Science.gov

Sample records for biometric identification cards

  1. Biometrics, identification and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David

    2008-11-01

    Governing by identity describes the emerging regime of a globalizing, mobile world. Governance depends on identification but identification increasingly depends on biometrics. This 'solution' to difficulties of verification is described and some technical weaknesses are discussed. The role of biometrics in classification systems is also considered and is shown to contain possible prejudice in relation to racialized criteria of identity. Lastly, the culture of biometric identification is shown to be limited to abstract data, artificially separated from the lived experience of the body including the orientation to others. It is proposed that creators of national ID systems in particular address these crucial deficiencies in their attempt to provide new modes of verification.

  2. A bimodal biometric identification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  3. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  4. Biometrics and smart cards combine to offer high security

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the Smart Card a plastic credit card sized package with an embedded computer chip which encompasses a level of technical sophistication which makes it virtually impossible to counterfeit. The question of legitimacy of the person using the Card for physical, computer, or network access can be answered by storing a biometric template of the authorized user in the Smart Card's unalterable memory. The bimetric template can be based upon a retina print, a hand print, a finger print, a wrist-vein print, a voice print, or pseudo-biometrics, such as signature dynamics, gait dynamics or keyboard typing patterns. These Cards will function only when they are being used by the authorized individuals to whom they are issued.

  5. Biometric identification systems: the science of transaction facilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Robert R.

    1994-10-01

    The future ofthe "secure transaction" and the success ofall undertakings that depend on absolute certainty that the individuals involved really are who and what they represent themselves to be is dependent upon the successful development of absolutely accurate, low-cost and easy-to-operate Biometric Identification Systems. Whether these transactions are political, military, financial or administrative (e.g. health cards, drivers licenses, welfare entitlement, national identification cards, credit card transactions, etc.), the need for such secure and positive identification has never been greater -and yet we are only at the beginning ofan era in which we will see the emergence and proliferation of Biometric Identification Systems in nearly every field ofhuman endeavor. Proper application ofthese systems will change the way the world operates, and that is precisely the goal ofComparator Systems Corporation. Just as with the photo-copier 40 years ago and the personal computer 20 years ago, the potential applications for positive personal identification are going to make the Biometric Identification System a commonplace component in the standard practice ofbusiness, and in interhuman relationships ofall kinds. The development of new and specific application hardware, as well as the necessary algorithms and related software required for integration into existing operating procedures and newly developed systems alike, has been a more-than-a-decade-long process at Comparator -and we are now on the verge of delivering these systems to the world markets so urgently in need of them. An individual could feel extremely confident and satisfied ifhe could present his credit, debit, or ATM card at any point of sale and, after inserting his card, could simply place his finger on a glass panel and in less than a second be positively accepted as being the person that the card purported him to be; not to mention the security and satisfaction of the vendor involved in knowing that

  6. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    PubMed

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  7. Biometric identification: a holistic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadel, Lawrence D.

    2007-04-01

    Significant advances continue to be made in biometric technology. However, the global war on terrorism and our increasingly electronic society have created the societal need for large-scale, interoperable biometric capabilities that challenge the capabilities of current off-the-shelf technology. At the same time, there are concerns that large-scale implementation of biometrics will infringe our civil liberties and offer increased opportunities for identity theft. This paper looks beyond the basic science and engineering of biometric sensors and fundamental matching algorithms and offers approaches for achieving greater performance and acceptability of applications enabled with currently available biometric technologies. The discussion focuses on three primary biometric system aspects: performance and scalability, interoperability, and cost benefit. Significant improvements in system performance and scalability can be achieved through careful consideration of the following elements: biometric data quality, human factors, operational environment, workflow, multibiometric fusion, and integrated performance modeling. Application interoperability hinges upon some of the factors noted above as well as adherence to interface, data, and performance standards. However, there are times when the price of conforming to such standards can be decreased local system performance. The development of biometric performance-based cost benefit models can help determine realistic requirements and acceptable designs.

  8. Biometric identification using local iterated function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saidi, N. M. G.; Said, M. R. M.

    2014-06-01

    Biometric identification protocol has been received an increasing interest recently. It is a process that determines person identity by making use of their biometric features. A new biometric identification method is presented in this paper based on partial self-similarity that used to identify features within fingerprint images. This approach is already used in Fractal Image Compression (FIC) due to their ability to represent the images by a limited number of affine transformations, and its variation of scale, translation or rotation. These features give the recognition process high impact and good performance. To process data in a fingerprint image, it first converted into digital format using Optical Fingerprint Reader (OFR). The verification process is done by comparing these data with the server data. The system analysis shows that the proposed method is efficient in terms of memory and time complexity.

  9. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    SciTech Connect

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  10. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: data representation by AVT hierarchical data tree.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    User authentication has been widely used by biometric applications that work on unique bodily features, such as fingerprints, retina scan, and palm vessels recognition. This paper proposes a novel concept of biometric authentication by exploiting a user's medical history. Although medical history may not be absolutely unique to every individual person, the chances of having two persons who share an exactly identical trail of medical and prognosis history are slim. Therefore, in addition to common biometric identification methods, medical history can be used as ingredients for generating Q&A challenges upon user authentication. This concept is motivated by a recent advancement on smart-card technology that future identity cards are able to carry patents' medical history like a mobile database. Privacy, however, may be a concern when medical history is used for authentication. Therefore in this paper, a new method is proposed for abstracting the medical data by using attribute value taxonomies, into a hierarchical data tree (h-Data). Questions can be abstracted to various level of resolution (hence sensitivity of private data) for use in the authentication process. The method is described and a case study is given in this paper.

  11. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification cards. 249.3 Section 249.3 Indians BUREAU... General Provisions § 249.3 Identification cards. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall arrange for the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie...

  12. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification cards. 249.3 Section 249.3 Indians BUREAU... General Provisions § 249.3 Identification cards. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall arrange for the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie...

  13. 75 FR 10414 - Researcher Identification Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1254 RIN 3095-AB59 Researcher Identification Card AGENCY: National... National Archives Building in Washington, DC, to obtain a researcher identification card. Under the new requirements, researchers at regional archives are also required to obtain a researcher identification card...

  14. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Identification cards. 249.3 Section 249.3 Indians BUREAU... General Provisions § 249.3 Identification cards. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall arrange for the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie...

  15. 19 CFR 101.8 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification cards. 101.8 Section 101.8 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.8 Identification cards. Each Customs employee shall be issued an appropriate identification card with that employee's photograph and signature, signed by the appropriate issuing officer. ...

  16. 19 CFR 101.8 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification cards. 101.8 Section 101.8 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.8 Identification cards. Each Customs employee shall be issued an appropriate identification card with that employee's photograph and signature, signed by the appropriate issuing officer. ...

  17. 19 CFR 101.8 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification cards. 101.8 Section 101.8 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.8 Identification cards. Each Customs employee shall be issued an appropriate identification card with that employee's photograph and signature, signed by the appropriate issuing officer. ...

  18. 19 CFR 101.8 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification cards. 101.8 Section 101.8 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.8 Identification cards. Each Customs employee shall be issued an appropriate identification card with that employee's photograph and signature, signed by the appropriate issuing officer. ...

  19. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification cards. 249.3 Section 249.3 Indians BUREAU... General Provisions § 249.3 Identification cards. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall arrange for the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie...

  20. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification cards. 249.3 Section 249.3 Indians BUREAU... General Provisions § 249.3 Identification cards. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall arrange for the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie...

  1. 19 CFR 101.8 - Identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification cards. 101.8 Section 101.8 Customs... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.8 Identification cards. Each Customs employee shall be issued an appropriate identification card with that employee's photograph and signature, signed by the appropriate issuing officer. ...

  2. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card. 37.17 Section 37.17 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... specifically ISO/IEC 19794-5:2005(E) Information technology—Biometric Data Interchange Formats—Part 5:...

  3. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1998, shall consist of a card, Form DSP-150, containing a machine-readable biometric identifier. It..., but not later than the date, currently October 1, 2001, on which a machine-readable, biometric..., biometric identifier in the card is required in order for the card to be usable for entry. (c) Revocation....

  4. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., 1998, shall consist of a card, Form DSP-150, containing a machine-readable biometric identifier. It..., but not later than the date, currently October 1, 2001, on which a machine-readable, biometric..., biometric identifier in the card is required in order for the card to be usable for entry. (c) Revocation....

  5. Biometric template revocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  6. Biometric identification using holographic radar imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  7. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 212.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY... valid on or after October 1, 2002, the non-biometric border crossing card portion of the document is not... contain a machine-readable biometric identifier, may be admitted on the basis of the nonimmigrant...

  8. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 212.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY... valid on or after October 1, 2002, the non-biometric border crossing card portion of the document is not... contain a machine-readable biometric identifier, may be admitted on the basis of the nonimmigrant...

  9. Modeling of Biometric Identification System Using the Colored Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, G. R.; Ter-Vardanyan, L. A.; Gaboutchian, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a model of biometric identification system transformed into Petri Nets. Petri Nets, as a graphical and mathematical tool, provide a uniform environment for modelling, formal analysis, and design of discrete event systems. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of Petri Nets to the researchers and practitioners, both from identification systems, who are involved in the work in the areas of modelling and analysis of biometric identification types of systems, as well as those who may potentially be involved in these areas. In addition, the paper introduces high-level Petri Nets, as Colored Petri Nets (CPN). In this paper the model of Colored Petri Net describes the identification process much simpler.

  10. Security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme.

  11. Security Enhanced Anonymous Multiserver Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards and Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Younsung; Nam, Junghyun; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous user authentication scheme allows a user, who wants to access a remote application server, to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the server in an anonymous manner. To enhance the security of such authentication schemes, recent researches combined user's biometrics with a password. However, these authentication schemes are designed for single server environment. So when a user wants to access different application servers, the user has to register many times. To solve this problem, Chuang and Chen proposed an anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme using smart cards together with passwords and biometrics. Chuang and Chen claimed that their scheme not only supports multiple servers but also achieves various security requirements. However, we show that this scheme is vulnerable to a masquerade attack, a smart card attack, a user impersonation attack, and a DoS attack and does not achieve perfect forward secrecy. We also propose a security enhanced anonymous multiserver authenticated key agreement scheme which addresses all the weaknesses identified in Chuang and Chen's scheme. PMID:25276847

  12. Three dimensional identification card and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhe; Wang, Shaoqing; Li, Chao; Li, Hao; Liu, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Three dimensional Identification Card, with its three-dimensional personal image displayed and stored for personal identification, is supposed be the advanced version of the present two-dimensional identification card in the future [1]. Three dimensional Identification Card means that there are three-dimensional optical techniques are used, the personal image on ID card is displayed to be three-dimensional, so we can see three dimensional personal face. The ID card also stores the three-dimensional face information in its inside electronics chip, which might be recorded by using two-channel cameras, and it can be displayed in computer as three-dimensional images for personal identification. Three-dimensional ID card might be one interesting direction to update the present two-dimensional card in the future. Three-dimension ID card might be widely used in airport custom, entrance of hotel, school, university, as passport for on-line banking, registration of on-line game, etc...

  13. Biometric Identification Using Holographic Radar Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  14. 19 CFR 112.45 - Surrender of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surrender of identification cards. 112.45 Section... OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.45 Surrender of identification cards. The identification card shall be surrendered by the holder or licensee to the port director...

  15. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41, and...

  16. 19 CFR 112.45 - Surrender of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surrender of identification cards. 112.45 Section... OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.45 Surrender of identification cards. The identification card shall be surrendered by the holder or licensee to the port director...

  17. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43... TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued on Customs Form 3873 and shall not be valid unless signed by the employee and...

  18. 19 CFR 112.41 - Identification cards required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification cards required. 112.41 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.41 Identification cards... custody to carry and display upon request of a Customs officer an identification card issued by Customs...

  19. 19 CFR 112.45 - Surrender of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surrender of identification cards. 112.45 Section... OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.45 Surrender of identification cards. The identification card shall be surrendered by the holder or licensee to the port director...

  20. 19 CFR 112.41 - Identification cards required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification cards required. 112.41 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.41 Identification cards... custody to carry and display upon request of a Customs officer an identification card issued by Customs...

  1. 19 CFR 112.45 - Surrender of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surrender of identification cards. 112.45 Section... OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.45 Surrender of identification cards. The identification card shall be surrendered by the holder or licensee to the port director...

  2. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41, and...

  3. 19 CFR 112.45 - Surrender of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surrender of identification cards. 112.45 Section... OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.45 Surrender of identification cards. The identification card shall be surrendered by the holder or licensee to the port director...

  4. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43... TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued on Customs Form 3873 and shall not be valid unless signed by the employee and...

  5. 19 CFR 112.41 - Identification cards required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Identification cards required. 112.41 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.41 Identification cards... custody to carry and display upon request of a Customs officer an identification card issued by Customs...

  6. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43... TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued on Customs Form 3873 and shall not be valid unless signed by the employee and...

  7. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41, and...

  8. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41, and...

  9. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41, and...

  10. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43... TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued on Customs Form 3873 and shall not be valid unless signed by the employee and...

  11. 19 CFR 112.43 - Form of identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of identification card. 112.43 Section 112.43... TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.43 Form of identification card. The identification card shall be issued on Customs Form 3873 and shall not be valid unless signed by the employee and...

  12. 19 CFR 112.41 - Identification cards required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification cards required. 112.41 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.41 Identification cards... custody to carry and display upon request of a Customs officer an identification card issued by Customs...

  13. 19 CFR 112.41 - Identification cards required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification cards required. 112.41 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.41 Identification cards... custody to carry and display upon request of a Customs officer an identification card issued by Customs...

  14. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-04-25

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.'s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme.

  15. Improving Biometric-Based Authentication Schemes with Smart Card Revocation/Reissue for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    User authentication in wireless sensor networks is more difficult than in traditional networks owing to sensor network characteristics such as unreliable communication, limited resources, and unattended operation. For these reasons, various authentication schemes have been proposed to provide secure and efficient communication. In 2016, Park et al. proposed a secure biometric-based authentication scheme with smart card revocation/reissue for wireless sensor networks. However, we found that their scheme was still insecure against impersonation attack, and had a problem in the smart card revocation/reissue phase. In this paper, we show how an adversary can impersonate a legitimate user or sensor node, illegal smart card revocation/reissue and prove that Park et al.’s scheme fails to provide revocation/reissue. In addition, we propose an enhanced scheme that provides efficiency, as well as anonymity and security. Finally, we provide security and performance analysis between previous schemes and the proposed scheme, and provide formal analysis based on the random oracle model. The results prove that the proposed scheme can solve the weaknesses of impersonation attack and other security flaws in the security analysis section. Furthermore, performance analysis shows that the computational cost is lower than the previous scheme. PMID:28441331

  16. Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.

    PubMed

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

  17. Security Analysis and Enhancements of an Effective Biometric-Based Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    PubMed Central

    An, Younghwa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. PMID:22899887

  18. Robust Biometrics Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Xing; Yang, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authenticated schemes using smart cards have attracted much attention in multi-server environments. Several schemes of this type where proposed in the past. However, many of them were found to have some design flaws. This paper concentrates on the security weaknesses of the three-factor authentication scheme by Mishra et al. After careful analysis, we find their scheme does not really resist replay attack while failing to provide an efficient password change phase. We further propose an improvement of Mishra et al.’s scheme with the purpose of preventing the security threats of their scheme. We demonstrate the proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against several attacks including attacks shown in the original scheme. In addition, we compare the performance and functionality with other multi-server authenticated key schemes. PMID:25978373

  19. Robust biometrics based authentication and key agreement scheme for multi-server environments using smart cards.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Xing; Yang, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authenticated schemes using smart cards have attracted much attention in multi-server environments. Several schemes of this type where proposed in the past. However, many of them were found to have some design flaws. This paper concentrates on the security weaknesses of the three-factor authentication scheme by Mishra et al. After careful analysis, we find their scheme does not really resist replay attack while failing to provide an efficient password change phase. We further propose an improvement of Mishra et al.'s scheme with the purpose of preventing the security threats of their scheme. We demonstrate the proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against several attacks including attacks shown in the original scheme. In addition, we compare the performance and functionality with other multi-server authenticated key schemes.

  20. Dental orthopantomogram biometrics system for human identification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Bhargava, Darpan; Deshpande, Ashwini

    2013-07-01

    Fingerprinting is the most widely accepted method of identification of people. But in cases of disfigured, decomposed, burnt or fragmented bodies, it is of limited value. Teeth and dental restorations on the other hand are extremely resistant to destruction by fire. They retain a number of their original characteristics, which are often unique and hence offer a possibility of rather accurate and legally acceptable identification of such remains. This study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of orthopantomography for human identification and propose a coding system for orthopantomogram (OPG), which can be utilized as an identification tool in forensic sciences.

  1. Body identification, biometrics and medicine: ethical and social considerations.

    PubMed

    Mordini, Emilio; Ottolini, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Identity is important when it is weak. This apparent paradox is the core of the current debate on identity. Traditionally, verification of identity has been based upon authentication of attributed and biographical characteristics. After small scale societies and large scale, industrial societies, globalization represents the third period of personal identification. The human body lies at the heart of all strategies for identity management. The tension between human body and personal identity is critical in the health care sector. The health care sector is second only to the financial sector in term of the number of biometric users. Many hospitals and healthcare organizations are in progress to deploy biometric security architecture. Secure identification is critical in the health care system, both to control logic access to centralized archives of digitized patients' data, and to limit physical access to buildings and hospital wards, and to authenticate medical and social support personnel. There is also an increasing need to identify patients with a high degree of certainty. Finally there is the risk that biometric authentication devices can significantly reveal any health information. All these issues require a careful ethical and political scrutiny.

  2. Biometrics Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    biometrics technology this paper will address is the smart card . DoD implemented the Common Access Card (CAC) for active and reserve military...of the CAC was the smart card or automated chip card that was developed in the late 1960s in Europe by a German engineer named Helmut Grottup. 37 The... smart card quickly received broad acceptance in Europe over the past three decades before being commercialization in the U.S. The smart card’s

  3. Using medical history embedded in biometrics medical card for user identity authentication: privacy preserving authentication model by features matching.

    PubMed

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration.

  4. Using Medical History Embedded in Biometrics Medical Card for User Identity Authentication: Privacy Preserving Authentication Model by Features Matching

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Simon; Zhuang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Many forms of biometrics have been proposed and studied for biometrics authentication. Recently researchers are looking into longitudinal pattern matching that based on more than just a singular biometrics; data from user's activities are used to characterise the identity of a user. In this paper we advocate a novel type of authentication by using a user's medical history which can be electronically stored in a biometric security card. This is a sequel paper from our previous work about defining abstract format of medical data to be queried and tested upon authentication. The challenge to overcome is preserving the user's privacy by choosing only the useful features from the medical data for use in authentication. The features should contain less sensitive elements and they are implicitly related to the target illness. Therefore exchanging questions and answers about a few carefully chosen features in an open channel would not easily or directly expose the illness, but yet it can verify by inference whether the user has a record of it stored in his smart card. The design of a privacy preserving model by backward inference is introduced in this paper. Some live medical data are used in experiments for validation and demonstration. PMID:22550398

  5. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing. PMID:22919273

  6. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  7. Biometric identification devices -- Laboratory testing vs. real life

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    For over fifteen years Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in laboratory testing of biometric identification devices. The key concept of biometric identification devices is the ability for the system to identify some unique aspect of the individual rather than some object a person may be carrying or some password they are required to know. Tests were conducted to verify manufacturer`s performance claims, to determine strengths/weaknesses of devices, and to determine devices that meet the US Department of energy`s needs. However, during recent field installation, significantly different performance was observed than was predicted by laboratory tests. Although most people using the device believed it operated adequately, the performance observed was over an order of magnitude worse than predicted. The search for reasons behind this gap between the predicted and the actual performance has revealed many possible contributing factors. As engineers, the most valuable lesson to be learned from this experience is the value of scientists and engineers with (1) common sense, (2) knowledge of human behavior, (3) the ability to observe the real world, and (4) the capability to realize the significant differences between controlled experiments and actual installations.

  8. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish a...

  9. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to...

  10. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish a...

  11. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to...

  12. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish a...

  13. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish a...

  14. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to...

  15. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to...

  16. Automated biometrics-based personal identification of the Hunter–Schreger bands of dental enamel

    PubMed Central

    Ramenzoni, Liza L; Line, Sérgio R.P

    2006-01-01

    The use of automated biometrics-based personal identification systems is a ubiquitous procedure in present times. Biometrics has certain limitations, such as in cases when bodies are decomposed, burned, or only small fragments of calcified tissues remain. Dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue of organisms and resists post-mortem degradation. It is characterized by layers of prisms of regularly alternating directions, known as Hunter–Schreger bands (HSB). In this article, we show that the pattern variation of the HSB, referred here as toothprint, can be used as a biometric-based parameter for personal identification in automated systems. PMID:16600895

  17. The Effect of Decomposition on the Efficacy of Biometrics for Positive Identification.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, Kelly; Saul, Tiffany B; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Boehnen, Chris B

    2017-02-27

    Biometrics, unique measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics, are used to identify individuals in a variety of scenarios, including forensic investigations. However, data on the longevity of these indicators are incomplete. This study demonstrated that iris and fingerprint biometric data can be obtained up to four days postmortem in warmer seasons and 50 + days in the winter. It has been generally believed, but never studied, that iris recognition is only obtainable within the first 24 hours after death. However, this study showed that they remain viable for longer (2-34 days) depending upon the environmental conditions. Temperature, precipitation, insects, and scavenger activity were the primary factors affecting the retention of biometrics in decomposing human remains. While this study is an initial step in determining the utility of physiological biometrics across postmortem time, biometric research has the potential to make important contributions to human identification and the law enforcement, military, and medicolegal communities.

  18. 77 FR 20889 - Proposed Information Collection (Request One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activity... Identity Verification (PIV) identification card. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Request for One-VA Identification Card. OMB...

  19. Facial recognition trial: biometric identification of non-compliant subjects using CCTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Tim

    2007-10-01

    LogicaCMG were provided with an opportunity to deploy a facial recognition system in a realistic scenario. 12 cameras were installed at an international airport covering all entrances to the immigration hall. The evaluation took place over several months with numerous adjustments to both the hardware (i.e. cameras, servers and capture cards) and software. The learning curve has been very steep but a stage has now been reached where both LogicaCMG and the client are confident that, subject to the right environmental conditions (lighting and camera location) an effective system can be defined with a high probability of successful detection of the target individual, with minimal false alarms. To the best of our knowledge, results with a >90% detection rate, of non-compliant subjects 'at range' has not been achieved anywhere else. This puts this location at the forefront of capability in this area. The results achieved demonstrate that, given optimised conditions, it is possible to achieve a long range biometric identification of a non compliant subject, with a high rate of success.

  20. Modelling of Biometric Identification System with Given Parameters Using Colored Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, G.; Ter-Vardanyan, L.; Gaboutchian, A.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric identification systems use given parameters and function on the basis of Colored Petri Nets as a modelling language developed for systems in which communication, synchronization and distributed resources play an important role. Colored Petri Nets combine the strengths of Classical Petri Nets with the power of a high-level programming language. Coloured Petri Nets have both, formal intuitive and graphical presentations. Graphical CPN model consists of a set of interacting modules which include a network of places, transitions and arcs. Mathematical representation has a well-defined syntax and semantics, as well as defines system behavioural properties. One of the best known features used in biometric is the human finger print pattern. During the last decade other human features have become of interest, such as iris-based or face recognition. The objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of Petri Nets in relation to tooth shape analysis. Biometric identification systems functioning has two phases: data enrollment phase and identification phase. During the data enrollment phase images of teeth are added to database. This record contains enrollment data as a noisy version of the biometrical data corresponding to the individual. During the identification phase an unknown individual is observed again and is compared to the enrollment data in the database and then system estimates the individual. The purpose of modeling biometric identification system by means of Petri Nets is to reveal the following aspects of the functioning model: the efficiency of the model, behavior of the model, mistakes and accidents in the model, feasibility of the model simplification or substitution of its separate components for more effective components without interfering system functioning. The results of biometric identification system modeling and evaluating are presented and discussed.

  1. Systems and methods for remote long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for remote, long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for remote biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals, the method including generating and directing first microwave energy in a direction of a person, receiving microwave energy reflected from the person, the reflected microwave energy indicative of cardiac characteristics of the person, segmenting a signal indicative of the reflected microwave energy into a waveform including a plurality of heart beats, identifying patterns in the microwave heart beats waveform, and identifying the person based on the identified patterns and a stored microwave heart beats waveform.

  2. Analysis of the Perception of Students about Biometric Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillén-Gámez, Francisco D.; García-Magariño, Iván; Romero, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a demand within distance education of control mechanisms for verifying the identity of students when conducting activities within virtual classrooms. Biometric authentication is one of the tools to meet this demand and prevent fraud. In this line of research, the present work is aimed at analyzing the perceptions of a group of…

  3. Analysis of the Perception of Students about Biometric Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillén-Gámez, Francisco D.; García-Magariño, Iván; Romero, Sonia J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a demand within distance education of control mechanisms for verifying the identity of students when conducting activities within virtual classrooms. Biometric authentication is one of the tools to meet this demand and prevent fraud. In this line of research, the present work is aimed at analyzing the perceptions of a group of…

  4. Comparative Study of the New Colorimetric VITEK 2 Yeast Identification Card versus the Older Fluorometric Card and of CHROMagar Candida as a Source Medium with the New Card

    PubMed Central

    Aubertine, C. L.; Rivera, M.; Rohan, S. M.; Larone, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    The new VITEK 2 colorimetric card was compared to the previous fluorometric card for identification of yeast. API 20C was considered the “gold standard.” The new card consistently performed better than the older card. Isolates from CHROMagar Candida plates were identified equally as well as those from Sabouraud dextrose agar. PMID:16390976

  5. Resting State EEG-based biometrics for individual identification using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lan Ma; Minett, James W; Blu, Thierry; Wang, William S-Y

    2015-08-01

    Biometrics is a growing field, which permits identification of individuals by means of unique physical features. Electroencephalography (EEG)-based biometrics utilizes the small intra-personal differences and large inter-personal differences between individuals' brainwave patterns. In the past, such methods have used features derived from manually-designed procedures for this purpose. Another possibility is to use convolutional neural networks (CNN) to automatically extract an individual's best and most unique neural features and conduct classification, using EEG data derived from both Resting State with Open Eyes (REO) and Resting State with Closed Eyes (REC). Results indicate that this CNN-based joint-optimized EEG-based Biometric System yields a high degree of accuracy of identification (88%) for 10-class classification. Furthermore, rich inter-personal difference can be found using a very low frequency band (0-2Hz). Additionally, results suggest that the temporal portions over which subjects can be individualized is less than 200 ms.

  6. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.6 Border crossing identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B..., must apply to the DOS on Form DS-156, Visitor Visa Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance... Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa and border crossing card...

  7. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.6 Border crossing identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B..., must apply to the DOS on Form DS-156, Visitor Visa Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance... Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa and border crossing card...

  8. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.6 Border crossing identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B..., must apply to the DOS on Form DS-156, Visitor Visa Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance... Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa and border crossing card...

  9. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.6 Border crossing identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B..., must apply to the DOS on Form DS-156, Visitor Visa Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance... Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa and border crossing card...

  10. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 1212.6 Border crossing identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B..., must apply to the DOS on Form DS-156, Visitor Visa Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance... Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa and border crossing card...

  11. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235.9 Section 1235.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF... November 3, 1986. These cards remain valid as evidence of United States citizenship. Although the...

  12. Friendly Biometric Credentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Certificate. 6 Authentication Overview • Authentication factors are generally accepted as: – Something one has (e.g., a smart card or a token with...identity Smart Card 2. Verify the claim Biometric 3. Authorize privilege Resource 4. Enable privilege Implementation specific Discussion • FIPS 201-1...Case (3 of 4) Sequence Alternative 3 1. Claim an identity Smart Card 2. Verify the claim Biometric 3. Authorize privilege Resource 4. Enable

  13. Methods for using a biometric parameter in the identification of persons

    DOEpatents

    Hively, Lee M [Philadelphia, TN

    2011-11-22

    Brain waves are used as a biometric parameter to provide for authentication and identification of personnel. The brain waves are sampled using EEG equipment and are processed using phase-space distribution functions to compare digital signature data from enrollment of authorized individuals to data taken from a test subject to determine if the data from the test subject matches the signature data to a degree to support positive identification.

  14. 8 CFR 235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 235.10... OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.10 U.S. Citizen Identification Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will...

  15. 8 CFR 235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 235.10... OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.10 U.S. Citizen Identification Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will...

  16. 8 CFR 235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 235.10... OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.10 U.S. Citizen Identification Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will...

  17. 8 CFR 235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 235.10... OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.10 U.S. Citizen Identification Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will...

  18. 8 CFR 235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 235.10... OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.10 U.S. Citizen Identification Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will...

  19. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B-1/B-2 Visa and Border Crossing Card, issued by the... Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance with the applicable DOS regulations at 22 CFR 41.32 and/or... admission by a national of Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa...

  20. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B-1/B-2 Visa and Border Crossing Card, issued by the... Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance with the applicable DOS regulations at 22 CFR 41.32 and/or... admission by a national of Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa...

  1. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... identification cards. (a) Application for Form DSP-150, B-1/B-2 Visa and Border Crossing Card, issued by the... Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance with the applicable DOS regulations at 22 CFR 41.32 and/or... admission by a national of Mexico—Form DSP-150 issued by the DOS; DOS-issued combination B-1/B-2 visa...

  2. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Recognizable Characteristics in Biometrics Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Yu.; Maeva, A.; Severin, F.

    Biometrics is a rapidly evolving scientific and applied discipline that studies possible ways of personal identification by means of unique biological characteristics. Such identification is important in various situations requiring restricted access to certain areas, information and personal data and for cases of medical emergencies. A number of automated biometric techniques have been developed, including fingerprint, hand shape, eye and facial recognition, thermographic imaging, etc. All these techniques differ in the recognizable parameters, usability, accuracy and cost. Among these, fingerprint recognition stands alone since a very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are key evidence left at a crime scene and can be used to indentify suspects. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. We introduce a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging. The proposed method obtains a scan only once and then varies the C-scan gate position and width to visualize acoustic reflections from any appropriate depth inside the skin. Also, B-scans and A-scans can be recreated from any position using such data array, which gives the control over the visualization options. By setting the C-scan gate deeper inside the skin, distribution of the sweat pores (which are located along the ridges) can be easily visualized. This distribution should be unique for each individual so this provides a means of personal identification, which is not affected by any changes (accidental or intentional) of the fingers' surface conditions. This paper discusses different setups, acoustic parameters of the system, signal and image processing options and possible ways of 3-dimentional visualization that could be used as a recognizable characteristic in biometric identification.

  3. Dynamic biometric identification from multiple views using the GLBP-TOP method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Shen, Xuanjing; Chen, Haipeng; Zhai, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    To realize effective and rapid dynamic biometric identification with low computational complexity, a video-based facial texture program that extracts local binary patterns from three orthogonal planes in the frequency domain of the Gabor transform (GLBP-TOP) was proposed. Firstly, each normalized face was transformed by Gabor wavelet to get the enhanced Gabor magnitude map, and then the LBP-TOP operator was applied to the maps to extract video texture. Finally, weighted Chi square statistics based on the Fisher Criterion were used to realize the identification. The proposed algorithm was proved effective through the biometric experiments using the Honda/UCSD database, and was robust against changes of illumination and expressions.

  4. 19 CFR 112.48 - Revocation or suspension of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation or suspension of identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.48 Revocation or suspension of identification cards. (a) Grounds for revocation or suspension of identification...

  5. 19 CFR 112.48 - Revocation or suspension of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation or suspension of identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.48 Revocation or suspension of identification cards. (a) Grounds for revocation or suspension of identification...

  6. 19 CFR 112.48 - Revocation or suspension of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation or suspension of identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.48 Revocation or suspension of identification cards. (a) Grounds for revocation or suspension of identification...

  7. 19 CFR 112.48 - Revocation or suspension of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation or suspension of identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.48 Revocation or suspension of identification cards. (a) Grounds for revocation or suspension of identification...

  8. 19 CFR 112.48 - Revocation or suspension of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation or suspension of identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.48 Revocation or suspension of identification cards. (a) Grounds for revocation or suspension of identification...

  9. 8 CFR 1235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 1235.10... Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will continue to be acceptable documentation of U.S. citizenship. Possession of the...

  10. 8 CFR 1235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 1235.10... Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will continue to be acceptable documentation of U.S. citizenship. Possession of the...

  11. 8 CFR 1235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 1235.10... Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will continue to be acceptable documentation of U.S. citizenship. Possession of the...

  12. 8 CFR 1235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 1235.10... Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will continue to be acceptable documentation of U.S. citizenship. Possession of the...

  13. 8 CFR 1235.10 - U.S. Citizen Identification Card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Citizen Identification Card. 1235.10... Card. (a) General. Form I-197, U.S. Citizen Identification Card, is no longer issued by the Service but valid existing cards will continue to be acceptable documentation of U.S. citizenship. Possession of the...

  14. Protection of Biometric Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevenaar, Tom

    The field of biometrics is concerned with recognizing individuals by means of unique physiological or behavioral characteristics. In practical systems, several biometric modalities are used, such as fingerprint, face, iris, hand geometry, and so forth. Recently, biometric systems are becoming increasingly popular because they potentially offer more secure solutions than other identification means such as PIN codes and security badges because a biometric is tightly linked to an individual. For the same reason, biometrics can prevent the use of several identities by a single individual. Finally, biometrics are also more convenient because, unlike passwords and PIN codes, they cannot be forgotten and are always at hand.

  15. Comparison of fingerprint and facial biometric verification technologies for user access and patient identification in a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Yu; Documet, Jorge; Liu, Brent; Lee, Jasper; Shrestha, Rasu; Wang, Kevin; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    As clinical imaging and informatics systems continue to integrate the healthcare enterprise, the need to prevent patient mis-identification and unauthorized access to clinical data becomes more apparent especially under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) mandate. Last year, we presented a system to track and verify patients and staff within a clinical environment. This year, we further address the biometric verification component in order to determine which Biometric system is the optimal solution for given applications in the complex clinical environment. We install two biometric identification systems including fingerprint and facial recognition systems at an outpatient imaging facility, Healthcare Consultation Center II (HCCII). We evaluated each solution and documented the advantages and pitfalls of each biometric technology in this clinical environment.

  16. 19 CFR 112.44 - Changes in information on identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in information on identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.44 Changes in information on identification cards. Where there has been a change in the name, address, or...

  17. 5 CFR 930.112 - Identification card or document in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification card or document in... Vehicle Operators § 930.112 Identification card or document in possession. The operator or incidental operator will have a valid agency identification card or document (e.g., building pass or credential) in...

  18. 19 CFR 112.44 - Changes in information on identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Changes in information on identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.44 Changes in information on identification cards. Where there has been a change in the name, address, or...

  19. 5 CFR 930.112 - Identification card or document in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification card or document in... Vehicle Operators § 930.112 Identification card or document in possession. The operator or incidental operator will have a valid agency identification card or document (e.g., building pass or credential) in...

  20. 5 CFR 930.112 - Identification card or document in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification card or document in... Vehicle Operators § 930.112 Identification card or document in possession. The operator or incidental operator will have a valid agency identification card or document (e.g., building pass or credential) in...

  1. 33 CFR 125.13 - Captain of the Port Identification Cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Identification Cards. 125.13 Section 125.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.13 Captain of the Port Identification Cards. Captain of the Port Identification Cards issued under the form designation “Form CG 2514” prior to the revision of August 1950 were...

  2. 33 CFR 125.13 - Captain of the Port Identification Cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Identification Cards. 125.13 Section 125.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.13 Captain of the Port Identification Cards. Captain of the Port Identification Cards issued under the form designation “Form CG 2514” prior to the revision of August 1950 were...

  3. 33 CFR 125.13 - Captain of the Port Identification Cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Identification Cards. 125.13 Section 125.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.13 Captain of the Port Identification Cards. Captain of the Port Identification Cards issued under the form designation “Form CG 2514” prior to the revision of August 1950 were...

  4. 77 FR 42753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Identification Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Identification Card AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60... the Application for Identification Card (CBP Form 3078). This request for comment is being made... Identification Card. OMB Number: 1651-0008. Form Number: CBP Form 3078. Abstract: CBP Form 3078, Application for...

  5. 5 CFR 930.112 - Identification card or document in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification card or document in... Vehicle Operators § 930.112 Identification card or document in possession. The operator or incidental operator will have a valid agency identification card or document (e.g., building pass or credential) in...

  6. 19 CFR 112.44 - Changes in information on identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes in information on identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.44 Changes in information on identification cards. Where there has been a change in the name, address, or...

  7. 33 CFR 125.13 - Captain of the Port Identification Cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Identification Cards. 125.13 Section 125.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.13 Captain of the Port Identification Cards. Captain of the Port Identification Cards issued under the form designation “Form CG 2514” prior to the revision of August 1950 were...

  8. 19 CFR 112.44 - Changes in information on identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in information on identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.44 Changes in information on identification cards. Where there has been a change in the name, address, or...

  9. 5 CFR 930.112 - Identification card or document in possession.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification card or document in... Vehicle Operators § 930.112 Identification card or document in possession. The operator or incidental operator will have a valid agency identification card or document (e.g., building pass or credential) in...

  10. 33 CFR 125.13 - Captain of the Port Identification Cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Identification Cards. 125.13 Section 125.13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... WATERFRONT FACILITIES OR VESSELS § 125.13 Captain of the Port Identification Cards. Captain of the Port Identification Cards issued under the form designation “Form CG 2514” prior to the revision of August 1950 were...

  11. 19 CFR 112.44 - Changes in information on identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes in information on identification cards... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.44 Changes in information on identification cards. Where there has been a change in the name, address, or...

  12. High-accuracy user identification using EEG biometrics.

    PubMed

    Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Mahajan, Ruhi; Marks, Tim K; Ye Wang; Watanabe, Shinji; Tuzel, Oncel; Orlik, Philip

    2016-08-01

    We analyze brain waves acquired through a consumer-grade EEG device to investigate its capabilities for user identification and authentication. First, we show the statistical significance of the P300 component in event-related potential (ERP) data from 14-channel EEGs across 25 subjects. We then apply a variety of machine learning techniques, comparing the user identification performance of various different combinations of a dimensionality reduction technique followed by a classification algorithm. Experimental results show that an identification accuracy of 72% can be achieved using only a single 800 ms ERP epoch. In addition, we demonstrate that the user identification accuracy can be significantly improved to more than 96.7% by joint classification of multiple epochs.

  13. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235.9 Section 235.9 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS... Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States entered into force on November 3,...

  14. Identification of Yersinia Species by the Vitek GNI Card

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Hans-Jörg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Meyer, Hermann; Aleksic, Stojanca; Lehn, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The Vitek GNI card was used to identify 212 isolates of 10 Yersinia species. Identification was correct for 96.3% of the isolates (156 of 162) to the genus level and for 57.4% of the isolates (93 of 162) to the species level for Yersinia spp. listed in the Vitek database. We recommend additional identification methods for isolates assigned to the genus Yersinia by the Vitek system. PMID:9854094

  15. United States Homeland Security and National Biometric Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    IMPORTANCE OF AMERICA’S FREEDOMS AND HOMELAND SECURITY: ................... 1 W HAT IS A BIO M ETRIC...2 W AYS/M EANS O F BIO M ETRICS...9 THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S ROLE IN NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND BIO M ETRICS

  16. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... than the date, currently October 1, 2001, on which a machine readable biometric identifier is required... immigration officer shall take possession of the card and physically cancel it under standard security... Secretary of Homeland Security. (3) A consular or immigration officer shall immediately take possession of...

  17. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... than the date, currently October 1, 2001, on which a machine readable biometric identifier is required... immigration officer shall take possession of the card and physically cancel it under standard security... Secretary of Homeland Security. (3) A consular or immigration officer shall immediately take possession of...

  18. The application of a biometric identification technique for linking community and hospital data in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Odei-Lartey, Eliezer Ofori; Boateng, Dennis; Danso, Samuel; Kwarteng, Anthony; Abokyi, Livesy; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Gyaase, Stephaney; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background The reliability of counts for estimating population dynamics and disease burdens in communities depends on the availability of a common unique identifier for matching general population data with health facility data. Biometric data has been explored as a feasible common identifier between the health data and sociocultural data of resident members in rural communities within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in the central part of Ghana. Objective Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using fingerprint identification to link community data and hospital data in a rural African setting. Design A combination of biometrics and other personal identification techniques were used to identify individual's resident within a surveillance population seeking care in two district hospitals. Visits from resident individuals were successfully recorded and categorized by the success of the techniques applied during identification. The successes of visits that involved identification by fingerprint were further examined by age. Results A total of 27,662 hospital visits were linked to resident individuals. Over 85% of those visits were successfully identified using at least one identification method. Over 65% were successfully identified and linked using their fingerprints. Supervisory support from the hospital administration was critical in integrating this identification system into its routine activities. No concerns were expressed by community members about the fingerprint registration and identification processes. Conclusions Fingerprint identification should be combined with other methods to be feasible in identifying community members in African rural settings. This can be enhanced in communities with some basic Demographic Surveillance System or census information. PMID:26993473

  19. Enhancing eye-movement-based biometric identification method by using voting classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Ober, Jozef

    2005-03-01

    Eye movements contain a lot of information about human being. The way the eyes are moving is very complicated and eye movement patterns has been subject of studies for over 100 years. However, surprisingly, eye movement based identification is a quite new idea presented for the first time during the Biometrics'2003 Conference in London [17]. The method has several significant advantages: compiles behavioral and physiological properties of human body, it is difficult to forge and it is affordable-with a number of ready-to-use eye registering devices (so called eye trackers). The paper introduces the methodology and presents results of the first eye movement based authorization tests.

  20. Fluorescent Molecular Rotor-in-Paraffin Waxes for Thermometry and Biometric Identification.

    PubMed

    Jin, Young-Jae; Dogra, Rubal; Cheong, In Woo; Kwak, Giseop

    2015-07-08

    Novel thermoresponsive sensor systems consisting of a molecular rotor (MR) and paraffin wax (PW) were developed for various thermometric and biometric identification applications. Polydiphenylacetylenes (PDPAs) coupled with long alkyl chains were used as MRs, and PWs of hydrocarbons having 16-20 carbons were utilized as phase-change materials. The PDPAs were successfully dissolved in the molten PWs and did not act as an impurity that prevents phase transition of the PWs. These PDPA-in-PW hybrids had almost the same enthalpies and phase-transition temperatures as the corresponding pure PWs. The hybrids exhibited highly reversible fluorescence (FL) changes at the critical temperatures during phase transition of the PWs. These hybrids were impregnated into common filter paper in the molten state by absorption or were encapsulated into urea resin to enhance their mechanical integrity and cyclic stability during repeated use. The wax papers could be utilized in highly advanced applications including FL image writing/erasing, an array-type thermo-indicator, and fingerprint/palmprint identification. The present findings should facilitate the development of novel fluorescent sensor systems for biometric identification and are potentially applicable for biological and biomedical thermometry.

  1. Real Identification Act Requirements for State Issued Drivers’ Licenses and Identification Cards: A Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    citizenship or lawful immigration status; date of birth ; social security number (SSN) or ineligibility for SSN; and principal residence. 2. States...information appear on state-issued drivers’ licenses and identification cards: full legal name, date of birth , gender, a unique drivers’ license or...issued: 1) full legal name, 2) date of birth , 3) gender, 4) drivers’ license or identification card number, 5) digital photograph, 6) address of

  2. 6 CFR 37.23 - Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.23 Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  3. 6 CFR 37.23 - Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.23 Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  4. 6 CFR 37.25 - Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.25 Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  5. 6 CFR 37.21 - Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.21 Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards....

  6. 6 CFR 37.21 - Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.21 Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards....

  7. 6 CFR 37.25 - Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.25 Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  8. 6 CFR 37.23 - Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.23 Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  9. 6 CFR 37.25 - Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.25 Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  10. 6 CFR 37.25 - Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.25 Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  11. 6 CFR 37.23 - Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.23 Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  12. 6 CFR 37.23 - Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.23 Reissued REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  13. 6 CFR 37.25 - Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.25 Renewal of REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  14. 6 CFR 37.21 - Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.21 Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards....

  15. 6 CFR 37.21 - Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.21 Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards....

  16. 6 CFR 37.21 - Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and... SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.21 Temporary or limited-term driver's licenses and identification cards....

  17. 42 CFR 2.18 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on the use of identification cards. 2... on the use of identification cards. No person may require any patient to carry on his or her person while away from the program premises any card or other object which would identify the patient as an...

  18. 42 CFR 136a.16 - Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification of tribal membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification... Cards and verification of tribal membership. (a) The Indian Health Service will issue Beneficiary Identification Cards as evidence of beneficiary status to persons who are currently eligible for services under...

  19. 42 CFR 2.18 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on the use of identification cards. 2... on the use of identification cards. No person may require any patient to carry on his or her person while away from the program premises any card or other object which would identify the patient as an...

  20. 42 CFR 136a.16 - Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification of tribal membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification... Cards and verification of tribal membership. (a) The Indian Health Service will issue Beneficiary Identification Cards as evidence of beneficiary status to persons who are currently eligible for services under...

  1. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activities Under OMB... No. 2900-0673.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Request for One-VA Identification Card. OMB... personalize, print, and issue a PIV card. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required...

  2. 42 CFR 2.18 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on the use of identification cards. 2... on the use of identification cards. No person may require any patient to carry on his or her person while away from the program premises any card or other object which would identify the patient as an...

  3. 42 CFR 2.18 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on the use of identification cards. 2... on the use of identification cards. No person may require any patient to carry on his or her person while away from the program premises any card or other object which would identify the patient as an...

  4. 42 CFR 136a.16 - Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification of tribal membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Beneficiary Identification Cards and verification... Cards and verification of tribal membership. (a) The Indian Health Service will issue Beneficiary Identification Cards as evidence of beneficiary status to persons who are currently eligible for services under...

  5. Robust shift-invariant biometric identification from partial face images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    2004-08-01

    Face identification must address many practical challenges, including illumination variations (not seen during the testing phase), facial expressions, and pose variations. In most face recognition systems, the recognition process is performed after a face has been located and segmented in the input scene. This face detection and segmentation process however is prone to errors which can lead to partial faces being segmented (sometimes also due to occlusion) for the recognition process. There are also cases where the segmented face includes parts of the scene background as well as the face, affecting the recognition performance. In this paper, we address how these issues can be dealt efficiently with advanced correlation filter designs. We report extensive set of results on the CMU pose, illumination and expressions (PIE) dataset where training filters are designed in two experiments: (1) the training gallery has 3 images from extreme illumination (2) the training gallery has 3 images from near-frontal illumination. In the testing phase however, we test both filters with the whole illumination variations while simultaneously cropping the test images to various sizes. The results show that the advanced correlation filter designs perform very well even with partial face images of unseen illumination variations including reduced-complexity correlation filters such as the Quad-Phase Minimum Average Correlation Energy (QP-MACE) filter that requires only 2 bits/frequency storage.

  6. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of transaction. (d) Date of birth. (e) Gender. (f) Address as listed on the card pursuant to § 37.17... identification card. (i) Inventory control number of the physical document. (j) State or territory of issuance. ...

  7. FLIR biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, Barbara L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.

    2009-04-01

    Biometrics are generally thought of as anatomical features that allow positive identification of a person. This paper describes biometrics that are also physiological in nature. The differences between anatomy and physiology have to do with the fact that physiology is dynamic, functioning, and changing with the state or actions of a person whereas anatomy is generally more stable. Biometrics in general usually refers to a trait, whereas the new type of biometrics discussed in this paper refer to a state, which is temporary, and often even transitory. By state, what is meant is the condition of a person at a particular time relative to their psychological, physical, medical, or physiological status. The present paper describes metrics that are cues to the state of a functioning individual observable through a thermal camera video system. An inferred state might then be tied to the positive identification of the person. Using thermal for this purpose is significant because the thermal signature of a human is dynamic and changes with physical and emotional state, while also revealing underlying anatomical structures. A new method involving the counting of open pores on the skin is discussed as a way of observing the Electrodermal Activity (EDA) of the skin, a primary component of the polygraph.

  8. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    international terrorist incidents within nearly all of the states in this study . Although the correlation scores for most states tend to be somewhat...their structural elements, and ultimately their effectiveness. Although biometric identification is rapidly becoming an international norm...quantitative assessments of biometric identification programs within the larger context of state and international security are non–existent. This thesis

  9. Optimization of an individual re-identification modeling process using biometric features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzner, Shari; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2014-09-24

    We present results from the optimization of a re-identification process using two sets of biometric data obtained from the Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometry Resource Project (CAESAR) database. The datasets contain real measurements of features for 2378 individuals in a standing (43 features) and seated (16 features) position. A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to search a large combinatorial space where different features are available between the probe (seated) and gallery (standing) datasets. Results show that optimized model predictions obtained using less than half of the 43 gallery features and data from roughly 16% of the individuals available produce better re-identification rates than two other approaches that use all the information available.

  10. Real-time Identification System using Mobile Hand-held Devices: Mobile Biometrics Evaluation Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    41 5.2 ISO /IEC JTC1 Subcommittee 37 on Biometrics...Comparative Biometric Testing and DHS accredited QPL processes. It also leveraged international standards and methodologies, including ISO /IEC 15408, FIPS...140-2, ISO /IEC 19795, and ISO /IEC 19792. OPC’s existing frameworks for biometrics and national security and IBG’s BioPrivacy Framework supported

  11. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  12. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184 is...

  13. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184 is...

  14. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184 is...

  15. 77 FR 73455 - Transportation Workers Identification Card (TWIC) Removal for Commercial Users To Access...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Transportation Workers Identification Card (TWIC) Removal for Commercial Users To... Transportation Workers Identification Card (TWIC) PKI certificate cannot be used to authenticate users for access...

  16. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184 is...

  17. 8 CFR 252.4 - Permanent landing permit and identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Permanent landing permit and identification card. 252.4 Section 252.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS LANDING OF ALIEN CREWMEN § 252.4 Permanent landing permit and identification card. A Form I-184 is...

  18. 36 CFR 1254.10 - For how long and where is my researcher identification card valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false For how long and where is my researcher identification card valid? 1254.10 Section 1254.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.10 For how long and where is my researcher identification card...

  19. 36 CFR 1254.10 - For how long and where is my researcher identification card valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false For how long and where is my researcher identification card valid? 1254.10 Section 1254.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.10 For how long and where is my researcher identification card...

  20. 47 CFR 101.215 - Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs. 101.215 Section 101.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Requirements § 101.215 Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs...

  1. 47 CFR 101.215 - Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs. 101.215 Section 101.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Requirements § 101.215 Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs...

  2. 47 CFR 101.215 - Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs. 101.215 Section 101.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Requirements § 101.215 Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs...

  3. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  4. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  5. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  6. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification...

  7. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  8. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... driver's licenses and identification cards. 37.5 Section 37.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS General § 37.5 Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  9. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.27 Driver's licenses and identification...

  10. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... driver's licenses and identification cards. 37.5 Section 37.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS General § 37.5 Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  11. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.27 Driver's licenses and identification...

  12. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... driver's licenses and identification cards. 37.5 Section 37.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS General § 37.5 Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  13. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... driver's licenses and identification cards. 37.5 Section 37.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS General § 37.5 Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. (a)...

  14. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum Documentation, Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.27 Driver's licenses and identification...

  15. An efficient biometric and password-based remote user authentication using smart card for Telecare Medical Information Systems in multi-server environment.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Giri, Debasis

    2014-12-01

    The medical organizations have introduced Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) to provide a reliable facility by which a patient who is unable to go to a doctor in critical or urgent period, can communicate to a doctor through a medical server via internet from home. An authentication mechanism is needed in TMIS to hide the secret information of both parties, namely a server and a patient. Recent research includes patient's biometric information as well as password to design a remote user authentication scheme that enhances the security level. In a single server environment, one server is responsible for providing services to all the authorized remote patients. However, the problem arises if a patient wishes to access several branch servers, he/she needs to register to the branch servers individually. In 2014, Chuang and Chen proposed an remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environment. In this paper, we have shown that in their scheme, an non-register adversary can successfully logged-in into the system as a valid patient. To resist the weaknesses, we have proposed an authentication scheme for TMIS in multi-server environment where the patients can register to a root telecare server called registration center (RC) in one time to get services from all the telecare branch servers through their registered smart card. Security analysis and comparison shows that our proposed scheme provides better security with low computational and communication cost.

  16. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  17. Ear biometrics for patient identification in global health: a cross-sectional study to test the feasibility of a simplified algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Courtney; Milton, Jacqueline N; Gill, Christopher J

    2016-11-02

    One of the greatest public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is identifying people over time and space. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing electronic approaches to addressing this problem, with mobile technology at the forefront of these efforts. We investigate the possibility of biometrics as a simple, cost-efficient, and portable solution. Common biometrics approaches include fingerprinting, iris scanning and facial recognition, but all are less than ideal due to complexity, infringement on privacy, cost, or portability. Ear biometrics, however, proved to be a unique and viable solution. We developed an identification algorithm then conducted a cross sectional study in which we photographed left and right ears from 25 consenting adults. We then conducted re-identification and statistical analyses to identify the accuracy and replicability of our approach. Through principal component analysis, we found the curve of the ear helix to be the most reliable anatomical structure and the basis for re-identification. Although an individual ear allowed for high re-identification rate (88.3%), when both left and right ears were paired together, our rate of re-identification amidst the pool of potential matches was 100%. The results of this study have implications on future efforts towards building a biometrics solution for patient identification in LMICs. We provide a conceptual platform for further investigation into the development of an ear biometrics identification mobile application.

  18. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user’s management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.’s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.’s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.’s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties. PMID:26709702

  19. An Improvement of Robust Biometrics-Based Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme for Multi-Server Environments Using Smart Cards.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jongho; Choi, Younsung; Jung, Jaewook; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    In multi-server environments, user authentication is a very important issue because it provides the authorization that enables users to access their data and services; furthermore, remote user authentication schemes for multi-server environments have solved the problem that has arisen from user's management of different identities and passwords. For this reason, numerous user authentication schemes that are designed for multi-server environments have been proposed over recent years. In 2015, Lu et al. improved upon Mishra et al.'s scheme, claiming that their remote user authentication scheme is more secure and practical; however, we found that Lu et al.'s scheme is still insecure and incorrect. In this paper, we demonstrate that Lu et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to outsider attack and user impersonation attack, and we propose a new biometrics-based scheme for authentication and key agreement that can be used in multi-server environments; then, we show that our proposed scheme is more secure and supports the required security properties.

  20. On biometrics with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2016-04-07

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In the present article, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  1. [On the use of the spectral speech characteristics for the determination of biometric parameters of the vocal tract in forensic medical identification of the speaker's personality].

    PubMed

    Kaganov, A Sh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the relationship between the spectral speech characteristics and the biometric parameters of the speaker's vocal tract. The secondary objective was to consider the theoretical basis behind the medico-criminalistic personality identification from the biometric parameters of the speaker's vocal tract. The article is based on the results of real forensic medical investigations and the literature data.

  2. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. Aim To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier’s caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson’s coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Results Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. Conclusion The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations. PMID:27437349

  3. Teaching Number Identification to Students with Severe Disabilities Using Response Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibo, Holly; Mims, Pamela; Spooner, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Active student responding (ASR) has been shown to be an effective way to improve the mathematical skills of students. One specific method of ASR is the use of response cards. In this study, a system of least prompts combined with response cards was used to increase mathematical knowledge, and number identification, of three elementary students…

  4. MALDI-TOF MS versus VITEK 2 ANC card for identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Gu, Bing; Liu, Genyan; Xia, Wenying; Fan, Kun; Mei, Yaning; Huang, Peijun; Pan, Shiyang

    2014-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an accurate, rapid and inexpensive technique that has initiated a revolution in the clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of pathogens. The Vitek 2 anaerobe and Corynebacterium (ANC) identification card is a newly developed method for identification of corynebacteria and anaerobic species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ANC card and MALDI-TOF MS techniques for identification of clinical anaerobic isolates. Five reference strains and a total of 50 anaerobic bacteria clinical isolates comprising ten different genera and 14 species were identified and analyzed by the ANC card together with Vitek 2 identification system and Vitek MS together with version 2.0 database respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used as reference method for accuracy in the identification. Vitek 2 ANC card and Vitek MS provided comparable results at species level for the five reference strains. Of 50 clinical strains, the Vitek MS provided identification for 46 strains (92%) to the species level, 47 (94%) to genus level, one (2%) low discrimination, two (4%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. The Vitek 2 ANC card provided identification for 43 strains (86%) correct to the species level, 47 (94%) correct to the genus level, three (6%) low discrimination, three (6%) no identification and one (2%) misidentification. Both Vitek MS and Vitek 2 ANC card can be used for accurate routine clinical anaerobe identification. Comparing to the Vitek 2 ANC card, Vitek MS is easier, faster and more economic for each test. The databases currently available for both systems should be updated and further developed to enhance performance.

  5. Person identification in Ethnic Indian Goans using ear biometrics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Dinkar, Ajit D; Sambyal, Shruti S

    2012-11-30

    This study presents new insights and experimental results for the use of ears as a non-invasive biometric for human identification. To determine the uniqueness of the external ear pattern two methods were employed: The Weighted Scoring System and Pattern Recognition by Neural Networks. A total of 10 external ear features classified into 37 sub-features for both right and left ears of 400 Indians of Goan origin were studied after acquiring standardized side profile digital photographs. These features were then converted to numeric scores by the 'Weighted Scoring System' which were then compared to ascertain the uniqueness of ear pattern in same and different individuals. Apart from this feature-wise comparison, the initially acquired photographs of 800 individual ears were scrutinized and 80 visually similar ear patterns were found. After appropriate pre-processing of five train and five test images of each of these 80 visually similar ear patterns, the images were analyzed by a specially designed software and 360 feature vectors which were the distances from the centroid to the outer edge of the ear were extracted and saved. The feature vectors of train and test images were employed to train and test the Neural Networks. The result revealed that none of the individuals in the study sample had identical weighted scores when both right and left ear scores were considered in combination or when bilateral comparison was made in the same individual. The digital analysis of visually similar ear images by Neural Networks revealed a recognition rate of 94% with an Equal Error Rate at threshold value of 0.225. The inter-individual match score among train images were found to be less than the intra-individual match scores between train and test images or the differences found in former were more than that in the latter. Also, all intra-individual scores were above the system threshold (0.225) hence accepted as match, while all inter-individual scores were below it and hence

  6. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    PubMed

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  7. Improving Inpatients' Identification of Their Doctors: Use of FACE™ Cards

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vineet M.; Schaninger, Caitlin; D'Arcy, Michael; Johnson, Julie K.; Humphrey, Holly J.; Woodruff, James N.; Meltzer, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving patients' ability to identify their inpatient physicians and understand their roles is vital to safe patient care. We designed picture cards to facilitate physician introductions. We assessed the effect of Feedback Care and Evaluation (FACE™) cards on patient: (1) ability to correctly identify their inpatient physicians, and (2) understanding of their roles. Methods In October 2006, team members introduced themselves with FACE™ cards, which included a photo and an explanation of their roles. During an inpatient interview research assistants asked patients to name their inpatient physicians and trainees, and rate their understanding of their physicians' roles. Results 1686 (80%) patients in the baseline period and 857 (67%) in the intervention period participated in the evaluation. With the FACE™ intervention, patients were significantly more likely to correctly identify at least one inpatient physician (attending, resident, or intern) [baseline 12.5% vs. intervention 21.1%; p<0.001]. Of the 181 patients who were able to correctly identify at least one inpatient physician in the intervention period, research assistants noted that 59% (n=107) had FACE™ cards visible in their rooms. Surprisingly, fewer patients rated their understanding of their physicians' roles as excellent or very good in the intervention period (45.6%) compared to the baseline period (55.3%) (p<0.001). Conclusions Although FACE™ cards improved patients' ability to identify their inpatient physicians, many patients still cannot identify their inpatient doctors. The FACE™ cards also served to highlight patients' misunderstanding of their physicians' roles. PMID:20043501

  8. Improving inpatients' identification of their doctors: use of FACE cards.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vineet M; Schaninger, Caitlin; D'Arcy, Michael; Johnson, Julie K; Humphrey, Holly J; Woodruff, James N; Meltzer, David O

    2009-12-01

    Improving patients' ability to identify their inpatient physicians and understand their roles is vital to safe patient care. Picture cards were designed to facilitate physician introductions. The effect of Feedback Care and Evaluation (FACE) cards on patients' ability to correctly identify their inpatient physicians and on patients understanding of physicians roles was assessed. In October 2006, team members introduced themselves with FACE cards, which included a photo and an explanation of their roles. During an inpatient interview, research assistants asked patients to name their inpatient physicians and trainees and to rate their understanding of their physicians' roles. Of 2,100 eligible patients, 1,686 (80%) patients participated in the baseline period, and 857 (67%) of the 1,278 patients in the intervention period participated in the evaluation. With the FACE intervention, patients were significantly more likely to correctly identify at least one inpatient physician (attending, resident, or intern; baseline 12.5% versus intervention 21.1%; p < .001). Of the 181 patients who were able to correctly identify at least one inpatient physician in the intervention period, research assistants noted that 59% (107) had FACE cards visible in their rooms. Surprisingly, fewer patients rated their understanding of their physicians' roles as excellent or very good in the intervention period (45.6%) compared with the baseline period (55.3%; p < .001). Although FACE cards improved patients ability to identify their inpatient physicians, many patients still could not identify their inpatient doctors. FACE cards may have served as a reminder to physicians to introduce themselves to their patients. The FACE cards also served to highlight patients' misunderstanding of their physicians' roles.

  9. How to protect biometric templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcu, Yagiz; Li, Qiming; Memon, Nasir

    2007-02-01

    In addition to the inherent qualities that biometrics posses, powerful signal processing tools enabled widespread deployment of the biometric-based identification/verification systems. However, due to the nature of biometric data, well-established cryptographic tools (such as hashing, encryption, etc.) are not sufficient for solving one of the most important problems related to biometric systems, namely, template security. In this paper, we examine and show how to apply a recently proposed secure sketch scheme in order to protect the biometric templates. We consider face biometrics and study how the performance of the authentication scheme would be affected after the application of the secure sketch. We further study the trade-off between the performance of the scheme and the bound of the entropy loss from the secure sketch.

  10. Body, biometrics and identity.

    PubMed

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  11. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  12. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    PubMed

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted).

  13. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    PubMed Central

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  14. 6 CFR 37.71 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Driver's Licenses and Identification Cards Issued Under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act § 37.71...

  15. 6 CFR 37.71 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Driver's Licenses and Identification Cards Issued Under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act § 37.71...

  16. 6 CFR 37.71 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Driver's Licenses and Identification Cards Issued Under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act § 37.71...

  17. 6 CFR 37.71 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Driver's Licenses and Identification Cards Issued Under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act § 37.71...

  18. 6 CFR 37.71 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued under section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Driver's Licenses and Identification Cards Issued Under Section 202(d)(11) of the REAL ID Act § 37.71...

  19. 77 FR 60134 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application for Identification Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Application for Identification Card AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day notice and request for comments; Extension of an existing information collection. SUMMARY: U.S....

  20. 38 CFR 1.467 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards and public signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.467 Restrictions on the use of identification cards and... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia treatment program. A facility... alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia. (b) Treatment locations should not be identified...

  1. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian....122, or if the consular or immigration officer determines that the alien to whom any such document was...

  2. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian....122, or if the consular or immigration officer determines that the alien to whom any such document was...

  3. 22 CFR 41.33 - Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing... Nonresident alien Canadian border crossing identification card (BCC). (a) Validity of Canadian BCC. A Canadian....122, or if the consular or immigration officer determines that the alien to whom any such document was...

  4. 47 CFR 101.215 - Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs. 101.215 Section 101.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational...

  5. 47 CFR 101.215 - Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting of station authorization and transmitter identification cards, plates, or signs. 101.215 Section 101.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational...

  6. 48 CFR 652.204-70 - Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of State... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.204-70 Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures....

  7. 48 CFR 652.204-70 - Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of State... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.204-70 Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures....

  8. 48 CFR 652.204-70 - Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of State... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.204-70 Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures....

  9. 48 CFR 652.204-70 - Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of State... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 652.204-70 Department of State Personal Identification Card Issuance Procedures....

  10. 38 CFR 1.467 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards and public signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.467 Restrictions on the use of identification cards and... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia treatment program. A facility... alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia. (b) Treatment locations should not be identified by...

  11. 38 CFR 1.467 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards and public signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.467 Restrictions on the use of identification cards and... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia treatment program. A facility... alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia. (b) Treatment locations should not be identified by...

  12. 38 CFR 1.467 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards and public signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.467 Restrictions on the use of identification cards and... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia treatment program. A facility... alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia. (b) Treatment locations should not be identified by...

  13. 38 CFR 1.467 - Restrictions on the use of identification cards and public signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.467 Restrictions on the use of identification cards and... abuse, alcoholism or alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia treatment program. A facility... alcohol abuse, HIV infection, or sickle cell anemia. (b) Treatment locations should not be identified by...

  14. Improving the recognition of fingerprint biometric system using enhanced image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharif, Salim; El-Saba, Aed; Stripathi, Reshma

    2010-04-01

    Fingerprints recognition systems have been widely used by financial institutions, law enforcement, border control, visa issuing, just to mention few. Biometric identifiers can be counterfeited, but considered more reliable and secure compared to traditional ID cards or personal passwords methods. Fingerprint pattern fusion improves the performance of a fingerprint recognition system in terms of accuracy and security. This paper presents digital enhancement and fusion approaches that improve the biometric of the fingerprint recognition system. It is a two-step approach. In the first step raw fingerprint images are enhanced using high-frequency-emphasis filtering (HFEF). The second step is a simple linear fusion process between the raw images and the HFEF ones. It is shown that the proposed approach increases the verification and identification of the fingerprint biometric recognition system, where any improvement is justified using the correlation performance metrics of the matching algorithm.

  15. The identification of credit card encoders by hierarchical cluster analysis of the jitters of magnetic stripes.

    PubMed

    Leung, S C; Fung, W K; Wong, K H

    1999-01-01

    The relative bit density variation graphs of 207 specimen credit cards processed by 12 encoding machines were examined first visually, and then classified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Twenty-nine credit cards being treated as 'questioned' samples were tested by way of cluster analysis against 'controls' derived from known encoders. It was found that hierarchical cluster analysis provided a high accuracy of identification with all 29 'questioned' samples classified correctly. On the other hand, although visual comparison of jitter graphs was less discriminating, it was nevertheless capable of giving a reasonably accurate result.

  16. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... described in § 37.5. Effective December 1, 2014, Federal agencies will only accept REAL ID cards for official purpose from individuals under 50 as of December 1, 2014. Individuals age 50 or older on December...

  17. 6 CFR 37.27 - Driver's licenses and identification cards issued during the age-based enrollment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Driver's licenses and identification cards... described in § 37.5. Effective December 1, 2014, Federal agencies will only accept REAL ID cards for official purpose from individuals under 50 as of December 1, 2014. Individuals age 50 or older on December...

  18. Campus Card Tricks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the development of an innovative student identification card system that includes off-campus banking and credit card functions. Finding solutions to bank objections, credit card company rule problems, and software difficulties are discussed. (GR)

  19. Campus Card Tricks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the development of an innovative student identification card system that includes off-campus banking and credit card functions. Finding solutions to bank objections, credit card company rule problems, and software difficulties are discussed. (GR)

  20. Modular biometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  1. Review of modern biometric user authentication and their development prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriev, Z. V.; Sokolov, S. S.; Nyrkov, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the possibility of using biometric information technologies in management. Made a brief overview of access control and time attendance. Analyzed biometrics and identification system user. Recommendations on the use of various systems depending on the specific tasks.

  2. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  3. Automatic Identification Technology (AIT): The Development of Functional Capability and Card Application Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    electrical impulses in the scanner, mimicking the bar and space pattern of the bar code. The electrical impulses are transmitted to a decoder which uses...mathematical algorithms to translate the impulses into a binary code. The encoded data is then transmitted to a personal computer (PC), a controller...product tracking, personal identification, library system, check cashing, [ENFO94, p. 23] campus card, benefit delivery ( food stamp), debiting and

  4. The Need for an Implant Identification Card at Airport Security Check.

    PubMed

    Ali, Erden; Kosuge, Dennis; MacDowell, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Joint replacement surgery is having an increasing demand as national healthcare systems confront an ever ageing population. Surgical complications associated with lower limb arthroplasty are well known but less investigation has been performed examining its effect on air travel, more specifically, unwanted and significant inconvenience caused to travelers going through airport security. In lower limb arthroplasty clinics, 50 patients who met our selection criteria were given questionnaires. Ten airport security officers from 4 international airports (London Stansted, London Gatwick, London Heathrow, and Amsterdam Schiphol International Airport) were also given a separate questionnaire. The opinion of the Civil Aviation Authority was also sought. All 50 patients (mean age, 70.4 years; range, 55 to 84 years) who were presenting in lower limb arthroplasty clinics and who met our selection criteria volunteered to enter the study. Twenty-eight of these patients were female (mean age, 69.1 years; range, 55 to 84 years) and 22 were male (mean age, 71.2 years; range, 58 to 81 years). Of the patients, 14% stated that their joint replacements did not set off the airport security alarm. Responses were received from 10 airport security officers as well. Six airport security officers were male and 4 were female. All of the airport officers were aware of some form of implant identification card with 90% stating that these were useful to them at airport security. Eight-four percent of the patients stated that an implant identification card outlining what joint replacement they possessed and when this had been done would be very useful. Sixteen percent of the patients did not think a card would be beneficial since all of them had set off the airport alarm system only once or less in their lifetime. It is the opinion of airport security officers and patients that joint replacement implant identification cards streamline airport security checks and decrease the need for more

  5. The Need for an Implant Identification Card at Airport Security Check

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, Dennis; MacDowell, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Joint replacement surgery is having an increasing demand as national healthcare systems confront an ever ageing population. Surgical complications associated with lower limb arthroplasty are well known but less investigation has been performed examining its effect on air travel, more specifically, unwanted and significant inconvenience caused to travelers going through airport security. Methods In lower limb arthroplasty clinics, 50 patients who met our selection criteria were given questionnaires. Ten airport security officers from 4 international airports (London Stansted, London Gatwick, London Heathrow, and Amsterdam Schiphol International Airport) were also given a separate questionnaire. The opinion of the Civil Aviation Authority was also sought. Results All 50 patients (mean age, 70.4 years; range, 55 to 84 years) who were presenting in lower limb arthroplasty clinics and who met our selection criteria volunteered to enter the study. Twenty-eight of these patients were female (mean age, 69.1 years; range, 55 to 84 years) and 22 were male (mean age, 71.2 years; range, 58 to 81 years). Of the patients, 14% stated that their joint replacements did not set off the airport security alarm. Responses were received from 10 airport security officers as well. Six airport security officers were male and 4 were female. All of the airport officers were aware of some form of implant identification card with 90% stating that these were useful to them at airport security. Eight-four percent of the patients stated that an implant identification card outlining what joint replacement they possessed and when this had been done would be very useful. Sixteen percent of the patients did not think a card would be beneficial since all of them had set off the airport alarm system only once or less in their lifetime. Conclusions It is the opinion of airport security officers and patients that joint replacement implant identification cards streamline airport security checks

  6. Security analysis for biometric data in ID documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimke, Sascha; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus; Kalker, Ton

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we analyze chances and challenges with respect to the security of using biometrics in ID documents. We identify goals for ID documents, set by national and international authorities, and discuss the degree of security, which is obtainable with the inclusion of biometric into documents like passports. Starting from classical techniques for manual authentication of ID card holders, we expand our view towards automatic methods based on biometrics. We do so by reviewing different human biometric attributes by modality, as well as by discussing possible techniques for storing and handling the particular biometric data on the document. Further, we explore possible vulnerabilities of potential biometric passport systems. Based on the findings of that discussion we will expand upon two exemplary approaches for including digital biometric data in the context of ID documents and present potential risks attack scenarios along with technical aspects such as capacity and robustness.

  7. Second Wave of Biometric ID-documents in Europe: The Residence Permit for non-EU/EEA Nationals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdeau, Detlef

    The first implementation of biometric documents, called biometric passports, based on a regulation is running, the second implementation since end of CY 2008 is coming to Europe. The focus is on persons staying for business, study or leisure for more than 3 months in Europe and coming from a state outside Europe and not being a member of the Visa-Waiver-Program of the EU. This second wave increases the demand for the security industry for certified security microcontroller chips, secure smart cards, readers and supporting infrastructure on top of the biometric Passport business. It underlines the continuing advance of contactless identification technology in the public sector. The article gives an overview on the application, the technology, the EU regulation, the EU roadmap and the implementations.

  8. Defense Biometrics: DOD Can Better Conform to Standards and Share Biometric Information with Federal Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    operations are under way; whether in a desert environment fighting insurgents or on the high-seas fighting piracy. Figure 1: DOD Collects Biometric...Automated Biome Identification System (ABIS), DHS’s Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT), and the FBI’s Integrated Automated Fingerprint

  9. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment.

  10. Design of biometrics identification system on palm vein using infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiq, Muhammad; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Image obtained by the LED with wavelength 740nm and 810nm showed that the contrast gradient of vein pattern is low and palm pattern still exist. It means that 740nm and 810nm are less suitable for the detection of blood vessels in the palm of the hand. At a wavelength of 940nm, the pattern is clearly visible, and the pattern of the palms is mostly gone. Furthermore, the pre-processing performed using smoothing process which include Gaussian filter and median filter and contrast stretching. Image segmentation is done by getting the ROI area that would be obtained its information. The identification process of image features obtained by using MSE (Mean Suare Error) method ,LBP (Local Binary Pattern). Furthermore, we will use a database consists of 5 different palm vein pattern which will be used for testing the tool in the identification process. All the process above are done using Raspberry Pi device. The Obtained MSE parameter is 0.025 and LBP features score are less than 10-3 for image to be matched.

  11. Hand geometry biometric device for secure access control

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, C.; Moles, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the authors developed for the Air Force the Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier (PIV) for controlling access to a fixed or mobile ICBM site, a computer terminal, or mainframe. The Mark VI records the digitized silhouettes of four fingers of each hand on an AT and T smart card. Like fingerprints, finger shapes, lengths, and widths constitute an unguessable biometric password. A Security Officer enrolls an authorized person who places each hand, in turn, on a backlighted panel. An overhead scanning camera records the right and left hand reference templates on the smart card. The Security Officer adds to the card: name, personal identification number (PIN), and access restrictions such as permitted days of the week, times of day, and doors. To gain access, cardowner inserts card into a reader slot and places either hand on the panel. Resulting access template is matched to the reference template by three sameness algorithms. The final match score is an average of 12 scores (each of the four fingers, matched for shape, length, and width), expressing the degree of sameness. (A perfect match would score 100.00.) The final match score is compared to a predetermined score (threshold), generating an accept or reject decision.

  12. Approaches to biometric watermarks for owner authentification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2001-08-01

    One major application domain for digital watermarks is copyright protection. Besides the design of watermarking algorithms, technologies for copyright holder identification have to be investigated. To ensure authenticity of an individual person, a wide number of biometric procedures exist. We define and describe new biometric watermarks, which denote the application of biometric reference data of individuals within digital watermarks to identify and verify ownership. Amongst the two classes of physiological and senso-motoric biometric schemes, the later appears more appropriate for biometric watermarks, as only these provide implicit expressions of intention. As such, we choose on-line handwriting as an appropriate base technology for our three new scenarios in biometric watermarking. In the first approach, embedding keys are being generated from biometric reference data, which requires stable and robust features and leads to rather complex keys. To overcome the complexity boundaries, the second approach develops a biometric reference hash, allowing key look-ups in key certifying servers. Although this proceeding leads to less complex keys, it still requires stable features. The third approach describes the embedding of biometric reference data within a watermark, allowing owner verification by more variant features, but limitations apply due to capacity of watermarking systems and also protection of the reference data is required. While most handwriting-based verification systems are limited to signature contexts, we discuss two additional context types for user authentication: passphrases and sketches.

  13. [Biometrical identification of larval instars of S. damnosum s.I. and S. adersi (Diptera: Simuliidae) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Elouard, J M

    1978-06-01

    The biometrical analysis of two characters measured on the postgenae of Simulium larvae allow to differentiate the seven larval instars of S. damnosum s.I. and S. adersi, and to draw the growth curves of one parameter for the different instars.

  14. Houses of Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Explores how plastic identification cards are key to building security in athletic facilities. Card and identification system technology are addressed as are their benefits and complications. Final comments address security issues that still need consideration even if a card system is used. (GR)

  15. Efficient search and retrieval in biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhatre, Amit J.; Palla, Srinivas; Chikkerur, Sharat; Govindaraju, Venu

    2005-03-01

    Biometric identification has emerged as a reliable means of controlling access to both physical and virtual spaces. Fingerprints, face and voice biometrics are being increasingly used as alternatives to passwords, PINs and visual verification. In spite of the rapid proliferation of large-scale databases, the research has thus far been focused only on accuracy within small databases. In larger applications, response time and retrieval efficiency also become important in addition to accuracy. Unlike structured information such as text or numeric data that can be sorted, biometric data does not have any natural sorting order. Therefore indexing and binning of biometric databases represents a challenging problem. We present results using parallel combination of multiple biometrics to bin the database. Using hand geometry and signature features we show that the search space can be reduced to just 5% of the entire database.

  16. Compressed domain ECG biometric with two-lead features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wan-Jou; Chang, Wen-Whei

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a new method to combine ECG biometrics with data compression within a common JPEG2000 framework. We target the two-lead ECG configuration that is routinely used in long-term heart monitoring. Incorporation of compressed-domain biometric techniques enables faster person identification as it by-passes the full decompression. Experiments on public ECG databases demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for biometric identification with high accuracies on both healthy and diseased subjects.

  17. 6 CFR 37.5 - Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity periods and deadlines for REAL ID driver's licenses and identification cards. 37.5 Section 37.5 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... for a shorter period based on other State or Federal requirements. (b) On or after December 1, 2014...

  18. 36 CFR 1254.6 - Do I need a researcher identification card to use archival materials at a NARA facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do I need a researcher identification card to use archival materials at a NARA facility? 1254.6 Section 1254.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING...

  19. 36 CFR 1254.6 - Do I need a researcher identification card to use archival materials at a NARA facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do I need a researcher identification card to use archival materials at a NARA facility? 1254.6 Section 1254.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING...

  20. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  1. Biometric template transformation: a security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Abhishek; Nandakumar, Karthik; Jain, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the critical steps in designing a secure biometric system is protecting the templates of the users that are stored either in a central database or on smart cards. If a biometric template is compromised, it leads to serious security and privacy threats because unlike passwords, it is not possible for a legitimate user to revoke his biometric identifiers and switch to another set of uncompromised identifiers. One methodology for biometric template protection is the template transformation approach, where the template, consisting of the features extracted from the biometric trait, is transformed using parameters derived from a user specific password or key. Only the transformed template is stored and matching is performed directly in the transformed domain. In this paper, we formally investigate the security strength of template transformation techniques and define six metrics that facilitate a holistic security evaluation. Furthermore, we analyze the security of two wellknown template transformation techniques, namely, Biohashing and cancelable fingerprint templates based on the proposed metrics. Our analysis indicates that both these schemes are vulnerable to intrusion and linkage attacks because it is relatively easy to obtain either a close approximation of the original template (Biohashing) or a pre-image of the transformed template (cancelable fingerprints). We argue that the security strength of template transformation techniques must consider also consider the computational complexity of obtaining a complete pre-image of the transformed template in addition to the complexity of recovering the original biometric template.

  2. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and NA should not be used. (b) Date of birth. (c) Gender, as determined by the State. (d) Unique... birth, gender, card number, issue date, expiration date, and address on the face of the card must be in...

  3. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  4. Societal and ethical implications of anti-spoofing technologies in biometrics.

    PubMed

    Rebera, Andrew P; Bonfanti, Matteo E; Venier, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Biometric identification is thought to be less vulnerable to fraud and forgery than are traditional forms of identification. However biometric identification is not without vulnerabilities. In a 'spoofing attack' an artificial replica of an individual's biometric trait is used to induce a system to falsely infer that individual's presence. Techniques such as liveness-detection and multi-modality, as well as the development of new and emerging modalities, are intended to secure biometric identification systems against such threats. Unlike biometrics in general, the societal and ethical issues raised by spoofing and anti-spoofing techniques have not received much attention. This paper examines these issues.

  5. Identification card and codification of the chemical and morphological characteristics of 14 dental implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Vazquez, Lydia; Park, Yeong-Joon; Sammartino, Gilberto; Bernard, Jean-Pierre

    2011-10-01

    Dental implants are commonly used in daily practice; however, most surgeons do not really know the characteristics of these biomedical devices they are placing in their patients. The objective of this work is to describe the chemical and morphological characteristics of 14 implant surfaces available on the market and to establish a simple and clear identification (ID) card for all of them, following the classification procedure developed in the Dohan Ehrenfest et al (2010) Codification (DEC) system. Fourteen implant surfaces were characterized: TiUnite (Nobel Biocare), Ospol (Ospol), Kohno HRPS (Sweden & Martina), Osseospeed (AstraTech), Ankylos (Dentsply Friadent), MTX (Zimmer), Promote (Camlog), BTI Interna (Biotechnology Institute), EVL Plus (SERF), Twinkon Ref (Tekka), Ossean (Intra-Lock), NanoTite (Biomet 3I), SLActive (ITI Straumann), Integra-CP/NanoTite (Bicon). Three samples of each implant were analyzed. Superficial chemical composition was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy/electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and the 100 nm in-depth profile was established using Auger electron spectroscopy. The microtopography was quantified using light interferometry. The general morphology and nanotopography were evaluated using a field emission-scanning electron microscope. Finally, the characterization code of each surface was established using the DEC system, and the main characteristics of each surface were summarized in a reader-friendly ID card. From a chemical standpoint, of the 14 different surfaces, 10 were based on a commercially pure titanium (grade 2 or 4), 3 on a titanium-aluminum alloy (grade 5 titanium), and one on a calcium phosphate core. Nine surfaces presented different forms of chemical impregnation or discontinuous coating of the titanium core, and 3 surfaces were covered with residual aluminablasting particles. Twelve surfaces presented different degrees of inorganic pollutions, and 2 presented a severe organic pollution

  6. Implications of User Identification Devices (UIDS) for the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    5 1. Smart Card Technology ......................................................................6 2. Biometric Technology...There are plastic badges or cards that use a combination of pictures, barcodes, magnetic strips, embedded microchips (called smart cards ), biometrics...within the business world and without the use of keyboards has lead to the use of contact and noncontact badges and cards. 6 1. Smart Card Technology

  7. Hardware-efficient robust biometric identification from 0.58 second template and 12 features of limb (Lead I) ECG signal using logistic regression classifier.

    PubMed

    Sahadat, Md Nazmus; Jacobs, Eddie L; Morshed, Bashir I

    2014-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG), widely known as a cardiac diagnostic signal, has recently been proposed for biometric identification of individuals; however reliability and reproducibility are of research interest. In this paper, we propose a template matching technique with 12 features using logistic regression classifier that achieved high reliability and identification accuracy. Non-invasive ECG signals were captured using our custom-built ambulatory EEG/ECG embedded device (NeuroMonitor). ECG data were collected from healthy subjects (10), between 25-35 years, for 10 seconds per trial. The number of trials from each subject was 10. From each trial, only 0.58 seconds of Lead I ECG data were used as template. Hardware-efficient fiducial point detection technique was implemented for feature extraction. To obtain repeated random sub-sampling validation, data were randomly separated into training and testing sets at a ratio of 80:20. Test data were used to find the classification accuracy. ECG template data with 12 extracted features provided the best performance in terms of accuracy (up to 100%) and processing complexity (computation time of 1.2ms). This work shows that a single limb (Lead I) ECG can robustly identify an individual quickly and reliably with minimal contact and data processing using the proposed algorithm.

  8. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security features for the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.15 Physical security features for the driver's license or... conduct a review of their card design and submit a report to DHS with their certification that indicates...

  9. Protein identification from dried nipple aspirate fluid on Guthrie cards using mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    DELMONICO, LUCAS; AREIAS, VIVIAN RABELLO; PINTO, RODRIGO CÉSAR; MATOS, CINTIA DA SILVA; ROSA, MARCO FELIPE FRANCO; DE AZEVEDO, CAROLINA MARIA; ALVES, GILDA

    2015-01-01

    Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) requires investigation as a potential source of biomarkers for early diagnosis or risk assessment in breast cancer and other breast disorders. The present study demonstrated that proteins were easily extracted from dried NAF spots on Guthrie cards and were suitable for mass spectrometry analysis. NAF was obtained from 80 women, collected on Guthrie cards, between 2007 and 2010. The NAF-proteins were extracted from the card by incubating the card in water. These proteins were then quantified and separated using one-dimensional, 12% SDS-PAGE, gel electrophoresis and on high-resolution gradient gels at different concentrations (4–12, 8–16 and 4–20%). The bands with the most abundant proteins were excised from the gradient gels and the proteins were identified by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight. Immunoglobulins, Zn-α2-glicoprotein, apoliprotein D and prolactin inducible protein were among those identified. The NAF-Guthrie card collection method has not been applied previously, however, NAF proteins have been identified using other collecting techniques, confirming the feasibility of the NAF Guthrie card collection method for analyzing the proteins within NAF. The NAF-Guthrie card collecting method has multiple advantages, including being inexpensive, non-invasive, reliable and painless, and the cards can be stored at room temperature. Examining NAF may assist in identifying individuals at a higher risk of breast cancer and in improving patient prognosis. PMID:25760982

  10. A MEMS-based, wireless, biometric-like security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Joshua D.; Schneiter, John L.; Leiby, Grant A.; McCarter, Steven; Smith, Jeremiah; Budka, Thomas P.

    2010-04-01

    We present a system for secure identification applications that is based upon biometric-like MEMS chips. The MEMS chips have unique frequency signatures resulting from fabrication process variations. The MEMS chips possess something analogous to a "voiceprint". The chips are vacuum encapsulated, rugged, and suitable for low-cost, highvolume mass production. Furthermore, the fabrication process is fully integrated with standard CMOS fabrication methods. One is able to operate the MEMS-based identification system similarly to a conventional RFID system: the reader (essentially a custom network analyzer) detects the power reflected across a frequency spectrum from a MEMS chip in its vicinity. We demonstrate prototype "tags" - MEMS chips placed on a credit card-like substrate - to show how the system could be used in standard identification or authentication applications. We have integrated power scavenging to provide DC bias for the MEMS chips through the use of a 915 MHz source in the reader and a RF-DC conversion circuit on the tag. The system enables a high level of protection against typical RFID hacking attacks. There is no need for signal encryption, so back-end infrastructure is minimal. We believe this system would make a viable low-cost, high-security system for a variety of identification and authentication applications.

  11. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  12. Towards fraud-proof ID documents using multiple data hiding technologies and biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Justin; Vielhauer, Claus; Thorwirth, Niels

    2004-06-01

    Identity documents, such as ID cards, passports, and driver's licenses, contain textual information, a portrait of the legitimate holder, and eventually some other biometric characteristics such as a fingerprint or handwritten signature. As prices for digital imaging technologies fall, making them more widely available, we have seen an exponential increase in the ease and the number of counterfeiters that can effectively forge documents. Today, with only limited knowledge of technology and a small amount of money, a counterfeiter can effortlessly replace a photo or modify identity information on a legitimate document to the extent that it is very diffcult to differentiate from the original. This paper proposes a virtually fraud-proof ID document based on a combination of three different data hiding technologies: digital watermarking, 2-D bar codes, and Copy Detection Pattern, plus additional biometric protection. As will be shown, that combination of data hiding technologies protects the document against any forgery, in principle without any requirement for other security features. To prevent a genuine document to be used by an illegitimate user,biometric information is also covertly stored in the ID document, to be used for identification at the detector.

  13. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  14. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  15. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  16. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... under age 14 and persons age 80 or above are generally exempt from the fingerscans, unless the person is... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Secretary of State retains the authority to require fingerscans of children under age 14 or adults age 80 or...

  17. Critical evaluation of the AutoMicrobic system gram-negative identification card for identification of glucose-nonfermenting gram-negative rods.

    PubMed Central

    Plorde, J J; Gates, J A; Carlson, L G; Tenover, F C

    1986-01-01

    During a 6-month study we critically evaluated the accuracy of the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative Identification Card (Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) in identifying glucose-nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli by testing 419 selected isolates in parallel with a conventional reference method. Of 356 isolates included in the AutoMicrobic system profile, a total of 307 (86.2%) were correctly identified, 36 (10.1%) were not identified, and 13 (3.7%) were misidentified. Fifty-eight of 63 (92%) isolates not included in the profile were correctly reported as "unidentified organisms." Overall, if the first-choice identification was always accepted, only 18 (4.3%) isolates would have been incorrectly reported. When first-choice identifications appended with the special message "questionable biopattern" were rejected, and organisms were screened for characteristic odor and antimicrobial susceptibility before final acceptance of the AutoMicrobic system report, the number of misidentifications was reduced to 5 (1.2%). The average time to identification with the AutoMicrobic system Gram-Negative Identification Card was 15 h. This compares favorably with the 65 h required by the reference method. PMID:3517050

  18. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  19. A Framework for Analyzing Biometric Template Aging and Renewal Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    identification. This biometric examines the retinal veins in the back of the human eye. The process is accomplished by looking into an eye-piece at...a predetermined location and using light of low-intensity reflected off the back of the retina to illuminate the retinal veins . Although very...typically used for biometric identification are fingerprint, retinal , iris, facial, or hand geometry. By determining an individual’s physical

  20. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  1. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  2. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  3. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  4. 22 CFR 41.32 - Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing identification cards; combined border crossing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonresident alien Mexican border crossing... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Temporary Visitors § 41.32 Nonresident alien Mexican border... Mexico on Form I-186, Nonresident Alien Mexican Border Crossing Card, or Form I-586, Nonresident...

  5. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Mikkilineni, Aravind K; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  6. Evaluation of the personalized bar-code identification card to verify high-risk, high-alert medications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Maria

    2013-09-01

    An effective intervention to decrease medication errors related to high-risk, high-alert medications is to implement double checks and second verification using the five rights of medication administration. To evaluate the effectiveness and use of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification card in verifying high-risk, high-alert medications, the High-Risk, High-Alert Medication Verification Audit Tool was used to collect data from the medical records of patients who received high-risk, high-alert medications in four ICUs. Data were collected for administered high-risk, high-alert medication, primary registered nurses who administered the high-risk, high-alert medication, and secondary registered nurses who verified the medication. The percentage of medications that were "not verified," "Personalized Bar-Code Identification verified," and "verified" using a method other than the Personalized Bar-Code Identification was calculated and compared using Z tests for two proportions. The percentage of Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications (83.5%) was significantly higher than the percentage of medications that were not verified (10.9%) (Z = 38.43, P < .05). Also, the difference between the proportion of the Personalized Bar-Code Identification-verified medications and those that were verified using another method (5.6%) was significant (Z = 41.42, P < .05). The results show that nurses generally tend to follow the standardized procedure for verifying high-risk, high-alert medications in the four ICUs.

  7. A House of Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Reviews how technologically enhanced ID cards are helping colleges and universities keep their students and staff safe. The benefits of a one-card system for identification, building access, and financial transactions are highlighted as are the liberal use of security phones and security cameras. (GR)

  8. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  9. Biometrics and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Venu

    The science of Biometrics is concerned with recognizing people based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. It has emerged as a vibrant field of research in today's security conscious society. In this talk we will introduce the important research challenges in Biometrics and specifically address the following topics: i) unobtrusive people tracking using a novel evolutionary recognition paradigm, ii) efficient indexing and searching of large fingerprint databases, iii) cancelability of templates where the task is to ensure that enrolled biometric templates can be revoked and new templates issued, and iv) fusion of fingerprints with other biometric modalities such as face where we will explore optimal trainable functions that operate on the scores returned by individual matchers.

  10. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  11. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied. PMID:23762851

  12. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  13. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L. ); Henderson, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule.

  14. Identification of inorganic pigments used in porcelain cards based on fusing Raman and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data.

    PubMed

    Deneckere, Annelien; de Vries, Lieke; Vekemans, Bart; Van de Voorde, Lien; Ariese, Freek; Vincze, Laszlo; Moens, Luc; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy are often used as complementary techniques that are well suited for the analysis of art objects because both techniques are fast, sensitive, and noninvasive and measurements can take place in situ. In most of these studies, both techniques are used separately, in the sense that the spectra are evaluated independently and single conclusions are obtained, considering both results. This paper presents a data fusion procedure for Raman and XRF data for the characterization of pigments used in porcelain cards. For the classification of the analyzed points of the porcelain cards principal component analysis (PCA) was used. A first attempt was made to develop a new procedure for the identification of the pigments using a database containing the fused Raman-XRF data of 24 reference pigments. The results show that the classification based on the fused Raman-XRF data is significantly better than the classifications based on the Raman data or the XRF data separately.

  15. Developing a multimodal biometric authentication system using soft computing methods.

    PubMed

    Malcangi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Robust personal authentication is becoming ever more important in computer-based applications. Among a variety of methods, biometric offers several advantages, mainly in embedded system applications. Hard and soft multi-biometric, combined with hard and soft computing methods, can be applied to improve the personal authentication process and to generalize the applicability. This chapter describes the embedded implementation of a multi-biometric (voiceprint and fingerprint) multimodal identification system based on hard computing methods (DSP) for feature extraction and matching, an artificial neural network (ANN) for soft feature pattern matching, and a fuzzy logic engine (FLE) for data fusion and decision.

  16. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  17. Zeroing Biometrics: Collecting Biometrics Before the Shooting Starts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    21  Biometrics, Forensics and Watchlisting in Counterinsurgency .....................................23  Watchlisting...reside within a synergy of biometrics, forensics , and intelligence collection. Each of these key principle pairings has a biometric component or has...before issue supplies or medication during a humanitarian operation. From a forensic perspective, one-to-many matching could be the comparison of a

  18. The biometric menagerie.

    PubMed

    Yager, Neil; Dunstone, Ted

    2010-02-01

    It is commonly accepted that users of a biometric system may have differing degrees of accuracy within the system. Some people may have trouble authenticating, while others may be particularly vulnerable to impersonation. Goats, wolves, and lambs are labels commonly applied to these problem users. These user types are defined in terms of verification performance when users are matched against themselves (goats) or when matched against others (lambs and wolves). The relationship between a user's genuine and impostor match results suggests four new user groups: worms, doves, chameleons, and phantoms. We establish formal definitions for these animals and a statistical test for their existence. A thorough investigation is conducted using a broad range of biometric modalities, including 2D and 3D faces, fingerprints, iris, speech, and keystroke dynamics. Patterns that emerge from the results expose novel, important, and encouraging insights into the nature of biometric match results. A new framework for the evaluation of biometric systems based on the biometric menagerie, as opposed to collective statistics, is proposed.

  19. Geometrical features of transformed phase masks in the optical/digital device for identification of credit cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muravsky, Leonid I.; Kulynych, Yaroslav P.; Maksymenko, Olexander P.; Voronyak, Taras I.; Kostyukevych, Sergey A.

    2002-04-01

    The new method for identification of optical marks containing transformed phase masks (TPMs) is considered. A TPM placed in an optical correlator produces several sharp correlation peaks on its output. We choose the distances between peaks as basic geometrical features of a TPM. The increase of quantity of basic features leads to the increase of security level of documents and valuable papers. However, the amount of such features is limited and is depending from many factors. We picked the probability of false identification of the nearest feature as the criterion of separation of features on independent classes. The optical/digital device for identification of credit cards based on a joint transform correlator architecture was used for the study of TPMs. To estimate the law of distribution of basic features inherent to the same class, we carried out experiments with the series of TPMs. We have shown, that the additional features allow to increase the number of basic features, separated on different classes. These experiments also have allowed to estimate the error of features measurements

  20. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  1. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (3) Level 3. Inspection by forensic specialists. (d) Document security and integrity. States must... independent laboratory experienced with adversarial analysis of identification documents concerning one...

  2. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (3) Level 3. Inspection by forensic specialists. (d) Document security and integrity. States must... independent laboratory experienced with adversarial analysis of identification documents concerning one...

  3. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (3) Level 3. Inspection by forensic specialists. (d) Document security and integrity. States must... independent laboratory experienced with adversarial analysis of identification documents concerning one...

  4. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (3) Level 3. Inspection by forensic specialists. (d) Document security and integrity. States must... independent laboratory experienced with adversarial analysis of identification documents concerning one...

  5. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    process must be considered. Whereas barcodes are read upon direct interaction with a scanner , RFID tags transmit sometimes indiscriminately. This can...grouped in the category of automatic identification technologies, along with barcodes , magnetic stripes, smart cards and biometrics. RFID uses...DISADVANTAGES The main rival technology to RFID is barcoding , which is very cheap, easy to use, and can have a high return on investment if the

  6. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    PubMed

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  7. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices. PMID:22346634

  8. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols.

  9. 2009 Biometrics Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-28

    Associate General Counsel, Graduate Management Admission Council Ms. Stokes provided an overview of GMAT , which facilitates the movement of talent around...the world. Biometrics provides a technological capability to prevent fraud during the administration of GMAT . Legal challenges with fingerprints...of law, and democracy. The Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is the industry leader in privacy compliance worldwide. GMAT implements

  10. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  11. Genetics, biometrics and the informatization of the body.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Irma

    2007-01-01

    "Genetics" is a term covering a wide set of theories, practices, and technologies, only some of which overlap with the practices and technologies of biometrics. In this paper some current technological developments relating to biometric applications of genetics will be highlighted. Next, the author will elaborate the notion of the informatization of the body, by means of a brief philosophical detour on the dualisms of language and reality, words and things. In the subsequent sections she will then draw out some of the questions relevant to the purposes of Biometrics Identification Technology Ethics (BITE), and discuss the ethical problems associated with the informatization of the body. There are, however some problems and limitations to the currently dominant ethical discourse to deal with all things ethical in relation to information technology in general, and biometrics or genetics in particular. The final section will discuss some of these meta-problems.

  12. Bartus Iris biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  13. Cognitive Biometrics: Challenges for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revett, Kenneth; de Magalhães, Sergio Tenreiro

    Cognitive biometrics is a novel approach to user authentication/identification which utilises a biosignal based approach. Specifically, current implementations rely on the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and the electrodermal response (EDR) as inputs into a traditional authentication scheme. The scientific basis for the deployment of biosignals resides principally on their uniqueness -for instance the theta power band in adults presents a phenotypic/genetic correlation of approximately 75%. The numbers are roughly the same for ECG, with an heritability correlation for the peak-to-peak (R-R interval) times of over 77%. For EDR, the results indicate that there is approximately a 50% heritability score (h2). The challenge with respect to cognitive biometrics based on biosignals is to enhance the information content of the acquired data.

  14. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person`s identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm.

  15. Human scent as a biometric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Allison M.; Prada, Paola A.; Schoon, Adee A.; Almirall, Jose R.; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes an analytical determination of the chemical composition and variation of the chemicals in body odor among individuals through headspace solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) as a possible biometric measurement. Biometrics is the technique of measuring a physical characteristic or personal trait of an individual and comparing that characteristic to a database for the purpose of identification. It is known that the human body produces odor, and that this odor is distinguishable through the use of canines. The chemical composition of an individual"s body odor is considered a physical characteristic. This paper discusses and compares the odor profiles produced from the hands as well as the armpit regions of different individuals. Chromatographic distinction among the individuals studied is shown through a combination of the relative ratios of common compounds and the presence of differing compounds.

  16. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  17. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  18. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  19. Soft biometrics in conjunction with optics based biohashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2011-02-01

    Biometric systems are gaining importance because of increased reliability for authentication and identification. A biometric recognition technique has been proposed earlier, in which biohashing code has been generated by using a joint transform correlator. The main drawback of the base biohashing method is the low performance of the technique when an "impostor" steals the pseudo-random numbers of the genuine and tries to authenticate as genuine. In the proposed technique, soft biometrics of the same person has been used to improve the discrimination between the genuine and the impostor populations. The soft biometrics are those characteristics that provide some information about the individual, but lack the distinctiveness and permanence to sufficiently differentiate between any two individuals. In the enrolment process, biohash code of the target face images has been integrated with the different soft biometrics of the same person. The obtained code has been stored for verification. In the verification process, biohash code of the face image to be verified is again diffused with the soft biometric of the person. The obtained code is matched with the stored code of the target. The receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the equal error rate (EER) have been used to evaluate the performance of the technique. A detailed study has been carried out to find out the optimum values of the weighting factor for the diffusion process.

  20. Multimodal biometric approach for cancelable face template generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Padma Polash; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Due to the rapid growth of biometric technology, template protection becomes crucial to secure integrity of the biometric security system and prevent unauthorized access. Cancelable biometrics is emerging as one of the best solutions to secure the biometric identification and verification system. We present a novel technique for robust cancelable template generation algorithm that takes advantage of the multimodal biometric using feature level fusion. Feature level fusion of different facial features is applied to generate the cancelable template. A proposed algorithm based on the multi-fold random projection and fuzzy communication scheme is used for this purpose. In cancelable template generation, one of the main difficulties is keeping interclass variance of the feature. We have found that interclass variations of the features that are lost during multi fold random projection can be recovered using fusion of different feature subsets and projecting in a new feature domain. Applying the multimodal technique in feature level, we enhance the interclass variability hence improving the performance of the system. We have tested the system for classifier fusion for different feature subset and different cancelable template fusion. Experiments have shown that cancelable template improves the performance of the biometric system compared with the original template.

  1. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Page of Cards)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For mass distribution: two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  2. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  3. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  4. Logistic Map for Cancellable Biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, V. G., Dr; Manjunatha, Ramachandra, Dr

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design and implementation of secured biometric template protection system by transforming the biometric template using binary chaotic signals and 3 different key streams to obtain another form of template and demonstrating its efficiency by the results and investigating on its security through analysis including, key space analysis, information entropy and key sensitivity analysis.

  5. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, T.; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S.

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated. PMID:28123263

  6. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  7. Biometrics, e-identity, and the balance between security and privacy: case study of the passenger name record (PNR) system.

    PubMed

    Nouskalis, G

    2011-03-01

    The implementation of biometrics entails either the establishment of an identity or tracing a person's identity. Biometric passport data (e.g., irises, fingers, faces) can be used in order to verify a passenger's identity. The proposed Passenger Name Record (PNR) system contains all the information necessary to enable reservations to be processed and controlled by the booking and participating air carriers for each journey booked by or on behalf of any person. PNR data are related to travel movements, usually flights, and include passport data, name, address, telephone numbers, travel agent, credit card number, history of changes in the flight schedule, seat preferences, and other information. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, a new emergency political-law status of society was established: the continuous state of "war" against the so-called unlawful combatants of the "enemy". Officially, the enemy is the terrorists, but the victims of the privacy invasions caused by the above new form of data processing are the civilians. The data processing based on biometrics is covered both by Directive 95/46 EC and Article 8 of the Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (now the European Convention on Human Rights, "ECHR"). According to Article 2, Paragraph a of the above Directive, personal data shall mean any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person; an identifiable person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification number or to one or more factors specific to his/her physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural, or social identity.

  8. Secret sharing using biometric traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Savas, Erkay; Levi, Albert

    2006-04-01

    In biometric based authentication, biometric traits of a person are matched against his/her stored biometric profile and access is granted if there is sufficient match. However, there are other access scenarios, which require participation of multiple previously registered users for a successful authentication or to get an access grant for a certain entity. For instance, there are cryptographic constructs generally known as secret sharing schemes, where a secret is split into shares and distributed amongst participants in such a way that it is reconstructed/revealed only when the necessary number of share holders come together. The revealed secret can then be used for encryption or authentication (if the revealed key is verified against the previously registered value). In this work we propose a method for the biometric based secret sharing. Instead of splitting a secret amongst participants, as is done in cryptography, a single biometric construct is created using the biometric traits of the participants. During authentication, a valid cryptographic key is released out of the construct when the required number of genuine participants present their biometric traits.

  9. New surveillance technologies and their publics: A case of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aaron K; Donovan, Kevin P

    2015-10-01

    Before a newly-elected government abandoned the project in 2010, for at least eight years the British state actively sought to introduce a mandatory national identification scheme for which the science and technology of biometrics was central. Throughout the effort, government representatives attempted to portray biometrics as a technology that was easily understandable and readily accepted by the public. However, neither task was straightforward. Instead, particular publics emerged that showed biometric technology was rarely well understood and often disagreeable. In contrast to some traditional conceptualizations of the relationship between public understanding and science, it was often those entities that best understood the technology that found it least acceptable, rather than those populations that lacked knowledge. This paper analyzes the discourses that pervaded the case in order to untangle how various publics are formed and exhibit differing, conflicting understandings of a novel technology.

  10. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  11. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  12. Multi-order analysis framework for comprehensive biometric performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.

    2010-04-01

    It is not uncommon for contemporary biometric systems to have more than one match below the matching threshold, or to have two or more matches having close matching scores. This is especially true for those that store large quantities of identities and/or are applied to measure loosely constrained biometric traits, such as in identification from video or at a distance. Current biometric performance evaluation standards however are still largely based on measuring single-score statistics such as False Match, False Non-Match rates and the trade-off curves based thereon. Such methodology and reporting makes it impossible to investigate the risks and risk mitigation strategies associated with not having a unique identifying score. To address the issue, Canada Border Services Agency has developed a novel modality-agnostic multi-order performance analysis framework. The framework allows one to analyze the system performance at several levels of detail, by defining the traditional single-score-based metrics as Order-1 analysis, and introducing Order- 2 and Order-3 analysis to permit the investigation of the system reliability and the confidence of its recognition decisions. Implemented in a toolkit called C-BET (Comprehensive Biometrics Evaluation Toolkit), the framework has been applied in a recent examination of the state-of-the art iris recognition systems, the results of which are presented, and is now recommended to other agencies interested in testing and tuning the biometric systems.

  13. Bimodal biometrics based on a representation and recognition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Zhong, Aini; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2011-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that multibiometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. This is mainly because the use of multiple biometric traits of the subject enables more information to be used for identification or verification. In this paper, we focus on bimodal biometrics and propose a novel representation and recognition approach to bimodal biometrics. This approach first denotes the biometric trait sample by a complex vector. Then, it represents the test sample through the training samples and classifies the test sample as follows: let the test sample be expressed as a linear combination of all the training samples each being a complex vector. The proposed approach obtains the solution by solving a linear system. After evaluating the effect, in representing the test sample of each class, the approach classifies the test sample into the class that makes the greatest effect. The approach proposed is not only novel but also simple and computationally efficient. A large number of experiments show that our method can obtain promising results.

  14. Playing the Smart Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  15. Playing the Smart Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  16. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  17. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  18. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  19. Biometrics: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Tactical Employment of Biometrics in Support of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Biometrics in Support of Operations Biometrics-at- Sea : Business Rules for South Florida United States...Intelligence Activities Biometrics-Enabled Intelligence USCG Biometrics-at- Sea : Business Rules for

  20. Gaze as a biometric

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  1. Gaze as a biometric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual "dotpattern" tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer's capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users' average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  2. Identification of hybrids of painted and milky storks using FTA card-collected blood, molecular markers, and morphologies.

    PubMed

    Yee, Elsie Yoke Sim; Zainuddin, Zainal Zahari; Ismail, Ahmad; Yap, Chee Kong; Tan, Soon Guan

    2013-10-01

    Suspicious hybrids of painted storks and milky storks were found in a Malaysian zoo. Blood of these birds was sampled on FTA cards for DNA fingerprinting. Of 44 optimized primers, 6 produced diagnostic markers that could identify hybrids. The markers were based on simple, direct PCR-generated multilocus banding patterns that provided two sets of genetic data, one for each of the two stork species and another for the hybrids. It also revealed that large DNA fragments (3,000 bp) could be amplified from blood collected on FTA cards. When the results of each individual bird's DNA fingerprint were compared with plumage characters, the hybrids were found to express a range of intermediate phenotypic traits of the pure breeds with no dominant plumage characteristic from either parental species.

  3. Modulated digital images for biometric and other security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lawry D.; Lee, Robert A.; Swiegers, Gerhard F.

    2004-06-01

    There are, in general, two ways for an observer to deal with light that is incorrect in some way (e.g. which is partially out of focus). One approach is to correct the error (e.g. by using a lens to selectively bend the light). Another approach employs selective masking to block those portions of the light which are unwanted (e.g. out of focus). The principle of selective masking is used in a number of important industries. However it has not found widespread application in the field of optical security devices. This work describes the selective masking, or modulation, of digital images as a means of creating documents and transparent media containing overt or covert biometric and other images. In particular, we show how animation effects, flash-illumination features, color-shifting patches, information concealment devices, and biometric portraiture in various settings can be incorporated in transparent media like plastic packaging materials, credit cards, and plastic banknotes. We also demonstrate the application of modulated digital images to the preparation of optically variable diffractive foils which are readily customized to display biometric portraits and information. Selective masking is shown to be an important means of creating a diverse range of effects useful in authentication. Such effects can be readily and inexpensively produced without the need, for example, to fabricate lenses on materials which may not be conducive in this respect.

  4. On the Privacy Protection of Biometric Traits: Palmprint, Face, and Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahy, Saroj Kumar; Jena, Debasish; Korra, Sathya Babu; Jena, Sanjay Kumar

    Biometrics are expected to add a new level of security to applications, as a person attempting access must prove who he or she really is by presenting a biometric to the system. The recent developments in the biometrics area have lead to smaller, faster and cheaper systems, which in turn has increased the number of possible application areas for biometric identity verification. The biometric data, being derived from human bodies (and especially when used to identify or verify those bodies) is considered personally identifiable information (PII). The collection, use and disclosure of biometric data — image or template, invokes rights on the part of an individual and obligations on the part of an organization. As biometric uses and databases grow, so do concerns that the personal data collected will not be used in reasonable and accountable ways. Privacy concerns arise when biometric data are used for secondary purposes, invoking function creep, data matching, aggregation, surveillance and profiling. Biometric data transmitted across networks and stored in various databases by others can also be stolen, copied, or otherwise misused in ways that can materially affect the individual involved. As Biometric systems are vulnerable to replay, database and brute-force attacks, such potential attacks must be analysed before they are massively deployed in security systems. Along with security, also the privacy of the users is an important factor as the constructions of lines in palmprints contain personal characteristics, from face images a person can be recognised, and fake signatures can be practised by carefully watching the signature images available in the database. We propose a cryptographic approach to encrypt the images of palmprints, faces, and signatures by an advanced Hill cipher technique for hiding the information in the images. It also provides security to these images from being attacked by above mentioned attacks. So, during the feature extraction, the

  5. Multimodal biometric digital watermarking on immigrant visas for homeland security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasi, Sreela; Tamhane, Kirti C.; Rajappa, Mahesh B.

    2004-08-01

    Passengers with immigrant Visa's are a major concern to the International Airports due to the various fraud operations identified. To curb tampering of genuine Visa, the Visa's should contain human identification information. Biometric characteristic is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of an individual [1]. A Multimodal Biometric Human Identification System (MBHIS) that integrates iris code, DNA fingerprint, and the passport number on the Visa photograph using digital watermarking scheme is presented. Digital Watermarking technique is well suited for any system requiring high security [2]. Ophthalmologists [3], [4], [5] suggested that iris scan is an accurate and nonintrusive optical fingerprint. DNA sequence can be used as a genetic barcode [6], [7]. While issuing Visa at the US consulates, the DNA sequence isolated from saliva, the iris code and passport number shall be digitally watermarked in the Visa photograph. This information is also recorded in the 'immigrant database'. A 'forward watermarking phase' combines a 2-D DWT transformed digital photograph with the personal identification information. A 'detection phase' extracts the watermarked information from this VISA photograph at the port of entry, from which iris code can be used for identification and DNA biometric for authentication, if an anomaly arises.

  6. Extreme value analysis in biometrics.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Jürg

    2009-04-01

    We review some approaches of extreme value analysis in the context of biometrical applications. The classical extreme value analysis is based on iid random variables. Two different general methods are applied, which will be discussed together with biometrical examples. Different estimation, testing, goodness-of-fit procedures for applications are discussed. Furthermore, some non-classical situations are considered where the data are possibly dependent, where a non-stationary behavior is observed in the data or where the observations are not univariate. A few open problems are also stated.

  7. Template aging in eye movement-driven biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komogortsev, Oleg V.; Holland, Corey D.; Karpov, Alex

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a template aging study of eye movement biometrics, considering three distinct biometric techniques on multiple stimuli and eye tracking systems. Short-to-midterm aging effects are examined over two-weeks, on a highresolution eye tracking system, and seven-months, on a low-resolution eye tracking system. We find that, in all cases, aging effects are evident as early as two weeks after initial template collection, with an average 28% (±19%) increase in equal error rates and 34% (±12%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. At seven months, we observe an average 18% (±8%) increase in equal error rates and 44% (±20%) reduction in rank-1 identification rates. The comparative results at two-weeks and seven-months suggests that there is little difference in aging effects between the two intervals; however, whether the rate of decay increases more drastically in the long-term remains to be seen.

  8. Heart Sound Biometric System Based on Marginal Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhidong; Shen, Qinqin; Ren, Fangqin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis, which is a new feature extraction technique for identification purposes. This heart sound identification system is comprised of signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, training, and identification. Experiments on the selection of the optimal values for the system parameters are conducted. The results indicate that the new spectrum coefficients result in a significant increase in the recognition rate of 94.40% compared with that of the traditional Fourier spectrum (84.32%) based on a database of 280 heart sounds from 40 participants. PMID:23429515

  9. Heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhidong; Shen, Qinqin; Ren, Fangqin

    2013-02-18

    This work presents a heart sound biometric system based on marginal spectrum analysis, which is a new feature extraction technique for identification purposes. This heart sound identification system is comprised of signal acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, training, and identification. Experiments on the selection of the optimal values for the system parameters are conducted. The results indicate that the new spectrum coefficients result in a significant increase in the recognition rate of 94.40% compared with that of the traditional Fourier spectrum (84.32%) based on a database of 280 heart sounds from 40 participants. 

  10. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  11. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of the IriScan prototype biometric identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchier, F.; Ahrens, J.S.; Wells, G.

    1996-04-01

    One thing that all access control applications have in common is the need to identify those individuals authorized to gain access to an area. Traditionally, the identification is based on something that person possesses, such as a key or badge, or something they know, such as a PIN or password. Biometric identifiers make their decisions based on the physiological or behavioral characteristics of individuals. The potential of biometrics devices to positively identify individuals has made them attractive for use in access control and computer security applications. However, no systems perform perfectly, so it is important to understand what a biometric device`s performance is under real world conditions before deciding to implement one in an access control system. This paper will describe the evaluation of a prototype biometric identifier provided by IriScan Incorporated. This identifier was developed to recognize individual human beings based on the distinctive visual characteristics of the irises of their eyes. The main goal of the evaluation was to determine whether the system has potential as an access control device within the Department of Energy (DOE). The primary interest was an estimate of the accuracy of the system in terms of false accept and false reject rates. Data was also collected to estimate throughput time and user acceptability. The performance of the system during the test will be discussed. Lessons learned during the test which may aid in further testing and simplify implementation of a production system will also be discussed.

  13. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-01

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  14. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  15. Global Operations and Biometrics: Next Generation Capabilities and Policy Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    commonly used biometric since the mid 1980s and has wide use in criminal forensics to identify suspect “ donors ” from hair, blood, semen , saliva, or...directly from the donor (reference DNA samples). DNA STR analysis supports identity resolution and is regularly used for first generation familial...sequencing analysis. Genomic sequencing techniques could soon enable multi- donor identification and intelligence lead generation, bio- geographic

  16. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  17. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  18. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  19. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  20. The problematic unity of biometrics.

    PubMed

    Stigler, S M

    2000-09-01

    The word "biometry" may be less than 200 years old, but it can be argued that work we would now consider biometric dates back even to the pre-Christian era. The unity of biometry is attested through examples spanning two millennia, and a lesson from Francis Galton is recalled from a century ago.

  1. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  2. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K.; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security. PMID:28512630

  3. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  4. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Program (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  5. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Program (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  6. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine CARD15 and their associations with health and production traits in Canadian Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Leyva-Baca, Ivan; Sharma, Bhawani S; Karrow, Niel A

    2007-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) and Caspase Recruitment Domain 15 (CARD15) are important pattern recognition receptors that play a role in the initiation of the inflammatory and subsequent immune response. They have been previously identified as susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel diseases in humans and are, therefore, suitable candidate genes for inflammatory disease resistance in cattle. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine TLR2 and CARD15 and evaluate the association of these SNPs with health and production traits in a population of Canadian Holstein bulls. Results A selective DNA pool was constructed based on the estimated breeding values (EBVs) for SCS. Gene segments were amplified from this pool in PCR reactions and the amplicons sequenced to reveal polymorphisms. A total of four SNPs, including one in intron 10 (c.2886-14A>G) and three in the exon 12 (c.3020A>T, c.4500A>C and c.4950C>T) were identified in CARD15; none were identified in TLR2. Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) were genotyped and haplotypes were reconstructed. Two SNPs, c.3020A>T and c.4500A>C, were associated with EBVs for health and production traits. The SNP, c.3020A>T, for example, was associated with SCS EBVs (p = 0.0097) with an allele substitution effect of 0.07 score. When compared to the most frequent haplotype Hap12(AC), Hap22(TC) was associated with increased milk (p < 0.0001) and protein (p = 0.0007) yield EBVs, and hap21(TA) was significantly associated with increased SCS EBV(p = 0.0120). All significant comparison-wise associations retained significance at 8% experimental-wise level by permutation test. Conclusion This study indicates that SNP c.3020A>T might play a role in the host response against mastitis and further detailed studies are needed to understand its functional mechanisms. PMID:18005441

  7. Tongue prints in biometric authentication: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jeddy, Nadeem; Radhika, T; Nithya, S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Biometric authentication is an important process for the identification and verification of individuals for security purposes. There are many biometric systems that are currently in use and also being researched. Tongue print is a new biometric authentication tool that is unique and cannot be easily forged because no two tongue prints are similar. The present study aims to evaluate the common morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. The usefulness of alginate impression and dental cast in obtaining the lingual impression was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The study sample included twenty participants. The participants were subjected to visual examination following which digital photographs of the dorsal surface of the tongue were taken. Alginate impressions of the tongue were made, and casts were prepared using dental stone. The photographs and the casts were analyzed by two observers separately for the surface morphology including shape, presence or absence of fissures and its pattern of distribution. Three reference points were considered to determine the shape of the tongue. Results: The most common morphological feature on the dorsum of the tongue was the presence of central fissures. Multiple vertical fissures were observed in males whereas single vertical fissure was a common finding in females. The fissures were predominantly shallow in males and deep in females. The tongue was predominantly U shaped in males and females. V-shaped tongue was observed in 25% of females. Conclusion: Tongue prints are useful in biometric authentication. The methodology used in the study is simple, easy and can be adopted by dentists on a regular basis. However, large-scale studies are required to validate the results and also identify other features of the tongue that can be used in forensics and biometric authentication process. PMID:28479712

  8. Tongue prints in biometric authentication: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jeddy, Nadeem; Radhika, T; Nithya, S

    2017-01-01

    Biometric authentication is an important process for the identification and verification of individuals for security purposes. There are many biometric systems that are currently in use and also being researched. Tongue print is a new biometric authentication tool that is unique and cannot be easily forged because no two tongue prints are similar. The present study aims to evaluate the common morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. The usefulness of alginate impression and dental cast in obtaining the lingual impression was also evaluated. The study sample included twenty participants. The participants were subjected to visual examination following which digital photographs of the dorsal surface of the tongue were taken. Alginate impressions of the tongue were made, and casts were prepared using dental stone. The photographs and the casts were analyzed by two observers separately for the surface morphology including shape, presence or absence of fissures and its pattern of distribution. Three reference points were considered to determine the shape of the tongue. The most common morphological feature on the dorsum of the tongue was the presence of central fissures. Multiple vertical fissures were observed in males whereas single vertical fissure was a common finding in females. The fissures were predominantly shallow in males and deep in females. The tongue was predominantly U shaped in males and females. V-shaped tongue was observed in 25% of females. Tongue prints are useful in biometric authentication. The methodology used in the study is simple, easy and can be adopted by dentists on a regular basis. However, large-scale studies are required to validate the results and also identify other features of the tongue that can be used in forensics and biometric authentication process.

  9. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens

    2004-01-01

    Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure. PMID:14748929

  10. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens

    2004-01-28

    Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  11. Age of Majority Cards and Drinking among Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Adlaf, Edward M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined use of age of majority cards (identification indicating legal drinking age status in Ontario) among 3,395 secondary school students. Found card status to be significantly related to frequency of alcohol use, problems, and place of drinking. Found little evidence that age of majority cards are an effective device for limiting access of…

  12. Age of Majority Cards and Drinking among Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Adlaf, Edward M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined use of age of majority cards (identification indicating legal drinking age status in Ontario) among 3,395 secondary school students. Found card status to be significantly related to frequency of alcohol use, problems, and place of drinking. Found little evidence that age of majority cards are an effective device for limiting access of…

  13. [The introduction of the electronic health card in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bales, S

    2005-07-01

    From 2006 onwards all members of the health insurance system in Germany will be issued an electronic health card which will replace the current health insurance card. The new health card will be technically upgraded to also include patient-related health data or provide access to such data in addition to its administrative functions. Therefore, it is evident that the health card be fitted with a microprocessor that permits authentication (electronic identity check), encryption and the electronic digital signature, thus ensuring maximum data safety and security. For easy identification of the insured person, the electronic health card will bear a photograph of the card holder.

  14. Biometrics "Foundation Documents"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the U.S. border is the same person who received the visa. For visa-waiver travelers, the capture of biometrics first occurs at the port of entry to...inadmissible, is a know security risk (including having outstanding wants and warrants), or has previously overstayed the terms of a visa. These entry ...cornerstone of the DHS visa issuance and entry /exit strategy. The US-VISIT program is a continuum of security measures that begins overseas at the

  15. DoD Biometric Conformity Assessment Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    REPORT DATE APR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-04-2005 to 00-06-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD Biometric Conformity Assessment...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 dsp.dla.mil 21 DSP JOURNAL April/June 200522 The comprehensive discipline of conformity assess- ment involves conformance ... conformity assessment, and details the steps the DoD Biometrics Management Office (BMO) and its subordinate technology center, the DoD Biometrics Fusion

  16. Prospects of Biometrics at-a-Distance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    facial recognition binocular system reviewed in this thesis is designed to enable users to conduct facial recognition at-a-distance to provide a covert... system reviewed in this thesis is designed to enable users to conduct facial recognition at-a-distance to provide a covert, biometric collection method...does not have the capability to collect biometric data at-a-distance. The system is designed for contact and contactless biometric collection, which

  17. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  18. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB Assay for Identification of Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae and Other Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli and Comparison with the Vitek GNI+ Card

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.; Miller, J. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at −70°C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the

  19. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Caroline M; Miller, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at -70 degrees C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the

  20. Spotting and tracking good biometrics with the human visual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We mathematically model the mammalian Visual System's (VS) capability of spotting objects. How can a hawk see a tiny running rabbit from miles above ground? How could that rabbit see the approaching hawk? This predatorprey interaction draws parallels with spotting a familiar person in a crowd. We assume that mammal eyes use peripheral vision to perceive unexpected changes from our memory, and then use our central vision (fovea) to pay attention. The difference between an image and our memory of that image is usually small, mathematically known as a 'sparse representation'. The VS communicates with the brain using a finite reservoir of neurotransmittents, which produces an on-center and thus off-surround Hubel/Wiesel Mexican hat receptive field. This is the basis of our model. This change detection mechanism could drive our attention, allowing us to hit a curveball. If we are about to hit a baseball, what information extracted by our HVS tells us where to swing? Physical human features such as faces, irises, and fingerprints have been successfully used for identification (Biometrics) for decades, recently including voice and walking style for identification from further away. Biologically, humans must use a change detection strategy to achieve an ordered sparseness and use a sigmoid threshold for noisy measurements in our Hetero-Associative Memory [HAM] classifier for fault tolerant recall. Human biometrics is dynamic, and therefore involves more than just the surface, requiring a 3 dimensional measurement (i.e. Daugman/Gabor iris features). Such a measurement can be achieved using the partial coherence of a laser's reflection from a 3-D biometric surface, creating more degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) to meet the Army's challenge of distant Biometrics. Thus, one might be able to increase the standoff loss of less distinguished degrees of freedom (DOF).

  1. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  2. Use of synthetic data to test biometric algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Thomas M.; Broussard, Randy; Rakvic, Ryan; Ngo, Hau; Ives, Robert W.; Schultz, Robert; Aguayo, Joseph T.

    2016-07-01

    For digital imagery, face detection and identification are functions of great importance in wide-ranging applications, including full facial recognition systems. The development and evaluation of unique and existing face detection and face identification applications require a significant amount of data. Increased availability of such data volumes could benefit the formulation and advancement of many biometric algorithms. Here, the utility of using synthetically generated face data to evaluate facial biometry methodologies to a precision that would be unrealistic for a parametrically uncontrolled dataset, is demonstrated. Particular attention is given to similarity metrics, symmetry within and between recognition algorithms, discriminatory power and optimality of pan and/or tilt in reference images or libraries, susceptibilities to variations, identification confidence, meaningful identification mislabelings, sensitivity, specificity, and threshold values. The face identification results, in particular, could be generalized to address shortcomings in various applications and help to inform the design of future strategies.

  3. Gas Discharge Visualization: An Imaging and Modeling Tool for Medical Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Kostyuk, Nataliya; Cole, Phyadragren; Meghanathan, Natarajan; Isokpehi, Raphael D.; Cohly, Hari H. P.

    2011-01-01

    The need for automated identification of a disease makes the issue of medical biometrics very current in our society. Not all biometric tools available provide real-time feedback. We introduce gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique as one of the biometric tools that have the potential to identify deviations from the normal functional state at early stages and in real time. GDV is a nonintrusive technique to capture the physiological and psychoemotional status of a person and the functional status of different organs and organ systems through the electrophotonic emissions of fingertips placed on the surface of an impulse analyzer. This paper first introduces biometrics and its different types and then specifically focuses on medical biometrics and the potential applications of GDV in medical biometrics. We also present our previous experience with GDV in the research regarding autism and the potential use of GDV in combination with computer science for the potential development of biological pattern/biomarker for different kinds of health abnormalities including cancer and mental diseases. PMID:21747817

  4. Gas discharge visualization: an imaging and modeling tool for medical biometrics.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Nataliya; Cole, Phyadragren; Meghanathan, Natarajan; Isokpehi, Raphael D; Cohly, Hari H P

    2011-01-01

    The need for automated identification of a disease makes the issue of medical biometrics very current in our society. Not all biometric tools available provide real-time feedback. We introduce gas discharge visualization (GDV) technique as one of the biometric tools that have the potential to identify deviations from the normal functional state at early stages and in real time. GDV is a nonintrusive technique to capture the physiological and psychoemotional status of a person and the functional status of different organs and organ systems through the electrophotonic emissions of fingertips placed on the surface of an impulse analyzer. This paper first introduces biometrics and its different types and then specifically focuses on medical biometrics and the potential applications of GDV in medical biometrics. We also present our previous experience with GDV in the research regarding autism and the potential use of GDV in combination with computer science for the potential development of biological pattern/biomarker for different kinds of health abnormalities including cancer and mental diseases.

  5. Personal identification by eyes.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  6. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  7. Cancelable biometrics realization with multispace random projections.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yuang, Chong Tze

    2007-10-01

    Biometric characteristics cannot be changed; therefore, the loss of privacy is permanent if they are ever compromised. This paper presents a two-factor cancelable formulation, where the biometric data are distorted in a revocable but non-reversible manner by first transforming the raw biometric data into a fixed-length feature vector and then projecting the feature vector onto a sequence of random subspaces that were derived from a user-specific pseudorandom number (PRN). This process is revocable and makes replacing biometrics as easy as replacing PRNs. The formulation has been verified under a number of scenarios (normal, stolen PRN, and compromised biometrics scenarios) using 2400 Facial Recognition Technology face images. The diversity property is also examined.

  8. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  9. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen–elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier

    Treesearch

    Sybill K. Amelon; Sarah E. Hooper; Kathryn M. Womack

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal...

  11. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E.; Silveira, Paulo E. X.; Wach, Hans B.

    2005-02-01

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  12. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  13. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  14. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  15. Toward Improving Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric Verification using Mobile Sensors: A Two-Stage Classifier Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robin; Perkowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals sensed from mobile devices pertain the potential for biometric identity recognition applicable in remote access control systems where enhanced data security is demanding. In this study, we propose a new algorithm that consists of a two-stage classifier combining random forest and wavelet distance measure through a probabilistic threshold schema, to improve the effectiveness and robustness of a biometric recognition system using ECG data acquired from a biosensor integrated into mobile devices. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a mixed dataset from 184 subjects under different health conditions. The proposed two-stage classifier achieves a total of 99.52% subject verification accuracy, better than the 98.33% accuracy from random forest alone and 96.31% accuracy from wavelet distance measure algorithm alone. These results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for biometric identification, hence supporting its practicality in areas such as cloud data security, cyber-security or remote healthcare systems. PMID:28230745

  16. Toward Improving Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric Verification using Mobile Sensors: A Two-Stage Classifier Approach.

    PubMed

    Tan, Robin; Perkowski, Marek

    2017-02-20

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals sensed from mobile devices pertain the potential for biometric identity recognition applicable in remote access control systems where enhanced data security is demanding. In this study, we propose a new algorithm that consists of a two-stage classifier combining random forest and wavelet distance measure through a probabilistic threshold schema, to improve the effectiveness and robustness of a biometric recognition system using ECG data acquired from a biosensor integrated into mobile devices. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a mixed dataset from 184 subjects under different health conditions. The proposed two-stage classifier achieves a total of 99.52% subject verification accuracy, better than the 98.33% accuracy from random forest alone and 96.31% accuracy from wavelet distance measure algorithm alone. These results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for biometric identification, hence supporting its practicality in areas such as cloud data security, cyber-security or remote healthcare systems.

  17. SU-E-T-502: Biometrically Accepted Patient Records

    SciTech Connect

    Basavatia, A; Kalnicki, S; Garg, M; Lukaj, A; Hong, L; Fret, J; Yaparpalvi, R; Tome, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a clinically useful palm vein pattern recognition biometric system to treat the correct treatment plan to the correct patient each and every time and to check-in the patient into the department to access the correct medical record. Methods: A commercially available hand vein scanning system was paired to Aria and utilized an ADT interface from the hospital electronic health system. Integration at two points in Aria, version 11 MR2, first at the appointment tracker screen for the front desk medical record access and second at the queue screen on the 4D treatment console took place for patient daily time-out. A test patient was utilized to check accuracy of identification as well as to check that no unintended interactions take place between the 4D treatment console and the hand vein scanning system. This system has been in clinical use since December 2013. Results: Since implementation, 445 patients have been enrolled into our biometric system. 95% of patients learn the correct methodology of hand placement on the scanner in the first try. We have had two instances of patient not found because of a bad initial scan. We simply erased the scanned metric and the patient enrolled again in those cases. The accuracy of the match is 100% for each patient, we have not had one patient misidentified. We can state this because we still use patient photo and date of birth as identifiers. A QA test patient is run monthly to check the integrity of the system. Conclusion: By utilizing palm vein scans along with the date of birth and patient photo, another means of patient identification now exits. This work indicates the successful implementation of technology in the area of patient safety by closing the gap of treating the wrong plan to a patient in radiation oncology. FOJP Service Corporation covered some of the costs of the hardware and software of the palm vein pattern recognition biometric system.

  18. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    PubMed

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  19. The biometric antecedents to happiness

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood. PMID:28915269

  20. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    PubMed

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  1. C-BET evaluation of voice biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.; Thieme, Michael; Bissessar, David; Chung, Jessica; Dubrofsky, Elan; Lee, Jonathon

    2011-06-01

    C-BET is the Comprehensive Biometrics Evaluation Toolkit developed by CBSA in order to analyze the suitability of biometric systems for fully-automated border/access control applications. Following the multiorder score analysis and the threshold-validated analysis defined within the C-BET framework, the paper presents the results of the C-BET evaluation of a commercial voice biometric product. In addition to error tradeoff and ranking curves traditionally reported elsewhere, the paper presents the results on the newly introduced performance metrics: threshold-validated recognition ranking and non-confident decisions due to multiple threshold-validated scores. The results are obtained on over a million voice audio clip comparisons. Good biometric evaluation practices offered within C-BET framework are presented.

  2. 2010 Biometrics Conference Held in Arlington, Virginia on January 20-21, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-21

    Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública  Gubernamental 1 Operational Diagram Identity Card 61. Birth Certificate 2. Enrollment process 3. Secure...Storage RENAPO 5 Documento de trabajo reservado en términos del Art. 14 de Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública  Gubernamental ...Información Pública  Gubernamental 3 Biometrics – Face Recognition In recent years, face recognition systems, have improved their accurancy mostly

  3. AES Cardless Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Biometric Security System Design Using FPGA Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Rifen, A. Aminurdin M.; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows bank customers to complete a banking transactions without the aid of any bank official or teller. Several problems are associated with the use of ATM card such card cloning, card damaging, card expiring, cast skimming, cost of issuance and maintenance and accessing customer account by third parties. The aim of this project is to give a freedom to the user by changing the card to biometric security system to access the bank account using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The project is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) DE2-115 board with Cyclone IV device, fingerprint scanner, and Multi-Touch Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Second Edition (MTL2) using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware (VHSIC) Description Language (VHDL). This project used 128-bits AES for recommend the device with the throughput around 19.016Gbps and utilized around 520 slices. This design offers a secure banking transaction with a low rea and high performance and very suited for restricted space environments for small amounts of RAM or ROM where either encryption or decryption is performed.

  4. Iris Recognition for Human Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandkar, Lajari; Gengaje, Sachin

    2010-11-01

    Iris recognition system is the biometric identification system. Iris has an intricate structure, uniqueness, stability, and natural protection. Due to these features of the iris it can be used for biometric identification. This system gives better performance than other biometric identification systems. A novel eyelash removal method for preprocessing of human iris images in a human iris recognition system is presented.. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) method is used for feature extraction. For matching of two-iris code Hamming distance calculation is used. EER value must be less for the optimum performance of the system.

  5. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed. PMID:24064605

  6. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  7. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  8. Validation of Vitek 2 nonfermenting gram-negative cards and Vitek 2 version 4.02 software for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nonfermenting gram-negative rods from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Otto-Karg, Ines; Jandl, Stefanie; Müller, Tobias; Stirzel, Beate; Frosch, Matthias; Hebestreit, Helge; Abele-Horn, Marianne

    2009-10-01

    Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of nonfermenters from cystic fibrosis patients are essential for appropriate antimicrobial treatment. This study examined the ability of the newly designed Vitek 2 nonfermenting gram-negative card (NGNC) (new gram-negative identification card; bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) to identify nonfermenting gram-negative rods from cystic fibrosis patients in comparison to reference methods and the accuracy of the new Vitek 2 version 4.02 software for AST compared to the broth microdilution method. Two hundred twenty-four strains for identification and 138 strains for AST were investigated. The Vitek 2 NGNC identified 211 (94.1%) of the nonfermenters correctly. Among morphologically atypical microorganisms, five strains were misidentified and eight strains were determined with low discrimination, requiring additional tests which raised the correct identification rate to 97.8%. Regarding AST, the overall essential agreement of Vitek 2 was 97.6%, and the overall categorical agreement was 92.9%. Minor errors were found in 5.1% of strains, and major and very major errors were found in 1.6% and 0.3% of strains, respectively. In conclusion, the Vitek NGNC appears to be a reliable method for identification of morphologically typical nonfermenters and is an improvement over the API NE system and the Vitek 2 GNC database version 4.01. However, classification in morphologically atypical nonfermenters must be interpreted with care to avoid misidentification. Moreover, the new Vitek 2 version 4.02 software showed good results for AST and is suitable for routine clinical use. More work is needed for the reliable testing of strains whose MICs are close to the breakpoints.

  9. Validation of Vitek 2 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Cards and Vitek 2 Version 4.02 Software for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Rods from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Otto-Karg, Ines; Jandl, Stefanie; Müller, Tobias; Stirzel, Beate; Frosch, Matthias; Hebestreit, Helge; Abele-Horn, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of nonfermenters from cystic fibrosis patients are essential for appropriate antimicrobial treatment. This study examined the ability of the newly designed Vitek 2 nonfermenting gram-negative card (NGNC) (new gram-negative identification card; bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Ètoile, France) to identify nonfermenting gram-negative rods from cystic fibrosis patients in comparison to reference methods and the accuracy of the new Vitek 2 version 4.02 software for AST compared to the broth microdilution method. Two hundred twenty-four strains for identification and 138 strains for AST were investigated. The Vitek 2 NGNC identified 211 (94.1%) of the nonfermenters correctly. Among morphologically atypical microorganisms, five strains were misidentified and eight strains were determined with low discrimination, requiring additional tests which raised the correct identification rate to 97.8%. Regarding AST, the overall essential agreement of Vitek 2 was 97.6%, and the overall categorical agreement was 92.9%. Minor errors were found in 5.1% of strains, and major and very major errors were found in 1.6% and 0.3% of strains, respectively. In conclusion, the Vitek NGNC appears to be a reliable method for identification of morphologically typical nonfermenters and is an improvement over the API NE system and the Vitek 2 GNC database version 4.01. However, classification in morphologically atypical nonfermenters must be interpreted with care to avoid misidentification. Moreover, the new Vitek 2 version 4.02 software showed good results for AST and is suitable for routine clinical use. More work is needed for the reliable testing of strains whose MICs are close to the breakpoints. PMID:19710272

  10. American Health Information Management Association. Position statement. Issue: patient cards.

    PubMed

    1993-11-01

    In its simplest form, a patient card is a credit card sized record made of paper or plastic that contains identification information. A card may contain additional information, such as insurance or limited health information. Of the many technologies available, chip cards and optical cards are best suited for use in healthcare. If their expense can be justified and nation-wide standards established, cards could help improve timely access to basic health information such as demographic, insurance, and basic medical information needed for emergency treatment. Technology may permit a patient's entire longitudinal (lifetime) health history to be maintained on a card, but this should not be the only source of the longitudinal record. To assure its accessibility to legitimate users throughout the healthcare system, the longitudinal health record must be a computer-based patient record maintained on a controlled access network.

  11. SmartCard Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    prototype. ............................................................................................. 7 Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype main window...a data explorer. Intervention costs Database with a single instance (i.e. one data set). User help framework Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype

  12. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Breastfeeding Report Cards Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... National Immunization Survey data from 2014 and 2015. Breastfeeding Report Card, 2016 Download report [PDF-2.72MB] ...

  13. 6 CFR 37.29 - Prohibition against holding more than one REAL ID card or more than one driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ID card or more than one driver's license. 37.29 Section 37.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... REAL ID card or more than one driver's license. (a) An individual may hold only one REAL ID card....

  14. 6 CFR 37.29 - Prohibition against holding more than one REAL ID card or more than one driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ID card or more than one driver's license. 37.29 Section 37.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... REAL ID card or more than one driver's license. (a) An individual may hold only one REAL ID card....

  15. 6 CFR 37.29 - Prohibition against holding more than one REAL ID card or more than one driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ID card or more than one driver's license. 37.29 Section 37.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... REAL ID card or more than one driver's license. (a) An individual may hold only one REAL ID card....

  16. 6 CFR 37.29 - Prohibition against holding more than one REAL ID card or more than one driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ID card or more than one driver's license. 37.29 Section 37.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... REAL ID card or more than one driver's license. (a) An individual may hold only one REAL ID card....

  17. 6 CFR 37.29 - Prohibition against holding more than one REAL ID card or more than one driver's license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ID card or more than one driver's license. 37.29 Section 37.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REAL ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Minimum... REAL ID card or more than one driver's license. (a) An individual may hold only one REAL ID card....

  18. Smart card technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes smart card techonology and applications, including the use of smart cards as smart badges. The paper illustrates that smart cards are designed with security features, which makes them suitable for security applications. But smart cards also provide multiple functions, so they can support additional applications. The goal of this paper is to inform about the technology, and to inspire thought about possible applications that would benefit if a smart badge were implemented.

  19. Methodology of the determination of the uncertainties by using the biometric device the broadway 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasek, Roman; Talandova, Hana; Adamek, Milan

    2016-06-01

    The biometric identification by face is among one of the most widely used methods of biometric identification. Due to it provides a faster and more accurate identification; it was implemented into area of security 3D face reader by Broadway manufacturer was used to measure. It is equipped with the 3D camera system, which uses the method of structured light scanning and saves the template into the 3D model of face. The obtained data were evaluated by software Turnstile Enrolment Application (TEA). The measurements were used 3D face reader the Broadway 3D. First, the person was scanned and stored in the database. Thereafter person has already been compared with the stored template in the database for each method. Finally, a measure of reliability was evaluated for the Broadway 3D face reader.

  20. Reading the Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grills, Caroline M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes trends in the technology and use of "smart cards," cards embedded with computer chips to store information and thereby speed and simplify various business and administrative transactions. Addresses future applications for colleges and universities, American Express'"Blue" card, military and medical applications, the…

  1. Computer circuit card puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. V.; Szuwalski, B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention generally relates to hand tools, and more particularly to an improved device for facilitating removal of printed circuit cards from a card rack characterized by longitudinal side rails arranged in a mutually spaced parallelism and a plurality of printed circuit cards extended between the rails of the rack.

  2. Reading the Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grills, Caroline M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes trends in the technology and use of "smart cards," cards embedded with computer chips to store information and thereby speed and simplify various business and administrative transactions. Addresses future applications for colleges and universities, American Express'"Blue" card, military and medical applications, the…

  3. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identification (e.g., driver's license, employee identification card, social security card, or credit card) to... have been determined to be publicly available under the Freedom of Information Act. ...

  4. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification (e.g., driver's license, employee identification card, social security card, or credit card) to... have been determined to be publicly available under the Freedom of Information Act. ...

  5. 40 CFR 16.4 - Times, places, and requirements for identification of individuals making requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identification (e.g., driver's license, employee identification card, social security card, or credit card) to... have been determined to be publicly available under the Freedom of Information Act. ...

  6. Facial biometrics of peri-oral changes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, L; Adegun, O K; Willis, A; Fortune, Farida

    2014-05-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory condition which affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the oro-facial region, patients can present peri-oral swellings which results in severe facial disfigurement. To date, assessing the degree of facial changes and evaluation of treatment outcomes relies on clinical observation and semi-quantitative methods. In this paper, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible measurement strategy using 3-D facial biometrics to objectively quantify the extent and progression of oro-facial Crohn's disease. Using facial laser scanning, 32 serial images from 13 Crohn's patients attending the Oral Medicine clinic were acquired during relapse, remission, and post-treatment phases. Utilising theories of coordinate metrology, the facial images were subjected to registration, regions of interest identification, and reproducible repositioning prior to obtaining volume measurements. To quantify the changes in tissue volume, scan images from consecutive appointments were compared to the baseline (first scan image). Reproducibility test was performed to ascertain the degree of uncertainty in volume measurements. 3-D facial biometric imaging is a reliable method to identify and quantify peri-oral swelling in Crohn's patients. Comparison of facial scan images at different phases of the disease revealed precisely profile and volume changes. The volume measurements were highly reproducible as adjudged from the 1% standard deviation. 3-D facial biometrics measurements in Crohn's patients with oro-facial involvement offers a quick, robust, economical and objective approach for guided therapeutic intervention and routine assessment of treatment efficacy on the clinic.

  7. Biometric verification in dynamic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Susan E.

    2002-03-01

    Pen-tablet devices capable of capturing the dynamics of writing record temporal and pressure information as well as the spatial pattern. This paper explores biometric verification based upon the dynamics of writing where writers are distinguished not on the basis of what they write (ie the signature), but how they write. We have collected samples of dynamic writing from 38 Chinese writers. Each writer was asked to provide 10 copies of a paragraph of text and the same number of signature samples. From the data we have extracted stroke-based primitives from the sentence data utilizing pen-up/down information and heuristic rules about the shape of the character. The x, y and pressure values of each primitive were interpolated into an even temporal range based upon a 20 msec sampling rate. We applied the Daubechies 1 wavelet transform to the x signal, y signal and pressure signal using the coefficients as inputs to a multi-layer perceptron trained with back-propagation on the sentence data. We found a sensitivity of 0.977 and specificity of 0.990 recognizing writers based on test primitives extracted from sentence data and measures of 0.916 and 0.961 respectively, from test primitives extracted from signature data.

  8. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An’s scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user’s ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An’s scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge’s scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge’s scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost. PMID:28459867

  9. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    PubMed

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  10. Biometrics in support of special forces medical operations.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on ways in which the ODA can leverage biometrics in medical operations to improve their security, improve relations with indigenous personnel, and contribute to the larger theater biometrics program.

  11. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  12. Incremental fusion of partial biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Existing face recognition schemes are mostly based on extracting biometric feature vectors either from whole face images, or from a fixed facial region (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Extreme variation in quality conditions between biometric enrolment and verification stages badly affects the performance of face recognition systems. Such problems have partly motivated several investigations into the use of partial facial features for face recognition. Nevertheless, partial face recognition is potentially useful in several applications, for instance, it used in forensics for detectives to identify individuals after some accidents such as fire or explosion. In this paper, we propose a scheme to fuse the biometric information of partial face images incrementally based on their recognition accuracy (or discriminative power) ranks. Such fusion scheme uses the optimal ratio of full/partial face images in each different quality condition. We found that such scheme is also useful for full face images to enhance authentication accuracy significantly. Nevertheless, it reduces the required storage requirements and processing time of the biometric system. Our experiments show that the required ratio of full/partial facial images to achieve optimal performance varies from (5%) to (80%) according to the quality conditions whereas the authentication accuracy improves significantly for low quality biometric samples.

  13. Analyzing handwriting biometrics in metadata context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidat, Tobias; Wolf, Franziska; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In this article, methods for user recognition by online handwriting are experimentally analyzed using a combination of demographic data of users in relation to their handwriting habits. Online handwriting as a biometric method is characterized by having high variations of characteristics that influences the reliance and security of this method. These variations have not been researched in detail so far. Especially in cross-cultural application it is urgent to reveal the impact of personal background to security aspects in biometrics. Metadata represent the background of writers, by introducing cultural, biological and conditional (changing) aspects like fist language, country of origin, gender, handedness, experiences the influence handwriting and language skills. The goal is the revelation of intercultural impacts on handwriting in order to achieve higher security in biometrical systems. In our experiments, in order to achieve a relatively high coverage, 48 different handwriting tasks have been accomplished by 47 users from three countries (Germany, India and Italy) have been investigated with respect to the relations of metadata and biometric recognition performance. For this purpose, hypotheses have been formulated and have been evaluated using the measurement of well-known recognition error rates from biometrics. The evaluation addressed both: system reliance and security threads by skilled forgeries. For the later purpose, a novel forgery type is introduced, which applies the personal metadata to security aspects and includes new methods of security tests. Finally in our paper, we formulate recommendations for specific user groups and handwriting samples.

  14. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  15. Biometric Collection, Transmission and Storage Standards. Version 1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-24

    Department of the Army Biometrics Task Force Executive Agent for Biometrics Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Biometric Collection, Transmission and Storage Standards...4.1.2 EFTS Transaction ................................................................................................. 16 4.1.3 CBEFF Patron Format

  16. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease: Potential role of molecular biometrics.

    PubMed

    M'Koma, Amosy E

    2014-11-27

    Accurate diagnosis of predominantly colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not possible in 30% of patients. For decades, scientists have worked to find a solution to improve diagnostic accuracy for IBD, encompassing Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis. Evaluating protein patterns in surgical pathology colectomy specimens of colonic mucosal and submucosal compartments, individually, has potential for diagnostic medicine by identifying integrally independent, phenotype-specific cellular and molecular characteristics. Mass spectrometry (MS) and imaging (I) MS are analytical technologies that directly measure molecular species in clinical specimens, contributing to the in-depth understanding of biological molecules. The biometric-system complexity and functional diversity is well suited to proteomic and diagnostic studies. The direct analysis of cells and tissues by Matrix-Assisted-Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) MS/IMS has relevant medical diagnostic potential. MALDI-MS/IMS detection generates molecular signatures obtained from specific cell types within tissue sections. Herein discussed is a perspective on the use of MALDI-MS/IMS and bioinformatics technologies for detection of molecular-biometric patterns and identification of differentiating proteins. I also discuss a perspective on the global challenge of transferring technologies to clinical laboratories dealing with IBD issues. The significance of serologic-immunometric advances is also discussed.

  17. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications. PMID:21837235

  18. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    PubMed

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions.

  19. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life.

  20. A Survey of Keystroke Dynamics Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions. PMID:24298216

  1. Remote secure proof of identity using biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S. K.; Pearson, P.; Strait, R.S.

    1997-06-10

    Biometric measurements derived from finger- or voiceprints, hand geometry, retinal vessel pattern and iris texture characteristics etc. can be identifiers of individuals. In each case, the measurements can be coded into a statistically unique bit-string for each individual. While in electronic commerce and other electronic transactions the proof of identity of an individual is provided by the use of either public key cryptography or biometric data, more secure applications can be achieved by employing both. However the former requires the use of exact bit patterns. An error correction procedure allows us to successfully combine the use of both to provide a general procedure for remote secure proof of identity using a generic biometric device. One such procedure has been demonstrated using a device based on hand geometry.

  2. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  3. Secure access to patient's health records using SpeechXRays a mutli-channel biometrics platform for user authentication.

    PubMed

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Spanakis, Marios; Karantanas, Apostolos; Marias, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    The most commonly used method for user authentication in ICT services or systems is the application of identification tools such as passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs). The rapid development in ICT technology regarding smart devices (laptops, tablets and smartphones) has allowed also the advance of hardware components that capture several biometric traits such as fingerprints and voice. These components are aiming among others to overcome weaknesses and flaws of password usage under the prism of improved user authentication with higher level of security, privacy and usability. To this respect, the potential application of biometrics for secure user authentication regarding access in systems with sensitive data (i.e. patient's data from electronic health records) shows great potentials. SpeechXRays aims to provide a user recognition platform based on biometrics of voice acoustics analysis and audio-visual identity verification. Among others, the platform aims to be applied as an authentication tool for medical personnel in order to gain specific access to patient's electronic health records. In this work a short description of SpeechXrays implementation tool regarding eHealth is provided and analyzed. This study explores security and privacy issues, and offers a comprehensive overview of biometrics technology applications in addressing the e-Health security challenges. We present and describe the necessary requirement for an eHealth platform concerning biometric security.

  4. Enhanced Cancelable Biometrics for Online Signature Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

    Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. In this paper, we propose a scheme to improve the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification. Our scheme generates two cancelable dataset from one raw dataset and uses them for verification. Preliminary experiments were performed using a distance-based online signature verification algorithm. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme is promising.

  5. 16S rRNA gene sequencing versus the API 20 NE system and the VITEK 2 ID-GNB card for identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria in the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bosshard, P P; Zbinden, R; Abels, S; Böddinghaus, B; Altwegg, M; Böttger, E C

    2006-04-01

    Over a period of 26 months, we have evaluated in a prospective fashion the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a means of identifying clinically relevant isolates of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (non-Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in the microbiology laboratory. The study was designed to compare phenotypic with molecular identification. Results of molecular analyses were compared with two commercially available identification systems (API 20 NE, VITEK 2 fluorescent card; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). By 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, 92% of the isolates were assigned to species level and 8% to genus level. Using API 20 NE, 54% of the isolates were assigned to species and 7% to genus level, and 39% of the isolates could not be discriminated at any taxonomic level. The respective numbers for VITEK 2 were 53%, 1%, and 46%, respectively. Fifteen percent and 43% of the isolates corresponded to species not included in the API 20 NE and VITEK 2 databases, respectively. We conclude that 16S rRNA gene sequencing is an effective means for the identification of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. Based on our experience, we propose an algorithm for proper identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli in the diagnostic laboratory.

  6. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maureen H; Cross, Kristen E; Benitez, Alvaro J; Hicks, Lauri A; Kutty, Preeta; Bramley, Anna M; Chappell, James D; Hymas, Weston; Patel, Anami; Qi, Chao; Williams, Derek J; Arnold, Sandra R; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H; Grijalva, Carlos G; Anderson, Evan J; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Wunderink, Richard G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Jain, Seema; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in a number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in a recent prospective study. To assess whether other pathogens were also detected in these patients, TaqMan Array Cards were used to test 216 M pneumoniae-positive respiratory specimens for 25 additional viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. It is interesting to note that 1 or more codetections, predominantly bacterial, were identified in approximately 60% of specimens, with codetections being more common in children.

  7. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maureen H.; Cross, Kristen E.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Hicks, Lauri A.; Kutty, Preeta; Bramley, Anna M.; Chappell, James D.; Hymas, Weston; Patel, Anami; Qi, Chao; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Anderson, Evan J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Pavia, Andrew T.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Jain, Seema; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in a number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in a recent prospective study. To assess whether other pathogens were also detected in these patients, TaqMan Array Cards were used to test 216 M pneumoniae-positive respiratory specimens for 25 additional viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. It is interesting to note that 1 or more codetections, predominantly bacterial, were identified in approximately 60% of specimens, with codetections being more common in children. PMID:27191004

  8. Disk space and load time requirements for eye movement biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowski, Pawel; Harezlak, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the intensive development of eye tracking devices it has become possible to define new methods for the eye movement signal processing. Such method should be supported by an efficient storage used to collect eye movement data and provide it for further analysis. The aim of the research was to check various setups enabling such a storage choice. There were various aspects taken into consideration, like disk space usage, time required for loading and saving whole data set or its chosen parts.

  9. A user authentication scheme using physiological and behavioral biometrics for multitouch devices.

    PubMed

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Yang, Tzu-I; Tseng, Chien-Chao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage.

  10. A User Authentication Scheme Using Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics for Multitouch Devices

    PubMed Central

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Tseng, Chien-Chao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage. PMID:25147864

  11. Generation of artificial biometric data enhanced with contextual information for game strategy-based behavioral biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yampolskiy, Roman V.; Govindaraju, Venu

    2008-03-01

    For the domain of strategy-based behavioral biometrics we propose the concept of profiles enhanced with spatial, temporal and contextual information. Inclusion of such information leads to a more stable baseline profile and as a result more secure systems. Such enhanced data is not always readily available and often is time consuming and expensive to acquire. One solution to this problem is the use of artificially generated data. In this paper a novel methodology for creation of feature-level synthetic biometric data is presented. Specifically generation of behavioral biometric data represented by game playing strategies is demonstrated. Data validation methods are described and encouraging results are obtained with possibility of expanding proposed methodologies to generation of artificial data in the domains other then behavioral biometrics.

  12. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  13. Bioinformatic and biometric methods in plant morphology1

    PubMed Central

    Punyasena, Surangi W.; Smith, Selena Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  14. Multimodal biometric-information fusion using the Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Jitendra P.; Dixit, Vaibhav V.; Patil, Pradeep M.; Kosta, Yogesh P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes multimodal biometric-based personal identification. Palmprint and fingerprint modalities are utilized in the proposed model due to the availability of more distinctive features and the ease of capture. Principle lines are the main discriminative features in the palmprint, whereas orientations of the ridge and valley structures are the main features by which to identify the fingerprint. To extract these features, the use of the Radon transform is proposed in this work. However, the Radon transform is sensitive to the orientation. In order to make the model rotation invariant and insensitive to noise, a normalization process is generally used. Here, a logarithm-based normalization process has been utilized in the proposed model. A Euclidean-based matching process that is invariant to the rotation has been used. The proposed model is applicable to low resolution images and is invariant to rotation, insensitive to noise, and has less computational complexity as compared to other models.

  15. Ergonomics issues in national identity card for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Paul H P; Yuen, Y Y; Loo, W H

    2013-09-01

    Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric verification function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens' Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The findings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security.

  16. Iris biometric system design using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widhianto, Benedictus Yohanes Bagus Y. B.; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    An identity recognition system is a vital component that cannot be separated from life, iris biometric is one of the biometric that has the best accuracy reaching 99%. Usually, iris biometric systems use infrared spectrum lighting to reduce discomfort caused by radiation when the eye is given direct light, while the eumelamin that is forming the iris has the most flourescent radiation when given a spectrum of visible light. This research will be conducted by detecting iris wavelengths of 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm, where the detection algorithm will be using Daugman algorithm by using a Gabor wavelet extraction feature, and matching feature using a Hamming distance. Results generated will be analyzed to identify how much differences there are, and to improve the accuracy of the multispectral biometric system and as a detector of the authenticity of the iris. The results obtained from the analysis of wavelengths 850 nm, 560 nm, and 590 nm respectively has an accuracy of 99,35 , 97,5 , 64,5 with a matching score of 0,26 , 0,23 , 0,37.

  17. High Resolution Ultrasonic Method for 3D Fingerprint Representation in Biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maev, R. Gr.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Maeva, E. Y.; Severin, F. M.

    Biometrics is an important field which studies different possible ways of personal identification. Among a number of existing biometric techniques fingerprint recognition stands alone - because very large database of fingerprints has already been acquired. Also, fingerprints are an important evidence that can be collected at a crime scene. Therefore, of all automated biometric techniques, especially in the field of law enforcement, fingerprint identification seems to be the most promising. Ultrasonic method of fingerprint imaging was originally introduced over a decade as the mapping of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the finger and a covering plate and has shown very good reliability and free from imperfections of previous two methods. This work introduces a newer development of the ultrasonic fingerprint imaging, focusing on the imaging of the internal structures of fingerprints (including sweat pores) with raw acoustic resolution of about 500 dpi (0.05 mm) using a scanning acoustic microscope to obtain images and acoustic data in the form of 3D data array. C-scans from different depths inside the fingerprint area of fingers of several volunteers were obtained and showed good contrast of ridges-and-valleys patterns and practically exact correspondence to the standard ink-and-paper prints of the same areas. Important feature reveled on the acoustic images was the clear appearance of the sweat pores, which could provide additional means of identification.

  18. Towards the Development of a Thyroid Ultrasound Biometric Scheme Based on Tissue Echo-morphological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, Josè C. R.; Fred, Ana L. N.

    This paper proposes a biometric system based on features extracted from the thyroid tissue accessed through 2D ultrasound. Tissue echo-morphology, which accounts for the intensity (echogenicity), texture and structure has started to be used as a relevant parameter in a clinical setting. In this paper, features related to texture, morphology and tissue reflectivity are extracted from the ultrasound images and the most discriminant ones are selected as an input for a prototype biometric identification system. Several classifiers were tested, with the best results being achieved by a combination of classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbors, MAP and entropy distance). Using leave-one-out cross-validation method the identification rate was up to 94%. Features related to texture and echogenicity were tested individually with high identification rates up to 78% and 70%, respectively. This suggests that the acoustic impedance (reflectivity or echogenicity) of the tissue as well as texture are feasible parameters to discriminate between distinct subjects. This paper shows the effectiveness of the proposed classification, which can be used not only as a new biometric modality but also as a diagnostic tool.

  19. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  20. Method to assess the temporal persistence of potential biometric features: Application to oculomotor, gait, face and brain structure databases

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Mark S.; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to the biometric community as an index of the temporal persistence, or stability, of a single biometric feature. It requires, as input, a feature on an interval or ratio scale, and which is reasonably normally distributed, and it can only be calculated if each subject is tested on 2 or more occasions. For a biometric system, with multiple features available for selection, the ICC can be used to measure the relative stability of each feature. We show, for 14 distinct data sets (1 synthetic, 8 eye-movement-related, 2 gait-related, and 2 face-recognition-related, and one brain-structure-related), that selecting the most stable features, based on the ICC, resulted in the best biometric performance generally. Analyses based on using only the most stable features produced superior Rank-1-Identification Rate (Rank-1-IR) performance in 12 of 14 databases (p = 0.0065, one-tailed), when compared to other sets of features, including the set of all features. For Equal Error Rate (EER), using a subset of only high-ICC features also produced superior performance in 12 of 14 databases (p = 0. 0065, one-tailed). In general, then, for our databases, prescreening potential biometric features, and choosing only highly reliable features yields better performance than choosing lower ICC features or than choosing all features combined. We also determined that, as the ICC of a group of features increases, the median of the genuine similarity score distribution increases and the spread of this distribution decreases. There was no statistically significant similar relationships for the impostor distributions. We believe that the ICC will find many uses in biometric research. In case of the eye movement-driven biometrics, the use of reliable features, as measured by ICC, allowed to us achieve the authentication performance with EER = 2.01%, which was not possible before. PMID:28575030

  1. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  2. The Future of Smart Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  3. The Future of Smart Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  4. Print a Bed Bug Card

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  5. Grading School Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Rebecca; Saultz, Andrew; Snyder, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the need for information in public education, Congress mandated in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) that all states create and disseminate annual school performance report cards. A decade after NCLB passed, school report cards are widely available for nearly every school in the country. As the amount of school performance data…

  6. Grading School Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Rebecca; Saultz, Andrew; Snyder, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the need for information in public education, Congress mandated in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) that all states create and disseminate annual school performance report cards. A decade after NCLB passed, school report cards are widely available for nearly every school in the country. As the amount of school performance data…

  7. Monumental Court Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Card playing is a popular pastime in many cultures, including games like bridge, gin rummy, and 52-pickup. In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the unique designs on the face cards and the intricate art of the overall design. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  8. HBS: a novel biometric feature based on heartbeat morphology.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Saiful; Alajlan, Naif; Bazi, Yakoub; Hichri, Haikel S

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new feature named heartbeat shape (HBS) is proposed for ECG-based biometrics. HBS is computed from the morphology of segmented heartbeats. Computation of the feature involves three basic steps: 1) resampling and normalization of a heartbeat; 2) reduction of matching error; and 3) shift invariant transformation. In order to construct both gallery and probe templates, a few consecutive heartbeats which could be captured in a reasonably short period of time are required. Thus, the identification and verification methods become efficient. We have tested the proposed feature independently on two publicly available databases with 76 and 26 subjects, respectively, for identification and verification. The second database contains several subjects having clinically proven cardiac irregularities (atrial premature contraction arrhythmia). Experiments on these two databases yielded high identification accuracy (98% and 99.85%, respectively) and low verification equal error rate (1.88% and 0.38%, respectively). These results were obtained by using templates constructed from five consecutive heartbeats only. This feature compresses the original ECG signal significantly to be useful for efficient communication and access of information in telecardiology scenarios.

  9. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature

    PubMed Central

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database. PMID:27054836

  10. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  11. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    PubMed

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database.

  12. 78 FR 22274 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM) Biometric... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Biometric Identity Management (OBIM), formerly the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) Program, will submit the following Information Collection...

  13. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    PubMed

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  14. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  15. Joint Sparse Representation for Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    occlusion and random pixel corruption. Pillai et al. extended this work for robust cancelable iris recognition in [11]. Nagesh and Li [12] presented... Biometrics Recognition Sumit Shekhar, Student Member, IEEE, Vishal M. Patel, Member, IEEE, Nasser M. Nasrabadi, Fellow, IEEE, and Rama Chellappa, Fellow...IEEE . Abstract—Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advan- tage of using

  16. Temporal Stability of Visual Search-Driven Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual s visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant s "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, fairly stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  17. Temporal stability of visual search-driven biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we have shown the potential of using an individual's visual search pattern as a possible biometric. That study focused on viewing images displaying dot-patterns with different spatial relationships to determine which pattern can be more effective in establishing the identity of an individual. In this follow-up study we investigated the temporal stability of this biometric. We performed an experiment with 16 individuals asked to search for a predetermined feature of a random-dot pattern as we tracked their eye movements. Each participant completed four testing sessions consisting of two dot patterns repeated twice. One dot pattern displayed concentric circles shifted to the left or right side of the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked which side the circles were centered on. The second dot-pattern displayed a number of circles (between 0 and 4) scattered on the screen overlaid with visual noise, and participants were asked how many circles they could identify. Each session contained 5 untracked tutorial questions and 50 tracked test questions (200 total tracked questions per participant). To create each participant's "fingerprint", we constructed a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) from the gaze data representing the underlying visual search and cognitive process. The accuracy of the derived HMM models was evaluated using cross-validation for various time-dependent train-test conditions. Subject identification accuracy ranged from 17.6% to 41.8% for all conditions, which is significantly higher than random guessing (1/16 = 6.25%). The results suggest that visual search pattern is a promising, temporally stable personalized fingerprint of perceptual organization.

  18. Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.

  19. Error-Correcting Output Codes Guided Quantization for Biometric Hashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Erdogan, Hakan

    In this paper, we present a new biometric verification system. The proposed system employs a novel biometric hashing scheme that uses our proposed quantization method. The proposed quantization method is based on error-correcting output codes which are used for classification problems in the literature. We improve the performance of the random projection based biometric hashing scheme proposed by Ngo et al. in the literature [5]. We evaluate the performance of the novel biometric hashing scheme with two use case scenarios including the case where an attacker steals the secret key of a legitimate user. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed scheme.

  20. Infrared sensing of non-observable human biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Michael R.

    2005-05-01

    Interest and growth of biometric recognition technologies surged after 9/11. Once a technology mainly used for identity verification in law enforcement, biometrics are now being considered as a secure means of providing identity assurance in security related applications. Biometric recognition in law enforcement must, by necessity, use attributes of human uniqueness that are both observable and vulnerable to compromise. Privacy and protection of an individual's identity is not assured during criminal activity. However, a security system must rely on identity assurance for access control to physical or logical spaces while not being vulnerable to compromise and protecting the privacy of an individual. The solution resides in the use of non-observable attributes of human uniqueness to perform the biometric recognition process. This discussion will begin by presenting some key perspectives about biometric recognition and the characteristic differences between observable and non-observable biometric attributes. An introduction to the design, development, and testing of the Thermo-ID system will follow. The Thermo-ID system is an emerging biometric recognition technology that uses non-observable patterns of infrared energy naturally emanating from within the human body. As with all biometric systems, the infrared patterns recorded and compared within the Thermo-ID system are unique and individually distinguishable permitting a link to be confirmed between an individual and a claimed or previously established identity. The non-observable characteristics of infrared patterns of human uniqueness insure both the privacy and protection of an individual using this type of biometric recognition system.

  1. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  2. Imaging standards for smart cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-01-01

    'Smart cards' are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper reviews imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper concludes with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  3. MALDI-TOF MS is more accurate than VITEK II ANC card and API Rapid ID 32 A system for the identification of Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Si Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Hae-Geun; Park, Dongchul; Song, Sae Am; Lee, Hee Joo; Yong, Dongeun; Choi, Jun Yong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kim, Hye Ran; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2016-08-01

    All 50 Clostridium difficile strains were definitely identified by Vitek2 system, Rapid ID 32A system, and MALDI-TOF. For 18 non-difficile Clostridium strains, the identification results were correct in 0, 2, and 17 strains by Vitek2, Rapid ID 32A, and MALDI-TOF, respectively. MALDI-TOF could be used as the primary tool for identification of Clostridium species.

  4. Novel wearable-type biometric devices based on skin tissue optics with multispectral LED–photodiode matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Young Chang; Kim, Hae Na; Kang, Jae Hwan; Hong, Hyuck Ki; Choi, Yeon Shik; Jung, Suk Won; Kim, Sung Phil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of using a multispectral skin photomatrix (MSP) module as a novel biometric device. The MSP device measures optical patterns of the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns consist of 2 × 8 photocurrent intensities of photodiode arrays, which are generated by optical transmission and diffuse reflection of photons from LED light sources with variable wavelengths into the wrist skin tissue. Optical patterns detected by the MSP device provide information on both the surface and subsurface characteristics of the human skin tissue. We found that in the 21 subjects we studied, they showed their unique characteristics, as determined using several wavelengths of light. The experimental results show that the best personal identification accuracy can be acquired using a combination of infrared light and yellow light. This novel biometric device, the MSP module, exhibited an excellent false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.3% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.0%, which are better than those of commercialized biometric devices such as a fingerprint biometric system. From these experimental results, we found that people exhibit unique optical patterns of their inner-wrist skin tissue and this uniqueness could be used for developing novel high-accuracy personal identification devices.

  5. Implementing a High-Assurance Smart-Card OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Paul A.; Toll, David C.; Palmer, Elaine R.; McIntosh, Suzanne K.; Weber, Samuel; Edwards, Jonathan W.

    Building a high-assurance, secure operating system for memory constrained systems, such as smart cards, introduces many challenges. The increasing power of smart cards has made their use feasible in applications such as electronic passports, military and public sector identification cards, and cell-phone based financial and entertainment applications. Such applications require a secure environment, which can only be provided with sufficient hardware and a secure operating system. We argue that smart cards pose additional security challenges when compared to traditional computer platforms. We discuss our design for a secure smart card operating system, named Caernarvon, and show that it addresses these challenges, which include secure application download, protection of cryptographic functions from malicious applications, resolution of covert channels, and assurance of both security and data integrity in the face of arbitrary power losses.

  6. A field study of the accuracy and reliability of a biometric iris recognition system.

    PubMed

    Latman, Neal S; Herb, Emily

    2013-06-01

    The iris of the eye appears to satisfy the criteria for a good anatomical characteristic for use in a biometric system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a biometric iris recognition system: Mobile-Eyes™. The enrollment, verification, and identification applications were evaluated in a field study for accuracy and reliability using both irises of 277 subjects. Independent variables included a wide range of subject demographics, ambient light, and ambient temperature. A sub-set of 35 subjects had alcohol-induced nystagmus. There were 2710 identification and verification attempts, which resulted in 1,501,340 and 5540 iris comparisons respectively. In this study, the system successfully enrolled all subjects on the first attempt. All 277 subjects were successfully verified and identified on the first day of enrollment. None of the current or prior eye conditions prevented enrollment, verification, or identification. All 35 subjects with alcohol-induced nystagmus were successfully verified and identified. There were no false verifications or false identifications. Two conditions were identified that potentially could circumvent the use of iris recognitions systems in general. The Mobile-Eyes™ iris recognition system exhibited accurate and reliable enrollment, verification, and identification applications in this study. It may have special applications in subjects with nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Credit Card Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  8. Credit Card Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  9. 36 CFR 1254.84 - How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? 1254.84 Section 1254.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? Your research identification card can...

  10. 36 CFR 1254.84 - How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? 1254.84 Section 1254.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? Your research identification card can...

  11. 36 CFR 1254.84 - How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? 1254.84 Section 1254.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? Your research identification card can be used as...

  12. 36 CFR 1254.84 - How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? 1254.84 Section 1254.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? Your research identification card can...

  13. 36 CFR 1254.84 - How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How may I use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? 1254.84 Section 1254.84 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... use a debit card for copiers in the Washington, DC, area? Your research identification card can...

  14. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.'s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.'s protocol and existing similar protocols.

  15. An Enhanced Biometric Based Authentication with Key-Agreement Protocol for Multi-Server Architecture Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Alavalapati Goutham; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based authentication protocols for multi-server architectures have gained momentum in recent times due to advancements in wireless technologies and associated constraints. Lu et al. recently proposed a robust biometric based authentication with key agreement protocol for a multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and resistant to prominent security attacks. The careful investigation of this paper proves that Lu et al.’s protocol does not provide user anonymity, perfect forward secrecy and is susceptible to server and user impersonation attacks, man-in-middle attacks and clock synchronization problems. In addition, this paper proposes an enhanced biometric based authentication with key-agreement protocol for multi-server architecture based on elliptic curve cryptography using smartcards. We proved that the proposed protocol achieves mutual authentication using Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic. The formal security of the proposed protocol is verified using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to show that our protocol can withstand active and passive attacks. The formal and informal security analyses and performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is robust and efficient compared to Lu et al.’s protocol and existing similar protocols. PMID:27163786

  16. Is spectral reflectance of the face a reliable biometric?

    PubMed

    Uzair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Arif; Shafait, Faisal; Nansen, Christian; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-06-15

    Over a decade ago, Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] performed face recognition using only the spectral reflectance of the face at six points and reported around 95% recognition rate. Since their database is private, no one has been able to replicate these results. Moreover, due to the unavailability of public datasets, there has been no detailed study in the literature on the viability of facial spectral reflectance for person identification. In this study, we introduce a new public database of facial spectral reflectance profiles measured with a high precision spectrometer. For each of the 40 subjects, spectral reflectance was measured at the same six points as Pan et al. [IEEE TPAMI 25, 1552 (2003)] in multiple sessions and with time lapse. Furthermore, we sample the facial spectral reflectance from two public hyperspectral face image datasets and analyzed the data using state of the art face classification techniques. The best performing classifier achieved the maximum rank-1 identification rate of 53.8%. We conclude that facial spectral reflectance alone is not a reliable biometric for unconstrained face recognition.

  17. Security infrastructure requirements for electronic health cards communication.

    PubMed

    Pharow, Peter; Blobel, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Communication and co-operation processes in the healthcare and welfare domain require a security infrastructure based on services describing status and relation of communicating principals as well as corresponding keys and attributes. Additional services provide trustworthy information on dynamic issues of communication and co-operation such as time and location of processes, workflow relations, integrity of archives and record systems, and system behaviour. To provide this communication and co-operation in a shared care environment, smart cards are widely used. Serving as storage media and portable application systems, patient data cards enable patient-controlled exchange and use of personal health data bound to specific purposes such as prescription and disease management. Additionally, patient status data such as the emergency data set or immunization may be stored in, and communicated by, patient data cards. Another deployment field of smart cards is their token functionality within a security framework, supporting basic security services such as identification, authentication, integrity, confidentiality, or accountability using cryptographic algorithms. In that context, keys, certificates, and card holder's attributes might be stored in the card as well. As an example, the German activity of introducing patient health cards and health professional cards is presented. Specification and enrolment aspects are on-going processes.

  18. 26 CFR 301.6311-2 - Payment by credit card and debit card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment by credit card and debit card. 301.6311....6311-2 Payment by credit card and debit card. (a) Authority to receive—(1) Payments by credit card and debit card. Internal revenue taxes may be paid by credit card or debit card as authorized by this...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6311-2 - Payment by credit card and debit card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment by credit card and debit card. 301.6311....6311-2 Payment by credit card and debit card. (a) Authority to receive—(1) Payments by credit card and debit card. Internal revenue taxes may be paid by credit card or debit card as authorized by this...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6311-2 - Payment by credit card and debit card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment by credit card and debit card. 301.6311....6311-2 Payment by credit card and debit card. (a) Authority to receive—(1) Payments by credit card and debit card. Internal revenue taxes may be paid by credit card or debit card as authorized by this...