M; de Jong, A; Friedman, E M

    2001-07-30

    A postoperative chest radiograph has traditionally been obtained after tracheotomies to evaluate for the presence of a pneumothorax and to assess tube position. Several recent studies in adults have questioned the usefulness of routine postoperative chest radiography in uncomplicated cases, but the role of post-operative chest radiography in pediatric patients has not been previously reviewed. We performed this study to examine the clinical utility of post-tracheotomy chest radiography in pediatric patients and determine if this routine practice impacts patient management enough to merit continued usage. A retrospective review was performed of 200 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent tracheotomies by the otolaryngology service in a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1994 to June 1999. All patients received postoperative chest radiographs. Five of 200 patients had a new postoperative radiographic finding, with three requiring interventions. Two patients required chest tube placement for pneumothorax, and one patient required tracheostomy tube change for repositioning. Fifty-one patients, including both pneumothoraces, exhibited clinical signs of pneumothorax (decreased breath sounds or oxygen saturation) in the immediate postoperative period. Chest X-ray ruled out a pneumothorax in the remaining 49 patients. The majority of these 51 patients were less than 2 years old (94%, P=0.002) or weighed less than 17 kg (89%, P=0.004). Postoperative chest X-rays yielded clinically relevant information in 168 patients that fell into one or more of four high risk categories: age less than 2, weight less than 17 kg, emergent procedures, or concomitant central line placement. Avoiding chest X-rays in the remaining 32 patients would have resulted in potential savings of $5000, which does not reflect the actuarial cost of a missed complication. Since the majority of our patients (84%) fell into a high-risk category, we feel it would be prudent to continue

  14. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  15. Antepartum dental radiography and infant low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hujoel, Philippe P; Bollen, Anne-Marie; Noonan, Carolyn J; del Aguila, Michael A

    2004-04-28

    Both high- and low-dose radiation exposures in women have been associated with low-birth-weight offspring. It is unclear if radiation affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and thereby indirectly birth weight, or if the radiation directly affects the reproductive organs. To investigate whether antepartum dental radiography is associated with low-birth-weight offspring. A population-based case-control study. Enrollees of a dental insurance plan with live singleton births in Washington State between January 1993 and December 2000. Cases were 1117 women with low-birth-weight infants (<2500 g), of whom 336 were term low-birth-weight infants (1501-2499 g and gestation > or =37 weeks). Four control pregnancies resulting in normal-birth-weight infants (> or =2500 g) were randomly selected for each case (n = 4468). Odds of low birth weight and term low birth weight by dental radiographic dose during gestation. An exposure higher than 0.4 milligray (mGy) during gestation occurred in 21 (1.9%) mothers of low-birth-weight infants and, when compared with women who had no known dental radiography, was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a low-birth-weight infant of 2.27 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.66, P =.03). Exposure higher than 0.4 mGy occurred in 10 (3%) term low-birth-weight pregnancies and was associated with an adjusted OR for a term low-birth-weight infant of 3.61 (95% CI, 1.46-8.92, P =.005). Dental radiography during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, specifically with term low birth weight.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Biomedical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaśpar, Jan; Hána, Karel; Smrčka, Pavel; Brada, Jiří; Beneš, Jiří; Šunka, Pavel

    2007-11-01

    The basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging covering physical principles and basic imaging techniques will be presented as a strong tool in biomedical engineering. Several applications of MRI in biomedical research practiced at the MRI laboratory of the FBMI CTU including other laboratory instruments and activities are introduced.

  17. Biomedical Masters Program: Local Joint Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a part-time master's program in biomedical science initiated by the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Maryland and administered by Hood College. Coursework consists mainly of biology and biochemistry and prepares students for biomedical research. (MLH)

  18. Raman spectroscopy of biomedical polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    With the development of three-dimensional Raman algorithms for local mapping of oxidation and plastic strain, and the ability to resolve molecular orientation patterns with microscopic spatial resolution, there is an opportunity to re-examine many of the foundations on which our understanding of biomedical grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPEs) are based. By implementing polarized Raman spectroscopy into an automatized tool with an improved precision in non-destructively resolving Euler angles, oxidation levels, and microscopic strain, we become capable to make accurate and traceable measurements of the in vitro and in vivo tribological responses of a variety of commercially available UHMWPE bearings for artificial hip and knee joints. In this paper, we first review the foundations and the main algorithms for Raman analyses of oxidation and strain of biomedical polyethylene. Then, we critically re-examine a large body of Raman data previously collected on different polyethylene joint components after in vitro testing or in vivo service, in order to shed new light on an area of particular importance to joint orthopedics: the microscopic nature of UHMWPE surface degradation in the human body. A complex scenario of physical chemistry appears from the Raman analyses, which highlights the importance of molecular-scale phenomena besides mere microstructural changes. The availability of the Raman microscopic probe for visualizing oxidation patterns unveiled striking findings related to the chemical contribution to wear degradation: chain-breaking and subsequent formation of carboxylic acid sites preferentially occur in correspondence of third-phase regions, and they are triggered by emission of dehydroxylated oxygen from ceramic oxide counterparts. These findings profoundly differ from more popular (and simplistic) notions of mechanistic tribology adopted in analyzing joint simulator data. Statement of Significance This review was dedicated to the

  19. BBU design of linear induction accelerator cells for radiography application

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, C.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Gaporaso, G.J.; Houck, T.L.; Molau, N.E.; Focklen, J.; Gregory, S.

    1997-05-06

    There is an ongoing effort to develop accelerating modules for high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography application. Accelerating modules with low beam-cavity coupling impedances along with gap designs with acceptable field stresses comprise a set of fundamental design criteria. We examine improved cell designs which have been developed for accelerator application in several radiographic operating regimes. We evaluate interaction impedances, analyze the effects of beam structure coupling on beam dynamics (beam break-up instability and corkscrew motion). We also provide estimates of coupling through interesting new high-gradient insulators and evaluate their potential future application in induction cells.

  20. Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Meekunnasombat, P.; Oakley, J. G.; Anderson, M. H.; Bonazza, R.

    2005-07-22

    A flash X-ray radiography technique is employed to measure the volume fraction of a shock accelerated liquid layer in a large vertical shock tube. A series of the fragmented liquid layer X-ray snap-shots are taken at different post-shock times and pieced together to reconstruct the entire volume fraction field of the shock-induced breakup at Mach 2.12. A rapid development of the gas-liquid mixing layer is found as water layer that is initially 12.8 mm thick spreads to 22.5 cm in 3.2 ms.

  1. Computers in dental radiography: a scenario for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    The recent emergence of cost-effective computing power makes it possible to integrate sophisticated data-sampling and image-interpretation techniques into dental radiography for the first time. A prototype system is being developed to permit clinical information expressed in three dimensions--plus time--to be made visible almost instantly. The associated X-ray dose for a complete three-dimensional survey of a selected dental region is predicted to be less than that required for a single conventional periapical radiograph exposed on D-speed film.

  2. Excretory urography using dual-energy scanned projection radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Soomer, F.G.; Brody, W.R.; Gross, D.; Macovski, A.; Hall, A.; Pelc, N.

    1981-11-01

    Excretory urograms of 10 patients were obtained using a GE 8800 CT scanner with Scout View which had been modified for dual-kVp scanned projection radiography. Using this system, it is possible to combine images obtained simultaneously at 85 and 135 kVp to create subtraction images from which substances of desired mean atomic number have been removed. This permits improved visualization of the genitourinary system on urograms by (a) eliminating obscuring bowel gas shadows and (b) enhancement of both iodinated contrast media and retroperitoneal fat planes.

  3. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  4. Panoramic radiography for temporomandibular joint arthrography: a description of arthropanoramograms.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, K; Langlais, R P; Dolwick, M F

    1989-06-01

    TMJ arthrograms done with panoramic radiography, i.e., arthropanoramography, can demonstrate intracapsular disk displacement and perforation pathoses. These views are very practical for inferior synovial cavity arthrograms performed in the dental operatory since panoramic radiographic machines have become common in modern dental practices. Specific advantages of arthropanoramography include the decreased financial cost and decreased radiation exposure to the patient. Arthropanoramography does not replace tomography or videofluoroscopy in TMJ arthrography. It is, however, described as a simple alternative to the more conventional forms of arthrography.

  5. [A scientometric radiography of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, M

    1997-07-01

    In the context of a festschrift to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Revista Médica de Chile, "radiography" of the journal has been depicted using several scientometric indicators. Among the mainstream journals in the category of Medicine, General & Internal and taking into account the wide editorial coverage and the language of the publication that fulfills the need for the required social appropriation of science that the country requires, the Revista Médica de Chile portrays healthy and quite relevant. Among the articles published between 1981 and 1995, some concerning public health have reached, particularly, an impact which surpasses their mean expected citation rate.

  6. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  7. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  8. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  9. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  10. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  11. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  12. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... meet the following minimum criteria: (a)(1) Each radiographic exposure device, source assembly...

  13. 75 FR 57080 - In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order... Aerotest Operations, Inc., (Aerotest, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. R-98 which authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor...

  14. 75 FR 27368 - Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy Montgomery, Project Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division... Operating License No. R-98 for the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR), currently held by...

  15. Dual Use Corrosion Inhibitor and Penetrant for Anomaly Detection in Neutron/X Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phillip B. (Inventor); Novak, Howard L. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A dual purpose corrosion inhibitor and penetrant composition sensitive to radiography interrogation is provided. The corrosion inhibitor mitigates or eliminates corrosion on the surface of a substrate upon which the corrosion inhibitor is applied. In addition, the corrosion inhibitor provides for the attenuation of a signal used during radiography interrogation thereby providing for detection of anomalies on the surface of the substrate.

  16. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH..., and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a...

  17. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  18. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  19. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  20. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  1. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  2. Biomedical wellness challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangney, John F.

    2012-06-01

    The mission of ONR's Human and Bioengineered Systems Division is to direct, plan, foster, and encourage Science and Technology in cognitive science, computational neuroscience, bioscience and bio-mimetic technology, social/organizational science, training, human factors, and decision making as related to future Naval needs. This paper highlights current programs that contribute to future biomedical wellness needs in context of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. ONR supports fundamental research and related technology demonstrations in several related areas, including biometrics and human activity recognition; cognitive sciences; computational neurosciences and bio-robotics; human factors, organizational design and decision research; social, cultural and behavioral modeling; and training, education and human performance. In context of a possible future with automated casualty evacuation, elements of current science and technology programs are illustrated.

  3. Biomedical aspects of artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Vil-Viliams, I F; Kotovskaya, A R; Shipov, A A

    1997-07-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) is the basic challenge for space biology and medicine. The importance of this problem is associated with the fact that duration of the space missions will become progressively longer, but the presently available countermeasures do not provide reason enough to predict the human health safety during space missions of any duration. The creation of AG could be an efficient method for removing the negative effects of microgravity. Two principle methods of generating AG, rotation of space system (SS) and building of short arm centrifuge (SAC), have been proposed. The purpose of the present work is to review the biomedical aspects of AG in the context of its use in long-term space missions.

  4. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  5. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Tritium AMS for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-08-01

    We are developing {sup 3}H-AMS to measure {sup 3}H activity of mg-sized biological samples. LLNL has already successfully applied {sup 14}C AMS to a variety of problems in the area of biomedical research. Development of {sup 3}H AMS would greatly complement these studies. The ability to perform {sup 3}H AMS measurements at sensitivities equivalent to those obtained for {sup 14}C will allow us to perform experiments using compounds that are not readily available in {sup 14}C-tagged form. A {sup 3}H capability would also allow us to perform unique double-labeling experiments in which we learn the fate, distribution, and metabolism of separate fractions of biological compounds.

  7. Ethics, regulation, and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Weed, Matthew

    2004-12-01

    Controversy has surrounded the institutions that facilitate discussion and regulation of American biomedical research for years. Recent challenges to the legitimacy of the President's Council on Bioethics have been focused on stem cell research. These arguments represent an opportunity to reconsider the legislation under which stem cell research is regulated, as well as to consider preexisting bodies like the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and National Bioethics Advisory Commission. This paper proposes a Federal Life Sciences Policy Commission, a novel commission with advisory and regulatory powers that would benefit from the positive and negative lessons learned under the legislation that currently shapes the formation and institutional characteristics of advisory bodies in the United States. The Federal Life Sciences Policy Commission would have institutional independence not present in previous advisory bodies, while maintaining the tradition of broad societal representation and thoughtful discourse that has developed in the United States.

  8. Keeping Up With Biomedical Meetings *

    PubMed Central

    Cruzat, Gwendolyn S.

    1968-01-01

    Scientific meetings in the field of biomedicine have increased greatly within the last twenty years. There are a number of information or directory sources which provide data about societies or agencies that sponsor meetings or conferences: bibliographic compilations that are generally retrospective in nature, and reference sources which list future national and international meetings. Nevertheless, bibliographic control of this vast amount of resulting literature is difficult. Examination of 120 currently existing bibliographic control instruments revealed that 28 gave some consideration to conferences and meetings. Four of these instruments covered a total of 1,821 biomedical conferences, demonstrating that there are existing bibliographic control instruments which are attempting to keep pace with the volume of material produced as a result of these meetings. PMID:4868739

  9. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  10. Electrospinning polydioxanone for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Boland, Eugene D; Coleman, Branch D; Barnes, Catherine P; Simpson, David G; Wnek, Gary E; Bowlin, Gary L

    2005-01-01

    Polydioxanone (PDS) is a colorless, crystalline, bioabsorbable polymer that was first developed specifically for wound closure sutures. The compatibility, degradation rate, and mechanical properties (including shape memory) of PDS are of interest when considering the design of tissue engineering scaffolds. This research presents the electrospinning of PDS to fabricate unique nanofibrous structures for a variety of biomedical applications. Electrospinning is a polymer processing technique that utilizes an electric field to form fibers from a polymer solution or melt and allows the fabrication of nanofibrous non-woven structures. Results demonstrate the ability to control the fiber diameter of PDS as a function of solution concentrations and the fiber orientation with our prototype electrospinning apparatus. The results also show dependence between the fiber orientation and the elastic modulus, peak stress, and strain to failure of PDS in a uniaxial model.

  11. Biomedical Aspects Of Optical Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greguss, Pal

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to survey optical testing methods currently being investigated for biological research and/or clinical diagnostics. The notation "optics" is used in a broad sense, i.e., for wavelengths in which the flow of electromagnetic energy can be modified with mirrors, lenses and/or gratings. The reviewed optical testing methods are based either on the change of the prop.gation p rameters of the electromagnetic radiation or on the fact that optical radiation is provoking changes in the material to be tested and the resulting signals not necessarily of optical n ture are used for rating. When and how optical testing methods used already in engineering are applicable to biomedical testing is also discussed.

  12. Zwitterionic ceramics for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Colilla, Montserrat; Vallet-Regí, María

    2016-08-01

    Bioceramics for bone tissue regeneration, local drug delivery and nanomedicine, are receiving growing attention by the biomaterials scientific community. The design of bioceramics with improved surface properties able to overcome clinical issues is a great scientific challenge. Zwitterionization of surfaces has arisen as a powerful alternative in the design of biocompatible bioceramics capable to inhibit bacterial and non-specific protein adsorption, which opens up new insights into the biomedical applications of these materials. This manuscript reviews the different approaches reported up to date for the synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic bioceramics with potential clinical applications. Zwitterionic bioceramics are receiving growing attention by the biomaterials scientific community due to their great potential in bone tissue regeneration, local drug delivery and nanomedicines. Herein, the different strategies developed so far to synthesize and characterize zwitterionic bioceramics with potential clinical applications are summarized. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biomedical Application of Knowledge Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, A.

    With rapid progress in biomedical fields, the knowledge accumulated in scientific papers has increased significantly. Most of these papers draw only a fragmental conclusion from the viewpoint of scientific facts, so discovery of hidden knowledge or hypothesis generation by leveraging this fragmental information has come into the limelight and more expectations on the system constructions to assist them has been paid. To respond to these expectations, we have developed a system called BioTermNet (http://btn.ontology.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:8081/) to make a conceptual network by connecting conceptual relationships (fragmental information) explicitly described in papers and explore the hidden relationships in the conceptual network. The conceptual relationships are extracted by hybrid methods of information extraction and information-retrieval techniques. This system has a potential for wide application. After the validation of system performance, we take up some topics of conceptual network-based analysis and refer to other applications in the future prospects section.

  14. Animals in biomedical space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    The use of experimental animals has been a major component of biomedical research progress. Using animals in space presents special problems, but also provides special opportunities. Rat and squirrel monkeys experiments have been planned in concert with human experiments to help answer fundamental questions concerning the effect of weightlessness on mammalian function. For the most part, these experiments focus on identified changes noted in humans during space flight. Utilizing space laboratory facilities, manipulative experiments can be completed while animals are still in orbit. Other experiments are designed to study changes in gravity receptor structure and function and the effect of weightlessness on early vertebrate development. Following these preliminary animals experiments on Spacelab Shuttle flights, longer term programs of animal investigation will be conducted on Space Station.

  15. Biomedical Applications for Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszynski, J. A.; Dixon, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Can be utilized in either Algebra or Calculus-based courses and is available either as a standalone text or as a supplement for books like Cutnell PHYSICS, 5e or Halliday, Resnick, & Walker FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS, 6e.

  16. Math level is Algebra & Trigonometry; however, a few examples require the use of integration and differentiation. Unlike competing supplements, Tuszinski offers both a wealth of engaging biomedical applications as well as quantitative problem-solving. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The quantitative problem-solving is presented in the form of worked examples and homework problems. The standard organization facilitates the integration of the material into most introductory courses.

  17. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  18. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  19. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Mazare, A; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Schmuki, P; A Iglič; Mozetič, M

    2015-02-13

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  20. A comparison of computed tomography, computed radiography, and film-screen radiography for the detection of canine pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kate; Joly, Hugo; Blond, Laurent; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Nadeau, Marie-Ève; Olive, Julien; Beauchamp, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become more widely available and computed radiography (CR) has replaced film-screen radiography for canine thoracic imaging in many veterinary practices. There are limited data comparing these modalities in a veterinary clinical setting to detect pulmonary nodules. We compared CT, CR, and film-screen radiography for detecting the presence, number, and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in dogs. Observer performance for a variety of experience levels was also evaluated. Twenty-one client-owned dogs with a primary neoplastic process underwent CT and CR; nine also received film-screen radiographs. Positive/negative classification by consensus agreed between the three modalities in 8/9 dogs and between CR and CT in the remaining 12. CT detected the greatest (P = 0.002) total number of nodules and no difference was seen between CR and films. The greatest number of nodules was seen in the right middle and both caudal regions, but only using CT (P < 0.0001). Significantly smaller nodules were detected with CT (P = 0.0007) and no difference in minimum size was detected between CR and films. Observer accuracy was high for all modalities; particularly for CT (90.5-100%) and for the senior radiologist (90.5-100%). CT was also characterized by the least interobserver variability. Although CT, CR, and film-screen performed similarly in determining the presence or absence of pulmonary nodules, a greater number of smaller nodules was detected with CT, and CT was associated with greater diagnostic confidence and observer accuracy and agreement. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  21. Investigating the use of an antiscatter grid in chest radiography for average adults with a computed radiography imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Smith, A; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate via simulation a proposed change to clinical practice for chest radiography. The validity of using a scatter rejection grid across the diagnostic energy range (60–125 kVp), in conjunction with appropriate tube current–time product (mAs) for imaging with a computed radiography (CR) system was investigated. Methods: A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm was used, which was capable of simulating CR chest radiographs with various tube voltages, receptor doses and scatter rejection methods. Four experienced image evaluators graded images with a grid (n = 80) at tube voltages across the diagnostic energy range and varying detector air kermas. These were scored against corresponding images reconstructed without a grid, as per current clinical protocol. Results: For all patients, diagnostic image quality improved with the use of a grid, without the need to increase tube mAs (and therefore patient dose), irrespective of the tube voltage used. Increasing tube mAs by an amount determined by the Bucky factor made little difference to image quality. Conclusion: A virtual clinical trial has been performed with simulated chest CR images. Results indicate that the use of a grid improves diagnostic image quality for average adults, without the need to increase tube mAs, even at low tube voltages. Advances in knowledge: Validated with images containing realistic anatomical noise, it is possible to improve image quality by utilizing grids for chest radiography with CR systems without increasing patient exposure. Increasing tube mAs by an amount determined by the Bucky factor is not justified. PMID:25571914

  1. Correlation of the clinical and physical image quality in chest radiography for average adults with a computed radiography imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quality of visually graded patient (clinical) chest images and a quantitative assessment of chest phantom (physical) images acquired with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. Methods: The results of a previously published study, in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer-simulated postero-anterior chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme, were used for the clinical image quality measurement. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose efficiency (eDE) were used as physical image quality metrics measured in a uniform chest phantom. Although optimal values of these physical metrics for chest radiography were not derived in this work, their correlation with VGAS in images acquired without an antiscatter grid across the diagnostic range of X-ray tube voltages was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Clinical and physical image quality metrics increased with decreasing tube voltage. Statistically significant correlations between VGAS and CNR (R=0.87, p<0.033) and eDE (R=0.77, p<0.008) were observed. Conclusion: Medical physics experts may use the physical image quality metrics described here in quality assurance programmes and optimisation studies with a degree of confidence that they reflect the clinical image quality in chest CR images acquired without an antiscatter grid. Advances in knowledge: A statistically significant correlation has been found between the clinical and physical image quality in CR chest imaging. The results support the value of using CNR and eDE in the evaluation of quality in clinical thorax radiography. PMID:23568362

  2. In situ studies of mass transport in liquid alloys by means of neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Kargl, F; Engelhardt, M; Yang, F; Weis, H; Schmakat, P; Schillinger, B; Griesche, A; Meyer, A

    2011-06-29

    When in situ techniques became available in recent years this led to a breakthrough in accurately determining diffusion coefficients for liquid alloys. Here we discuss how neutron radiography can be used to measure chemical diffusion in a ternary AlCuAg alloy. Neutron radiography hereby gives complementary information to x-ray radiography used for measuring chemical diffusion and to quasielastic neutron scattering used mainly for determining self-diffusion. A novel Al(2)O(3) based furnace that enables one to study diffusion processes by means of neutron radiography is discussed. A chemical diffusion coefficient of Ag against Al around the eutectic composition Al(68.6)Cu(13.8)Ag(17.6) at.% was obtained. It is demonstrated that the in situ technique of neutron radiography is a powerful means to study mass transport properties in situ in binary and ternary alloys that show poor x-ray contrast.

  3. Free-focus radiography using conventional films: Radiation exposures in a simulated clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.W.; Randall, G.J.; Goldberg, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    This study compared air exposures during conventional dental and maxillofacial radiography and similar views using free-focus radiography with conventional image receptors. The results show that periapical type surveys on nonscreen film placed extraorally or in the buccal fold may be carried out with an exposure to the surface tissues, which is similar to or less than conventional dental radiography. Extraoral survey type radiographs of the jaws may be carried out with significantly less surface exposure than lateral oblique views of the jaws. The least exposure was required, when the film was placed in the buccla fold instead of against the face during free-focus radiography. The exposures with film screen combinations were reduced by an order of magnitude when compared to the nonscreen techniques. Proper filtration of the beam of the miniaturized x-ray machines radiography in dentistry may thus be desirable and applications in other parts of the body encouraged.

  4. Unified Database for Rejected Image Analysis Across Multiple Vendors in Radiography.

    PubMed

    Little, Kevin J; Reiser, Ingrid; Liu, Lili; Kinsey, Tiffany; Sánchez, Adrian A; Haas, Kateland; Mallory, Florence; Froman, Carmen; Lu, Zheng Feng

    2017-02-01

    Reject rate analysis has been part of radiography departments' quality control since the days of screen-film radiography. In the era of digital radiography, one might expect that reject rate analysis is easily facilitated because of readily available information produced by the modality during the examination procedure. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. The lack of an industry standard and the wide variety of system log entries and formats have made it difficult to implement a robust multivendor reject analysis program, and logs do not always include all relevant information. The increased use of digital detectors exacerbates this problem because of higher reject rates associated with digital radiography compared with computed radiography. In this article, the authors report on the development of a unified database for vendor-neutral reject analysis across multiple sites within an academic institution and share their experience from a team-based approach to reduce reject rates.

  5. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  6. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  7. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  8. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  9. Accuracy of direct digital radiography for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth compared with conventional radiography and visual inspection: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dias da Silva, P R; Martins Marques, M; Steagall, W; Medeiros Mendes, F; Lascala, C A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The diagnosis of caries lesions is still a matter of concern in dentistry. The diagnosis of dental caries by digital radiography has a number of advantages over conventional radiography; however, this method has not been explored fully in the field of paediatric dentistry. This in vitro research evaluated the accuracy of direct digital radiography compared with visual inspection and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars. Methods 50 molars were selected and evaluated under standardized conditions by 2 previously calibrated examiners according to 3 diagnostic methods (visual inspection, conventional radiography and direct digital radiography). Direct digital radiographs were obtained with the Dixi3 system (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and the conventional radiographs with InSight film (Kodak Eastman Co., Rochester, NY). The images were scored and a reference standard was obtained histologically. The interexaminer reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa test and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the methods were calculated. Results Examiner reliability was good. For lesions limited to the enamel, visual inspection showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy than both radiographic methods, but no significant difference was found in specificity. For teeth with dentinal caries, no significant differences were found for any parameter when comparing visual and radiographic evaluation. Conclusions Although less accurate than the visual method for detecting caries lesions confined to the enamel, the direct digital radiographic method is as effective as conventional radiographic examination and visual inspection of primary teeth with occlusal caries when the dentine is involved. PMID:20729186

  10. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Matthew S.; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J.; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Chris L.; Murray, Matthew M.; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P.; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm-2. However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm-2. Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm-2 across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ˜25 mg cm-2 to 100 g cm-2, exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  11. Development of a Logging Tool for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, H.; Kiho, K.; Miyakawa, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    A research for high level radioactive waste disposal should investigate geological structure and saturation change of rock mass around a disposal cavern. In the CO2 geological storage and the underground storage of crude oil, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it is necessary to monitor an upward migration of a gaseous fluid which is stored in underground. For an investigation of slope stability, it is effective to evaluate a high saturation area in the ground's pore space as the area should be the same as that of a rainfall infiltration. Since these phenomena could be evaluated by a measurement of a density variation in underground rock, an application of muon radiography is highly prospective. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has a plan to conduct a field experiment to evaluate an applicability of the muon radiography to engineering geology in cooperation with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (J-POWER). The field experiment will be performed this year in slope topography. If the applicability will be revealed as a result of the field experiment, CRIEPI will start a research on development of a logging tool which can measure muon in a borehole. We plan to build a prototype of the logging tool in around three years and will put it into practical use in around five years.

  12. Plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in Sweden in 2025.

    PubMed

    Björkman, B; Fridell, K; Tavakol Olofsson, P

    2017-11-01

    Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025. The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method. Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled "Access to career advancement" and "A sufficient number of radiographers", were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line. It is suggested that "The dying profession" scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of "happy radiographers" who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by "the assembly line". Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing The Impact Of Computed Radiography And PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Kehr, Katherine

    1989-05-01

    Our institution (San Francisco VA Medical Center) is a VA pilot center for total digital imaging and PACS. Quantitative information about PACS impact on health care is limited, because no centers have done rigorous preimplementation studies. We are gathering quantitative service delivery and cost data before, during, and after stepwise implementation of computed radiography and PACS at our institution to define the impact on imaging service delivery. We designed a simple audit method using the x-ray request and time clocks to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, image availability to the radiologist, matching of current with previous images, image availability to clinicians, and time to final interpretation. Our department model is a multichannel, mulitserver patient queue. Our current radiograph file is space limited, containing only one year of images; older images are kept in a remote file area in another building. In addition, there are 16 subfile areas within the Radiology Service and the medical center. Our preimplementation audit showed some long waiting times (40 minutes, average 20) and immediate retrieval of prior films in only 42% of cases, with an average retrieval time of 22 hours. Computed radiography and the optical archive have the potential to improve these figures. The audit will be ongoing and automated as implementation of PACS progresses, to measure service improvement and learning curve with the new equipment. We present the audit format and baseline preimplementation figures.

  14. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Sher-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice. PMID:25177144

  15. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Sher-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.

  16. Using Digital Radiography To Image Liquid Nitrogen in Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Dwight; Blevins, Elana

    2007-01-01

    Digital radiography by use of (1) a field-portable x-ray tube that emits low-energy x rays and (2) an electronic imaging x-ray detector has been found to be an effective technique for detecting liquid nitrogen inside voids in thermal-insulation panels. The technique was conceived as a means of investigating cryopumping (including cryoingestion) as a potential cause of loss of thermal insulation foam from space-shuttle external fuel tanks. The technique could just as well be used to investigate cryopumping and cryoingestion in other settings. In images formed by use of low-energy x-rays, one can clearly distinguish between voids filled with liquid nitrogen and those filled with gaseous nitrogen or other gases. Conventional film radiography is of some value, but yields only non-real-time still images that do not show time dependences of levels of liquids in voids. In contrast, the present digital radiographic technique yields a succession of images in real time at a rate of about 10 frames per second. The digitized images can be saved for subsequent analysis to extract data on time dependencies of levels of liquids and, hence, of flow paths and rates of filling and draining. The succession of images also amounts to a real-time motion picture that can be used as a guide to adjustment of test conditions.

  17. Grating Based, Phase Contrast Radiography with Bremsstrahlung Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher Goldin and Shaun Hampton

    2009-09-11

    Phase-contrast radiography (PCR) generates an image from gradients in the phase of the probing X-radiation induced by the radiographic object, and can therefore make visible features difficult or impossible to see with conventional, absorption-contrast (ACR) radiography. For any particular object, variations in either the real or imaginary parts of the index of refraction could be greater. Most practical difficulties of PCR arise from the very small deviation from unity (~10-5-10-6, depending of material and energy) of the real part of the index of refraction. In principal, straightforward shadowgraphy would provide a phase-contrast image, but in practice this is usually overwhelmed by the zero-order (bright field) signal. Eliminating this sets the phase-contrast signal against a dark field (as in Schlieren photography with visible light). One way to do this with X-rays is with a grating that produces a Talbot interference pattern. Minute variations in optical path lengths through the radiographic object can significantly shift the Talbot fringes, and these shifts constitute a dark-field signal separate from the zero-order wave. This technique has recently been investigated up to ~20keV [1-3]; this work addresses what sets the practical upper limit, and where that limit is. These appear to be grating fabrication, and ~60keV, respectively.

  18. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassink, Casper; Hol, Martijn; Flikweert, Arjan; van Meer, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  19. Building a cost efficient digital radiography system for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Chris

    Due to the growing need for Medical Physicists, many universities are implementing a Medical Physics program into their academic catalog. To help establish a new program, feasible equipment may be needed to help academic departments provide a hands-on experience for students and help teach the basic concepts of Medical Physics. For example, clinical Digital Radiography Systems (DRS) are used to help teach the basic concepts of digital imaging. However, such systems can cost in excess of 100,000, creating a financial obstacle that will be difficult to overcome. Hence, the development of a cost efficient digital radiography system may be desired in order to eliminate the financial obstacle and give students a hands-on learning experience. This DRS uses three main components to develop an image, an x-ray source, an intensifying plate, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All three components are housed in a lead-lined box. The purpose of this project is to find the limitations of our DRS and compare the price between our DRS and commercially available DRSs. At optimal settings, a SNR of 25 is shown across the intensifying screen that can identify objects as small as 0.42mm. A Contrast-detail phantom shows the ability to decipher the varying thickness of foam rubber squares. The total cost of our DRS comes to 17,000.00, a fractional price tag compared to a commercially available DRS.

  20. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.; Lane, T.G.; Wu, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems.