Sample records for biosphere model sib

  1. Modeling Surface Climate in US Cities Using Simple Biosphere Model Sib2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Thome, Kurtis; Wolfe, Robert; Imhoff, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We combine Landsat- and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based products in the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2) to assess the effects of urbanized land on the continental US (CONUS) surface climate. Using National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Impervious Surface Area (ISA), we define more than 300 urban settlements and their surrounding suburban and rural areas over the CONUS. The SiB2 modeled Gross Primary Production (GPP) over the CONUS of 7.10 PgC (1 PgC= 10(exp 15) grams of Carbon) is comparable to the MODIS improved GPP of 6.29 PgC. At state level, SiB2 GPP is highly correlated with MODIS GPP with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. An increasing horizontal GPP gradient is shown from the urban out to the rural area, with, on average, rural areas fixing 30% more GPP than urbans. Cities built in forested biomes have stronger UHI magnitude than those built in short vegetation with low biomass. Mediterranean climate cities have a stronger UHI in wet season than dry season. Our results also show that for urban areas built within forests, 39% of the precipitation is discharged as surface runoff during summer versus 23% in rural areas.

  2. Testing the Simple Biosphere model (SiB) using point micrometeorological and biophysical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Dorman, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    The suitability of the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model of Sellers et al. (1986) for calculation of the surface fluxes for use within general circulation models is assessed. The structure of the SiB model is described, and its performance is evaluated in terms of its ability to realistically and accurately simulate biophysical processes over a number of test sites, including Ruthe (Germany), South Carolina (U.S.), and Central Wales (UK), for which point biophysical and micrometeorological data were available. The model produced simulations of the energy balances of barley, wheat, maize, and Norway Spruce sites over periods ranging from 1 to 40 days. Generally, it was found that the model reproduced time series of latent, sensible, and ground-heat fluxes and surface radiative temperature comparable with the available data.

  3. Using remote-sensing and the Simple Biosphere model (SiB4) to analyze the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheeseman, M.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the variability and seasonality of carbon fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere is integral to understanding the mechanisms and drivers of the global carbon cycle. However, there are many regions across the globe where in situ observations are sparse, such as the Amazon rainforest and the African Sahel. The latest version of the Simple-Biosphere model (SiB4) predicts a suite of biophysical variables such as terrestrial carbon flux (GPP), solar induced fluorescence (SIF), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), and leaf area index (LAI). By comparing modeled values to a suite of satellite and in situ observations we produce a robust analysis of the seasonality and productivity of the terrestrial biosphere in a variety of biome types across the globe.

  4. Modeling Impact of Urbanization in US Cities Using Simple Biosphere Model SiB2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ping; Bounoua, Lahouari; Thome, Kurtis; Wolfe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We combine Landsat- and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based products, as well as climate drivers from Phase 2 of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) in a Simple Biosphere land surface model (SiB2) to assess the impact of urbanization in continental USA (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). More than 300 cities and their surrounding suburban and rural areas are defined in this study to characterize the impact of urbanization on surface climate including surface energy, carbon budget, and water balance. These analyses reveal an uneven impact of urbanization across the continent that should inform upon policy options for improving urban growth including heat mitigation and energy use, carbon sequestration and flood prevention.

  5. Implementing the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in a general circulation model: Methodologies and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, N.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Schneider, E. K.; Shukla, J.; Kinter, J. L., III; Hou, Y.-T.; Albertazzi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Simple Biosphere MOdel (SiB) of Sellers et al., (1986) was designed to simulate the interactions between the Earth's land surface and the atmosphere by treating the vegetation explicitly and relistically, thereby incorporating biophysical controls on the exchanges of radiation, momentum, sensible and latent heat between the two systems. The steps taken to implement SiB in a modified version of the National Meteorological Center's spectral GCM are described. The coupled model (SiB-GCM) was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce summer and winter simulations. The same GCM was used with a conventional hydrological model (Ctl-GCM) to produce comparable 'control' summer and winter variations. It was found that SiB-GCM produced a more realistic partitioning of energy at the land surface than Ctl-GCM. Generally, SiB-GCM produced more sensible heat flux and less latent heat flux over vegetated land than did Ctl-GCM and this resulted in the development of a much deeper daytime planetary boundary and reduced precipitation rates over the continents in SiB-GCM. In the summer simulation, the 200 mb jet stream and the wind speed at 850 mb were slightly weakened in the SiB-GCM relative to the Ctl-GCM results and equivalent analyses from observations.

  6. A Simplified Biosphere Model for Global Climate Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-03-01

    The Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) as described in Sellers et al. is a bio-physically based model of land surface-atmosphere interaction. For some general circulation model (GCM) climate studies, further simplifications are desirable to have greater computation efficiency, and more important, to consolidate the parametric representation. Three major reductions in the complexity of SiB have been achieved in the present study.The diurnal variation of surface albedo is computed in SiB by means of a comprehensive yet complex calculation. Since the diurnal cycle is quite regular for each vegetation type, this calculation can be simplified considerably. The effect of root zone soil moisture on stomatal resistance is substantial, but the computation in SiB is complicated and expensive. We have developed approximations, which simulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, keeping the essence of the biophysical concepts used in SiB.The surface stress and the fluxes of heat and moisture between the top of the vegetation canopy and an atmospheric reference level have been parameterized in an off-line version of SiB based upon the studies by Businger et al. and Paulson. We have developed a linear relationship between Richardson number and aero-dynamic resistance. Finally, the second vegetation layer of the original model does not appear explicitly after simplification. Compared to the model of Sellers et al., we have reduced the number of input parameters from 44 to 21. A comparison of results using the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely. After simplification, the computational requirement of SiB was reduced by about 55%.

  7. Development of a distributed biosphere hydrological model and its evaluation with the Southern Great Plains Experiments (SGP97 and SGP99)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A distributed biosphere hydrological model, the so called water and energy budget-based distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM), has been developed by fully coupling a biosphere scheme (SiB2) with a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM). SiB2 describes the transfer of turbulent fluxes (ener...

  8. A brief description of the simple biosphere model (SiB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Mintz, Y.; Sud, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    A biosphere model for calculating the transfer of energy, mass, and momentum between the atmosphere and the vegetated surface of the Earth was designed for atmospheric general circulation models. An upper vegetation layer represents the perennial canopy of trees or shrubs, a lower layer represents the annual ground cover of grasses and other herbacious species. The local coverage of each vegetation layer may be fractional or complete but as the individual vegetation elements are considered to be evenly spaced, their root systems are assumed to extend uniformly throughout the entire grid-area. The biosphere has seven prognostic physical-state variables: two temperatures (one for the canopy and one for the ground cover and soil surface); two interception water stores (one for the canopy and one for the ground cover); and three soil moisture stores (two of which can be reached by the vegetation root systems and one underlying recharge layer into and out of which moisture is transferred only by hydraulic diffusion).

  9. Comparison of GCM subgrid fluxes calculated using BATS and SiB schemes with a coupled land-atmosphere high-resolution model

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shen, Jinmei; Arritt, R.W.

    The importance of land-atmosphere interactions and biosphere in climate change studies has long been recognized, and several land-atmosphere interaction schemes have been developed. Among these, the Simple Biosphere scheme (SiB) of Sellers et al. and the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) of Dickinson et al. are two of the most widely known. The effects of GCM subgrid-scale inhomogeneities of surface properties in general circulation models also has received increasing attention in recent years. However, due to the complexity of land surface processes and the difficulty to prescribe the large number of parameters that determine atmospheric and soil interactions with vegetation,more » many previous studies and results seem to be contradictory. A GCM grid element typically represents an area of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. Within such an area, there exist variations of soil type, soil wetness, vegetation type, vegetation density and topography, as well as urban areas and water bodies. In this paper, we incorporate both BATS and SiB2 land surface process schemes into a nonhydrostatic, compressible version of AMBLE model (Atmospheric Model -- Boundary-Layer Emphasis), and compare the surface heat fluxes and mesoscale circulations calculated using the two schemes. 8 refs., 5 figs.« less

  10. A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Mintz, Y.; Sud, Y. C.; Dalcher, A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple realistic biosphere model for calculating the transfer of energy, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and the vegetated surface of the earth has been developed for use in atmospheric general circulation models. The vegetation in each terrestrial model grid is represented by an upper level, representing the perennial canopy of trees and shrubs, and a lower level, representing the annual cover of grasses and other heraceous species. The vegetation morphology and the physical and physiological properties of the vegetation layers determine such properties as: the reflection, transmission, absorption and emission of direct and diffuse radiation; the infiltration, drainage, and storage of the residual rainfall in the soil; and the control over the stomatal functioning. The model, with prescribed vegetation parameters and soil interactive soil moisture, can be used for prediction of the atmospheric circulation and precipitaion fields for short periods of up to a few weeks.

  11. Modeling of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere on the global scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Ferdinand; Mintz, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of weather and climate with general circulation models show that the circulation and rainfall are sensitive to the transfers of radiation, sensible heat, water vapor, and momentum across the atmosphere land surface interface. Because, in nature, these transfers depend in large measure on the morphological and physiological characteristics of the surface vegetation, an interactive biosphere is needed for GCM's. The simple model of the biosphere (SiB) that the authors have constructed is based on the recognized difference between ground cover vegetation (grasses and other herbaceous plants) and canopy vegetation (trees and shrubs), where the latter act like elevated blocks of porous material which efficiently extract momentum from the air that flows through them; by a large number of multiple reflections enhance the absorption of the incident solar radiation; when the canopy is wet, act like well ventilated psychrometers which extract sensible heat from the air and produce a negative Bowen ratio; and, in all of these ways, behave differently from ground cover vegetation. The complete set of governing equations of SiB, whereby the various allowable combinations of trees, ground covers, and bare ground, in interaction with the atmosphere, determine all of the vegetation dependent transfers at the land surface, have been presented and described.

  12. Calibrating the simple biosphere model for Amazonian tropical forest using field and remote sensing data. I - Average calibration with field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers J.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Dorman, Jeff L.; Dalcher, Amnon; Roberts, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Using meteorological and hydrological measurements taken in and above the central-Amazon-basin tropical forest, calibration of the Sellers et al. (1986) simple biosphere (SiB) model are described. The SiB model is a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere model designed for use within GCMs models, representing the vegetation cover by analogy with processes operating within a single representative plant. The experimental systems and the procedures used to obtain field data are described, together with the specification of the physiological parameterization required to provide an average description of data. It was found that some of the existing literature on stomatal behavior for tropical species is inconsistent with the observed behavior of the complete canopy in Amazonia, and that the rainfall interception store of the canopy is considerably smaller than originally specified in the SiB model.

  13. Towards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten; Notholt, Justus; Baker, Ian; Berry, Joe; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Jones, Nicholas; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Lejeune, Bernard; Hannigan, James; Conway, Stephanie; Mendonca, Joseph; Strong, Kimberly; Campbell, J. Elliott; Wolf, Adam; Kremser, Stefanie

    2016-02-01

    Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential means to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at five selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world.

  14. Assessing the Importance of Prior Biospheric Fluxes on Inverse Model Estimates of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, S.; Johnson, M. S.; Potter, C. S.; Genovese, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric sources/sinks. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Currently, atmospheric chemical transport models (CTM) and global climate models (GCM) use multiple different biospheric CO2 flux models resulting in large differences in simulating the global carbon cycle. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission was designed to allow for the improved understanding of the processes involved in the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and therefore allowing for more accurate assessment of the seasonal/inter-annual variability of CO2. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions allowing for the evaluation of model simulations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and facilitating global/regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes. We conduct a 4-D Variation (4D-Var) data assimilation with the GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observation System-Chemistry) CTM using 1) OCO-2 land nadir and land glint retrievals and 2) global in situ surface flask observations to constrain biospheric CO2 fluxes. We apply different state-of-the-science year-specific CO2 flux models (e.g., NASA-CASA (NASA-Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach), CASA-GFED (Global Fire Emissions Database), Simple Biosphere Model version 4 (SiB-4), and LPJ (Lund-Postdam-Jena)) to assess the impact of "a priori" flux predictions to "a posteriori" estimates. We will present the "top-down" CO2 flux estimates for the year 2015 using OCO-2 and in situ observations, and a complete indirect evaluation of the a priori and a posteriori flux estimates using independent in situ observations. We will also present our assessment of the variability of "top-down" CO2 flux estimates when using different

  15. Use of midlatitude soil moisture and meteorological observations to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan; Vinnikov, Konstantin YA.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Speranskaya, Nina A.; Xue, Yongkang

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture observations in sites with natural vegetation were made for several decades in the former Soviet Union at hundreds of stations. In this paper, the authors use data from six of these stations from different climatic regimes, along with ancillary meteorological and actinometric data, to demonstrate a method to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models. Some early and current general circulation models (GCMs) use bucket models for soil hydrology calculations. More recently, the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) was developed to incorporate the effects of vegetation on fluxes of moisture, momentum, and energy at the earth's surface into soil hydrology models. Until now, the bucket and SiB have been verified by comparison with actual soil moisture data only on a limited basis. In this study, a Simplified SiB (SSiB) soil hydrology model and a 15-cm bucket model are forced by observed meteorological and actinometric data every 3 h for 6-yr simulations at the six stations. The model calculations of soil moisture are compared to observations of soil moisture, literally 'ground truth,' snow cover, surface albedo, and net radiation, and with each other. For three of the stations, the SSiB and 15-cm bucket models produce good simulations of seasonal cycles and interannual variations of soil moisture. For the other three stations, there are large errors in the simulations by both models. Inconsistencies in specification of field capacity may be partly responsible. There is no evidence that the SSiB simulations are superior in simulating soil moisture variations. In fact, the models are quite similar since SSiB implicitly has a bucket embedded in it. One of the main differences between the models is in the treatment of runoff due to melting snow in the spring -- SSiB incorrectly puts all the snowmelt into runoff. While producing similar soil moisture simulations, the models produce very different surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, which

  16. Towards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Baker, I.; Berry, J.; Suntharalingam, P.; Jones, N.; Mahieu, E.; Lejeune, B.; Campbell, J. E.; Wolf, A.; Kremser, S.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential mean to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at three selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The OCS simulations are driven by different land biospheric fluxes to reproduce the seasonality of the measurements. Increasing the plant uptake of Kettle et al. (2002a) by a factor of three resulted in the best comparison with FTIR measurements. However, there are still discrepancies in the latitudinal distribution when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study and compared to measurements. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a

  17. Land Surface Modeling of an Enclosed Ecosystem: Vegetation Response to Short-Term Perturbations Inside Biosphere 2 Tropical Rainforest Biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, R.; Zeng, X.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Saleska, S. R.; Huxman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Biosphere 2 (B2) is a large-scale Earth science facility near Tucson (Arizona) that encompasses about 3.15 acres of land and houses five natural biomes. Sealed off to the outside world, B2 allows scientists to exert precise climate and mass balance control at large scales. The tropical rainforest (TRF) mesocosm area is about 1900 sq. meters and contains plant species from different tropical regions. B2 provides a unique controlled laboratory for carrying out experiments to investigate rainforest biome behavior in response to imposed environmental stresses at plot-scales (e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, and CO2 levels), providing the missing link between the laboratory scale and the real world. However, lack of repetitions (the facility contains only a single mesocosm for each biome) poses limitations to the analysis of the results. A well-established land surface parameterization scheme (LSP) may overcome this lack of repetitions by providing a reliable assessment of the biome under a variety of conditions. Modeling approaches can also facilitate and improve future experimental designs in B2. Here we challenge a LSP, the Simple Biosphere 3 (SiB3) model, to simulate the main aspects of the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges inside B2-TRF biome. Model simulations include B2-TRF under normal (i.e., operational) conditions, and during short-term perturbations, such as drought conditions and different treatments of CO2 concentration. A hypothetical simulation which combines both drought and high CO2 levels is performed with SiB3 and analyzed on the basis of future predictions of tropical rainforest under climate change. The main objectives of this study is to determine whether or not SiB3 is capable of representing B2-TRF at a wide range of conditions, and if we can use the combination of past field experiments and modeling to improve our understanding on how tropical rainforests may respond to these changes. Results show that our modified version of SiB3 is capable

  18. Design of a global soil moisture initialization procedure for the simple biosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liston, G. E.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1993-01-01

    Global soil moisture and land-surface evapotranspiration fields are computed using an analysis scheme based on the Simple Biosphere (SiB) soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction model. The scheme is driven with observed precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration, where the potential evapotranspiration is computed following the surface air temperature-potential evapotranspiration regression of Thomthwaite (1948). The observed surface air temperature is corrected to reflect potential (zero soil moisture stress) conditions by letting the ratio of actual transpiration to potential transpiration be a function of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff data are generated on a daily basis for a 10-year period, January 1979 through December 1988, using observed precipitation gridded at a 4 deg by 5 deg resolution.

  19. Improving the Amazonian Hydrologic Cycle in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere, Single Column Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, A. B.; Denning, S.; Baker, I.; Prihodko, L.; Branson, M.

    2006-12-01

    We have coupled a land-surface model, the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3), to a single column of the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU-GCM) in the Amazon River Basin. This is a preliminary step in the broader goal of improved simulation of Basin-wide hydrology. A previous version of the coupled model (SiB2) showed drought and catastrophic dieback of the Amazon rain forest. SiB3 includes updated soil hydrology and root physiology. Our test area for the coupled single column model is near Santarem, Brazil, where measurements from the km 83 flux tower in the Tapajos National Forest can be used to evaluate model output. The model was run for 2001 using NCEP2 Reanalysis as driver data. Preliminary results show that the updated biosphere model coupled to the GCM produces improved simulations of the seasonal cycle of surface water balance and precipitation. Comparisons of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of surface fluxes are also being made.

  20. Qualitative properties of the minimal model of carbon circulation in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestunov, Aleksandr; Fedotov, Anatoliy; Medvedev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Substantial changes in the biosphere during recent decades have caused legitimate concern in the international community. The fact that feedbacks between the atmospheric CO2 concentration, global temperature, permafrost, ocean CO2 concentration and air humidity increases the risk of catastrophic phenomena on the planetary scale. The precautionary principle allows us to consider greenhouse effect using the mathematical models of the biosphere-climate system. Minimal models do not allow us to make a quantitative description of the "biosphere-climate" system dynamics, which is determined by the aggregate effect of the set of known climatic and biosphere processes. However, the study of such models makes it possible to understand the qualitative mechanisms of biosphere processes and to evaluate their possible consequences. The global minimal model of long-term dynamics of carbon in biosphere is considered basing on assumption that anthropogenous carbon emissions in atmosphere are absent [1]. Qualitative analysis of the model shows that there exists a set of model parameters (taken from the current estimation ranges), such that the system becomes unstable. It is also shown that external influences on the carbon circulation can lead either to degradation of the biosphere or to global temperature change [2]. This work is aimed at revealing the conditions under which the biosphere model can become unstable, which can result in catastrophic changes in the Earth's biogeocenoses. The minimal model of the biosphere-climate system describes an improbable, but, nevertheless, a possible worst-case scenario of the biosphere evolution takes into consideration only the most dangerous biosphere mechanisms and ignores some climate feedbacks (such as transpiration). This work demonstrates the possibility of implementing the trigger mode in the biosphere, which can lead to dramatic changes in the state of the biosphere even without additional burning of fossil fuels. This mode

  1. FURTHER ANALYSIS OF SUBTYPES OF AUTOMATICALLY REINFORCED SIB: A REPLICATION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLISHED DATASETS

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Bonner, Andrew C.; Arevalo, Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Hagopian, Rooker, and Zarcone (2015) evaluated a model for subtyping automatically reinforced self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on its sensitivity to changes in functional analysis conditions and the presence of self-restraint. The current study tested the generality of the model by applying it to all datasets of automatically reinforced SIB published from 1982 to 2015. We identified 49 datasets that included sufficient data to permit subtyping. Similar to the original study, Subtype-1 SIB was generally amenable to treatment using reinforcement alone, whereas Subtype-2 SIB was not. Conclusions could not be drawn about Subtype-3 SIB due to the small number of datasets. Nevertheless, the findings support the generality of the model and suggest that sensitivity of SIB to disruption by alternative reinforcement is an important dimension of automatically reinforced SIB. Findings also suggest that automatically reinforced SIB should no longer be considered a single category and that additional research is needed to better understand and treat Subtype-2 SIB. PMID:28032344

  2. Post-closure biosphere assessment modelling: comparison of complex and more stylised approaches.

    PubMed

    Walke, Russell C; Kirchner, Gerald; Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Björn

    2015-10-01

    Geological disposal facilities are the preferred option for high-level radioactive waste, due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment (biosphere) on very long timescales. Assessments need to strike a balance between stylised models and more complex approaches that draw more extensively on site-specific information. This paper explores the relative merits of complex versus more stylised biosphere models in the context of a site-specific assessment. The more complex biosphere modelling approach was developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) for the Formark candidate site for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden. SKB's approach is built on a landscape development model, whereby radionuclide releases to distinct hydrological basins/sub-catchments (termed 'objects') are represented as they evolve through land rise and climate change. Each of seventeen of these objects is represented with more than 80 site specific parameters, with about 22 that are time-dependent and result in over 5000 input values per object. The more stylised biosphere models developed for this study represent releases to individual ecosystems without environmental change and include the most plausible transport processes. In the context of regulatory review of the landscape modelling approach adopted in the SR-Site assessment in Sweden, the more stylised representation has helped to build understanding in the more complex modelling approaches by providing bounding results, checking the reasonableness of the more complex modelling, highlighting uncertainties introduced through conceptual assumptions and helping to quantify the conservatisms involved. The more stylised biosphere models are also shown capable of reproducing the results of more complex approaches. A major recommendation is that biosphere assessments need to justify the degree of complexity in modelling approaches as well as simplifying and conservative assumptions. In light of

  3. WEB-DHM: A distributed biosphere hydrological model developed by coupling a simple biosphere scheme with a hillslope hydrological model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coupling of land surface models and hydrological models potentially improves the land surface representation, benefiting both the streamflow prediction capabilities as well as providing improved estimates of water and energy fluxes into the atmosphere. In this study, the simple biosphere model 2...

  4. Exploring global carbon turnover and radiocarbon cycling in terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graven, H. D.; Warren, H.

    2017-12-01

    The uptake of carbon into terrestrial ecosystems through net primary productivity (NPP) and the turnover of that carbon through various pathways are the fundamental drivers of changing carbon stocks on land, in addition to human-induced and natural disturbances. Terrestrial biosphere models use different formulations for carbon uptake and release, resulting in a range of values in NPP of 40-70 PgC/yr and biomass turnover times of about 25-40 years for the preindustrial period in current-generation models from CMIP5. Biases in carbon uptake and turnover impact simulated carbon uptake and storage in the historical period and later in the century under changing climate and CO2 concentration, however evaluating global-scale NPP and carbon turnover is challenging. Scaling up of plot-scale measurements involves uncertainty due to the large heterogeneity across ecosystems and biomass types, some of which are not well-observed. We are developing the modelling of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models, with a particular focus on decadal 14C dynamics after the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s-60s, including the impact of carbon flux trends and variability on 14C cycling. We use an estimate of the total inventory of excess 14C in the biosphere constructed by Naegler and Levin (2009) using a 14C budget approach incorporating estimates of total 14C produced by the weapons tests and atmospheric and oceanic 14C observations. By simulating radiocarbon in simple biosphere box models using carbon fluxes from the CMIP5 models, we find that carbon turnover is too rapid in many of the simple models - the models appear to take up too much 14C and release it too quickly. Therefore many CMIP5 models may also simulate carbon turnover that is too rapid. A caveat is that the simple box models we use may not adequately represent carbon dynamics in the full-scale models. Explicit simulation of radiocarbon in terrestrial biosphere models would allow more robust evaluation of biosphere

  5. Scaling from instantaneous remote-sensing-based latent heat flux to daytime integrated value with the help of SiB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Mingguo; Li, Xin; Wang, Xufeng

    2011-11-01

    This research dealt with a daytime integration method with the help of Simple Biosphere Model, Version 2 (SiB2). The field observations employed in this study were obtained at the Yingke (YK) oasis super-station, which includes an Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS), an eddy covariance (EC) system and a Soil Moisture and Temperature Measuring System (SMTMS). This station is located in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in China. The remotely sensed data and field observations employed in this study were derived from Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER). Daily variations of EF in temporal and spatial scale would be detected by using SiB2. An instantaneous midday EF was calculated based on a remote-sensing-based estimation of surface energy budget. The invariance of daytime EF was examined using the instantaneous midday EF calculated from a remote-sensing-based estimation. The integration was carried out using the constant EF method in the intervals with a steady EF. Intervals with an inconsistent EF were picked up and ET in these intervals was integrated separately. The truth validation of land Surface ET at satellite pixel scale was carried out using the measurement of eddy covariance (EC) system.

  6. Improved Carbon Flux Observations over Urban Areas Using Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) to Differentiate Contributions from Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, M.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Bambha, R.; Michelsen, H. A.; Fischer, M. L.; Graven, H. D.; Baker, I. T.; Guilderson, T.; Campbell, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Direct measurement and attribution of carbon exchange over urban areas is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the landscape and errors introduced by flux source partitioning. One important contribution to uncertainty is the influence of the urban biosphere on the regional carbon budget. Atmospheric observations of carbonyl sulfide (COS) are an emerging tool for estimating gross primary productivity: COS is consumed in plant leaves by parallel pathways to CO2 uptake, without the additional complexity of an analogous respiration term. This study makes use of COS measurements to better understand fluctuations in total CO2 concentrations over an urban region due to the balance of photosynthesis and respiration. In situ ground-based observations of trace gas concentrations were made from a tower in Livermore, CA, USA, and interpreted with WRF-STILT back trajectories and gridded data sets (e.g. VULCAN, a new anthropogenic COS inventory), supplemented with biosphere models (SiB, CASA-GFED3). CO2, 14CO2, and CO observations were used to first parse the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to total CO2. Changes in the remainder CO2 was differentiated as the sum of biosphere components with associated uncertainties. This approach could be used to better validate carbon emissions reduction measures and ecosytem-based carbon capture projects on the regional scale.

  7. Comparing Amazon Basin CO2 fluxes from an atmospheric inversion with TRENDY biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Alden, C. B.; Harper, A. B.; Ahlström, A.; Touma, D. E.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.

    2015-12-01

    Net exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere is sensitive to environmental conditions, including extreme heat and drought. Of particular importance for local and global carbon balance and climate are the expansive tracts of tropical rainforest located in the Amazon Basin. Because of the Basin's size and ecological heterogeneity, net biosphere CO2 exchange with the atmosphere remains largely un-constrained. In particular, the response of net CO2 exchange to changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation are not yet well known. However, proper representation of these relationships in biosphere models is a necessary constraint for accurately modeling future climate and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. In an effort to compare biosphere response to climate across different biosphere models, the TRENDY model intercomparison project coordinated the simulation of CO2 fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in response to historical climate forcing, by 9 different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. We examine the TRENDY model results in the Amazon Basin, and compare this "bottom-up" method with fluxes derived from a "top-down" approach to estimating net CO2 fluxes, obtained through atmospheric inverse modeling using CO2 measurements sampled by aircraft above the basin. We compare the "bottom-up" and "top-down" fluxes in 5 sub-regions of the Amazon basin on a monthly basis for 2010-2012. Our results show important periods of agreement between some models in the TRENDY suite and atmospheric inverse model results, notably the simulation of increased biosphere CO2 loss during wet season heat in the Central Amazon. During the dry season, however, model ability to simulate observed response of net CO2 exchange to drought was varied, with few models able to reproduce the "top-down" inversion flux signals. Our results highlight the value of atmospheric trace gas observations for helping to narrow the

  8. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping

    1994-01-01

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover, soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations.

  9. Using observations to evaluate biosphere-atmosphere interactions in models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed H.; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions influence the hydrologic cycle by altering climate and weather patterns (Charney, 1975; Koster et al., 2006; Seneviratne et al., 2006), contributing up to 30% of precipitation and radiation variability in certain regions (Green et al., 2017). They have been shown to contribute to the persistence of drought in Europe (Seneviratne et al., 2006), as well as to increase rainfall in the Amazon (Spracklen et al., 2012). Thus, a true representation of these feedbacks in Earth System Models (ESMs) is crucial for accurate forecasting and planning. However, it has been difficult to validate the performance of ESMs since often-times surface and atmospheric flux data are scarce and/or difficult to observe. In this study, we use the results of a new global observational study (using remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence to represent the biosphere flux) (Green et al., 2017) to determine how well a suite of 13 ESMs capture biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. We perform a Conditional Multivariate Granger Causality analysis in the frequency domain with radiation, precipitation and temperature as atmospheric inputs and GPP as the biospheric input. Performing the analysis in the frequency domain allows for separation of feedbacks at different time-scales (subseasonal, seasonal or interannual). Our findings can be used to determine whether there is agreement between models, as well as, to pinpoint regions or time-scales of model bias or inaccuracy, which will provide insight on potential improvement. We demonstrate that in addition to the well-known problem of convective parameterization over land in models, the main issue in representing feedbacks between the land and the atmosphere is due to the misrepresentation of water stress. These results provide a direct quantitative assessment of feedbacks in models and how to improve them. References: Charney, J.G. Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological

  10. Two-locus diseas models with two marker loci: The power of affected-sib-pair tests

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Knapp, M.; Seuchter, S.A.; Bauer, M.P.

    1994-11-01

    Recently, Schork et al. found that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus (parametric) linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information than can standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods. However, because of the increased burden of computation, Schork et al. do not expect that their approach will be applied in an initial genome scan. Further, the specification of a suitable two-locus segregation model can be crucial. Affected-sib-pair tests are computationally simple and do not require an explicit specification of the disease model. In the past, however, these tests mainly have been applied to data with a single marker locus. Here, we consider sib-pair tests that makemore » it possible to analyze simultaneously two marker loci. The power of these tests is investigated for different (epistatic and heterogeneous) two-trait-locus models, each trait locus being linked to one of the marker loci. We compare these tests both with the test that is optimal for a certain model and with the strategy that analyzes each marker locus separately. The results indicate that a straightforward extension of the well-known mean test for two marker loci can be much more powerful than single-marker-locus analysis and that its power is only slightly inferior to the power of the optimal test. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  11. Sequential optimization of a terrestrial biosphere model constrained by multiple satellite based products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    Various satellite-based spatial products such as evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are now produced by integration of ground and satellite observations. Effective use of these multiple satellite-based products in terrestrial biosphere models is an important step toward better understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles. However, due to the complexity of terrestrial biosphere models with large number of model parameters, the application of these spatial data sets in terrestrial biosphere models is difficult. In this study, we established an effective but simple framework to refine a terrestrial biosphere model, Biome-BGC, using multiple satellite-based products as constraints. We tested the framework in the monsoon Asia region covered by AsiaFlux observations. The framework is based on the hierarchical analysis (Wang et al. 2009) with model parameter optimization constrained by satellite-based spatial data. The Biome-BGC model is separated into several tiers to minimize the freedom of model parameter selections and maximize the independency from the whole model. For example, the snow sub-model is first optimized using MODIS snow cover product, followed by soil water sub-model optimized by satellite-based ET (estimated by an empirical upscaling method; Support Vector Regression (SVR) method; Yang et al. 2007), photosynthesis model optimized by satellite-based GPP (based on SVR method), and respiration and residual carbon cycle models optimized by biomass data. As a result of initial assessment, we found that most of default sub-models (e.g. snow, water cycle and carbon cycle) showed large deviations from remote sensing observations. However, these biases were removed by applying the proposed framework. For example, gross primary productivities were initially underestimated in boreal and temperate forest and overestimated in tropical forests. However, the parameter optimization scheme successfully reduced these biases. Our analysis

  12. Sensitivity properties of a biosphere model based on BATS and a statistical-dynamical climate model

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, T.

    A biosphere model based on the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and the Saltzman-Vernekar (SV) statistical-dynamical climate model is developed. Some equations of BATS are adopted either intact or with modifications, some are conceptually modified, and still others are replaced with equations of the SV model. The model is designed so that it can be run independently as long as the parameters related to the physiology and physiognomy of the vegetation, the atmospheric conditions, solar radiation, and soil conditions are given. With this stand-alone biosphere model, a series of sensitivity investigations, particularly the model sensitivity to fractional area of vegetation cover,more » soil surface water availability, and solar radiation for different types of vegetation, were conducted as a first step. These numerical experiments indicate that the presence of a vegetation cover greatly enhances the exchanges of momentum, water vapor, and energy between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth. An interesting result is that a dense and thick vegetation cover tends to serve as an environment conditioner or, more specifically, a thermostat and a humidistat, since the soil surface temperature, foliage temperature, and temperature and vapor pressure of air within the foliage are practically insensitive to variation of soil surface water availability and even solar radiation within a wide range. An attempt is also made to simulate the gradual deterioration of environment accompanying gradual degradation of a tropical forest to grasslands. Comparison with field data shows that this model can realistically simulate the land surface processes involving biospheric variations. 46 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  13. Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suits, N. S.; Denning, A. S.; Berry, J. A.; Still, C. J.; Kaduk, J.; Miller, J. B.; Baker, I. T.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a multistage model of carbon isotope discrimination during C3 photosynthesis and global maps of C3/C4 plant ratios to an ecophysiological model of the terrestrial biosphere (SiB2) in order to predict the carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial plant carbon globally at a 1° resolution. The model is driven by observed meteorology from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), constrained by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and run for the years 1983-1993. Modeled mean annual C3 discrimination during this period is 19.2‰; total mean annual discrimination by the terrestrial biosphere (C3 and C4 plants) is 15.9‰. We test simulation results in three ways. First, we compare the modeled response of C3 discrimination to changes in physiological stress, including daily variations in vapor pressure deficit (vpd) and monthly variations in precipitation, to observed changes in discrimination inferred from Keeling plot intercepts. Second, we compare mean δ13C ratios from selected biomes (Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal) to the observed values from Keeling plots at these biomes. Third, we compare simulated zonal δ13C ratios in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 60°N) to values predicted from high-frequency variations in measured atmospheric CO2 and δ13C from terrestrially dominated sites within the NOAA-Globalview flask network. The modeled response to changes in vapor pressure deficit compares favorably to observations. Simulated discrimination in tropical forests of the Amazon basin is less sensitive to changes in monthly precipitation than is suggested by some observations. Mean model δ13C ratios for Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal biomes compare well with the few measurements available; however, there is more variability in observations than in the simulation, and modeled δ13C values for tropical forests are heavy relative to observations

  14. Maximum likelihood estimation of linkage disequilibrium in half-sib families.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Raya, L

    2012-05-01

    Maximum likelihood methods for the estimation of linkage disequilibrium between biallelic DNA-markers in half-sib families (half-sib method) are developed for single and multifamily situations. Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out for a variety of scenarios regarding sire genotypes, linkage disequilibrium, recombination fraction, family size, and number of families. A double heterozygote sire was simulated with recombination fraction of 0.00, linkage disequilibrium among dams of δ=0.10, and alleles at both markers segregating at intermediate frequencies for a family size of 500. The average estimates of δ were 0.17, 0.25, and 0.10 for Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), maternal informative haplotypes, and the half-sib method, respectively. A multifamily EM algorithm was tested at intermediate frequencies by computer simulation. The range of the absolute difference between estimated and simulated δ was between 0.000 and 0.008. A cattle half-sib family was genotyped with the Illumina 50K BeadChip. There were 314,730 SNP pairs for which the sire was a homo-heterozygote with average estimates of r2 of 0.115, 0.067, and 0.111 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. There were 208,872 SNP pairs for which the sire was double heterozygote with average estimates of r2 across the genome of 0.100, 0.267, and 0.925 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. Genome analyses for all possible sire genotypes with 829,042 tests showed that ignoring half-sib family structure leads to upward biased estimates of linkage disequilibrium. Published inferences on population structure and evolution of cattle should be revisited after accommodating existing half-sib family structure in the estimation of linkage disequilibrium.

  15. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Linkage Disequilibrium in Half-Sib Families

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Raya, L.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum likelihood methods for the estimation of linkage disequilibrium between biallelic DNA-markers in half-sib families (half-sib method) are developed for single and multifamily situations. Monte Carlo computer simulations were carried out for a variety of scenarios regarding sire genotypes, linkage disequilibrium, recombination fraction, family size, and number of families. A double heterozygote sire was simulated with recombination fraction of 0.00, linkage disequilibrium among dams of δ = 0.10, and alleles at both markers segregating at intermediate frequencies for a family size of 500. The average estimates of δ were 0.17, 0.25, and 0.10 for Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), maternal informative haplotypes, and the half-sib method, respectively. A multifamily EM algorithm was tested at intermediate frequencies by computer simulation. The range of the absolute difference between estimated and simulated δ was between 0.000 and 0.008. A cattle half-sib family was genotyped with the Illumina 50K BeadChip. There were 314,730 SNP pairs for which the sire was a homo-heterozygote with average estimates of r2 of 0.115, 0.067, and 0.111 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. There were 208,872 SNP pairs for which the sire was double heterozygote with average estimates of r2 across the genome of 0.100, 0.267, and 0.925 for half-sib, Excoffier and Slatkin (1995), and maternal informative haplotypes methods, respectively. Genome analyses for all possible sire genotypes with 829,042 tests showed that ignoring half-sib family structure leads to upward biased estimates of linkage disequilibrium. Published inferences on population structure and evolution of cattle should be revisited after accommodating existing half-sib family structure in the estimation of linkage disequilibrium. PMID:22377635

  16. Feedbacks between climate change and biosphere integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lade, Steven; Anderies, J. Marty; Donges, Jonathan; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan; Richardson, Katherine; Cornell, Sarah; Norberg, Jon; Fetzer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The terrestrial and marine biospheres sink substantial fractions of human fossil fuel emissions. How the biosphere's capacity to sink carbon depends on biodiversity and other measures of biosphere integrity is however poorly understood. Here, we (1): review assumptions from literature regarding the relationships between the carbon cycle and the terrestrial and marine biospheres; and (2) explore the consequences of these different assumptions for climate feedbacks using the stylised carbon cycle model PB-INT. We find that: terrestrial biodiversity loss could significantly dampen climate-carbon cycle feedbacks; direct biodiversity effects, if they exist, could rival temperature increases from low-emission trajectories; and the response of the marine biosphere is critical for longer term climate change. Simple, low-dimensional climate models such as PB-INT can help assess the importance of still unknown or controversial earth system processes such as biodiversity loss for climate feedbacks. This study constitutes the first detailed study of the interactions between climate change and biosphere integrity, two of the 'planetary boundaries'.

  17. The Impact of Prior Biosphere Models in the Inversion of Global Terrestrial CO2 Fluxes by Assimilating OCO-2 Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric fluxes. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in terrestrial biospheric models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Atmospheric transport models assimilating measured (in situ or space-borne) CO2 concentrations to estimate "top-down" fluxes, generally use these biospheric CO2 fluxes as a priori information. Most of the flux inversion estimates result in substantially different spatio-temporal posteriori estimates of regional and global biospheric CO2 fluxes. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission dedicated to accurately measure column CO2 (XCO2) allows for an improved understanding of global biospheric CO2 fluxes. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions facilitating better global and regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes through inversion model simulations. The specific objectives of our research are to: 1) conduct GEOS-Chem 4D-Var assimilation of OCO-2 observations, using several state-of-the-science biospheric CO2 flux models as a priori information, to better constrain terrestrial CO2 fluxes, and 2) quantify the impact of different biospheric model prior fluxes on OCO-2-assimilated a posteriori CO2 flux estimates. Here we present our assessment of the importance of these a priori fluxes by conducting Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) using simulated OCO-2 observations with known "true" fluxes.

  18. Modeling the impact of climate change in Germany with biosphere models for long-term safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Staudt, C; Semiochkina, N; Kaiser, J C; Pröhl, G

    2013-01-01

    Biosphere models are used to evaluate the exposure of populations to radionuclides from a deep geological repository. Since the time frame for assessments of long-time disposal safety is 1 million years, potential future climate changes need to be accounted for. Potential future climate conditions were defined for northern Germany according to model results from the BIOCLIM project. Nine present day reference climate regions were defined to cover those future climate conditions. A biosphere model was developed according to the BIOMASS methodology of the IAEA and model parameters were adjusted to the conditions at the reference climate regions. The model includes exposure pathways common to those reference climate regions in a stylized biosphere and relevant to the exposure of a hypothetical self-sustaining population at the site of potential radionuclide contamination from a deep geological repository. The end points of the model are Biosphere Dose Conversion factors (BDCF) for a range of radionuclides and scenarios normalized for a constant radionuclide concentration in near-surface groundwater. Model results suggest an increased exposure of in dry climate regions with a high impact of drinking water consumption rates and the amount of irrigation water used for agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A terrestrial biosphere model optimized to atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M.; Ito, A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    This study documents an optimization of a prognostic biosphere model (VISIT; Vegetation Integrative Similator for Trace gases) to observations of atmospheric CO2 concentration and above ground woody biomass by using a Bayesian inversion method combined with an atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM; National Institute for Environmental Studies / Frontier Research Center for Global Change (NIES/FRCGC) off-line global atmospheric tracer transport model). The assimilated observations include 74 station records of surface atmospheric CO2 concentration and aggregated grid data sets of above ground woody biomass (AGB) and net primary productivity (NPP) over the globe. Both the biosphere model and the atmospheric transport model are used at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg grid with temporal resolutions of a day and an hour, respectively. The atmospheric transport model simulates atmospheric CO2 concentration with nine vertical levels using daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange rate (NEE) from the biosphere model, oceanic CO2 flux, and fossil fuel emission inventory. The models are driven by meteorological data from JRA-25 (Japanese 25-year ReAnalysis) and JCDAS (JMA Climate Data Assimilation System). Statistically optimum physiological parameters in the biosphere model are found by iterative minimization of the corresponding Bayesian cost function. We select thirteen physiological parameter with high sensitivity to NEE, NPP, and AGB for the minimization. Given the optimized physiological parameters, the model shows error reductions in seasonal variation of the CO2 concentrations especially in the northern hemisphere due to abundant observation stations, while errors remain at a few stations that are located in coastal coastal area and stations in the southern hemisphere. The model also produces moderate estimates of the mean magnitudes and probability distributions in AGB and NPP for each biome. However, the model fails in the simulation of the terrestrial

  20. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  1. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  2. Integrating Biodiversity into Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions Using Individual-Based Models (IBM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Lerdau, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key component regulating complex, nonlinear, and dynamic biosphere-atmosphere interactions is the inherent diversity of biological systems. The model frameworks currently widely used, i.e., Plant Functional Type models) do not even begin to capture the metabolic and taxonomic diversity found in many terrestrial systems. We propose that a transition from PFT-based to individual-based modeling approaches (hereafter referred to as IBM) is essential for integrating biodiversity into research on biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The proposal emerges from our studying the interactions of forests with atmospheric processes in the context of climate change using an individual-based forest volatile organic compounds model, UVAFME-VOC. This individual-based model can explicitly simulate VOC emissions based on an explicit modelling of forest dynamics by computing the growth, death, and regeneration of each individual tree of different species and their competition for light, moisture, and nutrient, from which system-level VOC emissions are simulated by explicitly computing and summing up each individual's emissions. We found that elevated O3 significantly altered the forest dynamics by favoring species that are O3-resistant, which, meanwhile, are producers of isoprene. Such compositional changes, on the one hand, resulted in unsuppressed forest productivity and carbon stock because of the compensation by O3-resistant species. On the other hand, with more isoprene produced arising from increased producers, a possible positive feedback loop between tropospheric O3 and forest thereby emerged. We also found that climate warming will not always stimulate isoprene emissions because warming simultaneously reduces isoprene emissions by causing a decline in the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. These results suggest that species diversity is of great significance and that individual-based modelling strategies should be applied in studying biosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  3. Barriers to carrier testing for adult cystic fibrosis sibs: the importance of not knowing.

    PubMed

    Fanos, J H; Johnson, J P

    1995-10-23

    Early experience in centers offering population screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) has shown that few of the public are taking advantage of the offer [Miller, 1993: New Scientist 139:6]. There is similar low utilization among adult CF sibs [Fanos and Johnson, 1993: Am J Hum Genet 53:A51]. The purpose of this study was to identify factors motivating or interfering with the pursuit of carrier testing in adult CF sibs. Eighty-four adult CF sibs and their spouses, drawn from Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA, and Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, were interviewed for about an hour, and qualitative material was coded on various themes. Structural and psychological barriers to the transmission of genetic information were identified: 1) sibs encountered difficulty in obtaining information concerning availability of testing; 2) parental guilt and blame prevents parents from discussing genetic issues with the sib; 3) sibs rarely discuss testing with each other; 4) the CF patient or parent often has difficulty with the implications of the sib seeking carrier testing; 5) family and individual myths about carrier status influence the sib's decision to seek testing; 6) statistical odds have lost meaning in families where the rare has already occurred; 7) the sib fears loss of interpersonal desirability; and 8) carrier status can serve an important function in binding guilt. Remaining unaware of their carrier status may serve significant psychological functions for individuals at risk.

  4. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  5. The distribution of genome shared identical by descent for a pair of full sibs by means of the continuous time Markov chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julie, Hongki; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.; Pancoro, Adi

    2015-12-01

    This paper will allow Markov Chain's application in genome shared identical by descent by two individual at full sibs model. The full sibs model was a continuous time Markov Chain with three state. In the full sibs model, we look for the cumulative distribution function of the number of sub segment which have 2 IBD haplotypes from a segment of the chromosome which the length is t Morgan and the cumulative distribution function of the number of sub segment which have at least 1 IBD haplotypes from a segment of the chromosome which the length is t Morgan. This cumulative distribution function will be developed by the moment generating function.

  6. [Comparison of SIB-IMRT treatment plans for upper esophageal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei-hua; Wang, Lv-hua; Zhou, Zong-mei; Dai, Jian-rong; Hu, Yi-min

    2003-06-01

    To implement simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy(SIB-IMRT) plans for upper esophageal carcinoma and investigate the dose profiles of tumor and electively treated region and the dose to organs at risk (OARs). SIB-IMRT plans were designed for two patients with upper esophageal carcinoma. Two target volumes were predefined: PTV1, the target volume of the primary lesion, which was given to 67.2 Gy, and PTV2, the target volume of electively treated region, which was given to 50.4 Gy. With the same dose-volume constraints, but different beams arrangements (3, 5, 7, or 9 equispaced coplanar beams), four plans were generated. Indices, including dose distribution, dose volume histogram (DVH) and conformity index, were used for comparison of these plans. The plan with three intensity-modulated beams could produce good dose distribution for the two target volumes. The dose conformity to targets and the dose to OARs were improved as the beam number increased. The dose distributions in targets changed little when the beam number increased from 7 to 9. Five to seven intensity-modulated beams can produce desirable dose distributions for simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment for upper esophageal carcinoma. The primary tumor can get higher equivalent dose by SIB treatments. It is easier and more efficient to design plans with equispaced coplanar beams. The efficacy of SIB-IMRT remains to be determined by the clinical outcome.

  7. The Biosphere: A Decadal Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Curran, Paul J.; Mlynzcak, Marty; Miller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on biosphere-climate interactions including the influences of human activities. Recognizing this is only one aspect of biospheric processes, this places an emphasis of those biogeochemical processes that have a profound effect on numerous other aspects of the biosphere and the services it provides, services which are critical to sustaining life on Earth. And, the paper will focus on the various scientific aspects of assessing the availability of fresh water, including its sensitivity to climate variance and land use changes. Finally, this paper hopes to emphasize the potential role that greatly expanded space observations and interactive modeling can play in developing our understanding of Earth and its the living systems.

  8. Using Landsat, MODIS, and a Biophysical Model to Evaluate LST in Urban Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Lachir, Asia; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we assessed and compared land surface temperature (LST) in urban centers using data from Landsat, MODIS, and the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2). We also evaluated the sensitivity of the models LST to different land cover types, fractions (percentages), and emissivities compared to reference points derived from Landsat thermal data. This was demonstrated in three climatologically- and morphologically-different cities of Atlanta, GA, New York, NY, and Washington, DC. Our results showed that in these cities SiB2 was sensitive to both the emissivity and the land cover type and fraction, but much more sensitive to the latter. The practical implications of these results are rather significant since they imply that the SiB2 model can be used to run different scenarios for evaluating urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies. This study also showed that using detailed emissivities per land cover type and fractions from Landsat-derived data caused a convergence of the model results towards the Landsat-derived LST for most of the studied cases. This study also showed that SiB2 LSTs are closer in magnitude to Landsat-derived LSTs than MODIS-derived LSTs. It is important, however, to emphasize that both Landsat and MODIS LSTs are not direct observations and, as such, do not represent a ground truth. More studies will be needed to compare these results to in situ LST data and provide further validation.

  9. Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Fozo, Elizabeth M; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Fontaine, Fanette; Kaya, Yusuf; Mendieta, Kathy S; Jones, Kristi L; Ocampo, Alejandro; Rudd, Kenneth E; Storz, Gisela

    2008-12-01

    The sequences encoding the QUAD1 RNAs were initially identified as four repeats in Escherichia coli. These repeats, herein renamed SIB, are conserved in closely related bacteria, although the number of repeats varies. All five Sib RNAs in E. coli MG1655 are expressed, and no phenotype was observed for a five-sib deletion strain. However, a phenotype reminiscent of plasmid addiction was observed for overexpression of the Sib RNAs, and further examination of the SIB repeat sequences revealed conserved open reading frames encoding highly hydrophobic 18- to 19-amino-acid proteins (Ibs) opposite each sib gene. The Ibs proteins were found to be toxic when overexpressed and this toxicity could be prevented by coexpression of the corresponding Sib RNA. Two other RNAs encoded divergently in the yfhL-acpS intergenic region were similarly found to encode a small hydrophobic protein (ShoB) and an antisense RNA regulator (OhsC). Overexpression of both IbsC and ShoB led to immediate changes in membrane potential suggesting both proteins affect the cell envelope. Whole genome expression analysis showed that overexpression of IbsC and ShoB, as well as the small hydrophobic LdrD and TisB proteins, has both overlapping and unique consequences for the cell.

  10. Repression of small toxic protein synthesis by the Sib and OhsC small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fozo, Elizabeth M.; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Fontaine, Fanette; Kaya, Yusuf; Mendieta, Kathy S.; Jones, Kristi L.; Ocampo, Alejandro; Rudd, Kenneth E.; Storz, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    Summary The sequences encoding the QUAD1 RNAs were initially identified as four repeats in Escherichia coli. These repeats, herein renamed SIB, are conserved in closely related bacteria, though the number of repeats varies. All five Sib RNAs in E. coli MG1655 are expressed, and no phenotype was observed for a five sib deletion strain. However, a phenotype reminiscent of plasmid addiction was observed for overexpression of the Sib RNAs, and further examination of the SIB repeat sequences revealed conserved open reading frames encoding highly hydrophobic 18–19 amino acid proteins (Ibs) opposite each sib gene. The Ibs proteins were found to be toxic when overexpressed and this toxicity could be prevented by co-expression of the corresponding Sib RNA. Two other RNAs encoded divergently in the yfhL-acpS intergenic region were similarly found to encode a small hydrophobic protein (ShoB) and an antisense RNA regulator (OhsC). Overexpression of both IbsC and ShoB led to immediate changes in membrane potential suggesting both proteins affect the cell envelope. Whole genome expression analysis showed that overexpression of IbsC and ShoB, as well as the small hydrophobic LdrD and TisB proteins, has both overlapping and unique consequences for the cell. PMID:18710431

  11. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Radiological risk assessment and biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brennwald, M S; van Dorp, F

    2009-12-01

    Long-term safety assessments for geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland involve the demonstration that the annual radiation dose to humans due to the potential release of radionuclides from the waste repository into the biosphere will not exceed the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv. Here, we describe the simple but robust approach used by Nagra (Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) to quantify the dose to humans as a result to time-dependent release of radionuclides from the geosphere into the biosphere. The model calculates the concentrations of radionuclides in different terrestrial and aquatic compartments of the surface environment. The fluxes of water and solids within the environment are the drivers for the exchange of radionuclides between these compartments. The calculated radionuclide concentrations in the biosphere are then used to estimate the radiation doses to humans due to various exposure paths (e.g. ingestion of radionuclides via drinking water and food, inhalation of radionuclides, external irradiation from radionuclides in soils). In this paper we also discuss recent new achievements and planned future work.

  13. A biosphere modeling methodology for dose assessments of the potential Yucca Mountain deep geological high level radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Watkins, B M; Smith, G M; Little, R H; Kessler, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent developments in performance standards for proposed high level radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain suggest that health risk or dose rate limits will likely be part of future standards. Approaches to the development of biosphere modeling and dose assessments for Yucca Mountain have been relatively lacking in previous performance assessments due to the absence of such a requirement. This paper describes a practical methodology used to develop a biosphere model appropriate for calculating doses from use of well water by hypothetical individuals due to discharges of contaminated groundwater into a deep well. The biosphere model methodology, developed in parallel with the BIOMOVS II international study, allows a transparent recording of the decisions at each step, from the specification of the biosphere assessment context through to model development and analysis of results. A list of features, events, and processes relevant to Yucca Mountain was recorded and an interaction matrix developed to help identify relationships between them. Special consideration was given to critical/potential exposure group issues and approaches. The conceptual model of the biosphere system was then developed, based on the interaction matrix, to show how radionuclides migrate and accumulate in the biosphere media and result in potential exposure pathways. A mathematical dose assessment model was specified using the flexible AMBER software application, which allows users to construct their own compartment models. The starting point for the biosphere calculations was a unit flux of each radionuclide from the groundwater in the geosphere into the drinking water in the well. For each of the 26 radionuclides considered, the most significant exposure pathways for hypothetical individuals were identified. For 14 of the radionuclides, the primary exposure pathways were identified as consumption of various crops and animal products following assumed agricultural use of the contaminated

  14. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the first and second largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, which is itself the largest driver of present-day climate change1. Projections of fossil fuel consumption and land-use change are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESM) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing2,3. While empirical datasets are available to inform historical analyses4,5, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use based on energy economic models, constrained using historical and present-day data and forced with assumptionsmore » about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories6. Here we show that the influence of biospheric change – the integrated effect of climatic, ecological, and geochemical processes – on land ecosystems has a significant impact on energy, agriculture, and land-use projections for the 21st century. Such feedbacks have been ignored in previous ESM studies of future climate. We find that synchronous exposure of land ecosystem productivity in the economic system to biospheric change as it develops in an ESM results in a 10% reduction of land area used for crop cultivation; increased managed forest area and land carbon; a 15-20% decrease in global crop price; and a 17% reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario7. These simulation results demonstrate that biospheric change can significantly alter primary human system forcings to the climate system. This synchronous two-way coupling approach removes inconsistencies in description of climate change between human and biosphere components of the coupled model, mitigating a major source of uncertainty identified in assessments of future climate projections8-10.« less

  15. A comparison between the example reference biosphere model ERB 2B and a process-based model: simulation of a natural release scenario.

    PubMed

    Almahayni, T

    2014-12-01

    The BIOMASS methodology was developed with the objective of constructing defensible assessment biospheres for assessing potential radiological impacts of radioactive waste repositories. To this end, a set of Example Reference Biospheres were developed to demonstrate the use of the methodology and to provide an international point of reference. In this paper, the performance of the Example Reference Biosphere model ERB 2B associated with the natural release scenario, discharge of contaminated groundwater to the surface environment, was evaluated by comparing its long-term projections of radionuclide dynamics and distribution in a soil-plant system to those of a process-based, transient advection-dispersion model (AD). The models were parametrised with data characteristic of a typical rainfed winter wheat crop grown on a sandy loam soil under temperate climate conditions. Three safety-relevant radionuclides, (99)Tc, (129)I and (237)Np with different degree of sorption were selected for the study. Although the models were driven by the same hydraulic (soil moisture content and water fluxes) and radiological (Kds) input data, their projections were remarkably different. On one hand, both models were able to capture short and long-term variation in activity concentration in the subsoil compartment. On the other hand, the Reference Biosphere model did not project any radionuclide accumulation in the topsoil and crop compartments. This behaviour would underestimate the radiological exposure under natural release scenarios. The results highlight the potential role deep roots play in soil-to-plant transfer under a natural release scenario where radionuclides are released into the subsoil. When considering the relative activity and root depth profiles within the soil column, much of the radioactivity was taken up into the crop from the subsoil compartment. Further improvements were suggested to address the limitations of the Reference Biosphere model presented in this paper

  16. The Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the earth's biosphere, considering how the microbial, animal and plant life (which make up the biosphere) are sustained by the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Also considers how these three earth features have powerfully shaped the evolution of these organisms. (JN)

  17. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntingzger, Deborah; Fisher, Joshua B.

    2015-06-10

    Multi-model ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill-based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naïve (“one model – one vote”) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naïve mean land sink strength estimates (–1.16 vs. –1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materiallymore » change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  18. Supporting NEESPI with Data Services - The SIB-ESS-C e-Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Schmullius, C.; Frotscher, K.

    2009-04-01

    Data discovery and retrieval is commonly among the first steps performed for any Earth science study. The way scientific data is searched and accessed has changed significantly over the past two decades. Especially the development of the World Wide Web and the technologies that evolved along shortened the data discovery and data exchange process. On the other hand the amount of data collected and distributed by earth scientists has increased exponentially requiring new concepts for data management and sharing. One such concept to meet the demand is to build up Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) or e-Infrastructures. These infrastructures usually contain components for data discovery allowing users (or other systems) to query a catalogue or registry and retrieve metadata information on available data holdings and services. Data access is typically granted using FTP/HTTP protocols or, more advanced, through Web Services. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach based on standardized services enables users to benefit from interoperability among different systems and to integrate distributed services into their application. The Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) being established at the University of Jena (Germany) is such a spatial data infrastructure following these principles and implementing standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The prime objective is to provide researchers with focus on Siberia with the technical means for data discovery, data access, data publication and data analysis. The region of interest covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation from the Ural to the Pacific Ocean including the Ob-, Lena- and Yenissey river catchments. The aim of SIB-ESS-C is to provide a comprehensive set of data products for Earth system science in this region. Although SIB-ESS-C will be equipped with processing capabilities for in-house data generation

  19. Achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents.

    PubMed Central

    Philip, N; Auger, M; Mattei, J F; Giraud, F

    1988-01-01

    A new case of recurrent achondroplasia in sibs of normal parents is reported. Two sisters and a half sister were affected. Various mechanisms can be postulated to account for unexpected recurrence of achondroplasia in the same sibship. Germinal mosaicism and unstable premutation are discussed here. Images PMID:3236371

  20. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially changemore » MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less

  1. A global biogeocenotical biosphere simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseyev, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    This model of the D. Forrester type, constructed in differential equations, predicts the food and mineral supply for the factors biosphere population, depending on two socio-economic factors, until about the year 2500. If contemporary rates of natural resources utilization are maintained and there is no management of the environment, food resources will begin to limit human population growth after 2200, and mineral resources will after 2300. A decrease in the biosphere pollution, increase in effective agricultural production, and discovery of new energy sources may forestall or completely avert the onset of a crisis situation. Conservation measures, according to the model, are to a considerable extent realizable only if carried out simultaneously in both areas.

  2. Root structural and functional dynamics in terrestrial biosphere models--evaluation and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Kumar, Jitendra; Walker, Anthony P; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    There is wide breadth of root function within ecosystems that should be considered when modeling the terrestrial biosphere. Root structure and function are closely associated with control of plant water and nutrient uptake from the soil, plant carbon (C) assimilation, partitioning and release to the soils, and control of biogeochemical cycles through interactions within the rhizosphere. Root function is extremely dynamic and dependent on internal plant signals, root traits and morphology, and the physical, chemical and biotic soil environment. While plant roots have significant structural and functional plasticity to changing environmental conditions, their dynamics are noticeably absent from the land component of process-based Earth system models used to simulate global biogeochemical cycling. Their dynamic representation in large-scale models should improve model veracity. Here, we describe current root inclusion in models across scales, ranging from mechanistic processes of single roots to parameterized root processes operating at the landscape scale. With this foundation we discuss how existing and future root functional knowledge, new data compilation efforts, and novel modeling platforms can be leveraged to enhance root functionality in large-scale terrestrial biosphere models by improving parameterization within models, and introducing new components such as dynamic root distribution and root functional traits linked to resource extraction. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Biosphere Reserve for All: Potentials for Involving Underrepresented Age Groups in the Development of a Biosphere Reserve through Intergenerational Practice.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanenko, Tamara; Snajdr, Julia; Muhar, Andreas; Penker, Marianne; Schauppenlehner-Kloyber, Elisabeth

    2018-05-22

    Stakeholder participation is of high importance in UNESCO biosphere reserves as model regions for sustainable development; however, certain groups remain underrepresented. The paper proposes Intergenerational Practice (IP) as a means of involving youth and elderly women and explores its options and barriers, using the example of the Salzburger Lungau and Kärntner Nockberge Biosphere Reserve in Austria. Case study analysis is used involving mixed methods. The results reveal obstacles and motivations to participating in biosphere reserve implementation and intergenerational activities for the youth and the elderly women and imply that much potential for IP exists in the biosphere reserve region. The authors propose suitable solutions from the intergenerational field to overcome identified participation obstacles and suggest benefits of incorporating IP as a management tool into biosphere reserve activities. Suggestions for future research include evaluating applications of IP in the context of protected areas, testing of methods used in other contexts, and contribution to theory development.

  4. ExPASy: SIB bioinformatics resource portal.

    PubMed

    Artimo, Panu; Jonnalagedda, Manohar; Arnold, Konstantin; Baratin, Delphine; Csardi, Gabor; de Castro, Edouard; Duvaud, Séverine; Flegel, Volker; Fortier, Arnaud; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Grosdidier, Aurélien; Hernandez, Céline; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Liechti, Robin; Moretti, Sébastien; Mostaguir, Khaled; Redaschi, Nicole; Rossier, Grégoire; Xenarios, Ioannis; Stockinger, Heinz

    2012-07-01

    ExPASy (http://www.expasy.org) has worldwide reputation as one of the main bioinformatics resources for proteomics. It has now evolved, becoming an extensible and integrative portal accessing many scientific resources, databases and software tools in different areas of life sciences. Scientists can henceforth access seamlessly a wide range of resources in many different domains, such as proteomics, genomics, phylogeny/evolution, systems biology, population genetics, transcriptomics, etc. The individual resources (databases, web-based and downloadable software tools) are hosted in a 'decentralized' way by different groups of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and partner institutions. Specifically, a single web portal provides a common entry point to a wide range of resources developed and operated by different SIB groups and external institutions. The portal features a search function across 'selected' resources. Additionally, the availability and usage of resources are monitored. The portal is aimed for both expert users and people who are not familiar with a specific domain in life sciences. The new web interface provides, in particular, visual guidance for newcomers to ExPASy.

  5. High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Smith, J. A.; Schnase, J. L.; Crosier, C. S.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in several study areas. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of exotic plant invasion. However, broader use of geostastics in natural resource modeling, especially at regional and national scales, has been limited due to the large computing requirements of these applications. To address this problem, we implemented parallel versions of the kriging spatial interpolation algorithm. The first uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in a master/slave paradigm on an open source Linux Beowulf cluster, while the second is implemented with the new proprietary Xgrid distributed processing system on an Xserve G5 cluster from Apple Computer, Inc. These techniques are proving effective and provide the basis for a national decision support capability for invasive species management that is being jointly developed by NASA and the US Geological Survey.

  6. Gaian bottlenecks and planetary habitability maintained by evolving model biospheres: the ExoGaia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Arwen E.; Wilkinson, David M.; Williams, Hywel T. P.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2018-06-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets inspires the question - how do habitable planets form? Planet habitability models traditionally focus on abiotic processes and neglect a biotic response to changing conditions on an inhabited planet. The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences the Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self-regulating system, and hence that life can maintain habitable conditions on its host planet. If life has a strong influence, it will have a role in determining a planet's habitability over time. We present the ExoGaia model - a model of simple `planets' host to evolving microbial biospheres. Microbes interact with their host planet via consumption and excretion of atmospheric chemicals. Model planets orbit a `star' that provides incoming radiation, and atmospheric chemicals have either an albedo or a heat-trapping property. Planetary temperatures can therefore be altered by microbes via their metabolisms. We seed multiple model planets with life while their atmospheres are still forming and find that the microbial biospheres are, under suitable conditions, generally able to prevent the host planets from reaching inhospitable temperatures, as would happen on a lifeless planet. We find that the underlying geochemistry plays a strong role in determining long-term habitability prospects of a planet. We find five distinct classes of model planets, including clear examples of `Gaian bottlenecks' - a phenomenon whereby life either rapidly goes extinct leaving an inhospitable planet or survives indefinitely maintaining planetary habitability. These results suggest that life might play a crucial role in determining the long-term habitability of planets.

  7. Aeolian Processes and the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, Sujith; D'Odorico, Paolo; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.; Goudie, Andrew S.; Huxman, Travis E.; Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S.; Swap, Robert J.; Thomas, Andrew D.; Van Pelt, Scott; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Zobeck, Ted M.

    2011-08-01

    Aeolian processes affect the biosphere in a wide variety of contexts, including landform evolution, biogeochemical cycles, regional climate, human health, and desertification. Collectively, research on aeolian processes and the biosphere is developing rapidly in many diverse and specialized areas, but integration of these recent advances is needed to better address management issues and to set future research priorities. Here we review recent literature on aeolian processes and their interactions with the biosphere, focusing on (1) geography of dust emissions, (2) impacts, interactions, and feedbacks, (3) drivers of dust emissions, and (4) methodological approaches. Geographically, dust emissions are highly spatially variable but also provide connectivity at global scales between sources and effects, with “hot spots” being of particular concern. Recent research reveals that aeolian processes have impacts, interactions, and feedbacks at a variety of scales, including large-scale dust transport and global biogeochemical cycles, climate mediated interactions between atmospheric dust and ecosystems, impacts on human health, impacts on agriculture, and interactions between aeolian processes and dryland vegetation. Aeolian dust emissions are driven largely by, in addition to climate, a combination of soil properties, soil moisture, vegetation and roughness, biological and physical crusts, and disturbances. Aeolian research methods span laboratory and field techniques, modeling, and remote sensing. Together these integrated perspectives on aeolian processes and the biosphere provide insights into management options and aid in identifying research priorities, both of which are increasingly important given that global climate models predict an increase in aridity in many dryland systems of the world.

  8. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  9. On the design of an interactive biosphere for the GLAS general circulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Willmott, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Improving the realism and accuracy of the GLAS general circulation model (by adding an interactive biosphere that will simulate the transfers of latent and sensible heat from land surface to atmosphere as functions of the atmospheric conditions and the morphology and physiology of the vegetation) is proposed.

  10. Biospheric energization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Ozel, M. E.; Gunduz, G.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the physical properties of a hypothetical molecular schema giving rise to an autocatalytic biosphere. A key concept is the driving of terrestrial life as a parametric oscillation: i.e. that the biosphere behaves fundamentally as an oscillatory system into which solar energy is diurnally deposited. The schema, containing 'A, B and C' type components acting together in a 'bottom-up' driving mechanism, underlies all biospheric superstructure. Surviving modes of the oscillation are consistent with Darwinian organization, or hierarchical structures appearing to have top-down propagation through the growth of cellular replication. The model was detailed by Budding et al (2012), where experimental support from the work of Powner et al (2009) is presented, as well as suggestions on supportive fossil evidence. Although the growth in total energization is very slow in this model, it is important to notice its exponential character, suggestive of potential instability. The model is applicable to generally expectable processes on planets, including zonal segregation, complexity growth and Haeckel's biogenic principle within surviving life-forms. Fermi's exobiological paradox can be resolved in terms of the exponential growth and low L solutions of Drake's equation. Feasible values for the particular growth of selected species (the human one in herelevent terrestrial case) allow for L to be less than a few  100 y, recalling Rees' (2004) 'final century' discussion. This arises when the species' disposable energization attains a value comparable to that of the total available daily driving energy. At that point, accidental, or stochastic disturbances of this species' energy ("error") can significantly disrupt the daily driving mechanism.

  11. SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman

    2016-09-01

    Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks.

  12. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones

    Treesearch

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  13. Regionally strong feedbacks between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Lee, Jung-Eun; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyse satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30% of precipitation and surface radiation variance in regions where feedbacks occur. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  14. Regionally Strong Feedbacks Between the Atmosphere and Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Lee, Jung-Eun; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyze satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30 of precipitation and surface radiation variance. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  15. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon 13 exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Thompson, M. V.; Randerson, J. T.; MalmströM, C. M.; Vitousek, P. M.; Collatz, G. James; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A. S.; Badeck, F.; John, J.

    1997-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the gross 12C and 13C exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and their influence on the δ13C variations in the atmosphere. The photosynthetic discrimination Δ against 13C is derived from a biophysical model coupled to a general circulation model [Sellers et al., 1996a], where stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation are determined simultaneously with the ambient climate. The δ13C of the respired carbon is calculated by a biogeochemical model [Potter et al., 1993; Randerson et al., 1996] as the sum of the contributions from compartments with varying ages. The global flux-weighted mean photosynthetic discrimination is 12-16‰, which is lower than previous estimates. Factors that lower the discrimination are reduced stomatal conductance and C4 photosynthesis. The decreasing atmospheric δ13C causes an isotopic disequilibrium between the outgoing and incoming fluxes; the disequilibrium is ˜0.33‰ for 1988. The disequilibrium is higher than previous estimates because it accounts for the lifetime of trees and for the ages rather than turnover times of the biospheric pools. The atmospheric δ13C signature resulting from the biospheric fluxes is investigated using a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer model. The isotopic disequilibrium alone produces a hemispheric difference of ˜0.02‰ in atmospheric δ13C, comparable to the signal from a hypothetical carbon sink of 0.5 Gt C yr-1 into the midlatitude northern hemisphere biosphere. However, the rectifier effect, due to the seasonal covariation of CO2 fluxes and height of the atmospheric boundary layer, yields a background δ13C gradient of the opposite sign. These effects nearly cancel thus favoring a stronger net biospheric uptake than without the background CO2 gradient. Our analysis of the globally averaged carbon budget for the decade of the 1980s indicates that the biospheric uptake of fossil fuel CO2 is likely to be greater than the oceanic uptake; the

  17. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  18. Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) for detection of Salmonella on selected environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olstein, Alan; Griffith, Leena; Feirtag, Joellen; Pearson, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The Paradigm Diagnostics Salmonella Indicator Broth (PDX-SIB) is intended as a single-step selective enrichment indicator broth to be used as a simple screening test for the presence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples. This method permits the end user to avoid multistep sample processing to identify presumptively positive samples, as exemplified by standard U.S. reference methods. PDX-SIB permits the outgrowth of Salmonella while inhibiting the growth of competitive Gram-negative and -positive microflora. Growth of Salmonella-positive cultures results in a visual color change of the medium from purple to yellow when the sample is grown at 37 +/- 1 degree C. Performance of PDX-SIB has been evaluated in five different categories: inclusivity-exclusivity, methods comparison, ruggedness, lot-to-lot variability, and shelf stability. The inclusivity panel included 100 different Salmonella serovars, 98 of which were SIB-positive during the 30 to 48 h incubation period. The exclusivity panel included 33 different non-Salmonella microorganisms, 31 of which were SIB-negative during the incubation period. Methods comparison studies included four different surfaces: S. Newport on plastic, S. Anatum on sealed concrete, S. Abaetetuba on ceramic tile, and S. Typhimurium in the presence of 1 log excess of Citrobacter freundii. Results of the methods comparison studies demonstrated no statistical difference between the SIB method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference method, as measured by the Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square test. Ruggedness studies demonstrated little variation in test results when SIB incubation temperatures were varied over a 34-40 degrees C range. Lot-to-lot consistency results suggest no detectable differences in manufactured goods using two reference Salmonella serovars and one non-Salmonella microorganism.

  19. Simulating the 2012 High Plains Drought Using Three Single Column Models (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, I. D.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, S.; Dazlich, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and perform numerical simulations using three single column model (SCM) versions of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)). In the first version of BUGS5, the model is used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM) (CRM consists of 32 atmospheric columns), replaces the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and is coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 is coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (32 CRM columns coupled to 32 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated by all three versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes are computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and are compared to those calculated using observational data from the AmeriFlux Tower Network for the same period at the ARM Site in Lamont, OK. This research

  20. Biosphere model simulations of interannual variability in terrestrial 13C/12C exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K. A.; Denning, S.; White, J. W. C.; Tans, P. P.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that a large part of the variability in the atmospheric ratio of 13CO2/12CO2originates from carbon exchange with the terrestrial biosphere rather than with the oceans. Since this variability is used to quantitatively partition the total carbon sink, we here investigate the contribution of interannual variability (IAV) in biospheric exchange to the observed atmospheric 13C variations. We use the Simple Biosphere - Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach biogeochemical model, including a detailed isotopic fractionation scheme, separate 12C and 13C biogeochemical pools, and satellite-observed fire disturbances. This model of 12CO2 and 13CO2 thus also produces return fluxes of 13CO2from its differently aged pools, contributing to the so-called disequilibrium flux. Our simulated terrestrial 13C budget closely resembles previously published model results for plant discrimination and disequilibrium fluxes and similarly suggests that variations in C3 discrimination and year-to-year variations in C3and C4 productivity are the main drivers of their IAV. But the year-to-year variability in the isotopic disequilibrium flux is much lower (1σ=±1.5 PgC ‰ yr-1) than required (±12.5 PgC ‰ yr-1) to match atmospheric observations, under the common assumption of low variability in net ocean CO2 fluxes. This contrasts with earlier published results. It is currently unclear how to increase IAV in these drivers suggesting that SiBCASA still misses processes that enhance variability in plant discrimination and relative C3/C4productivity. Alternatively, 13C budget terms other than terrestrial disequilibrium fluxes, including possibly the atmospheric growth rate, must have significantly different IAV in order to close the atmospheric 13C budget on a year-to-year basis.

  1. Predicting ecosystem dynamics at regional scales: an evaluation of a terrestrial biosphere model for the forests of northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Medvigy, David; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2012-01-19

    Terrestrial biosphere models are important tools for diagnosing both the current state of the terrestrial carbon cycle and forecasting terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. While there are a number of ongoing assessments of the short-term predictive capabilities of terrestrial biosphere models using flux-tower measurements, to date there have been relatively few assessments of their ability to predict longer term, decadal-scale biomass dynamics. Here, we present the results of a regional-scale evaluation of the Ecosystem Demography version 2 (ED2)-structured terrestrial biosphere model, evaluating the model's predictions against forest inventory measurements for the northeast USA and Quebec from 1985 to 1995. Simulations were conducted using a default parametrization, which used parameter values from the literature, and a constrained model parametrization, which had been developed by constraining the model's predictions against 2 years of measurements from a single site, Harvard Forest (42.5° N, 72.1° W). The analysis shows that the constrained model parametrization offered marked improvements over the default model formulation, capturing large-scale variation in patterns of biomass dynamics despite marked differences in climate forcing, land-use history and species-composition across the region. These results imply that data-constrained parametrizations of structured biosphere models such as ED2 can be successfully used for regional-scale ecosystem prediction and forecasting. We also assess the model's ability to capture sub-grid scale heterogeneity in the dynamics of biomass growth and mortality of different sizes and types of trees, and then discuss the implications of these analyses for further reducing the remaining biases in the model's predictions.

  2. Psychometric appraisal of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB) in France.

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M; Arrindell, W A; Guérin, J; Bouchard, C; Rion, A C; Ducottet, E; Séchaud, M; Mollard, E; Grillet, P R; Dang, C; Cottraux, J

    1999-08-01

    The present study was carried out in France to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (SIB), a multidimensional measure of difficulty and distress in assertiveness that was originally developed in The Netherlands. This appraisal was conducted with a clinical sample (N = 166) and a general population sample (N = 150). The clinical series comprised 115 patients with social phobia and 51 patients with personality disorder, 28 of whom were of the avoidant type. Support was found for internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the French SIB. Compared to controls, both social phobics and patients with an avoidant personality disorder had significantly lower mean scores on all performance scales and significantly higher ones on all distress scales, with the social phobics occupying a position in between. Findings in relation to convergent and divergent validity were quite satisfactory. Sensitivity of the French SIB for detecting change was demonstrated in a subgroup of the clinical Ss who had undergone 15 sessions of cognitive-behavioral group therapy for underassertiveness.

  3. Gene expression in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William D; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Christman, Glenn D; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2013-07-11

    Scientific ocean drilling has revealed a deep biosphere of widespread microbial life in sub-seafloor sediment. Microbial metabolism in the marine subsurface probably has an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, but deep biosphere activities are not well understood. Here we describe and analyse the first sub-seafloor metatranscriptomes from anaerobic Peru Margin sediment up to 159 metres below the sea floor, represented by over 1 billion complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence reads. Anaerobic metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids seem to be the dominant metabolic processes, and profiles of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) transcripts are consistent with pore-water sulphate concentration profiles. Moreover, transcripts involved in cell division increase as a function of microbial cell concentration, indicating that increases in sub-seafloor microbial abundance are a function of cell division across all three domains of life. These data support calculations and models of sub-seafloor microbial metabolism and represent the first holistic picture of deep biosphere activities.

  4. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  5. Characterization of yields for Pinus taeda genotypes at the half-sib, full-sib, and varietal levels of genetic improvement at two planting densities at age 5 in the upper coastal plain of Georgia

    Treesearch

    Derek Dougherty; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Jeff Wright

    2012-01-01

    Seedling deployment options for the establishment of operational Pinus taeda plantations in the Southeastern U.S. now include half-sib families, full-sib crosses, and varietals. In 2005, a study to evaluate the effects of genotype and density on yield and quality was established on a moderately well-drained upland site in the Upper Coastal Plain in...

  6. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the two largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Projections of these are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESMs) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing. While historical datasets are available to inform past and current climate analyses, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use from energy economic models, constrained by assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories. We show that the climatic impacts on land ecosystems drives significant feedbacks inmore » energy, agriculture, land-use, and carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. We also find that exposure of human appropriated land ecosystem productivity to biospheric change results in reductions of land area used for crops; increases in managed forest area and carbon stocks; decreases in global crop prices; and reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario. Furthermore, the feedbacks between climate-induced biospheric change and human system forcings to the climate system demonstrated here are handled inconsistently, or excluded altogether, in the one-way asynchronous coupling of energy economic models to ESMs used to date.« less

  7. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.; di Vittorio, Alan V.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Chini, Louise; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, Jae; Thomson, Allison; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Branstetter, Marcia L.; Hurtt, George

    2017-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the two largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Projections of these are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESMs) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing. While historical data sets are available to inform past and current climate analyses, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use from energy-economic models, constrained by assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns and socio-economic development trajectories. Here we show that the climatic impacts on land ecosystems drive significant feedbacks in energy, agriculture, land use and carbon cycle projections for the twenty-first century. We find that exposure of human-appropriated land ecosystem productivity to biospheric change results in reductions of land area used for crops; increases in managed forest area and carbon stocks; decreases in global crop prices; and reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid-range forcing scenario. The feedbacks between climate-induced biospheric change and human system forcings to the climate system--demonstrated here--are handled inconsistently, or excluded altogether, in the one-way asynchronous coupling of energy-economic models to ESMs used to date.

  8. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    DOE PAGES

    Thornton, Peter E.; Calvin, Katherine; Jones, Andrew D.; ...

    2017-06-12

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the two largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Projections of these are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESMs) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing. While historical datasets are available to inform past and current climate analyses, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use from energy economic models, constrained by assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories. We show that the climatic impacts on land ecosystems drives significant feedbacks inmore » energy, agriculture, land-use, and carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. We also find that exposure of human appropriated land ecosystem productivity to biospheric change results in reductions of land area used for crops; increases in managed forest area and carbon stocks; decreases in global crop prices; and reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario. Furthermore, the feedbacks between climate-induced biospheric change and human system forcings to the climate system demonstrated here are handled inconsistently, or excluded altogether, in the one-way asynchronous coupling of energy economic models to ESMs used to date.« less

  9. Linkage analysis in nuclear families. 2: Relationship between affected sib-pair tests and lod score analysis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, M; Seuchter, S A; Baur, M P

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that the main advantage of affected sib-pair tests is that their application requires no information about the underlying genetic mechanism of the disease. However, here it is proved that the mean test, which can be considered the most prominent of the affected sib-pair tests, is equivalent to lod score analysis for an assumed recessive mode of inheritance, irrespective of the true mode of the disease. Further relationships of certain sib-pair tests and lod score analysis under specific assumed genetic modes are investigated.

  10. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  11. Full-Sibs in Cohorts of Newly Settled Coral Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Beldade, Ricardo; Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    Reef fishes exhibit a bipartite life cycle where a benthic adult stage is preceded by a pelagic dispersal phase during which larvae are presumed to be mixed and transported by oceanic currents. Genetic analyses based on twelve microsatellite loci of 181 three-spot dascyllus (Dascyllus trimaculatus) that settled concurrently on a small reef in French Polynesia revealed 11 groups of siblings (1 full sibs and 10 half-sibs). This is the first evidence that fish siblings can journey together throughout their entire planktonic dispersal phase (nearly a month long for three-spot dascyllus). Our findings have critical implications for the dynamics and genetic structure of fish populations, as well as for the design of marine protected areas and management of fisheries. PMID:23028700

  12. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  13. [Search for life in deep biospheres].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-12-01

    The life in deep biospheres bridges conventional biology and future exobiology. This review focuses the microbiological studies from the selected deep biospheres, i.e., deep-sea hydrothermal vents, sub-hydrothermal vents, terrestrial subsurface and a sub-glacier lake. The dark biospheres facilitate the emergence of organisms and communities dependent on chemolithoautotrophy, which are overwhelmed by photoautotrophy (photosynthesis) in the surface biospheres. The life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents owes much to chemolithoautotrophy based on the oxidation of sulfide emitted from the vents. It is likely that similarly active bodies such as the Jovian satellite Europa may have hydrothermal vents and associated biological communities. Anoxic or anaerobic condition is characteristic of deep subsurface biospheres. Subsurface microorganisms exploit available oxidants, or terminal electron acceptors (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These deep biosphere "platforms" provide new knowledge about the diversity and potential of the Earth's life. The expertise obtained from the deep biosphere expeditions will facilitate the capability of exobiologial exploration.

  14. An international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoffman, Forrest M; Randerson, James T; Thornton, Peter E

    2009-12-01

    The need to capture important climate feedbacks in general circulation models (GCMs) has resulted in efforts to include atmospheric chemistry and land and ocean biogeochemistry into the next generation of production climate models, called Earth System Models (ESMs). While many terrestrial and ocean carbon models have been coupled to GCMs, recent work has shown that such models can yield a wide range of results (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). This work suggests that a more rigorous set of global offline and partially coupled experiments, along with detailed analyses of processes and comparisons with measurements, are needed. The Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Projectmore » (C-LAMP) was designed to meet this need by providing a simulation protocol and model performance metrics based upon comparisons against best-available satellite- and ground-based measurements (Hoffman et al., 2007). Recently, a similar effort in Europe, called the International Land Model Benchmark (ILAMB) Project, was begun to assess the performance of European land surface models. These two projects will now serve as prototypes for a proposed international land-biosphere model benchmarking activity for those models participating in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Initially used for model validation for terrestrial biogeochemistry models in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM), C-LAMP incorporates a simulation protocol for both offline and partially coupled simulations using a prescribed historical trajectory of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Models are confronted with data through comparisons against AmeriFlux site measurements, MODIS satellite observations, NOAA Globalview flask records, TRANSCOM inversions, and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site measurements. Both sets of experiments have been performed using two different terrestrial biogeochemistry modules coupled to the CLM version 3 in the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3): the CASA model of Fung, et al., and

  15. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  16. Biospheric feedback effects in a synchronously coupled model of human and Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, P. E.; Calvin, K. V.; Jones, A. D.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Chini, L. P.; Shi, X.; Mao, J.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and land-use change are the two largest contributors to industrial-era increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Projections of these are thus fundamental inputs for coupled Earth system models (ESMs) used to estimate the physical and biological consequences of future climate system forcing. While historical datasets are available to inform past and current climate analyses, assessments of future climate change have relied on projections of energy and land use from energy economic models, constrained by assumptions about future policy, land-use patterns, and socio-economic development trajectories. In this work we show that the climatic impacts on land ecosystems drives significant feedbacks in energy, agriculture, land-use, and carbon cycle projections for the 21st century. We find that exposure of human appropriated land ecosystem productivity to biospheric change results in reductions of land area used for crops; increases in managed forest area and carbon stocks; decreases in global crop prices; and reduction in fossil fuel emissions for a low-mid range forcing scenario. Land ecosystem response to increased carbon dioxide concentration, increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition, and changes in temperature and precipitation all play a role. The feedbacks between climate-induced biospheric change and human system forcings to the climate system demonstrated in this work are handled inconsistently, or excluded altogether, in the one-way asynchronous coupling of energy economic models to ESMs used to date.

  17. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.

  18. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  19. Biomedical program at Space Biospheres Ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walford, Roy

    1990-01-01

    There are many similarities and some important differences between potential health problems of Biosphere 2 and those of which might be anticipated for a space station or a major outpost on Mars. The demands of time, expense, and equipment would not readily allow medical evacuation from deep space for a serious illness or major trauma, whereas personnel can easily be evacuated from Biosphere 2 if necessary. Treatment facilities can be somewhat less inclusive, since distance would not compel the undertaking of heroic measures or highly complicated surgical procedures on site, and with personnel not fully trained for these procedures. The similarities are given between medical requirements of Biosphere 2 and the complex closed ecological systems of biospheres in space or on Mars. The major problems common to all these would seem to be trauma, infection, and toxicity. It is planned that minor and moderate degrees of trauma, including debridement and suturing of wounds, x ray study of fractures, will be done within Biosphere 2. Bacteriologic and fungal infections, and possibly allergies to pollen or spores are expected to be the commonest medical problem within Biosphere 2.

  20. Biospheric Monitoring and Ecological Forecasting using EOS/MODIS data, ecosystem modeling, planning and scheduling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Golden, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Jolly, M.; White, M.; Running, S.; Coughlan, J.

    2003-12-01

    The latest generation of NASA Earth Observing System satellites has brought a new dimension to continuous monitoring of the living part of the Earth System, the Biosphere. EOS data can now provide weekly global measures of vegetation productivity and ocean chlorophyll, and many related biophysical factors such as land cover changes or snowmelt rates. However, information with the highest economic value would be forecasting impending conditions of the biosphere that would allow advanced decision-making to mitigate dangers, or exploit positive trends. We have developed a software system called the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to facilitate rapid analysis of ecosystem states/functions by integrating EOS data with ecosystem models, surface weather observations and weather/climate forecasts. Land products from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) including land cover, albedo, snow, surface temperature, leaf area index are ingested into TOPS for parameterization of models and for verifying model outputs such as snow cover and vegetation phenology. TOPS is programmed to gather data from observing networks such as USDA soil moisture, AMERIFLUX, SNOWTEL to further enhance model predictions. Key technologies enabling TOPS implementation include the ability to understand and process heterogeneous-distributed data sets, automated planning and execution of ecosystem models, causation analysis for understanding model outputs. Current TOPS implementations at local (vineyard) to global scales (global net primary production) can be found at http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/tops.

  1. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  2. TM9/Phg1 and SadA proteins control surface expression and stability of SibA adhesion molecules in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Froquet, Romain; le Coadic, Marion; Perrin, Jackie; Cherix, Nathalie; Cornillon, Sophie; Cosson, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    TM9 proteins form a family of conserved proteins with nine transmembrane domains essential for cellular adhesion in many biological systems, but their exact role in this process remains unknown. In this study, we found that genetic inactivation of the TM9 protein Phg1A dramatically decreases the surface levels of the SibA adhesion molecule in Dictyostelium amoebae. This is due to a decrease in sibA mRNA levels, in SibA protein stability, and in SibA targeting to the cell surface. A similar phenotype was observed in cells devoid of SadA, a protein that does not belong to the TM9 family but also exhibits nine transmembrane domains and is essential for cellular adhesion. A contact site A (csA)-SibA chimeric protein comprising only the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of SibA and the extracellular domain of the Dictyostelium surface protein csA also showed reduced stability and relocalization to endocytic compartments in phg1A knockout cells. These results indicate that TM9 proteins participate in cell adhesion by controlling the levels of adhesion proteins present at the cell surface.

  3. Two sibs who are double heterozygotes for achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, C G; Rogers, J G; Mayne, V

    1994-01-01

    We report a family in which two sibs have both achondroplasia and pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. The mother has achondroplasia and the father has pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia, which he had inherited from his father. Both children appeared typical of achondroplasia at birth. By 1 1/2 years they had developed a fixed lumbar kyphosis with gibbus and had additional x ray changes unusual for just achondroplasia and suggestive of pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. Subsequently both children have shown characteristic features of both conditions and have grown less well than expected for achondroplasia. Radiographs show the striking synergistic effects of the two conditions. MRI in both sibs confirmed brain stem compression at the foramen magnum. This may be an important complication and should be actively sought in any double heterozygote. Images PMID:7966194

  4. Biosphere 2: The True Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and current developments of the Biosphere 2 Project, a prototype for enclosed self-sustaining structures for space colonization built in the Arizona Desert. Biosphere 2 was created to educate and provide solutions to environmental problems and revenue from research. (MCO)

  5. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  6. The Jena Diversity Model: Towards a Richer Representation of the Terrestrial Biosphere for Earth System Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlick, R.; Reu, B.; Bohn, K.; Dyke, J.; Kleidon, A.

    2010-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is a complex, self-organizing system which is continually both adapting to and altering its global environment. It also exhibits a vast diversity of vegetation forms and functioning. However, the terrestrial biosphere components within current state-of-the-art Earth System Models abstract this diversity in to a handful of relatively static plant functional types. These coarse and static representations of functional diversity might contribute to overly pessimistic projections regarding terrestrial ecosystem responses to scenarios of global change (e.g. Amazonian and boreal forest diebacks). In the Jena Diversity (JeDi) model, we introduce a new approach to vegetation modelling with a richer representation of functional diversity, based not on plant functional types, but on unavoidable plant ecophysiological trade-offs, which we hypothesize should be more stable in time. The JeDi model tests a large number of plant growth strategies. Each growth strategy is simulated using a set of randomly generated parameter values, which characterize its functioning in terms of carbon allocation, ecophysiology, and phenology, which are then linked to the growing conditions at the land surface. The model is constructed in such a way that these parameters inherently lead to ecophysiological trade-offs, which determine whether a growth strategy is able to survive and reproduce under the prevalent climatic conditions. Kleidon and Mooney (2000) demonstrated that this approach is capable of reproducing the geographic distribution of species richness. More recently, we have shown the JeDi model can explain other biogeographical phenomena including the present-day global pattern of biomes (Reu et al., accepted), ecosystem evenness (Kleidon et al. 2009), and possible mechanisms for biome shifts and biodiversity changes under scenarios of global warming (Reu et al., submitted). We have also evaluated the simulated biogeochemical fluxes from JeDi against a variety

  7. Community Assembly Processes of the Microbial Rare Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiu; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Falcão Salles, Joana

    2018-03-14

    Our planet teems with microorganisms that often present a skewed abundance distribution in a local community, with relatively few dominant species coexisting alongside a high number of rare species. Recent studies have demonstrated that these rare taxa serve as limitless reservoirs of genetic diversity, and perform disproportionate types of functions despite their low abundances. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms controlling rarity and the processes promoting the development of the rare biosphere. Here, we propose the use of multivariate cut-offs to estimate rare species and phylogenetic null models applied to predefined rare taxa to disentangle the relative influences of ecoevolutionary processes mediating the assembly of the rare biosphere. Importantly, the identification of the factors controlling rare species assemblages is critical for understanding the types of rarity, how the rare biosphere is established, and how rare microorganisms fluctuate over spatiotemporal scales, thus enabling prospective predictions of ecosystem responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An improved land biosphere module for use in the DCESS Earth system model (version 1.1) with application to the last glacial termination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, Roland; Shaffer, Gary; Albarrán, Nelson; Rojas, Maisa; Lambert, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between the land biosphere and the atmosphere play an important role for the Earth's carbon cycle and thus should be considered in studies of global carbon cycling and climate. Simple approaches are a useful first step in this direction but may not be applicable for certain climatic conditions. To improve the ability of the reduced-complexity Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS) Earth system model DCESS to address cold climate conditions, we reformulated the model's land biosphere module by extending it to include three dynamically varying vegetation zones as well as a permafrost component. The vegetation zones are formulated by emulating the behaviour of a complex land biosphere model. We show that with the new module, the size and timing of carbon exchanges between atmosphere and land are represented more realistically in cooling and warming experiments. In particular, we use the new module to address carbon cycling and climate change across the last glacial transition. Within the constraints provided by various proxy data records, we tune the DCESS model to a Last Glacial Maximum state and then conduct transient sensitivity experiments across the transition under the application of explicit transition functions for high-latitude ocean exchange, atmospheric dust, and the land ice sheet extent. We compare simulated time evolutions of global mean temperature, pCO2, atmospheric and oceanic carbon isotopes as well as ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations with proxy data records. In this way we estimate the importance of different processes across the transition with emphasis on the role of land biosphere variations and show that carbon outgassing from permafrost and uptake of carbon by the land biosphere broadly compensate for each other during the temperature rise of the early last deglaciation.

  9. A multi-model assessment of terrestrial biosphere model data needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardella, A.; Cowdery, E.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Desai, A. R.; Duveneck, M.; Fer, I.; Fisher, R.; Knox, R. G.; Kooper, R.; LeBauer, D.; McCabe, T.; Minunno, F.; Raiho, A.; Serbin, S.; Shiklomanov, A. N.; Thomas, A.; Walker, A.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models provide us with the means to simulate the impacts of climate change and their uncertainties. Going beyond direct observation and experimentation, models synthesize our current understanding of ecosystem processes and can give us insight on data needed to constrain model parameters. In previous work, we leveraged the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) to assess the contribution of different parameters to the uncertainty of the Ecosystem Demography model v2 (ED) model outputs across various North American biomes (Dietze et al., JGR-G, 2014). While this analysis identified key research priorities, the extent to which these priorities were model- and/or biome-specific was unclear. Furthermore, because the analysis only studied one model, we were unable to comment on the effect of variability in model structure to overall predictive uncertainty. Here, we expand this analysis to all biomes globally and a wide sample of models that vary in complexity: BioCro, CABLE, CLM, DALEC, ED2, FATES, G'DAY, JULES, LANDIS, LINKAGES, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, PRELES, SDGVM, SIPNET, and TEM. Prior to performing uncertainty analyses, model parameter uncertainties were assessed by assimilating all available trait data from the combination of the BETYdb and TRY trait databases, using an updated multivariate version of PEcAn's Hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis. Next, sensitivity analyses were performed for all models across a range of sites globally to assess sensitivities for a range of different outputs (GPP, ET, SH, Ra, NPP, Rh, NEE, LAI) at multiple time scales from the sub-annual to the decadal. Finally, parameter uncertainties and model sensitivities were combined to evaluate the fractional contribution of each parameter to the predictive uncertainty for a specific variable at a specific site and timescale. Facilitated by PEcAn's automated workflows, this analysis represents the broadest assessment of the sensitivities and uncertainties in terrestrial

  10. Multi-site assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model (BETHY) using satellite derived soil moisture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mousong; Sholze, Marko

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the importance of soil moisture data on assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model (BETHY) for a long time period from 2010 to 2015. Totally, 101 parameters related to carbon turnover, soil respiration, as well as soil texture were selected for optimization within a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). Soil moisture data from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) product was derived for 10 sites representing different plant function types (PFTs) as well as different climate zones. Uncertainty of SMOS soil moisture data was also estimated using triple collocation analysis (TCA) method by comparing with ASCAT dataset and BETHY forward simulation results. Assimilation of soil moisture to the system improved soil moisture as well as net primary productivity(NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) when compared with soil moisture derived from in-situ measurements and fluxnet datasets. Parameter uncertainties were largely reduced relatively to prior values. Using SMOS soil moisture data for assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model proved to be an efficient approach in reducing uncertainty in ecosystem fluxes simulation. It could be further used in regional an global assimilation work to constrain carbon dioxide concentration simulation by combining with other sources of measurements.

  11. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bomble, Yannick J.; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction ofmore » the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy.« less

  12. Lignocellulose deconstruction in the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bomble, Yannick J; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Amore, Antonella; Wei, Hui; Holwerda, Evert K; Ciesielski, Peter N; Donohoe, Bryon S; Decker, Stephen R; Lynd, Lee R; Himmel, Michael E

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms have evolved different and yet complementary mechanisms to degrade biomass in the biosphere. The chemical biology of lignocellulose deconstruction is a complex and intricate process that appears to vary in response to specific ecosystems. These microorganisms rely on simple to complex arrangements of glycoside hydrolases to conduct most of these polysaccharide depolymerization reactions and also, as discovered more recently, oxidative mechanisms via lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases or non-enzymatic Fenton reactions which are used to enhance deconstruction. It is now clear that these deconstruction mechanisms are often more efficient in the presence of the microorganisms. In general, a major fraction of the total plant biomass deconstruction in the biosphere results from the action of various microorganisms, primarily aerobic bacteria and fungi, as well as a variety of anaerobic bacteria. Beyond carbon recycling, specialized microorganisms interact with plants to manage nitrogen in the biosphere. Understanding the interplay between these organisms within or across ecosystems is crucial to further our grasp of chemical recycling in the biosphere and also enables optimization of the burgeoning plant-based bioeconomy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-12-29

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived.

  14. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived. PMID:14728789

  15. Development of a biosphere hydrological model considering vegetation dynamics and its evaluation at basin scale under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Ishidaira, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe biosphere and hydrosphere are intrinsically coupled. The scientific question is if there is a substantial change in one component such as vegetation cover, how will the other components such as transpiration and runoff generation respond, especially under climate change conditions? Stand-alone hydrological models have a detailed description of hydrological processes but do not sufficiently parameterize vegetation as a dynamic component. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are able to simulate transient structural changes in major vegetation types but do not simulate runoff generation reliably. Therefore, both hydrological models and DGVMs have their limitations as well as advantages for addressing this question. In this study a biosphere hydrological model (LPJH) is developed by coupling a prominent DGVM (Lund-Postdam-Jena model referred to as LPJ) with a stand-alone hydrological model (HYMOD), with the objective of analyzing the role of vegetation in the hydrological processes at basin scale and evaluating the impact of vegetation change on the hydrological processes under climate change. The application and validation of the LPJH model to four basins representing a variety of climate and vegetation conditions shows that the performance of LPJH is much better than that of the original LPJ and is similar to that of stand-alone hydrological models for monthly and daily runoff simulation at the basin scale. It is argued that the LPJH model gives more reasonable hydrological simulation since it considers both the spatial variability of soil moisture and vegetation dynamics, which make the runoff generation mechanism more reliable. As an example, it is shown that changing atmospheric CO 2 content alone would result in runoff increases in humid basins and decreases in arid basins. Theses changes are mainly attributable to changes in transpiration driven by vegetation dynamics, which are not simulated in stand-alone hydrological models. Therefore LPJH

  16. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p < 0.01). This was consistent with statistical analysis, ROQS results and physician's ranking results in which 90% OAR high plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Historical overview of the Biosphere 2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive historical overview is given of the Biosphere 2 project. The overview begins in late 1969, as the moon landings commenced, when work began on ecological projects which laid the conceptual foundation for the current Biosphere 2 project. Continuing through to taking a complete functional suite of microbes together with their associated aquatic elements and an air volume and putting them inside a closed lab flask in which to measure the oxygen and CO2 levels, study energy flows and visually observe the changes therein. The laws of biospherics formulated by the author which can be tested in the Biosphere 2 project are listed.

  18. SIB-DOTA: a trifunctional prosthetic group potentially amenable for multi-modal labeling that enhances tumor uptake of internalizing monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, G; White, B J; Affleck, D J; Zhao, X G; Welsh, P C; McDougald, D; Choi, J; Zalutsky, M R

    2012-12-15

    A major drawback of internalizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) radioiodinated with direct electrophilic approaches is that tumor retention of radioactivity is compromised by the rapid washout of iodo-tyrosine, the primary labeled catabolite for mAbs labeled via this strategy. In our continuing efforts to develop more versatile residualizing labels that could overcome this problem, we have designed SIB-DOTA, a prosthetic labeling template that combines the features of the prototypical, dehalogenation-resistant N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate (SIB) with DOTA, a useful macrocyclic chelator for labeling with radiometals. Herein we describe the synthesis of the unlabeled standard of this prosthetic moiety, its protected tin precursor, and radioiodinated SIB-DOTA. An anti-EGFRvIII-reactive mAb, L8A4 was radiolabeled with [(131)I]SIB-DOTA in 27.1±6.2% (n=2) conjugation yields and its targeting properties to the same mAb labeled with [(125)I]SGMIB both in vitro and in vivo using U87MG·ΔEGFR cells and xenografts were compared. In vitro paired-label internalization assays showed that the intracellular radioactivity from [(131)I]SIB-DOTA-L8A4 was 21.4±0.5% and 26.2±1.1% of initially bound radioactivity at 16 and 24h, respectively. In comparison, these values for [(125)I]SGMIB-L8A4 were 16.7±0.5% and 14.9±1.1%. Similarly, the SIB-DOTA prosthetic group provided better tumor targeting in vivo than SGMIB over 8 d period. These results suggest that SIB-DOTA warrants further evaluation as a residualizing agent for labeling internalizing mAbs including those targeted to EGFRvIII. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  20. Power analysis of QTL detection in half-sib families using selective DNA pooling

    PubMed Central

    Baro, Jesús Á; Carleos, Carlos; Corral, Norberto; López, Teresa; Cañón, Javier

    2001-01-01

    Individual loci of economic importance (QTL) can be detected by comparing the inheritance of a trait and the inheritance of loci with alleles readily identifiable by laboratory methods (genetic markers). Data on allele segregation at the individual level are costly and alternatives have been proposed that make use of allele frequencies among progeny, rather than individual genotypes. Among the factors that may affect the power of the set up, the most important are those intrinsic to the QTL: the additive effect of the QTL, and its dominance, and distance between markers and QTL. Other factors are relative to the choice of animals and markers, such as the frequency of the QTL and marker alleles among dams and sires. Data collection may affect the detection power through the size of half-sib families, selection rate within families, and the technical error incurred when estimating genetic frequencies. We present results for a sensitivity analysis for QTL detection using pools of DNA from selected half-sibs. Simulations showed that conclusive detection may be achieved with families of at least 500 half-sibs if sires are chosen on the criteria that most of their marker alleles are either both missing, or one is fixed, among dams. PMID:11403746

  1. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  2. The Study of Socio-Biospheric Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Andrew M.

    Concepts, tools, and a methodology are needed which will permit the analysis of emergent socio-biospheric problems and facilitate their effective management. Many contemporary problems may be characterized as socio-biospheric; for example, pollution of the seas, acid rain, the growth of cities, and an atmosphere loaded with carcinogens. However,…

  3. Cognitive Efficacy (SIB) of 13.3 Versus 4.6 mg/24 h Rivastigmine Patch in Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Richard S; Ferris, Steven; Velting, Drew M; Meng, Xiangyi

    2016-05-01

    Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) data from the 24-week, randomized, double-blind ACTivities of daily living and cognitION (ACTION) study suggest that patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) benefit from treatment with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to further examine the cognitive efficacy of 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch on individual SIB items, and SIB domains derived using factor analysis of these items. Change from baseline at Week 24 on 9 new factor-defined domains and individual items was calculated and compared using effect sizes (Cohen's d). Numerically less decline was observed with 13.3 versus 4.6 mg/24 h patch on all domains and the majority of individual items. Largest least squares mean treatment differences were observed on "visuospatial reasoning," "object naming," "recognition," "design copying," "social agency," "ideational praxis," and "comprehension" domains. These findings suggest 13.3 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch demonstrates broad cognitive efficacy across a range of SIB items and domains in patients with severe AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. A Better Representation of European Croplands into a Global Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervois, S.; de Noblet, N.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.; Brisson, N.; Seguin, B.

    2002-12-01

    Croplands cover a quarter of Europe's surface (about an hundred million hectares), their impact on carbon and water fluxes must therefore be estimated. Global biosphere models such as ORCHIDEE (http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/~ssipsl/) were conceived to simulate natural ecosystems only, so croplands are often described as grasslands. Not only cropland productivity depends on climate and soil conditions but also on irrigations, fertilisers impact, date of sowing... In addition crop species are usually selected genetically to shorten and accelerate their growth. Agronomic models such as STICS (Brisson et al. 1998) give a more realistic picture of croplands as they are especially designed to account for this human forcing. On the other hand they can be used at the local scale only. First we evaluate the ability of the two models to reproduce the seasonal behaviour the leaf area index (LAI), the aerial biomass, and the exchanges of water vapour and CO2 with the atmosphere. For that we compare the model outputs with measurements performed at five sites that are representative of most common European crops (wheat, corn, soybean). As expected the agronomic STICS better behaves than the generic model ORCHIDEE in representing the seasonal cycle of the above variables. In order to get a realistic representation of croplands areas at the regional scale, we decided to couple ORCHIDEE with STICS. First we present the main steps of the coupling procedure. The principle consists in forcing ORCHIDEE with five more realistic outputs of STICS: LAI, date of harvest, nitrogen stress, root profile, and vegetation height. On the other hand, ORCHIDEE computes its own carbon and water balance. The allocation scheme was also modified in ORCHIDEE in order to conserve the coherence between LAI and leaf biomass, and we added a harvest module into ORCHIDEE. The coupled model was validated against carbon and water fluxes observed respectively at two fields (wheat and corn) in the US. We also

  5. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    To achieve sustainable and healthy closed ecological systems requires successful solutions to the challenge of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/soil leachate and evaporateed water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system, total footprint of the airtight area is 12,700 m2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m3 with a total water capacity of some 6 x 106 liters of water presented a complex challenge because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as a range of analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40m3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15m3 - is a very simplified system, but with some similar issues such as salinity management and the provision of water quality sufficient for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, adequately freshwater was needed for terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4x106 liters, soil with 2 x 106 liters, primary storage tanks with a capacity for up to 8 x 105 liters and storage tanks for condensate collection and mixing tanks with 1.5 x 105 liters to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 x 103 liters), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 x 103 liters). Key technologies included condensation from humidity in the airhandlers and from the glass

  6. Detecting a Terrestrial Biosphere Sink for Carbon Dioxide: Interannual Ecosystem Modeling for the Mid-1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Klooster, Steven A.; Brooks, Vanessa; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty as to whether interannual variability in climate and terrestrial ecosystem production is sufficient to explain observed variation in atmospheric carbon content over the past 20-30 years. In this paper, we investigated the response of net CO2 exchange in terrestrial ecosystems to interannual climate variability (1983 to 1988) using global satellite observations as drivers for the NASA-CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach) simulation model. This computer model of net ecosystem production (NEP) is calibrated for interannual simulations driven by monthly satellite vegetation index data (NDVI) from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 1 degree spatial resolution. Major results from NASA-CASA simulations suggest that from 1985 to 1988, the northern middle-latitude zone (between 30 and 60 degrees N) was the principal region driving progressive annual increases in global net primary production (NPP; i.e., the terrestrial biosphere sink for carbon). The average annual increase in NPP over this predominantly northern forest zone was on the order of +0.4 Pg (10 (exp 15) g) C per year. This increase resulted mainly from notable expansion of the growing season for plant carbon fixation toward the zonal latitude extremes, a pattern uniquely demonstrated in our regional visualization results. A net biosphere source flux of CO2 in 1983-1984, coinciding with an El Nino event, was followed by a major recovery of global NEP in 1985 which lasted through 1987 as a net carbon sink of between 0.4 and 2.6 Avg C per year. Analysis of model controls on NPP and soil heterotrophic CO2 fluxes (Rh) suggests that regional warming in northern forests can enhance ecosystem production significantly. In seasonally dry tropical zones, periodic drought and temperature drying effects may carry over with at least a two-year lag time to adversely impact ecosystem production. These yearly patterns in our model-predicted NEP are consistent in

  7. NEW DIRECTIONS: VOCS AND BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shallcross and Monks [New Directions: a Role For Isoprene in Biosphere-Climate-Chemistry Feedbacks, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34 (2000) pp. 1659-1660] recently summarized the importance of biogenic isoprene in a biosphere-atmosphere system under constant change. In this art...

  8. Carbon isotope discrimination of arctic and boreal biomes inferred from remote atmospheric measurements and a biosphere-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Still, C. J.; Ballé, J. J.; Fung, I. Y.; Doney, S. C.; Tans, P. P.; Conway, T. J.; White, J. W. C.; Vaughn, B.; Suits, N.; Denning, A. S.

    2002-07-01

    Estimating discrimination against 13C during photosynthesis at landscape, regional, and biome scales is difficult because of large-scale variability in plant stress, vegetation composition, and photosynthetic pathway. Here we present estimates of 13C discrimination for northern biomes based on a biosphere-atmosphere model and on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research remote flask measurements. With our inversion approach, we solved for three ecophysiological parameters of the northern biosphere (13C discrimination, a net primary production light use efficiency, and a temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration (a Q10 factor)) that provided a best fit between modeled and observed δ13C and CO2. In our analysis we attempted to explicitly correct for fossil fuel emissions, remote C4 ecosystem fluxes, ocean exchange, and isotopic disequilibria of terrestrial heterotrophic respiration caused by the Suess effect. We obtained a photosynthetic discrimination for arctic and boreal biomes between 19.0 and 19.6‰. Our inversion analysis suggests that Q10 and light use efficiency values that minimize the cost function covary. The optimal light use efficiency was 0.47 gC MJ-1 photosynthetically active radiation, and the optimal Q10 value was 1.52. Fossil fuel and ocean exchange contributed proportionally more to month-to-month changes in the atmospheric growth rate of δ13C and CO2 during winter months, suggesting that remote atmospheric observations during the summer may yield more precise estimates of the isotopic composition of the biosphere.

  9. Evaluation of simulated biospheric carbon dioxide fluxes and atmospheric concentrations using global in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, S.; Johnson, M. S.; Potter, C. S.; Genovese, V. B.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emission sources and biospheric sources/sinks. Global biospheric fluxes of CO2 are controlled by complex processes facilitating the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. These processes which play a key role in these terrestrial ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges are currently not fully understood, resulting in large uncertainties in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Current models with these inherent deficiencies have difficulties simulating the global carbon cycle with high accuracy. We are developing a new modeling platform, GEOS-Chem-CASA by integrating the year-specific NASA-CASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) biosphere model with the GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observation System-Chemistry) chemical transport model to improve the simulation of atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange. We use NASA-CASA to explicitly represent the exchange of CO2 between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere by replacing the baseline GEOS-Chem land net CO2 flux and forest biomass burning CO2 emissions. We will present the estimation and evaluation of these "bottom-up" land CO2 fluxes, simulated atmospheric mixing ratios, and forest disturbance changes over the last decade. In addition, we will present our initial comparison of atmospheric column-mean dry air mole fraction of CO2 predicted by the model and those retrieved from NASA's OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) satellite instrument and model-predicted surface CO2 mixing ratios with global in situ observations. This evaluation is the first step necessary for our future work planned to constrain the estimates of biospheric carbon fluxes through "top-down" inverse modeling, which will improve our understanding of the processes controlling atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges, especially over regions which lack in

  10. Reconnecting to the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Folke, Carl; Jansson, Asa; Rockström, Johan; Olsson, Per; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Danell, Kjell; Ebbesson, Jonas; Elmqvist, Thomas; Galaz, Victor; Moberg, Fredrik; Nilsson, Måns; Osterblom, Henrik; Ostrom, Elinor; Persson, Asa; Peterson, Garry; Polasky, Stephen; Steffen, Will; Walker, Brian; Westley, Frances

    2011-11-01

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere--a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  11. Family losses following truncation selection in populations of half-sib families

    Treesearch

    J. H. Roberds; G. Namkoong; H. Kang

    1980-01-01

    Family losses during truncation selection may be sizable in populations of half-sib families. Substantial losses may occur even in populations containing little or no variation among families. Heavier losses will occur, however, under conditions of high heritability where there is considerable family variation. Standard deviations and therefore variances of family loss...

  12. Implications of Biospheric Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, Edd; Demircan, Osman; Gündüz, Güngör; Emin Özel, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Our physical model relating to the origin and development of lifelike processes from very simple beginnings is reviewed. This molecular ('ABC') process is compared with the chemoton model, noting the role of the autocatalytic tuning to the time-dependent source of energy. This substantiates a Darwinian character to evolution. The system evolves from very simple beginnings to a progressively more highly tuned, energized and complex responding biosphere, that grows exponentially; albeit with a very low net growth factor. Rates of growth and complexity in the evolution raise disturbing issues of inherent stability. Autocatalytic processes can include a fractal character to their development allowing recapitulative effects to be observed. This property, in allowing similarities of pattern to be recognized, can be useful in interpreting complex (lifelike) systems.

  13. On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change, and implications for a terrestrial biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Keenan, T. F.; Cescatti, A.; O'Keefe, J.; Richardson, A. D.

    2012-06-01

    Phenology, the timing of recurring life cycle events, controls numerous land surface feedbacks to the climate system through the regulation of exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. Terrestrial biosphere models, however, are known to have systematic errors in the simulation of spring phenology, which potentially could propagate to uncertainty in modeled responses to future climate change. Here, we used the Harvard Forest phenology record to investigate and characterize sources of uncertainty in predicting phenology, and the subsequent impacts on model forecasts of carbon and water cycling. Using a model-data fusion approach, we combined information from 20 yr of phenological observations of 11 North American woody species, with 12 leaf bud-burst models that varied in complexity. Akaike's Information Criterion indicated support for spring warming models with photoperiod limitations and, to a lesser extent, models that included chilling requirements. We assessed three different sources of uncertainty in phenological forecasts: parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty, and driver uncertainty. The latter was characterized running the models to 2099 using 2 different IPCC climate scenarios (A1fi vs. B1, i.e. high CO2 emissions vs. low CO2 emissions scenario). Parameter uncertainty was the smallest (average 95% Confidence Interval - CI: 2.4 days century-1 for scenario B1 and 4.5 days century-1 for A1fi), whereas driver uncertainty was the largest (up to 8.4 days century-1 in the simulated trends). The uncertainty related to model structure is also large and the predicted bud-burst trends as well as the shape of the smoothed projections varied among models (±7.7 days century-1 for A1fi, ±3.6 days century-1 for B1). The forecast sensitivity of bud-burst to temperature (i.e. days bud-burst advanced per degree of warming) varied between 2.2 days °C-1 and 5.2 days °C-1 depending on model structure. We quantified the impact of

  14. Snowball Earth: Response of the biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2001-05-01

    Snowball Earth is a script for global catastrophe that rivals giant impact theories in the likely severity of its environmental effects. This is particularly true for the "hard" version of the hypothesis, which requires the atmosphere to be effectively isolated from the ocean so that its carbon dioxide concentration can build up to the level ( ~100 PAL) ultimately required to melt the ice. However, coupled GCM-EMB models (Hyde et al. Nature 405, 425-430; Crowley & Hyde, GRL 28, 283-286) allow equatorial open water solutions under plausible Neoproterozoic conditions. These "softer" scenarios are more appealing if one considers the possible effects of snowball Earth episodes on the global biosphere. The meager Neoproterozoic fossil record makes it difficult to observe the biospheric response directly, but we know from evolutionary trees constructed from aligned protein and DNA sequences from living organisms, calibrated by the fossil record, that many lines of descent passed through the Cryogenian glacial periods. They include various kinds of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, a range of protists, and probably, a number of different kinds of animals and fungi. In addition, most of the microbial groups shown on comprehensive 16S rRNA trees have molecular clock ages that predate the snowball episodes. As the global environmental perturbations associated with the "hard" snowball hypothesis (freezing temperatures; huge and rapid changes in temperature; sudden carbon dioxide overload) are thought to have been biologically limiting during the Phanerozoic, the inferred response of the biosphere to Neoprotereozic glaciations may, indeed, provide a way of testing alternative snowball Earth scenarios.

  15. Victor Kovda, Soil Science and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I.

    2012-04-01

    Victor Kovda (1904-1991) was one of the most famous soil scientists at the national and international soil science community. He published more than 500 scientific works including about 400 papers, 17 collective monographs, 30 personal monographs, and more than 200 interviews and popular papers describing the role of soils not only for food production, but for the functioning of the biosphere. Victor Kovda was a talented organizer, who founded the new Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (known at the present time as the Institute of physico-chemical and biological problems of soil science in Pushchino, Russia). During six years from 1959 to 1964 he was the head of Science Department in UNESCO, where he initiated a set of international projects (ex. Soil World Map of FAO-UNESCO, Source-book on irrigation and drainage). He continued his international activity after UNESCO as a President of the International Soil Science Society (1968-1974), organizer of the X international Soil Science Congress in Moscow (1974), president of SCOPE (1973-1976), working for ICSU. The last three decades of his national and international activities Victor Kovda initiated and was strongly involved in the popularization of biosphere role and functions of soils and soil cover. The start point for this activity was his special talk "Biosphere and man" presented during the intergovernmental conference in the framework of the international program "Man and Biosphere" organized by UNESCO in 1968 in Paris. The next key presentation "Soil as a component of biosphere" Victor Kovda gave as a plenary lecture during the X International congress of soil scientists. This presentation determined the focus of soil science for the next decades: at least Russian soil science became oriented towards the investigation of biosphere functions and role of soils. Soils science was accepted not only for agriculture and food production, but also as a fundamental science with a large environmental

  16. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.

  17. The past, present and future supernova threat to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A brief review of the threat posed to Earth's biosphere via near-by supernova detonations is presented. The expected radiation dosage, cosmic ray flux and expanding blast wave collision effects are considered, and it is argued that a typical supernova must be closer than ˜10-pc before any appreciable and potentially harmful atmosphere/biosphere effects are likely to occur. In contrast, the critical distance for Gamma-ray bursts is of order 1-kpc. In spite of the high energy effects potentially involved, the geological record provides no clear-cut evidence for any historic supernova induced mass extinctions and/or strong climate change episodes. This, however, is mostly a reflection of their being numerous possible (terrestrial and astronomical) forcing mechanisms acting upon the biosphere and the difficulty of distinguishing between competing scenarios. Key to resolving this situation, it is suggested, is the development of supernova specific extinction and climate change linked ecological models. Moving to the future, we estimate that over the remaining lifetime of the biosphere (˜2 Gyr) the Earth might experience 1 GRB and 20 supernova detonations within their respective harmful threat ranges. There are currently at least 12 potential pre-supernova systems within 1-kpc of the Sun. Of these systems IK Pegasi is the closest Type Ia pre-supernova candidate and Betelgeuse is the closest potential Type II supernova candidate. We review in some detail the past, present and future behavior of these two systems. Developing a detailed evolutionary model we find that IK Pegasi will likely not detonate until some 1.9 billion years hence, and that it affords absolutely no threat to Earth's biosphere. Betelgeuse is the closest, reasonably well understood, pre-supernova candidate to the Sun at the present epoch, and may undergo detonation any time within the next several million years. The stand-off distance of Betelgeuse at the time of its detonation is estimated to fall

  18. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  19. Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere - SAMAB.ORG

    Science.gov Websites

    Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Home Who We Are SAMAB Initiatives Archives Welcome to SAMAB This slideshow requires JavaScript. The Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere (SAMAB

  20. Characterizing biospheric carbon balance using CO2 observations from the OCO-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Scot M.; Michalak, Anna M.; Yadav, Vineet; Tadić, Jovan M.

    2018-05-01

    NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite launched in summer of 2014. Its observations could allow scientists to constrain CO2 fluxes across regions or continents that were previously difficult to monitor. This study explores an initial step toward that goal; we evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can detect patterns in biospheric CO2 fluxes and constrain monthly CO2 budgets. Our goal is to guide top-down, inverse modeling studies and identify areas for future improvement. We find that uncertainties and biases in the individual OCO-2 observations are comparable to the atmospheric signal from biospheric fluxes, particularly during Northern Hemisphere winter when biospheric fluxes are small. A series of top-down experiments indicate how these errors affect our ability to constrain monthly biospheric CO2 budgets. We are able to constrain budgets for between two and four global regions using OCO-2 observations, depending on the month, and we can constrain CO2 budgets at the regional level (i.e., smaller than seven global biomes) in only a handful of cases (16 % of all regions and months). The potential of the OCO-2 observations, however, is greater than these results might imply. A set of synthetic data experiments suggests that retrieval errors have a salient effect. Advances in retrieval algorithms and to a lesser extent atmospheric transport modeling will improve the results. In the interim, top-down studies that use current satellite observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across only continental or hemispheric regions.

  1. Governing Portable Conservation and Development Landscapes: Reconsidering Evidence in the Context of the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgert, Laureen

    2014-01-01

    Conservation-with-development landscapes, such as UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves, differentiate between areas of "nature" and "society". In Paraguay's Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, as elsewhere, this model has been used to support governance that focuses on conservation in the "core area" and sustainable…

  2. Genetic dissection of powdery mildew resistance in interspecific half-sib grapevine families using SNP-based maps.

    PubMed

    Teh, Soon Li; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Clark, Matthew D; Gadoury, David M; Sun, Qi; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Luby, James J

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification in perennial fruit crops is impeded largely by their lengthy generation time, resulting in costly and labor-intensive maintenance of breeding programs. In a grapevine (genus Vitis ) breeding program, although experimental families are typically unreplicated, the genetic backgrounds may contain similar progenitors previously selected due to their contribution of favorable alleles. In this study, we investigated the utility of joint QTL identification provided by analyzing half-sib families. The genetic control of powdery mildew was studied using two half-sib F 1 families, namely GE0711/1009 (MN1264 × MN1214; N  = 147) and GE1025 (MN1264 × MN1246; N  = 125) with multiple species in their ancestry. Maternal genetic maps consisting of 1077 and 1641 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, respectively, were constructed using a pseudo-testcross strategy. Ratings of field resistance to powdery mildew were obtained based on whole-plant evaluation of disease severity. This 2-year analysis uncovered two QTLs that were validated on a consensus map in these half-sib families with improved precision relative to the parental maps. Examination of haplotype combinations based on the two QTL regions identified strong association of haplotypes inherited from 'Seyval blanc', through MN1264, with powdery mildew resistance. This investigation also encompassed the use of microsatellite markers to establish a correlation between 206-bp (UDV-015b) and 357-bp (VViv67) fragment sizes with resistance-carrying haplotypes. Our work is one of the first reports in grapevine demonstrating the use of SNP-based maps and haplotypes for QTL identification and tagging of powdery mildew resistance in half-sib families.

  3. FORest canopy atmosphere transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere-atmosphere chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentration of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy AtmoSphere Transfer) one-dimensional model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in summer 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.

  4. FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere-atmosphere chemical exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentrations of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer) 1-D model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in the summer of 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.

  5. Selection, management and utilization of biosphere reserves.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; Stanley L. Krugman

    1979-01-01

    This publication is directed to the analysis of the selection, management, and utilization of Biosphere Reserves as viewed by scientists from the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet papers focus on types of research and monitoring programs that should be developed on Biosphere Reserves, with emphasis on their use in pollutant monitoring....

  6. Effects of sib-mating and wind pollination on nursery seedling size, growth components, and phenology of Douglas-fir seed-orchard progenies.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen

    1997-01-01

    Polymix outcross (X), full-sib (FS), and wind-pollination (WP) families were produced on 25 seed trees and 10 half-sib families on 10 of the same trees in a Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii seedling seed orchard. Seedlings were raised at two sowing densities for 2 years in the nursery, and inbreeding depression in seedling size...

  7. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2009-11-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). In the summer 2008, land surface parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil temperature profile at the Dadongshu-Yakou (DY) station in July; and then soil hydraulic parameters were obtained by the calibration of the July soil moisture profile at the DY station and by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak of 2008. The calibrated WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong simulation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008, to check its performance in cold seasons. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the DY station and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  8. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  9. What are the Outstanding Questions in Biosphere-Atmosphere Exchange?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, G.; Finnigan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Our answer to this question has three parts. At the highest level human population is now so large (and will grow to 10-12 million by 2050 before stabilizing and reversing) and our capacity to influence the biosphere is so profound that we must now treat human, biophysical and geophysical processes as a single interacting system: the Anthroposphere. The Anthroposphere is a complex adaptive system (CAS) in the sense that action of humans individually or in groups (as large as nations) are a response to an environment that includes not just the geosphere and biosphere but the sum of human interactions as well. These actions, in turn, will change this system that provides critical ecosystem services that we are just now realizing are finite and threatened. At present we lack the tools and understanding even to frame key questions about the Anthroposphere although the emerging discipline of Complex System Science is hinting at ways this might be done. At the next level we address the problems posed by cross-scale interactions central to the state and function of the geosphere and biosphere, where processes at the cellular level, (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration), have consequences on the global level and vice-versa through a sequence of non-linear upscale and downscale interactions. Currently there are large gaps in our understanding of this scale cascade that inhibit our ability to parameterize, model and predict phenomena such as the rapid shifts in climate that recent studies of the paleo record have revealed. In short, we need to quantify the risk that our current actions may cause abrupt climate changes that may then feed upon the Anthrosphere. Unless we can reduce the uncertainty with which we describe quantitatively the non-human parts of the Anthroposphere, the injection of models of human interaction, initially tentative, may reduce our predictive ability to unusable levels. Finally we can detail a set of key processes that are themselves critical to

  10. Quantifying the influence of the terrestrial biosphere on glacial-interglacial climate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is thought to be a key component in the climatic variability seen in the palaeo-record. It has a direct impact on surface temperature through changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (so-called biogeophysical effects) and, in addition, has an important indirect effect through changes in vegetation and soil carbon storage (biogeochemical effects) and hence modulates the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects generally have opposite signs, meaning that the terrestrial biosphere could potentially have played only a very minor role in the dynamics of the glacial-interglacial cycles of the late Quaternary. Here we use a fully coupled dynamic atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model (GCM) to generate a set of 62 equilibrium simulations spanning the last 120 kyr. The analysis of these simulations elucidates the relative importance of the biogeophysical versus biogeochemical terrestrial biosphere interactions with climate. We find that the biogeophysical effects of vegetation account for up to an additional -0.91 °C global mean cooling, with regional cooling as large as -5 °C, but with considerable variability across the glacial-interglacial cycle. By comparison, while opposite in sign, our model estimates of the biogeochemical impacts are substantially smaller in magnitude. Offline simulations show a maximum of +0.33 °C warming due to an increase of 25 ppm above our (pre-industrial) baseline atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio. In contrast to shorter (century) timescale projections of future terrestrial biosphere response where direct and indirect responses may at times cancel out, we find that the biogeophysical effects consistently and strongly dominate the biogeochemical effect over the inter-glacial cycle. On average across the period, the terrestrial biosphere has a -0.26 °C effect on temperature, with -0.58 °C at the Last Glacial Maximum. Depending on

  11. Swansong biospheres II: the final signs of life on terrestrial planets near the end of their habitable lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T.; Cockell, Charles S.; Greaves, Jane S.; Raven, John A.

    2014-07-01

    The biosignatures of life on Earth do not remain static, but change considerably over the planet's habitable lifetime. Earth's future biosphere, much like that of the early Earth, will consist of predominantly unicellular microorganisms due to the increased hostility of environmental conditions caused by the Sun as it enters the late stage of its main sequence evolution. Building on previous work, the productivity of the biosphere is evaluated during different stages of biosphere decline between 1 and 2.8 Gyr from present. A simple atmosphere-biosphere interaction model is used to estimate the atmospheric biomarker gas abundances at each stage and to assess the likelihood of remotely detecting the presence of life in low-productivity, microbial biospheres, putting an upper limit on the lifetime of Earth's remotely detectable biosignatures. Other potential biosignatures such as leaf reflectance and cloud cover are discussed.

  12. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Genetic Difference in Height Growth and Survival of Cottonwood Full-Sib Families

    Treesearch

    D. T. Cooper; W. K. Randall

    1973-01-01

    Sixteen full-sib families from crosses between four fast-growing female and four fast-growing male clones of cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) were clonally evaluated for 1 year in a replicated field test. Seedling size had no effect on clonal performance. Approximately 70 percent of the genetic variance for height and 20 percent of that for...

  14. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  15. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation.

    PubMed

    Telewski, F W; Jaffe, M J

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  16. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  17. Affected sib pair tests in inbred populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Weir, B S

    2004-11-01

    The affected-sib-pair (ASP) method for detecting linkage between a disease locus and marker loci was first established 50 years ago, and since then numerous modifications have been made. We modify two identity-by-state (IBS) test statistics of Lange (Lange, 1986a, 1986b) to allow for inbreeding in the population. We evaluate the power and false positive rates of the modified tests under three disease models, using simulated data. Before estimating false positive rates, we demonstrate that IBS tests are tests of both linkage and linkage disequilibrium between marker and disease loci. Therefore, the null hypothesis of IBS tests should be no linkage and no LD. When the population inbreeding coefficient is large, the false positive rates of Lange's tests become much larger than the nominal value, while those of our modified tests remain close to the nominal value. To estimate power with a controlled false positive rate, we choose the cutoff values based on simulated datasets under the null hypothesis, so that both Lange's tests and the modified tests generate same false positive rate. The powers of Lange's z-test and our modified z-test are very close and do not change much with increasing inbreeding. The power of the modified chi-square test also stays stable when the inbreeding coefficient increases. However, the power of Lange's chi-square test increases with increasing inbreeding, and is larger than that of our modified chi-square test for large inbreeding coefficients. The power is high under a recessive disease model for both Lange's tests and the modified tests, though the power is low for additive and dominant disease models. Allowing for inbreeding is therefore appropriate, at least for diseases known to be recessive.

  18. Enabling the development of Community Extensions to GI-cat - the SIB-ESS-C case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, L.; Meier, N.; Boldrini, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2009-04-01

    class: the mechanism used to create GI-cat components) to support a custom community catalog/inventory service in GI-cat. In general, all the terminal nodes of a GI-cat configuration chain are in charge of mediating between the GI-cat common interfaces and a backend, so we implemented a default behavior in an abstract class, termed Accessor, to be more easily subclassed. Moreover, we identified several typical backend scenarios and provided specialized Accessor subclasses, even simpler to implement. For example, in case of a coarse-grained backend service, that responds its data all at once, a specialized Accessor can retrieve the whole content the first time, and subsequently browse/query the local copy of the data. This was the approach followed for the development of SibesscAccessor. The SIB-ESS-C case study is also noticeable because it requires mediating between the relational and the semi-structured data models. In fact, SIB-ESS-C data are stored in a relational database, to provide performant access even to huge amounts of data. The SibesscAccessor is in charge of establishing a JDBC connection to the database, reading the data by means of SQL statements, creating Java objects according to the ISO 19115 data model, and marshalling the resulting information to an XML document. During the implementation of the SibesscAccessor, the mix of technologies and deployment environments and the geographical distribution of the development teams turned out to be important issues. To solve them, we relied on technologies and tools for collaborative software development: the Maven build system, the SVN version control system, the XPlanner project planning and tracking tool, and of course VOIP tools. Moreover, we shipped the Accessor Development Kit (ADK) Java library, containing the classes needed for extending GI-cat to custom community catalog/inventory services and other supporting material (documentation, best-practices, examples). The ADK is distributed as a Maven

  19. Normative studies with the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB): II. US students. A cross-cultural comparison with Dutch data.

    PubMed

    Arrindell, W A; Bridges, K R; van der Ende, J; St Lawrence, J S; Gray-Shellberg, L; Harnish, R; Rogers, R; Sanderman, R

    2001-12-01

    The Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB), a multidimensional, self-report measure of state assertiveness, was administered to a nationwide sample of 2375 undergraduates enrolled at 11 colleges and universities across the USA. The SIB was developed in the Netherlands for the independent assessment of both distress associated with self-assertion in a variety of social situations and the likelihood of engaging in a specific assertive response. This is done with four factorially-derived, first-order dimensions: (i) Display of negative feelings (Negative assertion); (ii) Expression of and dealing with personal limitations; (iii) Initiating assertiveness; and (iv) Praising others and the ability to deal with compliments/praise of others (Positive assertion). The present study was designed to determine the cross-national invariance of the original Dutch factors and the construct validity of the corresponding dimensions. It also set out to develop norms for a nationwide sample of US students. The results provide further support for the reliability, factorial and construct validity of the SIB. Compared to their Dutch equivalents, US students had meaningfully higher distress in assertiveness scores on all SIB scales (medium to large effect sizes), whereas differences on the performance scales reflected small effect sizes. The cross-national differences in distress scores were hypothesized to have originated from the American culture being more socially demanding with respect to interpersonal competence than the Dutch, and from the perceived threats and related cognitive appraisals that are associated with such demands.

  20. Harvesting the biosphere: the human impact.

    PubMed

    Smil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The human species has evolved to dominate the biosphere: global anthropomass is now an order of magnitude greater than the mass of all wild terrestrial mammals. As a result, our dependence on harvesting the products of photosynthesis for food, animal feed, raw materials, and energy has grown to make substantial global impacts. During the past two millennia these harvests, and changes of land use due to deforestation and conversions of grasslands and wetlands, have reduced the stock of global terrestrial plant mass by as much as 45 percent, with the twentieth-century reduction amounting to more than 15 percent. Current annual harvests of phytomass have been a significant share of the global net primary productivity (NPP, the total amount of new plant tissues created by photosynthesis). Some studies put the human appropriation of NPP (the ratio of these two variables) as high as 40 percent but the measure itself is problematic. Future population growth and improved quality of life will result in additional claims on the biosphere, but options to accommodate these demands exist without severely compromising the irreplaceable biospheric services.

  1. Exploration of genetic architecture through sib-ship reconstruction in advanced breeding population of Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Klápště, Jaroslav; Suontama, Mari; Telfer, Emily; Graham, Natalie; Low, Charlie; Stovold, Toby; McKinley, Russel; Dungey, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate inference of relatedness between individuals in breeding population contributes to the precision of genetic parameter estimates, effectiveness of inbreeding management and the amount of genetic progress delivered from breeding programs. Pedigree reconstruction has been proven to be an efficient tool to correct pedigree errors and recover hidden relatedness in open pollinated progeny tests but the method can be limited by the lack of parental genotypes and the high proportion of alien pollen from outside the breeding population. Our study investigates the efficiency of sib-ship reconstruction in an advanced breeding population of Eucalyptus nitens with only partially tracked pedigree. The sib-ship reconstruction allowed the identification of selfs (4% of the sample) and the exploration of their potential effect on inbreeding depression in the traits studied. We detected signs of inbreeding depression in diameter at breast height and growth strain while no indications were observed in wood density, wood stiffness and tangential air-dry shrinkage. After the application of a corrected sib-ship relationship matrix, additive genetic variance and heritability were observed to increase where signs of inbreeding depression were initially detected. Conversely, the same genetic parameters for traits that appeared to be free of inbreeding depression decreased in size. It therefore appeared that greater genetic variance may be due, at least in part, to contributions from inbreeding in these studied populations rather than a removal of inbreeding as is traditionally thought.

  2. Genetics of cold hardiness in a cloned full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    T.S. Anekonda; W.T. Adams; S.N. Aitken; D.B. Neale; K.D. Jermstad; N.C. Wheeler

    2000-01-01

    Variation in cold-hardiness traits, and their extent of genetic control and interrelationships, were investigated among individuals (clones) within a single large full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) from Oregon. Cold injury to needle, stem, and bud tissues was evaluated...

  3. Magnetic and structural properties of ferromagnetic Fe 5PB 2 and Fe 5SiB 2 and effects of Co and Mn substitutions

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-22

    Crystallographic and magnetic properties of Fe 5PB 2, Fe 4CoPB 2, Fe 4MnPB 2, Fe 5SiB 2, Fe 4CoSiB 2, and Fe 4MnSiB 2 are reported. All adopt the tetragonal Cr 5B 3 structure-type and are ferromagnetic at room temperature with easy axis of magnetization along the c-axis. The spin reorientation in Fe 5SiB 2 is observed as an anomaly in the magnetization near 170 K, and is suppressed by substitution of Co or Mn for Fe. The silicides are found to generally have larger magnetic moments than the phosphides, but the data suggests smaller magnetic anisotropy in the silicides.more » Cobalt substitution reduces the Curie temperatures by more than 100 K and ordered magnetic moments by 16-20%, while manganese substitution has a much smaller effect. This suggests Mn moments align ferromagnetically with the Fe and that Co does not have an ordered moment in these structures. Anisotropic thermal expansion is observed in Fe 5PB 2 and Fe 5SiB 2, with negative thermal expansion seen along the c-axis of Fe 5SiB 2. First principles calculations of the magnetic properties of Fe 5SiB 2 and Fe 4MnSiB 2 are reported. The results, including the magnetic moment and anisotropy, and are in good agreement with experiment.« less

  4. Probabilistic biosphere modeling for the long-term safety assessment of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste using first- and second-order Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Ciecior, Willy; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen; Kirchner, Gerald

    2018-10-01

    In the present paper, deterministic as well as first- and second-order probabilistic biosphere modeling approaches are compared. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the influence of the probability distribution function shape (empirical distribution functions and fitted lognormal probability functions) representing the aleatory uncertainty (also called variability) of a radioecological model parameter as well as the role of interacting parameters are studied. Differences in the shape of the output distributions for the biosphere dose conversion factor from first-order Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis using empirical and fitted lognormal distribution functions for input parameters suggest that a lognormal approximation is possibly not always an adequate representation of the aleatory uncertainty of a radioecological parameter. Concerning the comparison of the impact of aleatory and epistemic parameter uncertainty on the biosphere dose conversion factor, the latter here is described using uncertain moments (mean, variance) while the distribution itself represents the aleatory uncertainty of the parameter. From the results obtained, the solution space of second-order Monte Carlo simulation is much larger than that from first-order Monte Carlo simulation. Therefore, the influence of epistemic uncertainty of a radioecological parameter on the output result is much larger than that one caused by its aleatory uncertainty. Parameter interactions are only of significant influence in the upper percentiles of the distribution of results as well as only in the region of the upper percentiles of the model parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  6. B33C-0612: Evaluation of Simulated Biospheric Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Atmospheric Concentrations Using Global in Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.; Potter, Christopher S.; Genovese, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emission sources and biospheric sources/sinks. Global biospheric fluxes of CO2 are controlled by complex processes facilitating the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. These processes which play a key role in these terrestrial ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges are currently not fully understood, resulting in large uncertainties in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Current models with these inherent deficiencies have difficulties simulating the global carbon cycle with high accuracy. We are developing a new modeling platform, GEOS-Chem-CASA by integrating the year-specific NASA-CASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) biosphere model with the GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observation System-Chemistry) chemical transport model to improve the simulation of atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange. We use NASA-CASA to explicitly represent the exchange of CO2 between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere by replacing the baseline GEOS-Chem land net CO2 flux and forest biomass burning CO2 emissions. We will present the estimation and evaluation of these "bottom-up" land CO2 fluxes, simulated atmospheric mixing ratios, and forest disturbance changes over the last decade. In addition, we will present our initial comparison of atmospheric column-mean dry air mole fraction of CO2 predicted by the model and those retrieved from NASA's OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) satellite instrument and model-predicted surface CO2 mixing ratios with global in situ observations. This evaluation is the first step necessary for our future work planned to constrain the estimates of biospheric carbon fluxes through "top-down" inverse modeling, which will improve our understanding of the processes controlling atmosphere-terrestrial ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges, especially over regions which lack in

  7. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Everett C.; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 105 cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities. PMID:26617595

  8. In situ Detection of Microbial Life in the Deep Biosphere in Igneous Ocean Crust.

    PubMed

    Salas, Everett C; Bhartia, Rohit; Anderson, Louise; Hug, William F; Reid, Ray D; Iturrino, Gerardo; Edwards, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The deep biosphere is a major frontier to science. Recent studies have shown the presence and activity of cells in deep marine sediments and in the continental deep biosphere. Volcanic lavas in the deep ocean subsurface, through which substantial fluid flow occurs, present another potentially massive deep biosphere. We present results from the deployment of a novel in situ logging tool designed to detect microbial life harbored in a deep, native, borehole environment within igneous oceanic crust, using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence spectroscopy. Results demonstrate the predominance of microbial-like signatures within the borehole environment, with densities in the range of 10(5) cells/mL. Based on transport and flux models, we estimate that such a concentration of microbial cells could not be supported by transport through the crust, suggesting in situ growth of these communities.

  9. Physiological adjustment of two full-sib families of ponderosa pine to elevated CO2

    Treesearch

    Nancy Grulke; J.L. Hom; S.W. Roberts

    1993-01-01

    Seeds from two full-sib families of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) with known differences in growth rates were germinated and grown in an ambient (350 µl l-1) or elevated (700 µl I-1) CO2 concentration. Gas exchange at both ambient and elevated CO2...

  10. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Michalski, Andrea; Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales; Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. Allmore » patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to

  11. Brief cognitive assessment of Alzheimer's disease in advanced stages: Proposal for a Brazilian version of the Short Battery for Severe Impairment (SIB-8).

    PubMed

    Wajman, José Roberto; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities of patients with severe dementia can serve a wide range of methodological and clinical needs. To validate a proposed severe impairment battery SIB-8 for a Brazilian population sample as part of the neuropsychological assessment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in advanced stages. After a systematic process of translation and back-translation, the SIB-8 was applied to 95 patients with AD at different stages; moderate, moderately severe and severe according to FAST subdivisions (5, 6 and 7), with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of between 5 and 15 and followed by the Division of Behavioral Neurology and the Center for Aging Brain of the Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP. Inferential data revealed that the SIB-8 instrument behaved differently at each stage of the disease with a statistical value of sensitivity p<0.001, gradually reflecting the expected course of the dementia, inherent with the decline of cognitive functions. Findings indicated that the SIB-8 is a useful tool for the evaluation and prospective comparison of AD patients in advanced stages, retaining its original characteristics in our population.

  12. A review of recent research on improvement of physical parameterizations in the GLA GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic assessment of the effect of a series of improvements in physical parameterizations of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model (GCM) are summarized. The implementation of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) in the GCM is followed by a comparison of SiB GCM simulations with that of the earlier slab soil hydrology GCM (SSH-GCM) simulations. In the Sahelian context, the biogeophysical component of desertification was analyzed for SiB-GCM simulations. Cumulus parameterization is found to be the primary determinant of the organization of the simulated tropical rainfall of the GLA GCM using Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization. A comparison of model simulations with station data revealed excessive shortwave radiation accompanied by excessive drying and heating to the land. The perpetual July simulations with and without interactive soil moisture shows that 30 to 40 day oscillations may be a natural mode of the simulated earth atmosphere system.

  13. Simple global carbon model: The atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere-ocean interaction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kwon, O.Y.; Schnoor, J.L.

    A simple global carbon model has been developed for scenario analysis, and research needs prioritization. CO{sub 2} fertilization and temperature effects are included in the terrestrial biosphere compartment, and the ocean compartment includes inorganic chemistry which, with ocean water circulation, enables the calculation of time-variable oceanic carbon uptake. Model-derived Q{sub 10} values (the increasing rate for every 10{degrees}C increase of temperature) are 1.37 for land biota photosynthesis, 1.89 for land biota respiration, and 1.95 for soil respiration, and feedback temperature is set at 0.01{degrees}C/ppm of CO{sub 2}. These could be the important parameters controlling the carbon cycle in potential globalmore » warming scenarios. Scenario analysis, together with sensitivity analysis of temperature feedback, suggests that if CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel combustion continue at the present increasing rate of {approximately}1.5% per year, a CO{sub 2} doubling (to 560 ppm) will appear in year 2060. Global warming would be responsible for 40 Gt as carbon (Gt C) accumulation in the land biota, 88 Gt C depletion from the soil carbon, a 7 Gt C accumulation in the oceans, and a 19 ppm increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The ocean buffering capacity to take up the excess CO{sub 2} will decrease with the increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. 51 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  14. Big Sib Students' Perceptions of the Educational Environment at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, using Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) Inventory.

    PubMed

    Arzuman, Hafiza; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Chit, Som Phong

    2010-07-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among Big Sib students to explore their perceptions of the educational environment at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) and its weak areas using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) inventory. The DREEM inventory is a validated global instrument for measuring educational environments in undergraduate medical and health professional education. The English version of the DREEM inventory was administered to all Year 2 Big Sib students (n = 67) at a regular Big Sib session. The purpose of the study as well as confidentiality and ethical issues were explained to the students before the questionnaire was administered. The response rate was 62.7% (42 out of 67 students). The overall DREEM score was 117.9/200 (SD 14.6). The DREEM indicated that the Big Sib students' perception of educational environment of the medical school was more positive than negative. Nevertheless, the study also revealed some problem areas within the educational environment. This pilot study revealed that Big Sib students perceived a positive learning environment at the School of Medical Sciences, USM. It also identified some low-scored areas that require further exploration to pinpoint the exact problems. The relatively small study population selected from a particular group of students was the major limitation of the study. This small sample size also means that the study findings cannot be generalised.

  15. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  17. A first-order analysis of the potential role of CO2 fertilization to affect the global carbon budget: A comparison of four terrestrial biosphere models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bruno, M.; Donges, S.; Esser, G.; Heimann, Martin; Helfrich, J.; Ift, F.; Joos, F.; Kaduk, J.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Meyer, R.; Moore, B.; Nadler, A.; Prentice, I.C.; Sauf, W.; Schloss, A.L.; Sitch, S.; Wittenberg, U.; Wurth, G.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the simulated responses of net primary production, heterotrophic respiration, net ecosystem production and carbon storage in natural terrestrial ecosystems to historical (1765 to 1990) and projected (1990 to 2300) changes of atmospheric CO2 concentration of four terrestrial biosphere models: the Bern model, the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), the High-Resolution Biosphere Model (HRBM) and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). The results of the model intercomparison suggest that CO2 fertilization of natural terrestrial vegetation has the potential to account for a large fraction of the so-called 'missing carbon sink' of 2.0 Pg C in 1990. Estimates of this potential are reduced when the models incorporate the concept that CO2 fertilization can be limited by nutrient availability. Although the model estimates differ on the potential size (126 to 461 Pg C) of the future terrestrial sink caused by CO2 fertilization, the results of the four models suggest that natural terrestrial ecosystems will have a limited capacity to act as a sink of atmospheric CO2 in the future as a result of physiological constraints and nutrient constraints on NPP. All the spatially explicit models estimate a carbon sink in both tropical and northern temperate regions, but the strength of these sinks varies over time. Differences in the simulated response of terrestrial ecosystems to CO2 fertilization among the models in this intercomparison study reflect the fact that the models have highlighted different aspects of the effect of CO2 fertilization on carbon dynamics of natural terrestrial ecosystems including feedback mechanisms. As interactions with nitrogen fertilization, climate change and forest regrowth may play an important role in simulating the response of terrestrial ecosystems to CO2 fertilization, these factors should be included in future analyses. Improvements in spatially explicit data sets, whole-ecosystems experiments and the availability of net carbon exchange

  18. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Landenmark, Hanna K. E.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time. PMID:26066900

  19. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Landenmark, Hanna K E; Forgan, Duncan H; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

  20. [Microbes on the edge of global biosphere].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, T

    2000-12-01

    The search for life on the edge of global biosphere is a frontier to bridge conventional bio/ecology and exo/astrobiology. This communication reviews the foci of microbiological studies on the inhabitants of the selected "edges", i.e., deep-sea, deep subsurface and Antarctic habitats. The deep-sea is characterized as the no-light (non-photosynthetic) habitat, and the primary production is mostly due to the chemosynthetic autotrophy at the hydrothermal vents and methane-rich seeps. Formation of the chemosynthesis-dependent animal communities in the deep leads to the idea that such communities may be found in "ocean" of the Jovian satellite, Europa. The oxygen minimal layer (OML) in mid-water provides another field of deep-sea research. Modern OML is a relatively thin layer, found between the water depth of 200 and 1000 m, but was much thicker during the periods of oceanic anoxia events (OAEs) in the past. The history of oceanic biosphere is regarded as the cycle of OAE and non-OAE periods, and the remnants of the past OAEs may be seen in the modem OML. Anoxic (no-O2) condition is also characteristic of deep subsurface biosphere. Microorganisms in deep subsurface biosphere exploit every available oxidant, or terminal electron acceptor (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Subsurface of hydrothermal vents, or sub-vent biosphere, may house brine (high salt) habitats and halophilic microorganisms. Some sub-vent halophiles were phylogenetically closely similar to the ones found in the Antarctic habitats which are extremely dry by the liophilizing climate. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, has been a target of "life in extreme environments" and is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These 'microbiological platforms' will provide new knowledge about the

  1. First results of registering ionospheric disturbances obtained with SibNet network of GNSS receivers in active space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishin, Artem; Perevalova, Natalia; Voeykov, Sergey; Khakhinov, Vitaliy

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional networks of GNSS receivers have been successfully used for geophysical research for many years; the number of continuous GNSS stations in the world is steadily growing. The article presents the first results of the use of a new regional network of GNSS stations (SibNet) in active space experiments. The Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS) has established this network in the South Baikal region. We describe in detail SibNet, characteristics of receivers in use, parameters of antennas and methods of their installation. We also present the general structure of observation site and the plot of coverage of the receiver operating zone at 50-55° latitudes by radio paths. It is shown that the selected location of receivers allows us to detect ionospheric irregularities of various scales. The purpose of the active space experiments was to reveal and record parameters of the ionospheric irregu larities caused by effects from jet streams of Progress cargo spacecraft. The mapping technique enabled us to identify weak, vertically localized ionospheric irregularities and associate them with the Progress spacecraft engine impact. Thus, it has been shown that SibNet deployed in the Southern Baikal region is an effective instrument for monitoring ionospheric conditions.

  2. The biosphere: Problems and solutions; Proceedings of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere, Miami Beach, FL, April 23, 24, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The objective of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere was to provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research findings on the environmental effects of human activities. The topics discussed are related to biosphere reserves, environmental aspects of hydrocarbon fuels, radioactivity and nuclear waste, land management, acid rains, water quality, water resources, coastal resources management, the pollution of rivers, industrial waste, economic development and the environment, health hazards and solutions, endangered species, environmentally compatible systems, space pollution, and global considerations. Attention is given to questions regarding global security and sustainable development, environethics as a global strategy for environmental quality, a gestalt approach to the environment, potential indicators for monitoring biosphere reserves, a review of regional impacts associated with the development of U.S. synthetic fuel resources, water resources in the Soviet Union, and pollution-free pesticides.

  3. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III in sibs.

    PubMed

    Meinecke, P; Passarge, E

    1991-11-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in a pair of sibs with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) are described, a boy who survived for 5 1/2 years and his more severely affected younger sister, who died at the age of 6 months. Neuropathological studies in this girl showed marked micrencephaly with severely hypoplastic, poorly gyrated frontal lobes and absent corpus callosum. Our observation supports the hypothesis that types I and III MOPD probably constitute a spectrum of one and the same entity and published data together with this report are consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The pathogenesis of this condition is as yet unknown, but its characteristics indicate a basic defect affecting cell proliferation and tissue differentiation.

  4. Development and evaluation of an ozone deposition scheme for coupling to a terrestrial biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martina; Simpson, David; Arneth, Almut; Zaehle, Sönke

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic air pollutant that can damage plant leaves and substantially affect the plant's gross primary production (GPP) and health. Realistic estimates of the effects of tropospheric anthropogenic O3 on GPP are thus potentially important to assess the strength of the terrestrial biosphere as a carbon sink. To better understand the impact of ozone damage on the terrestrial carbon cycle, we developed a module to estimate O3 uptake and damage of plants for a state-of-the-art global terrestrial biosphere model called OCN. Our approach accounts for ozone damage by calculating (a) O3 transport from 45 m height to leaf level, (b) O3 flux into the leaf, and (c) ozone damage of photosynthesis as a function of the accumulated O3 uptake over the lifetime of a leaf. A comparison of modelled canopy conductance, GPP, and latent heat to FLUXNET data across European forest and grassland sites shows a general good performance of OCN including ozone damage. This comparison provides a good baseline on top of which ozone damage can be evaluated. In comparison to literature values, we demonstrate that the new model version produces realistic O3 surface resistances, O3 deposition velocities, and stomatal to total O3 flux ratios. A sensitivity study reveals that key metrics of the air-to-leaf O3 transport and O3 deposition, in particular the stomatal O3 uptake, are reasonably robust against uncertainty in the underlying parameterisation of the deposition scheme. Nevertheless, correctly estimating canopy conductance plays a pivotal role in the estimate of cumulative O3 uptake. We further find that accounting for stomatal and non-stomatal uptake processes substantially affects simulated plant O3 uptake and accumulation, because aerodynamic resistance and non-stomatal O3 destruction reduce the predicted leaf-level O3 concentrations. Ozone impacts on GPP and transpiration in a Europe-wide simulation indicate that tropospheric O3 impacts the regional carbon and water cycling less

  5. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events.

    PubMed

    Songthong, Anussara P; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-08-08

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2 Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2 Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12 Gy and 1.7 Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3-5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4% vs 13.6%, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6% vs 9.1%, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6% vs 7.6%, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6% and 32.7% experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8% and 95.5% in SEQ-IMRT and 98% and 90.2% in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising.

  6. Estimation of Pre-industrial Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Zhang, B.; Pan, S.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is currently the third most important greenhouse gases (GHG) after methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Global N2O emission increased substantially primarily due to reactive nitrogen (N) enrichment through fossil fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and legume crop cultivation etc. In order to understand how climate system is perturbed by anthropogenic N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere, it is necessary to better estimate the pre-industrial N2O emissions. Previous estimations of natural N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere range from 3.3-9.0 Tg N2O-N yr-1. This large uncertainty in the estimation of pre-industrial N2O emissions from the terrestrial biosphere may be caused by uncertainty associated with key parameters such as maximum nitrification and denitrification rates, half-saturation coefficients of soil ammonium and nitrate, N fixation rate, and maximum N uptake rate. In addition to the large estimation range, previous studies did not provide an estimate on preindustrial N2O emissions at regional and biome levels. In this study, we applied a process-based coupled biogeochemical model to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of pre-industrial N2O fluxes at biome and continental scales as driven by multiple input data, including pre-industrial climate data, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition, N fixation, and land cover types and distributions. Uncertainty associated with key parameters is also evaluated. Finally, we generate sector-based estimates of pre-industrial N2O emission, which provides a reference for assessing the climate forcing of anthropogenic N2O emission from the land biosphere.

  7. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  8. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on

  9. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Hansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

  10. Biosphere as a complex life-support system (LSS) for human civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, Nickolay

    As a continuously growing link of the Biosphere, we should keep in mind that biotic cycles induced by flows of a solar energy are the source of Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. Our pressure on the Biosphere which is connected with biotic cycle’s alterations and damages is menacingly growing. There are innumerable examples of atmosphere, water and soil pollution. We have contaminated even Earth-Space orbits with different uncontrolled debris. Ecological Footprint (EF) is a proper quantitative measure of anthropogenic impact on the Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. The comparative dynamics of the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) and Ecological Footprint (EF) is discussed in the paper. The main call of sustainable development of mankind: all humans can have opportunity to fulfill their lives without degrading the Biosphere. To support sustainability, we should make an effort to develop each nation and the mankind as a whole with a high HDI and with a low ecological footprint. It means: to have high level of HDI at low level of EF. But current tendency of economical and social development shows: the higher HDI, the bigger EF. EF of mankind is rising threateningly. Now actual pressure of the human civilization of our planet (2014) upon 60 % exceeds its potential possibilities (biological capacity, measured as the area of "global" green hectares). It means that now we require more than 1.5 planets of the Earth’s type for sustainable development. It leads to ecological incident in the scale of Biosphere. Our Biosphere is the large, multilevel, hierarchically organized system, and our civilization is only a part of it. This part is not central; it can disappear for ever, if we do not cope to be included in the Biosphere as a great complex system. An example of Krasnoyarsk region as a representative region with high level of industry and technological energy production is considered in the paper. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation

  11. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  12. Ecology and exploration of the rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael D J; Neufeld, Josh D

    2015-04-01

    The profound influence of microorganisms on human life and global biogeochemical cycles underlines the value of studying the biogeography of microorganisms, exploring microbial genomes and expanding our understanding of most microbial species on Earth: that is, those present at low relative abundance. The detection and subsequent analysis of low-abundance microbial populations—the 'rare biosphere'—have demonstrated the persistence, population dynamics, dispersion and predation of these microbial species. We discuss the ecology of rare microbial populations, and highlight molecular and computational methods for targeting taxonomic 'blind spots' within the rare biosphere of complex microbial communities.

  13. Frozen soil parameterization in a distributed biosphere hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Koike, T.; Yang, K.; Jin, R.; Li, H.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, a frozen soil parameterization has been modified and incorporated into a distributed biosphere hydrological model (WEB-DHM). The WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then rigorously evaluated in a small cold area, the Binngou watershed, against the in-situ observations from the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research). First, by using the original WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, the land surface parameters and two van Genuchten parameters were optimized using the observed surface radiation fluxes and the soil moistures at upper layers (5, 10 and 20 cm depths) at the DY station in July. Second, by using the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme, two frozen soil parameters were calibrated using the observed soil temperature at 5 cm depth at the DY station from 21 November 2007 to 20 April 2008; while the other soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by the calibration of the discharges at the basin outlet in July and August that covers the annual largest flood peak in 2008. With these calibrated parameters, the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme was then used for a yearlong validation from 21 November 2007 to 20 November 2008. Results showed that the WEB-DHM with the frozen scheme has given much better performance than the WEB-DHM without the frozen scheme, in the simulations of soil moisture profile at the cold regions catchment and the discharges at the basin outlet in the yearlong simulation.

  14. Preindustrial nitrous oxide emissions from the land biosphere estimated by using a global biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rongting; Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Chen, Jian; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Bowen

    2017-07-01

    To accurately assess how increased global nitrous oxide (N2O) emission has affected the climate system requires a robust estimation of the preindustrial N2O emissions since only the difference between current and preindustrial emissions represents net drivers of anthropogenic climate change. However, large uncertainty exists in previous estimates of preindustrial N2O emissions from the land biosphere, while preindustrial N2O emissions on the finer scales, such as regional, biome, or sector scales, have not been well quantified yet. In this study, we applied a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to estimate the magnitude and spatial patterns of preindustrial N2O fluxes at the biome, continental, and global level as driven by multiple environmental factors. Uncertainties associated with key parameters were also evaluated. Our study indicates that the mean of the preindustrial N2O emission was approximately 6.20 Tg N yr-1, with an uncertainty range of 4.76 to 8.13 Tg N yr-1. The estimated N2O emission varied significantly at spatial and biome levels. South America, Africa, and Southern Asia accounted for 34.12, 23.85, and 18.93 %, respectively, together contributing 76.90 % of global total emission. The tropics were identified as the major source of N2O released into the atmosphere, accounting for 64.66 % of the total emission. Our multi-scale estimates provide a robust reference for assessing the climate forcing of anthropogenic N2O emission from the land biosphere

  15. A quantitative assessment of a terrestrial biosphere model's data needs across North American biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael C.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Davidson, Carl; Desai, Ankur R.; Feng, Xiaohui; Kelly, Ryan; Kooper, Rob; LeBauer, David; Mantooth, Joshua; McHenry, Kenton; Wang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are designed to synthesize our current understanding of how ecosystems function, test competing hypotheses of ecosystem function against observations, and predict responses to novel conditions such as those expected under climate change. Reducing uncertainties in such models can improve both basic scientific understanding and our predictive capacity, but rarely are ecosystem models employed in the design of field campaigns. We provide a synthesis of carbon cycle uncertainty analyses conducted using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer ecoinformatics workflow with the Ecosystem Demography model v2. This work is a synthesis of multiple projects, using Bayesian data assimilation techniques to incorporate field data and trait databases across temperate forests, grasslands, agriculture, short rotation forestry, boreal forests, and tundra. We report on a number of data needs that span a wide array of diverse biomes, such as the need for better constraint on growth respiration, mortality, stomatal conductance, and water uptake. We also identify data needs that are biome specific, such as photosynthetic quantum efficiency at high latitudes. We recommend that future data collection efforts balance the bias of past measurements toward aboveground processes in temperate biomes with the sensitivities of different processes as represented by ecosystem models. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Testing association and linkage using affected-sib-parent study designs.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Joshua; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Conti, David V; Gauderman, W James

    2005-11-01

    We have developed a method for jointly testing linkage and association using data from affected sib pairs and their parents. We specify a conditional logistic regression model with two covariates, one that quantifies association (either direct association or indirect association via linkage disequilibrium), and a second that quantifies linkage. The latter covariate is computed based on expected identity-by-descend (ibd) sharing of marker alleles between siblings. In addition to a joint test of linkage and association, our general framework can be used to obtain a linkage test comparable to the mean test (Blackwelder and Elston [1985] Genet. Epidemiol. 2:85-97), and an association test comparable to the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT; Rabinowitz and Laird [2000] Hum. Hered. 50:211-223). We present simulation results demonstrating that our joint test can be more powerful than some standard tests of linkage or association. For example, with a relative risk of 2.7 per variant allele at a disease locus, the estimated power to detect a nearby marker with a modest level of LD was 58.1% by the mean test (linkage only), 69.8% by FBAT, and 82.5% by our joint test of linkage and association. Our model can also be used to obtain tests of linkage conditional on association and association conditional on linkage, which can be helpful in fine mapping. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric environmental concerns: a path analytic investigation of their determinants.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Snelgar, Rosemary; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental concerns (ECs) can be reduced to a three-factor model - comprising altruistic, biospheric, and egoistic concerns - but there have been few studies examining individual difference predictors of ECs. In this study with 203 individuals from a British community sample, we show that biospheric concern was significantly associated with participants' age, political orientation, Machiavellianism, and the Big Five personality traits of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness. Altruistic concern was significantly associated with sex, age, political orientation, and Machiavellianism, but not the Big Five traits, whereas egoistic concern was not significantly associated with any of these predictors except sex. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on ECs and pro-environmental behavior.

  18. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S.; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([14C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6–73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50–96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pg⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1 at the surface to 0.2 pg⋅mL−1⋅y−1 at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 105 to 140 archaeal cells⋅mL−1 sediment⋅y−1, respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle. PMID:23530229

  19. Turnover of microbial lipids in the deep biosphere and growth of benthic archaeal populations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Sitan; Lipp, Julius S; Wegener, Gunter; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2013-04-09

    Deep subseafloor sediments host a microbial biosphere with unknown impact on global biogeochemical cycles. This study tests previous evidence based on microbial intact polar lipids (IPLs) as proxies of live biomass, suggesting that Archaea dominate the marine sedimentary biosphere. We devised a sensitive radiotracer assay to measure the decay rate of ([(14)C]glucosyl)-diphytanylglyceroldiether (GlcDGD) as an analog of archaeal IPLs in continental margin sediments. The degradation kinetics were incorporated in model simulations that constrained the fossil fraction of subseafloor IPLs and rates of archaeal turnover. Simulating the top 1 km in a generic continental margin sediment column, we estimated degradation rate constants of GlcDGD being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of bacterial IPLs, with half-lives of GlcDGD increasing with depth to 310 ky. Given estimated microbial community turnover times of 1.6-73 ky in sediments deeper than 1 m, 50-96% of archaeal IPLs represent fossil signals. Consequently, previous lipid-based estimates of global subseafloor biomass probably are too high, and the widely observed dominance of archaeal IPLs does not rule out a deep biosphere dominated by Bacteria. Reverse modeling of existing concentration profiles suggest that archaeal IPL synthesis rates decline from around 1,000 pg⋅mL(-1) sediment⋅y(-1) at the surface to 0.2 pg⋅mL(-1)⋅y(-1) at 1 km depth, equivalent to production of 7 × 10(5) to 140 archaeal cells⋅mL(-1) sediment⋅y(-1), respectively. These constraints on microbial growth are an important step toward understanding the relationship between the deep biosphere and the carbon cycle.

  20. Performance of full-sib families of Douglas-fir in pure-family and mixed-family deployments

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Gould; J. Bradley St.Clair; Paul D. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of tree improvement programs is to identify genotypes that will perform well in operational deployments. Relatively little is known, however, about how the competitive environment affects performance in different types of deployments. We tested whether the genetic composition and density of deployments affect the performance of full-sib families of...

  1. Exploration and protection of Europa's biosphere: implications of permeable ice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Europa has become a high-priority objective for exploration because it may harbor life. Strategic planning for its exploration has been predicated on an extreme model in which the expected oceanic biosphere lies under a thick ice crust, buried too deep to be reached in the foreseeable future, which would beg the question of whether other active satellites might be more realistic objectives. However, Europa's ice may in fact be permeable, with very different implications for the possibilities for life and for mission planning. A biosphere may extend up to near the surface, making life far more readily accessible to exploration while at the same time making it vulnerable to contamination. The chances of finding life on Europa are substantially improved while the need for planetary protection becomes essential. The new National Research Council planetary protection study will need to go beyond its current mandate if meaningful standards are to be put in place. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III in sibs.

    PubMed Central

    Meinecke, P; Passarge, E

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in a pair of sibs with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) are described, a boy who survived for 5 1/2 years and his more severely affected younger sister, who died at the age of 6 months. Neuropathological studies in this girl showed marked micrencephaly with severely hypoplastic, poorly gyrated frontal lobes and absent corpus callosum. Our observation supports the hypothesis that types I and III MOPD probably constitute a spectrum of one and the same entity and published data together with this report are consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. The pathogenesis of this condition is as yet unknown, but its characteristics indicate a basic defect affecting cell proliferation and tissue differentiation. Images PMID:1770539

  3. Data management at Biosphere 2 center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreary, Leone F.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the history of Biosphere 2, the collecting and recording of biological data has been sporadic. Currently no active effort to administer and record regular biological surveys is being made. Also, there is no central location, such as an on-site data library, where all records from various studies have been archived. As a research institute, good, complete data records are at the core of all Biosphere 2's scientific endeavors. It is therefore imperative that an effective data management system be implemented within the management and research departments as soon as possible. Establishing this system would require three general phases: (1) Design/implement a new archiving/management program (including storage, cataloging and retrieval systems); (2) Organize and input baseline and intermediate data from existing archives; and (3) Maintain records by inputting new data.

  4. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  5. Dosimetric comparison of standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost schedule (sequential IMRT plan) with simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT (SIB IMRT) treatment plan in patients with localized carcinoma prostate.

    PubMed

    Bansal, A; Kapoor, R; Singh, S K; Kumar, N; Oinam, A S; Sharma, S C

    2012-07-01

    DOSIMETERIC AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO RADIATION SCHEDULES IN LOCALIZED CARCINOMA PROSTATE: Standard Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) followed by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) boost (sequential-IMRT) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost IMRT (SIB-IMRT). Thirty patients were enrolled. In all, the target consisted of PTV P + SV (Prostate and seminal vesicles) and PTV LN (lymph nodes) where PTV refers to planning target volume and the critical structures included: bladder, rectum and small bowel. All patients were treated with sequential-IMRT plan, but for dosimetric comparison, SIB-IMRT plan was also created. The prescription dose to PTV P + SV was 74 Gy in both strategies but with different dose per fraction, however, the dose to PTV LN was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for sequential-IMRT and 54 Gy delivered in 27 fractions over 5.5 weeks for SIB-IMRT. The treatment plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms. Also, Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) obtained with the two plans were compared. The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy or more (V > 70 Gy) was reduced to 18.23% with SIB-IMRT from 22.81% with sequential-IMRT. SIB-IMRT reduced the mean doses to both bladder and rectum by 13% and 17%, respectively, as compared to sequential-IMRT. NTCP of 0.86 ± 0.75% and 0.01 ± 0.02% for the bladder, 5.87 ± 2.58% and 4.31 ± 2.61% for the rectum and 8.83 ± 7.08% and 8.25 ± 7.98% for the bowel was seen with sequential-IMRT and SIB-IMRT plans respectively. For equal PTV coverage, SIB-IMRT markedly reduced doses to critical structures, therefore should be considered as the strategy for dose escalation. SIB-IMRT achieves lesser NTCP than sequential-IMRT.

  6. A Thermal Evolution Model of the Earth Including the Biosphere, Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2014-12-01

    By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the

  7. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    PubMed

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation.

  8. Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2015-08-01

    The large number of UNESCO Sites around the world, in outstanding sites ranging from small islands to cities, makes it possible to build and share a comprehensive knowledge base on good practices and policies on the preservation of the night skies consistent with the protection of the associated scientific, natural and cultural values. In this context, the Starlight Initiative and other organizations such as IDA play a catalytic role in an essential international process to promote comprehensive, holistic approaches on dark sky preservation, astronomical observation, environmental protection, responsible lighting, sustainable energy, climate change and global sustainability.Many of these places have the potential to become models of excellence to foster the recovery of the dark skies and its defence against light pollution, included some case studies mentioned in the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.Fighting light pollution and recovering starry sky are already elements of a new emerging culture in biosphere reserves and world heritage sites committed to acting on climate change and sustainable development. Over thirty territories, including biosphere reserves and world heritage sites, have been developed successful initiatives to ensure night sky quality and promote sustainable lighting. Clear night skies also provide sustainable income opportunities as tourists and visitors are eagerly looking for sites with impressive night skies.Taking into account the high visibility and the ability of UNESCO sites to replicate network experiences, the Starlight Initiative has launched an action In cooperation with Biosphere Smart, aimed at promoting the Benchmark sites.Biosphere Smart is a global observatory created in partnership with UNESCO MaB Programme to share good practices, and experiences among UNESCO sites. The Benchmark sites window allows access to all the information of the most relevant astronomical heritage sites, dark sky protected areas and other places

  9. Toward Reducing Uncertainties in Biospheric Carbon Uptake in the American West: An Atmospheric Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Stephens, B. B.; Mallia, D.; Wu, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the need for an understanding of terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of such fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where lack of observations combined with difficulties in their interpretation lead to significant uncertainties. Yet mountainous regions are also where significant forest cover and biomass are found—areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. In particular, understanding carbon fluxes in the American West is of critical importance for the U.S. carbon budget, as the large area and biomass indicate potential for carbon sequestration. However, disturbances such as drought, insect outbreak, and wildfires in this region can introduce significant perturbations to the carbon cycle and thereby affect the amount of carbon sequestered by vegetation in the Rockies. To date, there have been few atmospheric CO2 observations in the American Rockies due to a combination of difficulties associated with logistics and interpretation of the measurements in the midst of complex terrain. Among the few sites are those associated with NCAR's Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). As CO2 observations in mountainous areas increase in the future, it is imperative that they can be properly interpreted to yield information about biospheric carbon fluxes. In this paper, we will present CO2 observations from RACCOON, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes in the Western U.S. from these observations. We show that atmospheric models can significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, leading to large errors in the retrieved biospheric fluxes, due to erroneous atmospheric flows. Recommendations for ways to minimize such errors and properly link the CO2 concentrations to biospheric fluxes are discussed.

  10. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO 2 assimilation in the Arctic

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P.; Ely, Kim S.

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25, respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We then measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of Vc,max and Jmax were 17% lower thanmore » commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, Vc,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. Our study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change.« less

  11. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO 2 assimilation in the Arctic

    DOE PAGES

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P.; Ely, Kim S.; ...

    2017-09-06

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25, respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We then measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of Vc,max and Jmax were 17% lower thanmore » commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, Vc,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. Our study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change.« less

  12. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  13. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  14. Use of the method of biosphere compatibility for the assessment of environmental protection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the question of using the indicator of biosphere compatibility for assessing the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator of biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator is allows not only qualitatively but also quantitatively to assess the degree of development of urban urban areas, from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while realizing the city’s main functions. The integral indicator of biosphere compatibility is allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration, but also to plan the forecast of its changes for building the new construction projects, or for reconstructing existing ones. The indicator of biosphere compatibility, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), is allows us to quantify the degree of effectiveness of different method of protecting the environment for choose the most effective for these conditions.

  15. On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change and its implication for terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Keenan, T. F.; Cescatti, A.; O'Keefe, J.; Richardson, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Phenology, the timing of recurring life cycle events, controls numerous land surface feedbacks to the climate systems through the regulation of exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the biosphere and atmosphere. Land surface models, however, are known to have systematic errors in the simulation of spring phenology, which potentially could propagate to uncertainty in modeled responses to future climate change. Here, we analyzed the Harvard Forest phenology record to investigate and characterize the sources of uncertainty in phenological forecasts and the subsequent impacts on model forecasts of carbon and water cycling in the future. Using a model-data fusion approach, we combined information from 20 yr of phenological observations of 11 North American woody species with 12 phenological models of different complexity to predict leaf bud-burst. The evaluation of different phenological models indicated support for spring warming models with photoperiod limitations and, though to a lesser extent, to chilling models based on the alternating model structure. We assessed three different sources of uncertainty in phenological forecasts: parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty, and driver uncertainty. The latter was characterized running the models to 2099 using 2 different IPCC climate scenarios (A1fi vs. B1, i.e. high CO2 emissions vs. low CO2 emissions scenario). Parameter uncertainty was the smallest (average 95% CI: 2.4 day century-1 for scenario B1 and 4.5 day century-1 for A1fi), whereas driver uncertainty was the largest (up to 8.4 day century-1 in the simulated trends). The uncertainty related to model structure is also large and the predicted bud-burst trends as well as the shape of the smoothed projections varied somewhat among models (±7.7 day century-1 for A1fi, ±3.6 day century-1 for B1). The forecast sensitivity of bud-burst to temperature (i.e. days bud-burst advanced per degree of warming) varied between 2.2 day °C-1 and 5.2 day °C-1 depending

  16. Self-organization of the earth's biosphere-geochemical or geophysiological?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, David W.; Shore, Steven N.; Volk, Tyler; Mcmenamin, Mark

    1994-01-01

    We explore the implications of indicating the biosphere's self-organization by the trend over time of the net entropic flow from the Earth's surface, the actual physical boundary of virtually all biotic mass. This flow, derived from the radiative surface entropy budget, is approximately inversely related to the surface temperature when the solar incident flux remains constant. In the geophysiological ('gaian') interpretation, biospheric self-organization has increased with the progressive colonization of the continents and evolutionary developments in the land biota, as a result of surface cooling arising from biotic enhancement of weathering. The key site for this self-organization is at the interface between land and atmosphere, the soil, where carbon is sequestered by its reaction (as carbonic and organic acids) with calcium magnesium silicates. Along with disequilibrium (steady-state) levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the occurrence of differentiated soil is the critical material evidence for biospheric self-organization, whether it be geophysiological or geochemical (ie., purely result of inorganic reactions). The computed equilibrium levels of carbon dioxide and corresponding equilibrium temperatures in the past are dramatically different from the steady-state levels. With future solar luminosity increase, the biospheric capacity for climatic regulation will decrease, leading to the ending of self-organization some two billion years from now. The Earth's surface will then approach chemical equilibrium with respect to the carbonate-silicate cycle.

  17. Man and the Biosphere: Ground Truthing Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; And Others

    Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…

  18. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  19. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  20. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  1. Dosimetric comparison of standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost schedule (sequential IMRT plan) with simultaneous integrated boost–IMRT (SIB IMRT) treatment plan in patients with localized carcinoma prostate

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, A.; Kapoor, R.; Singh, S. K.; Kumar, N.; Oinam, A. S.; Sharma, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Dosimeteric and radiobiological comparison of two radiation schedules in localized carcinoma prostate: Standard Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) followed by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) boost (sequential-IMRT) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost IMRT (SIB-IMRT). Material and Methods: Thirty patients were enrolled. In all, the target consisted of PTV P + SV (Prostate and seminal vesicles) and PTV LN (lymph nodes) where PTV refers to planning target volume and the critical structures included: bladder, rectum and small bowel. All patients were treated with sequential-IMRT plan, but for dosimetric comparison, SIB-IMRT plan was also created. The prescription dose to PTV P + SV was 74 Gy in both strategies but with different dose per fraction, however, the dose to PTV LN was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for sequential-IMRT and 54 Gy delivered in 27 fractions over 5.5 weeks for SIB-IMRT. The treatment plans were compared in terms of dose–volume histograms. Also, Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) obtained with the two plans were compared. Results: The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy or more (V > 70 Gy) was reduced to 18.23% with SIB-IMRT from 22.81% with sequential-IMRT. SIB-IMRT reduced the mean doses to both bladder and rectum by 13% and 17%, respectively, as compared to sequential-IMRT. NTCP of 0.86 ± 0.75% and 0.01 ± 0.02% for the bladder, 5.87 ± 2.58% and 4.31 ± 2.61% for the rectum and 8.83 ± 7.08% and 8.25 ± 7.98% for the bowel was seen with sequential-IMRT and SIB-IMRT plans respectively. Conclusions: For equal PTV coverage, SIB-IMRT markedly reduced doses to critical structures, therefore should be considered as the strategy for dose escalation. SIB-IMRT achieves lesser NTCP than sequential-IMRT. PMID:23204659

  2. C-LAMP Subproject Description:Climate Forcing by the Terrestrial Biosphere During the Second Half of the 20th Century

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Covey, Curt; Hoffman, Forrest

    2008-10-02

    This project will quantify selected components of climate forcing due to changes in the terrestrial biosphere over the period 1948-2004, as simulated by the climate / carboncycle models participating in C-LAMP (the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project; see http://www.climatemodeling.org/c-lamp). Unlike other C-LAMP projects that attempt to close the carbon budget, this project will focus on the contributions of individual biomes in terms of the resulting climate forcing. Bala et al. (2007) used a similar (though more comprehensive) model-based technique to assess and compare different components of biospheric climate forcing, but their focus was on potential future deforestation rather than the historicalmore » period.« less

  3. Constraints on a potential aerial biosphere on Venus: I. Cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis R.; Nordheim, Tom Andre; Patel, Manish R.; Mason, Jonathon P.; Coates, Andrew J.; Jones, Geraint H.

    2015-09-01

    While the present-day surface of Venus is certainly incompatible with terrestrial biology, the planet may have possessed oceans in the past and provided conditions suitable for the origin of life. Venusian life may persist today high in the atmosphere where the temperature and pH regime is tolerable to terrestrial extremophile microbes: an aerial habitable zone. Here we argue that on the basis of the combined biological hazard of high temperature and high acidity this habitable zone lies between 51 km (65 °C) and 62 km (-20 °C) altitude. Compared to Earth, this potential venusian biosphere may be exposed to substantially more comic ionising radiation: Venus has no protective magnetic field, orbits closer to the Sun, and the entire habitable region lies high in the atmosphere - if this narrow band is sterilised there is no reservoir of deeper life that can recolonise afterwards. Here we model the propagation of particle radiation through the venusian atmosphere, considering both the background flux of high-energy galactic cosmic rays and the transient but exceptionally high-fluence bursts of extreme solar particle events (SPE), such as the Carrington Event of 1859 and that inferred for AD 775. We calculate the altitude profiles of both energy deposition into the atmosphere and the absorbed radiation dose to assess this astrophysical threat to the potential high-altitude venusian biosphere. We find that at the top of the habitable zone (62 km altitude; 190 g/cm2 shielding depth) the radiation dose from the modelled Carrington Event with a hard spectrum (matched to the February 1956 SPE) is over 18,000 times higher than the background from GCR, and 50,000 times higher for the modelled 775 AD event. However, even though the flux of ionising radiation can be sterilizing high in the atmosphere, the total dose delivered at the top of the habitable zone by a worst-case SPE like the 775 AD event is 0.09 Gy, which is not likely to present a significant survival challenge

  4. Initial experimental results from the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Dempster, W.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Results from the closure and initial closed ecological system research in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) will be presented. The facility was initially sealed in April 2002; and the first crop experiments with soybeans commenced in May 2002. The Laboratory Biosphere was created by the team which invented, built and operated Biosphere 2 during its years of closed ecological system functioning (1991-94) and is a testbed to build upon the lessons learned. It is an opportunity to continue experiments with a sustainable soil based agriculture system unlike most bioregenerative systems which use hydroponic systems dependent on a supply of nutrient solution. Because of the small volume of the system (34-45 m3), developing mechanisms to keep parameters like carbon dioxide within acceptable limits will be critical. Recycle of nutrients within the system to maintain soil fertility; and the ability of the inherent complex ecology of soils and a soil bed reactor to handle trace gas buildups are primary research goals. Other research goals are determination of short and long-term exchanges between soil, plants and atmosphere, especially for carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, NOX, and methane, impact of cultivation (tillage) on soil/atmospheric exchanges., investigation and development of strategies to return nutrients to the soil to maintain fertility, e.g. shredding biomass vs. composting, impact on soil chemistry of returning leachate water to the soil as irrigation water. The microbiological status of soils prior to experiments and over time will allow measurement of changes in microbial diversity and the determination of the role of soil microbes in biogeochemical cycles. Integration of automated sensor and control in the system with real-time modeling has importance for operation, research and educational outreach programs. The Laboratory Biosphere is intended to test and develop a "cybersphere" (network of shared intelligence) that may be

  5. The Modern Era of Research in Biosphere Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Diane Wickland, the Program Scientist for NASA's EOS InterDisciplinary Science (IDS), encouraged and nurtured the growth of the field of global ecology and eco-climatology. This talk reviews the developments in, and integration of, theory, satellite and field observations that enabled the global modeling of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Emphasis will be placed on the advances made during the EOS era in global datasets and global coupled carbon-climate models. The advances include functional classifications of the land surface using the NDVI, a global terrestrial carbon-energy-water model, and the greening of the CSU GCM. An equally important achievement of the EOS-IDS program is a new generation of multi-disciplinary scientists who are now leaders in the field.

  6. Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version le as coupled to the NCAR community climate model. Technical note. [NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dickinson, R.E.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Kennedy, P.J.

    A comprehensive model of land-surface processes has been under development suitable for use with various National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) General Circulation Models (GCMs). Special emphasis has been given to describing properly the role of vegetation in modifying the surface moisture and energy budgets. The result of these efforts has been incorporated into a boundary package, referred to as the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). The current frozen version, BATS1e is a piece of software about four thousand lines of code that runs as an offline version or coupled to the Community Climate Model (CCM).

  7. Implementation of the Biosphere Compatibility Principle in Urban Planning: How to Train Next-Generation Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Zinaida Ilyinichna; Yudenkova, Olga Valeryevna; Ishkov, Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shnyrenkov, Evgeny Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The co-authors address the relevant issues concerning the need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for the symbiotic co-existence of man and nature. Caring treatment of the biosphere, termination of its excessive exploitation, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of specific areas…

  8. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO2 assimilation in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P; Ely, Kim S; Sloan, Victoria L; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25 , respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of V c,max and J max were 17% lower than commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, V c,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. This study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  10. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  11. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  12. Modeling the biophysical impacts of global change in mountain biosphere reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugmann, H.K.M.; Bjornsen, F. Ewert; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, Antoine; Fagre, Daniel B.; Kaab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of greatly changing climatic, economic, and societal drivers constitutes a significant challenge. Management decisions must be based on a sound understanding of the future dynamics of these systems. The present article reviews the elements required for an integrated effort to project the impacts of global change on mountain regions, and recommends tools that can be used at 3 scientific levels (essential, improved, and optimum). The proposed strategy is evaluated with respect to UNESCO's network of Mountain Biosphere Reserves (MBRs), with the intention of implementing it in other mountain regions as well. First, methods for generating scenarios of key drivers of global change are reviewed, including land use/land cover and climate change. This is followed by a brief review of the models available for projecting the impacts of these scenarios on (1) cryospheric systems, (2) ecosystem structure and diversity, and (3) ecosystem functions such as carbon and water relations. Finally, the cross-cutting role of remote sensing techniques is evaluated with respect to both monitoring and modeling efforts. We conclude that a broad range of techniques is available for both scenario generation and impact assessments, many of which can be implemented without much capacity building across many or even most MBRs. However, to foster implementation of the proposed strategy, further efforts are required to establish partnerships between scientists and resource managers in mountain areas.

  13. Evidence for an active rare biosphere within freshwater protists community.

    PubMed

    Debroas, Didier; Hugoni, Mylène; Domaizon, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the active rare biosphere at the RNA level are mainly focused on Bacteria and Archaea and fail to include the protists, which are involved in the main biogeochemical cycles of the earth. In this study, the richness, composition and activity of the rare protistan biosphere were determined from a temporal survey of two lakes by pyrosequencing. In these ecosystems, the always rare OTUs represented 77.2% of the total OTUs and 76.6% of the phylogenetic diversity. From the various phylogenetic indices computed, the phylogenetic units (PUs) constituted exclusively by always rare OTUs were discriminated from the other PUs. Therefore, the rare biosphere included mainly taxa that are distant from the reference databases compared to the dominant ones. In addition, the rarest OTUs represented 59.8% of the active biosphere depicted by rRNA and the activity (rRNA:rDNA ratio) increased with the rarity. The high rRNA:rDNA ratio determined in the rare fraction highlights that some protists were active at low abundances and contribute to ecosystem functioning. Interestingly, the always rare and active OTUs were characterized by seasonal changes in relation with the main environmental parameters measured. In conclusion, the rare eukaryotes represent an active, dynamic and overlooked fraction in the lacustrine ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Association study of 25 type 2 diabetes related Loci with measures of obesity in Indian sib pairs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipin; Vinay, Donipadi Guru; Sovio, Ulla; Rafiq, Sajjad; Kranthi Kumar, Madamchetty Venkata; Janipalli, Charles Spurgeon; Evans, David; Mani, Kulathu Radha; Sandeep, Madana Narasimha; Taylor, Amy; Kinra, Sanjay; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Timpson, Nicholas; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and they are metabolically related through the mechanism of insulin resistance. In order to explore how common genetic variants associated with T2D correlate with body mass index (BMI), we examined the influence of 25 T2D associated loci on obesity risk. We used 5056 individuals (2528 sib-pairs) recruited in Indian Migration Study and conducted within sib-pair analysis for six obesity phenotypes. We found associations of variants in CXCR4 (rs932206) and HHEX (rs5015480) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β=0.13, p=0.001) and (β=0.09, p=0.002), respectively and weight (β=0.13, p=0.001) and (β=0.09, p=0.001), respectively. CXCR4 variant was also strongly associated with body fat (β=0.10, p=0.0004). In addition, we demonstrated associations of CXCR4 and HHEX with overweight/obesity (OR=1.6, p=0.003) and (OR=1.4, p=0.002), respectively, in 1333 sib-pairs (2666 individuals). We observed marginal evidence of associations between variants at six loci (TCF7L2, NGN3, FOXA2, LOC646279, FLJ39370 and THADA) and waist hip ratio (WHR), BMI and/or overweight which needs to be validated in larger set of samples. All the above findings were independent of daily energy consumption and physical activity level. The risk score estimates based on eight significant loci (including nominal associations) showed associations with WHR and body fat which were independent of BMI. In summary, we establish the role of T2D associated loci in influencing the measures of obesity in Indian population, suggesting common underlying pathophysiology across populations.

  15. Association Study of 25 Type 2 Diabetes Related Loci with Measures of Obesity in Indian Sib Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vipin; Vinay, Donipadi Guru; Sovio, Ulla; Rafiq, Sajjad; Kranthi Kumar, Madamchetty Venkata; Janipalli, Charles Spurgeon; Evans, David; Mani, Kulathu Radha; Sandeep, Madana Narasimha; Taylor, Amy; Kinra, Sanjay; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Timpson, Nicholas; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and they are metabolically related through the mechanism of insulin resistance. In order to explore how common genetic variants associated with T2D correlate with body mass index (BMI), we examined the influence of 25 T2D associated loci on obesity risk. We used 5056 individuals (2528 sib-pairs) recruited in Indian Migration Study and conducted within sib-pair analysis for six obesity phenotypes. We found associations of variants in CXCR4 (rs932206) and HHEX (rs5015480) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.13, p = 0.001) and (β = 0.09, p = 0.002), respectively and weight (β = 0.13, p = 0.001) and (β = 0.09, p = 0.001), respectively. CXCR4 variant was also strongly associated with body fat (β = 0.10, p = 0.0004). In addition, we demonstrated associations of CXCR4 and HHEX with overweight/obesity (OR = 1.6, p = 0.003) and (OR = 1.4, p = 0.002), respectively, in 1333 sib-pairs (2666 individuals). We observed marginal evidence of associations between variants at six loci (TCF7L2, NGN3, FOXA2, LOC646279, FLJ3970 and THADA) and waist hip ratio (WHR), BMI and/or overweight which needs to be validated in larger set of samples. All the above findings were independent of daily energy consumption and physical activity level. The risk score estimates based on eight significant loci (including nominal associations) showed associations with WHR and body fat which were independent of BMI. In summary, we establish the role of T2D associated loci in influencing the measures of obesity in Indian population, suggesting common underlying pathophysiology across populations. PMID:23349771

  16. Biosphere 2: a prototype project for a permanent and evolving life system for Mars base.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J P; Dempster, W F

    1992-01-01

    As part of the ground-based preparation for creating long-term life systems needed for space habitation and settlement, Space Biospheres Ventures (SBV) is undertaking the Biosphere 2 project near Oracle, Arizona. Biosphere 2, currently under construction, is scheduled to commence its operations in 1991 with a two-year closure period with a crew of eight people. Biosphere 2 is a facility which will be essentialy materially-closed to exchange with the outside environment. It is open to information and energy flow. Biosphere 2 is designed to achieve a complex life-support system by the integration of seven areas or "biomes"--rainforest, savannah, desert, marsh, ocean, intensive agriculture and human habitat. Unique bioregenerative technologies, such as soil bed reactors for air purification, aquatic waste processing systems, real-time analytic systems and complex computer monitoring and control systems are being developed for the Biosphere 2 project. Its operation should afford valuable insight into the functioning of complex life systems necessary for long-term habitation in space. It will serve as an experimental ground-based prototype and testbed for the stable, permanent life systems needed for human exploration of Mars.

  17. Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Benjamin D.; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4 and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere that are sensitive to climate and CO2. This leads to feedbacks between climate and land and has contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since pre-industrial times. Here, we apply a process-based model to reproduce the historical atmospheric N2O and CH4 budgets within their uncertainties and apply future scenarios for climate, land-use change and reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to investigate future GHG emissions and their feedbacks with climate in a consistent and comprehensive framework. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O and CH4 emissions increase by 80 and 45%, respectively, and the land becomes a net source of C by AD 2100. N2O and CH4 feedbacks imply an additional warming of 0.4-0.5°C by AD 2300; on top of 0.8-1.0°C caused by terrestrial carbon cycle and Albedo feedbacks. The land biosphere represents an increasingly positive feedback to anthropogenic climate change and amplifies equilibrium climate sensitivity by 22-27%. Strong mitigation limits the increase of terrestrial GHG emissions and prevents the land biosphere from acting as an increasingly strong amplifier to anthropogenic climate change.

  18. Benthic δ13C stacks: Metrics for deglacial changes in deep ocean carbon storage and the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C.; Lisiecki, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Across the deglaciation, atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures rise while the deep ocean ventilates carbon to the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. As the terrestrial biosphere expands, the mean global ocean δ13C signature increases in response. How well constrained is the global mean benthic δ13C from 20-6 ka? Are the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere signals in benthic δ13C coupled across the deglaciation? Improved understanding of deglacial carbon cycle interactions can help close the gap between data-based and model-based estimates of global mean benthic δ13C and deep ocean carbon storage changes. Here we present a 118-record compilation of Cibicides wuellerstorfi δ13C time series that span 20-6 kyr. The δ13C records with a resolution better than 3 kyr and gaps between data smaller than 4 kyr are aligned to age models that are constrained by planktic 14C ages (Stern and Lisiecki, 2014). The δ13C records are stacked within nine regions. Then these regional stacks are combined using volume-weighted averages to create intermediate, deep and whole ocean δ13C stacks. The δ13C gradient between the intermediate and deep stacks covaries with atmospheric CO2 change. Meanwhile the deglacial global ocean mean δ13C rise tracks the expansion of the global terrestrial biosphere from 19-6 ka. From this volume-weighted global δ13C stack, the LGM-Holocene mean δ13C change is 0.35±0.10‰ similar to previous estimates (Curry et al., 1988; Duplessy et al., 1988; Peterson et al., 2015; Gebbie et al., 2015). The δ13C stacks and this 4D δ13C compilation are ideal for model-data comparisons and time-stepping 3D visualizations.

  19. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  20. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  1. Nutrient inputs via rock weathering point to enhanced CO2 uptake capacity of the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, P.; Houlton, B. Z.; Wang, Y.; Pak, B. C.; Morford, S.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence of widespread scarcity of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in natural land ecosystems constrains the carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake capacity of the global biosphere. Recent studies have pointed to the importance of rock weathering in supplying both N and P to terrestrial soils and vegetation; however, the potential for N and P to rapidly weather from different rocks and thereby alter the global carbon (C) cycle remains an open question, particularly at the global scale. Here, we combine empirical measurements and a new global simulation model to quantify the flux of N and P released from rocks to the terrestrial biosphere. Our model considers the role of tectonic uplift and physical and chemical weathering on rock nutrient cycling by using a probabilistic approach that is anchored in watershed-scale 10Be and Na data from the world's rivers. We use USGS DEM data for relief, monthly averaged MODIS evapotranspiration data and global precipitation datasets. Based on simulations using mean climate data for the past 10 years, we estimate annual values of 11 Tg of N and 6 Tg of P to weather from rocks to the terrestrial biosphere. The rate of N weathering rivals that of atmospheric N deposition in natural ecosystems, and the P weathering flux is approximately 6 times higher than prior estimates based on a modeling approach where the chemical weathering is dependant on lithology and runoff with further factors correcting for soil shielding and temperature. The increase in nutrient inputs we simulate reveals an important role for rock weathering to support new production in terrestrial ecosystems, and thereby allow for additional CO2 uptake in sectors of the biosphere where weathering rates are substantial. Given that current generation of models are yet to consider how short-term weathering of rocks can affect nutrient limited C storage, these results will help to advance the geochemical aspects of carbon-climate feedback this century. Moreover

  2. Genetic Analysis of earl field growth of loblolly pine clones and seedlings from the same full-sib families

    Treesearch

    Brian Baltunis; Dudley Huber; Tim Wite

    2006-01-01

    The Forest Biology Research Cooperative recently established a series of loblolly pine clonal trials known as CCLONES (Comparing Clonal Lines on Experimental Sites). There are three primary levels of genetic structure in this study (parental, full-sib family, clone) that strengthen the power of CCLONES for examining genetic mechanisms and interactions with cultural...

  3. Biospheric Cooling and the Emergence of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    The long-term cooling history of the Earth's biosphere implies a temperature constraint on the timing of major events in biologic evolution, e.g., emergence of cyanobacteria, eucaryotes and Metazoa apparently occurred at times when temperatures were near their upper growth limits. Could biospheric cooling also have been a necessary condition for the emergence of veterbrates and their encephalization? The upper temperature limit for vertebrate growth is about 10 degrees below the limit for Metazoa (50 degrees C). Heterothermy followed by full homeothermy was likely a necessary condition for greater encephalization because of the energy requirement of larger brains. The temperature differential between an animal and a cooler environment, all other factors equal, will increase the efficiency of heat loss from the brain, but too large a differential will shift metabolic energy away from the brain to the procurement of food. Encephalization has also entailed the evolution of internal cooling mechanisms to avoid overheating the brain. The two periods of pronounced Phanerozoic cooling, the PermoCarboniferous and late Cenozoic, corresponded to the emergence of mammal-like reptiles and hominids respectively, with a variety of explanations offered for the apparent link. The origin of highly encephalized whales, dolphins and porpoises occurred with the drop in ocean temperatures 25-30 mya. Of course, other possible paths to encephalization are conceivable, with radically different solutions to the problem of heat dissipation. But the intrinsic requirements for information processing capacity necessary for intelligence suggest our terrestrial pattern may resemble those of alien biospheres given similar histories.

  4. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    biosphere has been implemented within a fully coupled Earth System Model, namely the UK Met Office Hadley Centre HadGEM2-ES model. We present results from ten-year experiments (2000-2010) designed to investigate the sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere to the burden and absorbing nature of Amazonian BB aerosols.

  5. Field performance of shortleaf pine half-sib families though 10 years in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seeds collected from six half-sib families were grown as both bareroot and container stock and outplanted on two sites in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Survival and growth were measured at years 1, 3, 5, and 10 afier planting. Stock-type and family interacted to affect height at year 1 on one site. There...

  6. Global redox cycle of biospheric carbon: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    A model of the natural global redox cycle of biospheric carbon is introduced. According to this model, carbon transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of carbon transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of carbon. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox carbon cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. V. A FIELD TEST OF THE SIB-COMPETITION LOTTERY HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Steven E

    1989-08-01

    Sexually and asexually derived tillers of Anthoxanthum odoratum were planted directly in the field to test the hypothesis that competition among groups of sexual and asexual siblings favors the maintenance of sexual reproduction in populations. The results showed a substantial fitness advantage for sexual tillers. However, in contrast with the models, the advantage of sex did not increase with increasing numbers of colonists in the patch, there were multiple survivors among colonists, and an advantage was observed even for singly planted tillers. When a truncation-selection scheme was imposed ex post facto on the data, the relative performance of sexual tillers was similar to that predicted by the Bulmer (1980) model, suggesting that sib-competition models fail due to the violation of the assumption of truncation selection. The advantage of sex was not correlated with the presence of other species, total percentage cover, or species diversity, although sites where sex was favored were physically clustered. © 1989 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  9. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  10. Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R; Hilbert, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    Evolution has transformed life through key innovations in information storage and replication, including RNA, DNA, multicellularity, and culture and language. We argue that the carbon-based biosphere has generated a cognitive system (humans) capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition. Digital information has reached a similar magnitude to information in the biosphere. It increases exponentially, exhibits high-fidelity replication, evolves through differential fitness, is expressed through artificial intelligence (AI), and has facility for virtually limitless recombination. Like previous evolutionary transitions, the potential symbiosis between biological and digital information will reach a critical point where these codes could compete via natural selection. Alternatively, this fusion could create a higher-level superorganism employing a low-conflict division of labor in performing informational tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrate Data into Scientific Workflows for Terrestrial Biosphere Model Evaluation through Brokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.; Du, F.; Dasgupta, A.; Poco, J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Boldrini, E.; Santoro, M.; Pearlman, J.; Pearlman, F.; Nativi, S.; Khalsa, S.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become integral tools for extrapolating local observations and process-level understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. Model-model and model-observation intercomparisons are critical to understand the uncertainties within model outputs, to improve model skill, and to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange. The DataONE Exploration, Visualization, and Analysis (EVA) working group is evaluating TBMs using scientific workflows in UV-CDAT/VisTrails. This workflow-based approach promotes collaboration and improved tracking of evaluation provenance. But challenges still remain. The multi-scale and multi-discipline nature of TBMs makes it necessary to include diverse and distributed data resources in model evaluation. These include, among others, remote sensing data from NASA, flux tower observations from various organizations including DOE, and inventory data from US Forest Service. A key challenge is to make heterogeneous data from different organizations and disciplines discoverable and readily integrated for use in scientific workflows. This presentation introduces the brokering approach taken by the DataONE EVA to fill the gap between TBMs' evaluation scientific workflows and cross-organization and cross-discipline data resources. The DataONE EVA started the development of an Integrated Model Intercomparison Framework (IMIF) that leverages standards-based discovery and access brokers to dynamically discover, access, and transform (e.g. subset and resampling) diverse data products from DataONE, Earth System Grid (ESG), and other data repositories into a format that can be readily used by scientific workflows in UV-CDAT/VisTrails. The discovery and access brokers serve as an independent middleware that bridge existing data repositories and TBMs evaluation scientific workflows but introduce little overhead to either component. In the initial work, an OpenSearch-based discovery broker

  12. Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of air-borne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphereem NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi

  13. Advances in understanding, models and parameterizations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechard, C. R.; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J. O.; Cooter, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition as ammonium (NH4+) to all surfaces. However, the land/atmosphere exchange of gaseous NH3 is in fact bi-directional over unfertilized as well as fertilized ecosystems, with periods and areas of emission and deposition alternating in time (diurnal, seasonal) and space (patchwork landscapes). The exchange is controlled by a range of environmental factors, including meteorology, surface layer turbulence, thermodynamics, air and surface heterogeneous-phase chemistry, canopy geometry, plant development stage, leaf age, organic matter decomposition, soil microbial turnover, and, in agricultural systems, by fertilizer application rate, fertilizer type, soil type, crop type, and agricultural management practices. We review the range of processes controlling NH3 emission and uptake in the different parts of the soil-canopy-atmosphere continuum, with NH3 emission potentials defined at the substrate and leaf levels by different [NH4+] / [H+] ratios (Γ). Surface/atmosphere exchange models for NH3 are necessary to compute the temporal and spatial patterns of emissions and deposition at the soil, plant, field, landscape, regional and global scales, in order to assess the multiple environmental impacts of airborne and deposited NH3 and NH4+. Models of soil/vegetation/atmosphere NH3 exchange are reviewed from the substrate and leaf scales to the global scale. They range from simple steady-state, "big leaf" canopy resistance models, to dynamic, multi-layer, multi-process, multi-chemical species schemes

  14. Analysis of Low-Biomass Microbial Communities in the Deep Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Morono, Y; Inagaki, F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the subseafloor biosphere has been explored by scientific ocean drilling to depths of about 2.5km below the seafloor. Although organic-rich anaerobic sedimentary habitats in the ocean margins harbor large numbers of microbial cells, microbial populations in ultraoligotrophic aerobic sedimentary habitats in the open ocean gyres are several orders of magnitude less abundant. Despite advances in cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, exploring the low-biomass environment remains technologically challenging, especially in the deep subseafloor biosphere. Reviewing the historical background of deep-biosphere analytical methods, the importance of obtaining clean samples and tracing contamination, as well as methods for detecting microbial life, technological aspects of molecular microbiology, and detecting subseafloor metabolic activity will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Corticosterone Signaling and a Lateral Habenula-Ventral Tegmental Area Circuit Modulate Compulsive Self-Injurious Behavior in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yujie; Tang, Xun; Zhang, Jichuan; Jin, Sen; Li, Jinnan; Ding, Lufeng; Zhang, Keming; Yang, Chaoyu; Zhou, Hua; He, Xiaobin; Xu, Fuqiang; Bi, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Lau, Pak-Ming

    2018-06-06

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is commonly observed in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as in nonclinical populations with stress-related mental-health problems. However, the exact circuitry mechanisms underlying SIB have remained poorly understood. Here, with bilateral injection of muscimol into the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), we established a rat model of SIB. Following the muscimol injection, the male rats exhibited in a dose-dependent manner stereotypic self-biting behavior that lasted for hours and often resulted in wounds of various severities. The SIB was associated with an elevated level of serum corticosterone and could be exacerbated by enhancing the corticosterone signaling and, conversely, alleviated by inhibiting the corticosterone signaling. Activity mapping using c-fos immunostaining, combined with connectivity mapping using herpes simplex virus-based anterograde tracing from the EP and pseudorabies virus-based retrograde tracing from the masseter muscle, revealed the potential involvement of many brain areas in SIB. In particular, the lateral habenula (LHb) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the two connected brain areas involved in stress response and reward processing, showed a significant increase in neuronal activation during SIB. Furthermore, suppressing the LHb activity or modulating the GABAergic transmission in the VTA could significantly reduce the occurrence of SIB. These results demonstrate the importance of stress hormone signaling and the LHb-VTA circuit in modulating SIB resulting from EP malfunction, and suggest potential targets for therapeutic intervention of SIB and related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Self-injurious behavior (SIB) occurs in ∼4% of the general population, with substantially higher occurrence among adolescents and patients of neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress has been linked to the occurrence of SIB, yet the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear. Using a rat model of SIB induced by

  16. The Amazon rainforest, climate change, and drought: How will what is below the surface affect the climate of tropical South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, A.; Denning, A. S.; Baker, I.; Randall, D.; Dazlich, D.

    2008-12-01

    Several climate models have predicted an increase in long-term droughts in tropical South America due to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although the Amazon rainforest is resilient to seasonal drought, multi-year droughts pose a definite problem for the ecosystem's health. Furthermore, drought- stressed vegetation participates in feedbacks with the atmosphere that can exacerbate drought. Namely, reduced evapotranspiration further dries out the atmosphere and affects the regional climate. Trees in the rainforest survive seasonal drought by using deep roots to access adequate stores of soil moisture. We investigate the climatic impacts of deep roots and soil moisture by coupling the Simple Biosphere (SiB3) model to Colorado State University's general circulation model (BUGS5). We compare two versions of SiB3 in the GCM during years with anomalously low rainfall. The first has strong vegetative stress due to soil moisture limitations. The second experiences less stress and has more realistic representations of surface biophysics. In the model, basin-wide reductions in soil moisture stress result in increased evapotranspiration, precipitation, and moisture recycling in the Amazon basin. In the savannah region of southeastern Brazil, the unstressed version of SiB3 produces decreased precipitation and weaker moisture flux, which is more in-line with observations. The improved simulation of precipitation and evaporation also produces a more realistic Bolivian high and Nordeste low. These changes highlight the importance of subsurface biophysics for the Amazonian climate. The presence of deep roots and soil moisture will become even more important if climate change brings more frequent droughts to this region in the future.

  17. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 1: Abatement share and investment in low-carbon technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model described herein takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. By using an endogenous economic growth module with physical and human capital accumulation, this paper considers the sustainability of economic growth, as economic activity intensifies greenhouse gas emissions that in turn cause economic damage due to climate change. Different types of fossil fuels and different technologies produce different volumes of carbon dioxide in combustion. The shares of different fuels and their future evolution are not known. We assume that the dynamics of hydrocarbon-based energy share and their replacement with renewable energy sources in the global energy balance can be modeled into the 21st century by use of logistic functions. Various climate change mitigation policy measures are considered. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs merely as an unproductive loss of income, we consider abatement activities also as an investment in overall energy efficiency of the economy and decrease of overall carbon intensity of the energy system. The paper shows that these efforts help to reduce the volume of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, lower temperature deviations, and lead to positive effects in economic growth.

  18. A New Canopy Integration Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgley, G.; Anderegg, L. D. L.; Baker, I. T.; Berry, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem modelers have long debated how to best represent within-canopy heterogeneity. Can one big leaf represent the full range of canopy physiological responses? Or you need two leaves - sun and shade - to get things right? Is it sufficient to treat the canopy as a diffuse medium? Or would it be better to explicitly represent separate canopy layers? These are open questions that have been subject of an enormous amount of research and scrutiny. Yet regardless of how the canopy is represented, each model must grapple with correctly parameterizing its canopy in a way that properly translates leaf-level processes to the canopy and ecosystem scale. We present a new approach for integrating whole-canopy biochemistry by combining remote sensing with ecological theory. Using the Simple Biosphere model (SiB), we redefined how SiB scales photosynthetic processes from leaf-to-canopy as a function of satellite-derived measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF). Across multiple long-term study sites, our approach improves the accuracy of daily modeled photosynthesis by as much as 25 percent. We share additional insights on how SIF might be more directly integrated into photosynthesis models, as well as present ideas for harnessing SIF to more accurately parameterize canopy biochemical variables.

  19. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Schwalm, Christopher R; Michalak, Anna M; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, Wilfred M; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-01

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-long (1901-2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10 15  g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr -1 with a median value of 51 Pg C yr -1 during 2001-2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40-65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901-2010 ranges from -70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO 2 and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks-even though the responses varied

  20. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; ...

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore » (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied

  1. The COPD-SIB: a newly developed disease-specific item bank to measure health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Paap, Muirne C S; Lenferink, Lonneke I M; Herzog, Nadine; Kroeze, Karel A; van der Palen, Job

    2016-06-27

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is widely used as an outcome measure in the evaluation of treatment interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In order to address challenges associated with existing fixed-length measures (e.g., too long to be used routinely, too short to ensure both content validity and reliability), a COPD-specific item bank (COPD-SIB) was developed. Items were selected based on literature review and interviews with Dutch COPD patients, with a strong focus on both content validity and item comprehension. The psychometric quality of the item bank was evaluated using Mokken Scale Analysis and parametric Item Response Theory, using data of 666 COPD patients. The final item bank contains 46 items that form a strong scale, tapping into eight important themes that were identified based on literature review and patient interviews: Coping with disease/symptoms, adaptability; Autonomy; Anxiety about the course/end-state of the disease, hopelessness; Positive psychological functioning; Situations triggering or enhancing breathing problems; Symptoms; Activity; Impact. The 46-item COPD-SIB has good psychometric properties and content validity. Items are available in Dutch and English. The COPD-SIB can be used as a stand-alone instrument, or to inform computerised adaptive testing.

  2. Characterizing land processes in the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Tuyahov, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    NASA long-term planning for the satellite remote sensing of land areas is discussed from the perspective of a holistic interdisciplinary approach to the study of the biosphere. The earth is characterized as a biogeochemical system; the impact of human activity on this system is considered; and the primary scientific goals for their study are defined. Remote-sensing programs are seen as essential in gaining an improved understanding of energy budgets, the hydrological cycle, other biogeological cycles, and the coupling between these cycles, with the construction of a global data base and eventually the development of predictive simulation models which can be used to assess the impact of planned human activities. Current sensor development at NASA includes a multilinear array for the visible and IR and the L-band Shuttle Imaging Radar B, both to be flown on Shuttle missions in the near future; for the 1990s, a large essentially permanent man-tended interdisciplinary multisensor platform connected to an advanced data network is being planned.

  3. A model of the CO2 exchanges between biosphere and atmosphere in the tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labgaa, Rachid R.; Gautier, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    A physical model of the soil thermal regime in a permafrost terrain has been developed and validated with soil temperature measurements at Barrow, Alaska. The model calculates daily soil temperatures as a function of depth and average moisture contents of the organic and mineral layers using a set of five climatic variables, i.e., air temperature, precipitation, cloudiness, wind speed, and relative humidity. The model is not only designed to study the impact of climate change on the soil temperature and moisture regime, but also to provide the input to a decomposition and net primary production model. In this context, it is well known that CO2 exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere are driven by soil temperature through decomposition of soil organic matter and root respiration. However, in tundra ecosystems, net CO2 exchange is extremely sensitive to soil moisture content; therefore it is necessary to predict variations in soil moisture in order to assess the impact of climate change on carbon fluxes. To this end, the present model includes the representation of the soil moisture response to changes in climatic conditions. The results presented in the foregoing demonstrate that large errors in soil temperature and permafrost depth estimates arise from neglecting the dependence of the soil thermal regime on soil moisture contents. Permafrost terrain is an example of a situation where soil moisture and temperature are particularly interrelated: drainage conditions improve when the depth of the permafrost increases; a decrease in soil moisture content leads to a decrease in the latent heat required for the phase transition so that the heat penetrates faster and deeper, and the maximum depth of thaw increases; and as excepted, soil thermal coefficients increase with moisture.

  4. Severe myopia with unusual retinal anomalies and Dandy-Walker sequence in two sibs. A distinct new neuro-ocular disorder.

    PubMed

    de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Gilda; de Leeuw, Nicole; Ventruto, Maria Luisa; Lonardo, Maria Concetta; Friso, Patrizia; Ventruto, Valerio

    2013-12-01

    We have observed a male and a female, sibs of non-consanguineous parents, affected by severe myopia with characteristic retinal defects and Dandy-Walker variant. The peculiarity of the retinopathy consists of pathological myopia with anomalous vitreal fenestrated membranes in the retinal periphery. We suppose that these associations may configure a new genetic syndrome.

  5. Earth Applications of Closed Ecological Systems: Relevance to the Development of Sustainability in our Global Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support and closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer be counted on to be vast enough to safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. With an increasing percentage of the world's natural resources and primary productivity being dictated by, and directed to, humans, our species is starting to appreciate its survival and quality of life depends on regulating its activities, and insuring that crucial biogeochemical cycles continue to function. This shift of consciousness has led to the widespread call for moving towards the sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioreenerative life support, the small volumes and faster cycling times have made it obvious that systems must be created in to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, and where all technical systems can be safely integrated with the maintenance of safe environmental conditions. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated with the living systems that they support should be a harbinger of new perspectives in the global environment. The paper will review some of these environmental technologies which are emerging from bioregenerative life support system research such as high-yield intensive agricultural methods, waste treatment and nutrient recycling, air purification, modeling, sensor and control systems and their potential applications in the global biosphere. In addition, a review of the human experience in closed ecological systems shows that these can offer opportunities for public education and consciousness-changing of how humans regard our global biosphere.

  6. Novel homozygous missense variant of GRIN1 in two sibs with intellectual disability and autistic features without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Chatron, Nicolas; Labalme, Audrey; Ville, Dorothée; Carneiro, Maryline; Edery, Patrick; des Portes, Vincent; Lemke, Johannes R; Sanlaville, Damien; Lesca, Gaetan

    2017-02-01

    We report on two consanguineous sibs affected with severe intellectual disability and autistic features due to a homozygous missense variant of GRIN1. Massive parallel sequencing was performed using a gene panel including 450 genes related to intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. We found a homozygous missense variation of GRIN1 (c.679G>C; p.(Asp227His)) in the two affected sibs, which was inherited from both unaffected heterozygous parents. Heterozygous variants of GRIN1, encoding the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor, have been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders including epileptic encephalopathy, severe intellectual disability, and movement disorders. The p.(Asp227His) variant is located in the same aminoterminal protein domain as the recently published p.(Arg217Trp), which was found at the homozygous state in two patients with a similar phenotype of severe intellectual disability and autistic features but without epilepsy. In silico predictions were consistent with a deleterious effect. The present findings further expand the clinical spectrum of GRIN1 variants and support the existence of hypomorphic variants causing severe neurodevelopmental impairment with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  7. [The ways in which variations in space and atmospheric factors act upon the biosphere and humans].

    PubMed

    Chernogor, L F

    2010-01-01

    The system analysis is validated to be an efficient means for studying the channels through which variations in space and tropospheric weather affect the biosphere (humans). The basics of the system analysis paradigm are presented. The causes of variations in space and tropospheric weather are determined, and the interrelations between them are demonstrated. The ways in which these variations affect the biosphere (humans) are discussed. Aperiodic and quasi-periodic disturbances in the physical fields that influence the biosphere (humans) are intercompared.

  8. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lansey, Kevin; Hortsman, Chris

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybridmore » system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.« less

  10. A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Inhabitants' environmental perceptions in the city of Rome within the framework for urban biosphere reserves of the UNESCO programme on man and biosphere.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Mirilia; Carrus, Giuseppe; Bonaiuto, Marino; Fornara, Ferdinando; Passafaro, Paola

    2004-06-01

    The article presents the main tenets of the UNESCO Programme on Man and Biosphere (MAB), launched by the United Nations at the beginning of the 1970s. The program aimed at supporting applied research and scientific knowledge for managing natural resources in a rational and sustainable way. The implication of the full ecological perspective, typical of the MAB, for promoting multidisciplinary and integrated approaches in the study of environmental issues is briefly outlined. In particular, we point out the role of the MAB, through the biosphere reserve concept, in supporting the collaboration between natural-biological and social-behavioral sciences when dealing with biodiversity conservation problems and with urban ecosystems. Then, the specific UNESCO-MAB Project on the city of Rome, launched at the end of the 1980s, is briefly presented, together with the recent project of the Department of the Environment of the Rome Municipality to propose Rome's urban and periurban green areas as a new UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve. The results of the main research activities conducted therein are summarized. In particular, the specific research lines of the environmental psychology research group, involved in the MAB-Rome Project for approximately two decades, are presented. These research lines dealt with various aspects of residents' environmental perceptions and behaviors in the city of Rome. The practical implications of these results are also briefly discussed.

  12. Childhood trauma as a risk factor for psychosis: A sib-pair study.

    PubMed

    Barrigón, María Luisa; Diaz, Francisco J; Gurpegui, Manuel; Ferrin, Maite; Salcedo, María Dolores; Moreno-Granados, Josefa; Cervilla, Jorge A; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Childhood trauma, cannabis use and certain personality traits have been related to the development of psychosis. This study uses a sib-pair design to examine the association between childhood trauma and psychosis controlling for cannabis use and neuroticism. We evaluated 60 patient-sibling pairs, conformed by patients with functional psychosis in the first five years of their illness matched with a non-psychotic sibling. In univariate analyses, patients and siblings were compared with McNemar tests and paired-sample t tests. A conditional logistic regression model of the risk of developing psychosis was built. The dependent variable of this model was the patient-sibling status (patient = 1, sibling = 0). After controlling for cannabis use and neuroticism, the odds of suffering psychosis for subjects who experienced a childhood trauma were 7.3 times higher than the odds for subjects who did not experience a childhood trauma [95% CI, (1.06-50.01); P = 0.04]. Also, after controlling for experiencing childhood trauma and neuroticism, subjects who were heavy cannabis users had odds of suffering psychosis that were 6.4 times higher than the odds of the remaining subjects [95% CI, (1.2-35.2); P = 0.03]. Both childhood trauma and cannabis use were significantly associated with an increased risk of suffering functional psychosis. A neurotic personality also contributed independently to this risk. These findings might help improve the prevention of psychosis and the development of specific treatment strategies on this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulating the 2012 High Plains drought using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, I. D.; Denning, S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of changes in the frequency and severity of drought on fresh water sustainability is a great concern for many regions of the world. One such location is the High Plains, where the local economy is primarily driven by fresh water withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer, which accounts for approximately 30% of total irrigation withdrawals from all U.S. aquifers combined. Modeling studies that focus on the feedback mechanisms that control the climate and eco-hydrology during times of drought are limited, and have used conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs) with grid length scales ranging from one hundred to several hundred kilometers. Additionally, these models utilize crude statistical parameterizations of cloud processes for estimating sub-grid fluxes of heat and moisture and have a poor representation of land surface heterogeneity. For this research, we will focus on the 2012 High Plains drought and will perform numerical simulations using three single column versions (SCM) of BUGS5 (Colorado State University (CSU) GCM coupled to the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3)) at multiple sites overlying the Ogallala Aquifer for the 2011-2012 periods. In the first version of BUGS5, the model will be used in its standard bulk setting (single atmospheric column coupled to a single instance of SiB3), secondly, the Super-Parameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM), a cloud resolving model (CRM consists of 64 atmospheric columns), will replace the single CSU GCM atmospheric parameterization and will be coupled to a single instance of SiB3, and for the third version of BUGS5, an instance of SiB3 will be coupled to each CRM column of the SP-CAM (64 CRM columns coupled to 64 instances of SiB3). To assess the physical realism of the land-atmosphere feedbacks simulated at each site by all versions of BUGS5, differences in simulated energy and moisture fluxes will be computed between the 2011 and 2012 period and will be compared to differences calculated using

  14. Solid phase evolution in the Biosphere 2 hillslope experiment as predicted by modeling of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dontsova, K.; Steefel, C.I.; Desilets, S.

    2009-07-15

    A reactive transport geochemical modeling study was conducted to help predict the mineral transformations occurring over a ten year time-scale that are expected to impact soil hydraulic properties in the Biosphere 2 (B2) synthetic hillslope experiment. The modeling sought to predict the rate and extent of weathering of a granular basalt (selected for hillslope construction) as a function of climatic drivers, and to assess the feedback effects of such weathering processes on the hydraulic properties of the hillslope. Flow vectors were imported from HYDRUS into a reactive transport code, CrunchFlow2007, which was then used to model mineral weathering coupled tomore » reactive solute transport. Associated particle size evolution was translated into changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity using Rosetta software. We found that flow characteristics, including velocity and saturation, strongly influenced the predicted extent of incongruent mineral weathering and neo-phase precipitation on the hillslope. Results were also highly sensitive to specific surface areas of the soil media, consistent with surface reaction controls on dissolution. Effects of fluid flow on weathering resulted in significant differences in the prediction of soil particle size distributions, which should feedback to alter hillslope hydraulic conductivities.« less

  15. On the edge of a deep biosphere: Real animals in extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, James J.; Fisher, Charles F.; Felbeck, Horst; Girguis, Peter

    This paper considers the possibility of animals living in a subsurface environment on the global mid-ocean ridge system. It considers the possible environments and looks at the possibilities of animal inhabitants of the subsurface biosphere based on adaptations of animals to other extreme habitats. We conclude that there are known bridging inhabitants of the subsurface biosphere, that part-time inhabitants are extremely likely, and that there could be full-time inhabitants if conditions are stable within the tolerance limits of metazoans for time periods of months.

  16. Microbial metagenomes from three aquifers in the Fennoscandian shield terrestrial deep biosphere reveal metabolic partitioning among populations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofen; Holmfeldt, Karin; Hubalek, Valerie; Lundin, Daniel; Åström, Mats; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms in the terrestrial deep biosphere host up to 20% of the earth's biomass and are suggested to be sustained by the gases hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A metagenome analysis of three deep subsurface water types of contrasting age (from <20 to several thousand years) and depth (171 to 448 m) revealed phylogenetically distinct microbial community subsets that either passed or were retained by a 0.22 μm filter. Such cells of <0.22 μm would have been overlooked in previous studies relying on membrane capture. Metagenomes from the three water types were used for reconstruction of 69 distinct microbial genomes, each with >86% coverage. The populations were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea and unclassified bacteria. The estimated genome sizes of the <0.22 μm populations were generally smaller than their phylogenetically closest relatives, suggesting that small dimensions along with a reduced genome size may be adaptations to oligotrophy. Shallow ‘modern marine' water showed community members with a predominantly heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, ‘old saline' water adhered more closely to the current paradigm of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. The data were finally used to create a combined metabolic model of the deep terrestrial biosphere microbial community. PMID:26484735

  17. Microbial metagenomes from three aquifers in the Fennoscandian shield terrestrial deep biosphere reveal metabolic partitioning among populations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofen; Holmfeldt, Karin; Hubalek, Valerie; Lundin, Daniel; Åström, Mats; Bertilsson, Stefan; Dopson, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Microorganisms in the terrestrial deep biosphere host up to 20% of the earth's biomass and are suggested to be sustained by the gases hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A metagenome analysis of three deep subsurface water types of contrasting age (from <20 to several thousand years) and depth (171 to 448 m) revealed phylogenetically distinct microbial community subsets that either passed or were retained by a 0.22 μm filter. Such cells of <0.22 μm would have been overlooked in previous studies relying on membrane capture. Metagenomes from the three water types were used for reconstruction of 69 distinct microbial genomes, each with >86% coverage. The populations were dominated by Proteobacteria, Candidate divisions, unclassified archaea and unclassified bacteria. The estimated genome sizes of the <0.22 μm populations were generally smaller than their phylogenetically closest relatives, suggesting that small dimensions along with a reduced genome size may be adaptations to oligotrophy. Shallow 'modern marine' water showed community members with a predominantly heterotrophic lifestyle. In contrast, the deeper, 'old saline' water adhered more closely to the current paradigm of a hydrogen-driven deep biosphere. The data were finally used to create a combined metabolic model of the deep terrestrial biosphere microbial community.

  18. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana

    Treesearch

    Lawrence B. Flanagan; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue were made on Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. trees from four full-sib families grown on three different field sites at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Ontario, Canada. The four families chosen exhibited genetic variation for growth characteristics. Genetic...

  19. A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: Support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gill, M.; Vallada, H.; Collier, D.

    1996-02-16

    Several groups have reported weak evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and genetic markers located on chromosome 22q using the lod score method of analysis. However these findings involved different genetic markers and methods of analysis, and so were not directly comparable. To resolve this issue we have performed a combined analysis of genotypic data from the marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. This marker was chosen because it showed maximum evidence for linkage in three independent datasets. Using the affected sib-pair method as implemented by the program ESPA, the combined dataset showedmore » 252 alleles shared compared with 188 alleles not shared (chi-square 9.31, 1df, P = 0.001) where parental genotype data was completely known. When sib-pairs for whom parental data was assigned according to probability were included the number of alleles shared was 514.1 compared with 437.8 not shared (chi-square 6.12, 1df, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained when a likelihood ratio method for sib-pair analysis was used. These results indicate that there may be a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 22q12. 27 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  20. Methane Production and Transport within the Marsh Biome of Biosphere 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of methane in the earth's atmosphere increased 1-2% annually. It's rate of increases, combined with methane's effectiveness as a greenhouse gas, has led to an intensive research effort to determine the sources and sinks of the gas in the environment. Biosphere 2 offers a unique opportunity to contribute to the effort because it lacks a major photochemical sink present in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers can therefore concentrate on biological processes involved in methane cycles. Wetlands are a large source of atmospheric methane, due to anoxic conditions in the sediments and the abundance of organic materials. In order to determine if these conditions in Biosphere 2 also promote methane production, this study looked for the fluxes of methane and methods of transport of the gas from from the water and sediments to the atmosphere in the Marsh Biome. Fluxes of methane from the sediments and waters were measured using static chambers, peepers, and leaf bags. Fluxes and vertical profiles of methane in the sediments show that substantial amounts of methane are being produced in the marsh and are being transported into the Biosphere 2 environment.

  1. SeaWiFS Third Anniversary Global Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    September 18,2000 is the third anniversary of the start of regular SeaWiFS operations of this remarkable planet called Earth. This SeaWiFS image is of the Global Biosphere depicting the ocean's long-term average phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration acquired between September 1997 and August 2000 combined with the SeaWiFS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over land during July 2000.

  2. The subtype-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist SIB-1553A improves both attention and memory components of a spatial working memory task in chronic low dose 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J S; Tinker, J P; Menzaghi, F; Lloyd, G K

    2003-07-01

    Monkeys that receive chronic low dose (CLD) 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration develop deficits in spatial delayed-response task performance. The present study examined the extent to which SIB-1553A [(+/-)-4-[[2-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]thio]phenol hydrochloride], a novel neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist with selectivity for beta4 subunit-containing nAChRs, could counteract this cognitive deficit produced by CLD MPTP exposure. Prior to MPTP treatment, monkeys displayed a delay-dependent decrement in performance on a variable delayed response task. CLD MPTP treatment caused a shift to a delay-independent pattern of responding on this task, such that short-delay trials were performed as poorly as long-delay trials. At lower doses (e.g., 0.025 mg/kg), SIB-1553A significantly improved performance on short-delay trials but only at 24 h after drug administration. At higher doses (e.g., 0.50 mg/kg), SIB-1553A significantly improved performance on both short- and long-delay trials at both 20 min and 24 h after drug administration. When tested 24 h after drug administration, monkeys performed long-delay trials with greater accuracy than they did under normal (pre-MPTP) conditions. These results suggest that at lower doses, SIB-1553A may be more effective in improving attentional deficits associated with CLD MPTP exposure, whereas at higher doses, SIB-1553A may effectively improve both attentional and memory performance.

  3. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  4. Response of the rare biosphere to environmental stressors in a highly diverse ecosystem (Zodletone spring, OK, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Coveley, Suzanne; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2015-01-01

    Within highly diverse ecosystems, the majority of bacterial taxa are present in low abundance as members of the rare biosphere. The rationale for the occurrence and maintenance of the rare biosphere, and the putative ecological role(s) and dynamics of its members within a specific ecosystem is currently debated. We hypothesized that in highly diverse ecosystems, a fraction of the rare biosphere acts as a backup system that readily responds to environmental disturbances. We tested this hypothesis by subjecting sediments from Zodletone spring, a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in Southwestern OK, to incremental levels of salinity (1, 2, 3, 4, and 10% NaCl), or temperature (28°, 30°, 32°, and 70 °C), and traced the trajectories of rare members of the community in response to these manipulations using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Our results indicate that multiple rare bacterial taxa are promoted from rare to abundant members of the community following such manipulations and that, in general, the magnitude of such recruitment is directly proportional to the severity of the applied manipulation. Rare members that are phylogenetically distinct from abundant taxa in the original sample (unique rare biosphere) played a more important role in the microbial community response to environmental disturbances, compared to rare members that are phylogenetically similar to abundant taxa in the original sample (non-unique rare biosphere). The results emphasize the dynamic nature of the rare biosphere, and highlight its complexity and non-monolithic nature. PMID:26312178

  5. Response of the rare biosphere to environmental stressors in a highly diverse ecosystem (Zodletone spring, OK, USA).

    PubMed

    Coveley, Suzanne; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha H

    2015-01-01

    Within highly diverse ecosystems, the majority of bacterial taxa are present in low abundance as members of the rare biosphere. The rationale for the occurrence and maintenance of the rare biosphere, and the putative ecological role(s) and dynamics of its members within a specific ecosystem is currently debated. We hypothesized that in highly diverse ecosystems, a fraction of the rare biosphere acts as a backup system that readily responds to environmental disturbances. We tested this hypothesis by subjecting sediments from Zodletone spring, a sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring in Southwestern OK, to incremental levels of salinity (1, 2, 3, 4, and 10% NaCl), or temperature (28°, 30°, 32°, and 70 °C), and traced the trajectories of rare members of the community in response to these manipulations using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Our results indicate that multiple rare bacterial taxa are promoted from rare to abundant members of the community following such manipulations and that, in general, the magnitude of such recruitment is directly proportional to the severity of the applied manipulation. Rare members that are phylogenetically distinct from abundant taxa in the original sample (unique rare biosphere) played a more important role in the microbial community response to environmental disturbances, compared to rare members that are phylogenetically similar to abundant taxa in the original sample (non-unique rare biosphere). The results emphasize the dynamic nature of the rare biosphere, and highlight its complexity and non-monolithic nature.

  6. Living microbial ecosystems within the active zone of catagenesis: Implications for feeding the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, B.; Schenk, H. J.; Zink, K.; Ondrak, R.; Dieckmann, V.; Kallmeyer, J.; Mangelsdorf, K.; di Primio, R.; Wilkes, H.; Parkes, R. J.; Fry, J.; Cragg, B.

    2006-06-01

    Earth's largest reactive carbon pool, marine sedimentary organic matter, becomes increasingly recalcitrant during burial, making it almost inaccessible as a substrate for microorganisms, and thereby limiting metabolic activity in the deep biosphere. Because elevated temperature acting over geological time leads to the massive thermal breakdown of the organic matter into volatiles, including petroleum, the question arises whether microorganisms can directly utilize these maturation products as a substrate. While migrated thermogenic fluids are known to sustain microbial consortia in shallow sediments, an in situ coupling of abiotic generation and microbial utilization has not been demonstrated. Here we show, using a combination of basin modelling, kinetic modelling, geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry, that microorganisms inhabit the active generation zone in the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Three sites from ODP Leg 190 have been evaluated, namely 1173, 1174 and 1177, drilled in nearly undeformed Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary sequences seaward of the Nankai Trough itself. Paleotemperatures were reconstructed based on subsidence profiles, compaction modelling, present-day heat flow, downhole temperature measurements and organic maturity parameters. Today's heat flow distribution can be considered mainly conductive, and is extremely high in places, reaching 180 mW/m 2. The kinetic parameters describing total hydrocarbon generation, determined by laboratory pyrolysis experiments, were utilized by the model in order to predict the timing of generation in time and space. The model predicts that the onset of present day generation lies between 300 and 500 m below sea floor (5100-5300 m below mean sea level), depending on well location. In the case of Site 1174, 5-10% conversion has taken place by a present day temperature of ca. 85 °C. Predictions were largely validated by on-site hydrocarbon gas measurements. Viable organisms in the same depth range have been

  7. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H 2 , CH 4 , and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  8. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  9. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biospheric Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-10-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably has exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1-4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known space factors are usually the fluxes of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind) and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wave lengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  10. Cosmic Rays as a Factor of Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    2014-11-01

    There are no doubts that the Earth's space environment in the past inevitably exerted direct and/or indirect influence [1--4] on the conditions of terrestrial life and biospheric evolution. Well-known cosmic factors are usually streams of cosmic dust and gas, comets and asteroids, cosmic rays (energetic particles of galactic and/or solar origin), interplanetary plasma (solar wind), and electromagnetic radiation of different energies, wavelengths, or frequencies. Of great interest are radiation conditions and their variations, especially in the remote past (over the geological time scales). The Sun, the most important and indispensable condition for the existence of the Earth's biosphere, is also a potential source of dangerous emissions. In continuation of (and in addition to) our review paper [3], below we summarize the observational data and results of theoretical works that have been carried out and/or published mainly after 2012. These studies are actually in the frontier region between the Astrobiology and Space Weather. Our main attention is paid to cosmic rays (CR) of galactic and solar origin (GCR and SCR, respectively).

  11. Is there a shadow biosphere of silicon utilizing organisms on earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, P.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    The idea of shadow biosphere was first visualized by Carol Cleland and Shelley Copley of the University of Colorado in 2005. Since that time many scientists were interested in this subject and the basis of this paper is also correlated with this novel idea. A shadow biosphere essentially consists of self replicating bodies utilizing one or more chemicals which are not exploited to such extent by organisms of the real biosphere. Silicon-utilizing organisms mainly belong to the diatoms, some other algae, sponges, monocotyledon plants in this category are classified by us. They can survive in extremes of temperature, pressure, radiation, pH, salinity and nutrient conditions and this unusual tolerance to stress depends on their silicon biomineralization occurring either as a biologically controlled process or as a biologically induced process. In the control process silicate is sequestered and transferred to the intracellular silica deposition vesicle by energy driven pump mechanism in presence of specific transporter protein. In induced silicon mineralization, initial amorphous nucleation of silicon is gradually transformed to a crystalline phase. Besides these two methods, there are also other processes in which formation of silanol and siloxane can occur from oligomers of silica originating from monomers by Hydrogen bonding, cation bridging and direct electrostatic interactions. The structure of the silica biomineralised cell wall in silicon utilizing organisms is very complex, but this may explain their ability to stress tolerance and their possible coordinating role with other essential bioactive elements in nature. When electropositive elements are less, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen excess may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the environment. Thus all these features indicate possibility of a shadow biosphere of these organisms on earth.

  12. Cytonuclear genetics of experimental fish hybrid zones inside Biosphere 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Avise, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Two species of mosquitofish (family Poeciliidae) known to hybridize in nature were introduced into freshwater habitats inside Biosphere 2, and their population genetics were monitored after 2 years. Within four to six generations, nuclear and cytoplasmic markers characteristic of Gambusia holbrooki had risen greatly in frequency, although some Gambusia affinis alleles and haplotypes were retained primarily in recombinant genotypes, indicative of introgressive hybridization. The temporal cytonuclear dynamics proved similar to population genetic changes observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations outside of Biosphere 2, thus indicating strong directional selection favoring G. holbrooki genotypes across the range of environments monitored. When interpreted in the context of species-specific population demographies observed previously, results suggest that the extremely rapid evolution in these zones of secondary contact is attributable primarily to species differences in life-history traits.

  13. Challenging terrestrial biosphere models with data from the long-term multifactor Prairie Heating and CO 2 enrichment experiment

    DOE PAGES

    De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Walker, Anthony P.; ...

    2017-02-01

    Multi-factor experiments are often advocated as important for advancing terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), yet to date such models have only been tested against single-factor experiments. We applied 10 TBMs to the multi-factor Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA. Our goals were to investigate how multi-factor experiments can be used to constrain models, and to identify a road map for model improvement. We found models performed poorly in ambient conditions; there was a wide spread in simulated above-ground net primary productivity (range: 31-390 g C m -2 yr -1). Comparison with data highlighted model failures particularlymore » in respect to carbon allocation, phenology, and the impact of water stress on phenology. Performance against single-factors was also relatively poor. In addition, similar responses were predicted for different reasons across models: there were large differences among models in sensitivity to water stress and, among the nitrogen cycle models, nitrogen availability during the experiment. Models were also unable to capture observed treatment effects on phenology: they over-estimated the effect of warming on leaf onset and did not allow CO 2-induced water savings to extend growing season length. Observed interactive (CO 2 x warming) treatment effects were subtle and contingent on water stress, phenology and species composition. Since the models did not correctly represent these processes under ambient and single-factor conditions, little extra information was gained by comparing model predictions against interactive responses. Finally, we outline a series of key areas in which this and future experiments could be used to improve model predictions of grassland responses to global change.« less

  14. Challenging terrestrial biosphere models with data from the long-term multifactor Prairie Heating and CO 2 enrichment experiment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Walker, Anthony P.

    Multi-factor experiments are often advocated as important for advancing terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), yet to date such models have only been tested against single-factor experiments. We applied 10 TBMs to the multi-factor Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA. Our goals were to investigate how multi-factor experiments can be used to constrain models, and to identify a road map for model improvement. We found models performed poorly in ambient conditions; there was a wide spread in simulated above-ground net primary productivity (range: 31-390 g C m -2 yr -1). Comparison with data highlighted model failures particularlymore » in respect to carbon allocation, phenology, and the impact of water stress on phenology. Performance against single-factors was also relatively poor. In addition, similar responses were predicted for different reasons across models: there were large differences among models in sensitivity to water stress and, among the nitrogen cycle models, nitrogen availability during the experiment. Models were also unable to capture observed treatment effects on phenology: they over-estimated the effect of warming on leaf onset and did not allow CO 2-induced water savings to extend growing season length. Observed interactive (CO 2 x warming) treatment effects were subtle and contingent on water stress, phenology and species composition. Since the models did not correctly represent these processes under ambient and single-factor conditions, little extra information was gained by comparing model predictions against interactive responses. Finally, we outline a series of key areas in which this and future experiments could be used to improve model predictions of grassland responses to global change.« less

  15. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  16. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regardingmore » agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.« less

  17. Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive Sulfide: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.

    2005-12-01

    Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in basalt aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive sulfide deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive sulfide deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the sulfide orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen sulfide continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the sulfide ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results

  18. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  19. Using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator of PCBs and PBDEs in the dinghushan biosphere reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ke-Lin; Peng, Ying; Feng, An-Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    The Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve and a site for the study of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Rapid industrialization and intensive electronic waste-recycling activities around the biosphere reserve have resulted in elevated levels of industrial organic contaminants in the local environment that may cause adverse effects on wildlife that inhabits this area. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 2 alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)-were investigated in the biosphere reserve and a reference site by using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator. Residue concentrations in kingfishers from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve ranged from 490 ng/g to 3000 ng/g, 51 ng/g to 420 ng/g, 0.44 ng/g to 90 ng/g, and 0.04 ng/g to 0.87 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, DBDPE, and BTBPE, respectively. With the exception of the BTBPE, these levels were 2 to 5 times higher than those detected in kingfishers from the reference site. The contaminant patterns from the biosphere reserve were also different, with larger PCB contributions in comparison with the reference site. The estimated predator-prey biomagnification factors (BMFs) showed that most of the PCB and PBDE congeners and BTBPE were biomagnified in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve. The calculated toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations of major coplanar PCB congeners in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve ranged from 18 pg/g to 66 pg/g wet weight, with some of these TEQ concentrations reaching or exceeding the levels known to impair bird reproduction and survival. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Publications of the biospheric research program: 1981-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a list of publications of investigators supported by the Biospheric Research Program of the Biological Systems Research Branch, Life Sciences Division, and the Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications dated as of December 31, 1987 and entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database at the George Washington University. Publications are organized by the year published.

  1. Effect of plastic deformation on the magnetic properties and dislocation luminescence of isotopically enriched silicon {sup 29}Si:B

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koplak, O. V.; Shteynman, E. A.; Tereschenko, A. N.

    2015-09-15

    A correlation between the temperature dependences of the D1-line intensity of dislocation luminescence and the magnetic moment of plastically deformed isotopically enriched crystals {sup 29}Si:B is found. It is established that the magnetic susceptibility of the deformed crystals obtained by integration of the spectra of electron spin resonance and the D1-line intensity undergo similar nonmonotonic variations with temperature varying in the range of 20–32 K.

  2. Application of AVHRR vegetation index to study atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2: Results from a 3-D tracer transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Inez Y.; Tucker, C. J.; Prentice, Katharine C.

    1985-01-01

    The 'normalized difference vegetation indices' (NVI) derived from AVHRR radiances are combined with field data of soil respiration and a global map of net primary productivity to prescribe, for the globe, the seasonal exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly fluxes of CO2 thus obtained are used as inputs to a 3-D tracer transport model which uses winds generated by a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model to advect CO2 as an inert constituent. Analysis of the 3-D model results shows reasonable agreement between the simulated and observed annual cycles of atmospheric CO2 at the locations of the remote monitoring stations. The application is shown of atmospheric CO2 distributions to calibrate the NVI in terms of carbon fluxes. The approach suggests that the NVI may be used to provide quantitative information about long term and global scale variations of photosynthetic activity and of atmospheric CO2 concentrations provided that variations in the atmospheric circulation and in atmospheric composition are known.

  3. Understanding local community's values, worldviews and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hernes, Maya I; Metzger, Marc J

    2017-01-15

    Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey. The survey revealed that residents of the GSABR greatly value wildlife and beauty of nature, and that the majority of the respondents showed concern for the environment from an ecocentric worldview. Results also revealed that the most influential tested socio-demographic characteristic affecting people's relationship to their environment is their professional affiliation. Tourism and recreation were seen as major benefits of the recent biosphere designation. Results did highlight contrasting benefits from the designation for different stakeholder groups, which could potentially lead to tensions and should be considered in the reserve management. Given the community's supportive world views and perceptions, greater participation in the biosphere's management in likely to be welcomed and should be used to avoid or mediate any conflicts. The mixed-method survey developed for this study, proved successful in eliciting these themes in the GSABR. We recommend other biosphere reserves replicate this research, to gain better understanding of local communities and increase their support and participation in reserve management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenging terrestrial biosphere models with data from the long-term multifactor Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment.

    PubMed

    De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Walker, Anthony P; Zaehle, Sönke; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Hickler, Thomas; Jain, Atul K; Luo, Yiqi; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina; Parton, William J; Shu, Shijie; Wang, Ying-Ping; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A; Ryan, Edmund M; Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; Zelikova, Tamara J; Norby, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Multifactor experiments are often advocated as important for advancing terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), yet to date, such models have only been tested against single-factor experiments. We applied 10 TBMs to the multifactor Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in Wyoming, USA. Our goals were to investigate how multifactor experiments can be used to constrain models and to identify a road map for model improvement. We found models performed poorly in ambient conditions; there was a wide spread in simulated above-ground net primary productivity (range: 31-390 g C m -2  yr -1 ). Comparison with data highlighted model failures particularly with respect to carbon allocation, phenology, and the impact of water stress on phenology. Performance against the observations from single-factors treatments was also relatively poor. In addition, similar responses were predicted for different reasons across models: there were large differences among models in sensitivity to water stress and, among the N cycle models, N availability during the experiment. Models were also unable to capture observed treatment effects on phenology: they overestimated the effect of warming on leaf onset and did not allow CO 2 -induced water savings to extend the growing season length. Observed interactive (CO 2  × warming) treatment effects were subtle and contingent on water stress, phenology, and species composition. As the models did not correctly represent these processes under ambient and single-factor conditions, little extra information was gained by comparing model predictions against interactive responses. We outline a series of key areas in which this and future experiments could be used to improve model predictions of grassland responses to global change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Female phenotype and multiple abnormalities in sibs with a Y chromosome and partial X chromosome duplication: H--Y antigen and Xg blood group findings.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, R; Jenkins, T; Dawson, B; Wagner, J; Dewald, G; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S

    1980-01-01

    A mentally retarded female child with multiple congenital abnormalities had an abnormal X chromosome and a Y chromosome; the karyotype was interpreted as 46,dup(X)(p21 leads to pter)Y. Prenatal chromosome studies in a later pregnancy indicated the same chromosomal abnormality in the fetus. The fetus and proband had normal female genitalia and ovarian tissue. H--Y antigen was virtually absent in both sibs, a finding consistent with the view that testis-determining genes of the Y chromosome may be suppressed by regulatory elements of the X. The abnormal X chromosome was present in the mother, the maternal grandmother, and a female sib: all were phenotypically normal and showed the karyotype 46,Xdup(X)(p21 leads to pter) with non-random inactivation of the abnormal X. Anomalous segregation of the Xga allele suggests that the Xg locus was involved in the inactivation process or that crossing-over at meiosis occurred. Images PMID:7193738

  6. Biospheric-atmospheric coupling on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical calculations performed with a one-dimensional photochemical model have been performed to assess the biospheric-atmospheric transfer of gases. Ozone reached levels to shield the Earth from biologically lethal solar ultraviolet radiation (220-300 nm) when atmospheric oxygen reached about 1/10 of its present atmospheric level. In the present atmosphere, about 90 percent of atmospheric nitrous oxide is destroyed via solar photolysis in the stratosphere with about 10 percent destroyed via reaction with excited oxygen atoms. The reaction between nitrous oxide and excited oxygen atoms leads to the production of nitric oxide in the stratosphere, which is responsible for about 70 percent of the global destruction of oxygen in the stratosphere. In the oxygen/ozone deficient atmosphere, solar photolysis destroyed about 100 percent of the atmospheric nitrous oxide, relegating the production of nitric oxide via reaction with excited oxygen to zero. Our laboratory and field measurements indicate that atmospheric oxygen promotes the biogenic production of N2O and NO via denitrification and the biogenic production of methane by methanogenesis.

  7. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, S.; Grenfell, J. L.; Stock, J. W.; Lehmann, R.; Godolt, M.; von Paris, P.; Rauer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2, whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis. The O2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. (2006) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH4 with increasing O2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O2 is unique. Mixing, CH4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases remove O2 that

  8. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O 2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O 2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O 2 , whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O 2 is formed abiotically via CO 2 photolysis. The O 2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH 4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH 4 with increasing O 2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O 2 is unique. Mixing, CH 4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O 2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O 2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases

  9. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: Relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J.; Ailing, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere.

  10. How well do terrestrial biosphere models simulate coarse-scale runoff in the contiguous United States?

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, C.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Cook, Robert B.; ...

    2015-03-11

    Significant changes in the water cycle are expected under current global environmental change. Robust assessment of present-day water cycle dynamics at continental to global scales is confounded by shortcomings in the observed record. Modeled assessments also yield conflicting results which are linked to differences in model structure and simulation protocol. Here we compare simulated gridded (1 spatial resolution) runoff from six terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), seven reanalysis products, and one gridded surface station product in the contiguous United States (CONUS) from 2001 to 2005. We evaluate the consistency of these 14 estimates with stream gauge data, both as depleted flowmore » and corrected for net withdrawals (2005 only), at the CONUS and water resource region scale, as well as examining similarity across TBMs and reanalysis products at the grid cell scale. Mean runoff across all simulated products and regions varies widely (range: 71 to 356 mm yr(-1)) relative to observed continental-scale runoff (209 or 280 mm yr(-1) when corrected for net withdrawals). Across all 14 products 8 exhibit Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values in excess of 0.8 and three are within 10% of the observed value. Region-level mismatch exhibits a weak pattern of overestimation in western and underestimation in eastern regions although two products are systematically biased across all regions and largely scales with water use. Although gridded composite TBM and reanalysis runoff show some regional similarities, individual product values are highly variable. At the coarse scales used here we find that progress in better constraining simulated runoff requires standardized forcing data and the explicit incorporation of human effects (e.g., water withdrawals by source, fire, and land use change). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  11. Neurocognitive dysfunction and pharmacological intervention using guanfacine in a rhesus macaque model of self-injurious behavior

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Z T; Rice, K A; Soto, P L; Pate, K A M; Weed, M R; Ator, N A; DeLeon, I G; Wong, D F; Zhou, Y; Mankowski, J L; Zink, M C; Adams, R J; Hutchinson, E K

    2015-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a common comorbidity of psychiatric disorders but there is a dearth of information about neurological mechanisms underlying the behavior, and few animal models exist. SIB in humans is characterized by any intentional self-directed behavior that leads to wounds, whereas in macaques it is not always accompanied by wounds. We describe a cohort of rhesus macaques displaying SIB as adults, in which changes within the central nervous system were associated with the SIB. In these macaques, increases in central nervous system striatal dopamine (DA) receptor binding (BPND) measured by positron emission tomography (PET) [11C]raclopride imaging correlated with severity of wounding (rs=0.662, P=0.014). Furthermore, utilizing standardized cognitive function tests, we showed that impulsivity (stop signal reaction time, SSRT) and deficits in attentional set shifting (intra-/extradimensional shift) were correlated with increased severity of SIB (rs=0.563, P=0.045 and rs=0.692, P=0.009, respectively). We also tested the efficacy of guanfacine, an α2A adrenergic agonist that acts to improve postsynaptic transmission of neuronal impulses, in reducing SIB. A subset of these animals were enrolled in a randomized experimenter-blinded study that demonstrated guanfacine decreased the severity of wounding in treated animals compared with vehicle-only-treated controls (P=0.043), with residual beneficial effects seen for several weeks after cessation of therapy. Animals with the highest severity of SIB that received guanfacine also showed the most significant improvement (rs=−0.761, P=0.009). The elevated PET BPND was likely due to low intrasynaptic DA, which in turn may have been improved by guanfacine. With underlying physiology potentially representative of the human condition and the ability to affect outcome measures of disease using pharmacotherapy, this model represents a unique opportunity to further our understanding of the biology and treatment

  12. Neurocognitive dysfunction and pharmacological intervention using guanfacine in a rhesus macaque model of self-injurious behavior.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Z T; Rice, K A; Soto, P L; Pate, K A M; Weed, M R; Ator, N A; DeLeon, I G; Wong, D F; Zhou, Y; Mankowski, J L; Zink, M C; Adams, R J; Hutchinson, E K

    2015-05-19

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a common comorbidity of psychiatric disorders but there is a dearth of information about neurological mechanisms underlying the behavior, and few animal models exist. SIB in humans is characterized by any intentional self-directed behavior that leads to wounds, whereas in macaques it is not always accompanied by wounds. We describe a cohort of rhesus macaques displaying SIB as adults, in which changes within the central nervous system were associated with the SIB. In these macaques, increases in central nervous system striatal dopamine (DA) receptor binding (BPND) measured by positron emission tomography (PET) [11C]raclopride imaging correlated with severity of wounding (rs=0.662, P=0.014). Furthermore, utilizing standardized cognitive function tests, we showed that impulsivity (stop signal reaction time, SSRT) and deficits in attentional set shifting (intra-/extradimensional shift) were correlated with increased severity of SIB (rs=0.563, P=0.045 and rs=0.692, P=0.009, respectively). We also tested the efficacy of guanfacine, an α2A adrenergic agonist that acts to improve postsynaptic transmission of neuronal impulses, in reducing SIB. A subset of these animals were enrolled in a randomized experimenter-blinded study that demonstrated guanfacine decreased the severity of wounding in treated animals compared with vehicle-only-treated controls (P=0.043), with residual beneficial effects seen for several weeks after cessation of therapy. Animals with the highest severity of SIB that received guanfacine also showed the most significant improvement (rs=-0.761, P=0.009). The elevated PET BPND was likely due to low intrasynaptic DA, which in turn may have been improved by guanfacine. With underlying physiology potentially representative of the human condition and the ability to affect outcome measures of disease using pharmacotherapy, this model represents a unique opportunity to further our understanding of the biology and treatment of

  13. Does Aspartic Acid Racemization Constrain the Depth Limit of the Subsurface Biosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, T C.; Magnabosco, C.; Aubrey, A. D.; Burton, A. S.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Grunsfeld, S.; Cao, B. H.; Hein, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of approximately 89 years for 1 km depth and 27 C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples.

  14. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or technology... vary factors related to the geology, hydrology, and climate based upon cautious, but reasonable...

  15. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or technology... vary factors related to the geology, hydrology, and climate based upon cautious, but reasonable...

  16. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or technology... vary factors related to the geology, hydrology, and climate based upon cautious, but reasonable...

  17. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the region surrounding the Yucca Mountain site. (b) DOE should not project changes in society, the biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or technology... vary factors related to the geology, hydrology, and climate based upon cautious, but reasonable...

  18. Covariance Between Genotypic Effects and its Use for Genomic Inference in Half-Sib Families

    PubMed Central

    Wittenburg, Dörte; Teuscher, Friedrich; Klosa, Jan; Reinsch, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In livestock, current statistical approaches utilize extensive molecular data, e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to improve the genetic evaluation of individuals. The number of model parameters increases with the number of SNPs, so the multicollinearity between covariates can affect the results obtained using whole genome regression methods. In this study, dependencies between SNPs due to linkage and linkage disequilibrium among the chromosome segments were explicitly considered in methods used to estimate the effects of SNPs. The population structure affects the extent of such dependencies, so the covariance among SNP genotypes was derived for half-sib families, which are typical in livestock populations. Conditional on the SNP haplotypes of the common parent (sire), the theoretical covariance was determined using the haplotype frequencies of the population from which the individual parent (dam) was derived. The resulting covariance matrix was included in a statistical model for a trait of interest, and this covariance matrix was then used to specify prior assumptions for SNP effects in a Bayesian framework. The approach was applied to one family in simulated scenarios (few and many quantitative trait loci) and using semireal data obtained from dairy cattle to identify genome segments that affect performance traits, as well as to investigate the impact on predictive ability. Compared with a method that does not explicitly consider any of the relationship among predictor variables, the accuracy of genetic value prediction was improved by 10–22%. The results show that the inclusion of dependence is particularly important for genomic inference based on small sample sizes. PMID:27402363

  19. Using Remotely Sensed Fluorescence and Soil Moisture to Better Understand the Seasonal Cycle of Tropical Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Dakota Carlysle

    Seasonal grasslands account for a large area of Earth's land cover. Annual and seasonal changes in these grasslands have profound impacts on Earth's carbon, energy, and water cycles. In tropical grasslands, growth is commonly water-limited and the landscape oscillates between highly productive and unproductive. As the monsoon begins, soils moisten providing dry grasses the water necessary to photosynthesize. However, along with the rain come clouds that obscure satellite products that are commonly used to study productivity in these areas. To navigate this issue, we used solar induced fluorescence (SIF) products from OCO-2 along with soil moisture products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) to "see through" the clouds to monitor grassland productivity. To get a broader understanding of the vegetation dynamics, we used the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4) to simulate the seasonal cycles of vegetation. In conjunction with SiB4, the remotely sensed SIF and soil moisture observations were utilized to paint a clearer picture of seasonal productivity in tropical grasslands. The remotely sensed data is not available for every place at one time or at every time for one place. Thus, the study was focused on a large area from 15° E to 35° W and from 8°S to 20°N in the African Sahel. Instead of studying productivity relative to time, we studied it relative to soil moisture. Through this investigation we found soil moisture thresholds for the emergence of grassland growth, near linear grassland growth, and maturity of grassland growth. We also found that SiB4 overestimates SIF by about a factor of two for nearly every value of soil moisture. On the whole, SiB4 does a surprisingly good job of predicting the response of seasonal growth in tropical grasslands to soil moisture. Future work will continue to integrate remotely sensed SIF & soil moisture with SiB4 to add to our growing knowledge of carbon, water, and energy cycling in tropical grasslands.

  20. Ocean Drilling Program Contributions to the Understanding of the Deep Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Tantalizing evidence for microbes in oceanic basalts has been reported for a few decades, but it was from rocks cored on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 148 in 1993 that the first clear-cut evidence of microbial invasion of ocean basalts was obtained. (Work on ODP legs, starting with Leg 112 in 1986, had already revealed the presence of significant microbial biomass in sediments.) In 1997 ODP created the Deep Biosphere Program Planning Group to promote the investigation of the microbiology of the ocean crust. In 1999 ODP built a microbiology lab on the JOIDES Resolution, and used the lab that year (Legs 185 and 187) to test the amount of microbial contamination introduced into rocks during drilling and to establish cultures from cored basalts. These experiments have been repeated on several legs since then. The development of CORKs has permitted long-term sampling of subseafloor fluids, and microorganisms have been recovered from CORKed holes. Thus, ODP made it possible for the scientific community to address major questions about the biology of the igneous crust, such as, (1) What microbes are present? (2) How abundant are they? (3) How are they distributed? DNA from basalts and subseafloor fluids reveal what types of organisms are present. Cell abundance and biomass have been estimated based on cell counts and on organic content of basalts. Surveys of basalts in DSDP/ODP repositories indicate that microorganisms are ubiquitous in the igneous crust. Microorganisms are found in rocks that are close to 100° C. They are found as deep as 1500 m below the sea floor, and in rocks as young as a few years and as old as 170 million years. Because of the vast size of the habitat, microorganism, even if present in small numbers, could be a significant fraction of the Earth's biomass. In a short time ODP contributed to advances in our understanding of the oceanic subsurface biosphere. Answers to other significant questions such as: (1) How do the microorganisms live?, (2

  1. 10 CFR 63.305 - Required characteristics of the reference biosphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....305 Section 63.305 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE... biosphere (other than climate), human biology, or increases or decreases of human knowledge or technology... factors remain constant as they are at the time of submission of the license application. (c) DOE must...

  2. A Regional-Scale Groundwater Model Supporting Management of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve and its Catchment, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, B. R.; Merediz Alonso, G.; Rebolledo Vieyra, M.; Marin, L.; Supper, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is a rapidly developing area featuring a booming tourism industry. The number of hotel rooms in the Riviera Maya has increased from 2600 in 1996 to 26,000 in 2005, while the total population in the Mexican federal state of Quintana Roo has grown from 500,000 in 1990 to 1,115,000 in 2005. This explosive growth threatens the region's water resources, which primarily consist of a less than 50m thick freshwater lens residing in the regional karst aquifer underlying the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, a 6400 km2 combined marine/terrestrial nature protection area is situated south of Tulum (approx. 87.3° - 88° W, 19° - 20° N). The site is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and is protected under the Ramsar Convention. It includes extensive freshwater wetlands, saline/brackish mangrove swamps, tropical rainforests and parts of the world's second largest coral reef. The freshwater supply to the system occurs primarily via subsurface inflow. Large freshwater springs emerge through vertical sinkholes (cenotes) in the lagoons of Sian Ka'an. Management of this unique ecosystem in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the surrounding areas requires detailed knowledge on the groundwater flow paths in and around the reserve. Moreover, mapping and delineation of its groundwater catchment zone and groundwater traveling time zones is essential. To this end, a regional-scale steady-state groundwater flow model of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere reserve and its catchment was developed. The model is implemented in MIKE SHE with a finite-difference cell size of 1 km2 and is driven with temporally averaged climate forcings. The karst aquifer is treated as an equivalent porous medium. Darcy's law is assumed to be valid over regional scales and the main structural elements of the karst aquifer are included in the model as zones of varying hydraulic conductivity. High conductivity zones in the Sian Ka

  3. Modern Microbial Ecosystems are a Key to Understanding Our Biosphere's Early Evolution and its Contributions To The Atmosphere and Rock Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The survival of our early biosphere depended upon efficient coordination anion- diverse microbial populations. Microbial mats exhibit a 3.46-billion-year fossil record, thus they are the oldest known ecosystems. Photosynthetic microbial mats were key because, today, sunlight powers more than 99 percent of global primary productivity. Thus photosynthetic ecosystems have affected the atmosphere profoundly and have created the most pervasive, easily-detected fossils. Photosynthetic biospheres elsewhere will be most detectible via telescopes or spacecraft. As a part of the Astrobiology Institute, our Ames Microbial Ecosystems group examines the roles played by ecological processes in the early evolution of our biosphere, as recorded in geologic fossils and in the macromolecules of living cells: (1) We are defining the microbial mat microenvironment, which was an important milieu for early evolution. (2) We are comparing mats in contrasting environments to discern strategies of adaptation and diversification, traits that were key for long-term survival. (3) We have selected sites that mimic key environmental attributes of early Earth and thereby focus upon evolutionary adaptations to long-term changes in the global environment. (4) Our studies of gas exchange contribute to better estimates of biogenic gases in Earth's early atmosphere. This group therefore directly addresses the question: How have the Earth and its biosphere influenced each other over time Our studies strengthen the systematics for interpreting the microbial fossil record and thereby enhance astrobiological studies of martian samples. Our models of biogenic gas emissions will enhance models of atmospheres that might be detected on inhabited extrasolar planets. This work therefore also addresses the question: How can other biospheres be recogniZed" Our choice of field sites helps us explore Earth's evolving early environment. For example, modern mats that occupy thermal springs and certain freshwater

  4. Tracing the microbial biosphere into the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalicchio, Marcello; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Birgel, Daniel; Lozar, Francesca; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), one of the largest environmental crises in Earth history, occurred in the Mediterranean Basin about 6 Ma ago. The isolation of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean caused the transformation of the Mediterranean sea into a giant salina. The establishment of harsh conditions (hypersalinity and anoxia) in the water mass had a strong impact on the aquatic biosphere, resulting in the apparent disappearance of many marine biota. This aspect is however controversial, mostly because of the finding of fossils of biota that actually survived the onset of the MSC. To trace the response of life to this catastrophic event, we studied the microbial biosphere (both body fossils and molecular fossils) archived in the sediments straddling the MSC onset (shales, carbonates and sulphates) from marginal subbasins (Piedmont Basin, northern Italy, and Nijar Basin, southern Spain). Despite the significant reduction of calcareous plankton, the progressive rise of other microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) is documented in the studied sediments at the MSC onset. These microorganisms include remains of euryhaline and stenohaline diatoms and filamentous microfossils interpreted as vacuolated sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. This fossil assemblage, which typifies both marginal (gypsum) and more distal (carbonates and shale) deposits, indicates conditions of high primary productivity in the surface waters, favoured by increased nutrient influx in the course of high riverine runoff. Molecular fossils allow tracing of the microbial biosphere into the geological past. The rise of algal compounds (e.g. dinosterol) in the basal MSC deposits (gypsum, carbonate and shales), accompanied by the simultaneous increase of terrigenous organic material (n-alkanes), agree with the eutrophication of the basin. In addition, the MSC deposits show an instant and significant increase of archaeal biomarkers, including the archaeal membrane lipids archaeol and extended

  5. Searching susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder: a sib pair study on chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Cristina; Delmonte, Dario; Pirovano, Adele; Marino, Elena; Bongiorno, Fanny; Catalano, Marco; Colombo, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Several linkage studies demonstrated that different chromosomal regions are involved in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder. In particular, some genome scans evidenced the role of chromosome 12. For this reason, our group chose this chromosome for a preliminary genome scan on a sample of 137 Italian sib pairs, including at least 1 bipolar subject. The analyses were carried out by means of DNA extracted from whole blood. DNA samples were genotyped by 19 simple tandem repeat markers (microsatellites). Starting from the genetic data, we performed two- and multipoint linkage analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) by means of Easy Linkage plus package (version 5.05). The multipoint linkage analyses pointed out a region suggestive of linkage between the markers D12S310 and D12S364, at locus 12p12. In particular, we reached the best evidence of linkage performing multipoint analyses and assuming a recessive model, under the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity (heterogeneity LOD score = 2.01 and alpha = 0.77). It is interesting to notice that the region at the marker D12S364 is located inside the gene coding for the glutamatergic receptor GRIN2B. Therefore, our finding not only confirmed the role of genetics in determining liability to bipolar disorder, but suggested glutamatergic transmission impairment as a possible cause. Nevertheless, we acknowledge that our study is heavily underpowered. Therefore, independent replication is needed. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  7. Earth applications of closed ecological systems: relevance to the development of sustainability in our global biosphere.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Allen, J; Alling, A; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S

    2003-01-01

    The parallels between the challenges facing bioregenerative life support in artificial closed ecological systems and those in our global biosphere are striking. At the scale of the current global technosphere and expanding human population, it is increasingly obvious that the biosphere can no longer safely buffer and absorb technogenic and anthropogenic pollutants. The loss of biodiversity, reliance on non-renewable natural resources, and conversion of once wild ecosystems for human use with attendant desertification/soil erosion, has led to a shift of consciousness and the widespread call for sustainability of human activities. For researchers working on bioregenerative life support in closed systems, the small volumes and faster cycling times than in the Earth's biosphere make it starkly clear that systems must be designed to ensure renewal of water and atmosphere, nutrient recycling, production of healthy food, and safe environmental methods of maintaining technical systems. The development of technical systems that can be fully integrated and supportive of living systems is a harbinger of new perspectives as well as technologies in the global environment. In addition, closed system bioregenerative life support offers opportunities for public education and consciousness changing of how to live with our global biosphere. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Smith, W. Kolby; Marklein, Alison R.; Reed, Sasha C.; Parton, William; Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Running, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability regulate plant productivity throughout the terrestrial biosphere, influencing the patterns and magnitude of net primary production (NPP) by land plants both now and into the future. These nutrients enter ecosystems via geologic and atmospheric pathways and are recycled to varying degrees through the plant–soil–microbe system via organic matter decay processes. However, the proportion of global NPP that can be attributed to new nutrient inputs versus recycled nutrients is unresolved, as are the large-scale patterns of variation across terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we combined satellite imagery, biogeochemical modeling, and empirical observations to identify previously unrecognized patterns of new versus recycled nutrient (N and P) productivity on land. Our analysis points to tropical forests as a hotspot of new NPP fueled by new N (accounting for 45% of total new NPP globally), much higher than previous estimates from temperate and high-latitude regions. The large fraction of tropical forest NPP resulting from new N is driven by the high capacity for N fixation, although this varies considerably within this diverse biome; N deposition explains a much smaller proportion of new NPP. By contrast, the contribution of new N to primary productivity is lower outside the tropics, and worldwide, new P inputs are uniformly low relative to plant demands. These results imply that new N inputs have the greatest capacity to fuel additional NPP by terrestrial plants, whereas low P availability may ultimately constrain NPP across much of the terrestrial biosphere. PMID:23861492

  9. The oxygen side of sulfate constrains global biospheric productivity in the mid-Phanerozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has read in the oxygen side of sulfate a record of CO2 concentrations and extreme environments on Neoproterozoic Earth [1, 2]. The connection between CO2 levels and total isotopic composition of mineral proxies for marine sulfate was motivated by an empirical correlation between CO2 concentrations and in 17O anomalies in samples of atmospheric gases preserved as bubbles in ice cores [3,4]. The 17O anomaly in atmospheric O2 has been interpreted to originate primarily from stratospheric photochemical cycles of O3, O2, and CO2 [3, 4]. Both CO2 and O3 form the 17O-enriched partners for the 17O-depleted O2 and, given a fixed atmospheric lifetime for O2, isotopic mass balance dictates that increasing CO2 levels will drive larger relative 17O deficits in O2. With a photochemically-calibrated relationship between the relative 17O anomaly in atmospheric O2 and atmospheric CO2 levels [1], the amount of CO2 in an ancient atmosphere can be directly estimated from the isotopic record of atmospheric O2 bound up in the oxygen side of sulfate. Although they are correlated, the relative 17O anomaly in atmospheric O2 is not only a function of atmospheric CO2 levels. Photosynthetic O2 is characterized by isotopically ‘normal’ oxygen sourced from the global hydrosphere [3]. Increased photosynthetic O2 production, therefore, dilutes the isotopic anomaly found in atmospheric O2. Measurements of the 17O anomaly in O2 from ice cores allow global changes in global biosphere productivity to be traced back to 60 ka ago [3, 4]. Applying similar analysis to recent datasets of the 17O anomaly in marine sulfates [1] and atmospheric CO2 levels [5] produces quantitative global biospheric productivity estimates for the time interval from 310 to 240 Ma ago. Although the time resolution is coarse, much of the mid-Phanerozoic was characterized by global biospheric productivity similar in magnitude to the average global biospheric productivity for the last 10 ka. Counterintuitively

  10. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  11. Pilot Institute on Global Change on Trace Gases and the Biosphere, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.; Moore, B.

    1998-01-01

    Table of Contents: Summary; Background; General Framework for a Series of Institutes on Global Change; The 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Changes: Trace Gases and the Biosphere; Budget; List of Acronyms; and Attachments.

  12. Does aspartic acid racemization constrain the depth limit of the subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Onstott, T C; Magnabosco, C; Aubrey, A D; Burton, A S; Dworkin, J P; Elsila, J E; Grunsfeld, S; Cao, B H; Hein, J E; Glavin, D P; Kieft, T L; Silver, B J; Phelps, T J; van Heerden, E; Opperman, D J; Bada, J L

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of the subsurface biosphere have deduced average cellular doubling times of hundreds to thousands of years based upon geochemical models. We have directly constrained the in situ average cellular protein turnover or doubling times for metabolically active micro-organisms based on cellular amino acid abundances, D/L values of cellular aspartic acid, and the in vivo aspartic acid racemization rate. Application of this method to planktonic microbial communities collected from deep fractures in South Africa yielded maximum cellular amino acid turnover times of ~89 years for 1 km depth and 27 °C and 1-2 years for 3 km depth and 54 °C. The latter turnover times are much shorter than previously estimated cellular turnover times based upon geochemical arguments. The aspartic acid racemization rate at higher temperatures yields cellular protein doubling times that are consistent with the survival times of hyperthermophilic strains and predicts that at temperatures of 85 °C, cells must replace proteins every couple of days to maintain enzymatic activity. Such a high maintenance requirement may be the principal limit on the abundance of living micro-organisms in the deep, hot subsurface biosphere, as well as a potential limit on their activity. The measurement of the D/L of aspartic acid in biological samples is a potentially powerful tool for deep, fractured continental and oceanic crustal settings where geochemical models of carbon turnover times are poorly constrained. Experimental observations on the racemization rates of aspartic acid in living thermophiles and hyperthermophiles could test this hypothesis. The development of corrections for cell wall peptides and spores will be required, however, to improve the accuracy of these estimates for environmental samples. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Delving into the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, S. L.; Sogin, M. L.; Boetius, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Brazelton, W. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Edwards, K. J.; Fisk, M. R.; Gaidos, E.; Gralnick, J.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazar, C.; Lavalleur, H.; Lever, M. A.; Marteinsson, V.; Moser, D. P.; Orcutt, B.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, R.; Ramette, A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Sylvan, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Teske, A.; Walsh, E. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Census of Deep Life organized an international survey of microbial community diversity in terrestrial and marine deep subsurface environments. Habitats included subsurface continental fractured rock aquifers, volcanic and metamorphic subseafloor sedimentary units from the open ocean, subsurface oxic and anoxic sediments and underlying basaltic oceanic crust, and their overlying water columns. Our survey employed high-throughput pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4-V6 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. We detected 1292 bacterial genera representing 40 phyla, and 99 archaeal genera from 30 phyla. Of these, a core group of thirteen bacterial genera occurred in every environment. A genus of the South African Goldmine Group (Euryarchaeota) was always present whenever archaea were detected. Members of the rare biosphere in one system often represented highly abundant taxa in other environments. Dispersal could account for this observation but mechanisms of transport remain elusive. Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria) represented highly abundant taxa in marine communities and terrestrial rock, but generally low abundance organisms in groundwater. Some of these taxa could represent sample contamination, and their extensive distribution in several systems requires further assessment. An unknown Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes) genus, Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Acidovorax and Aquabacterium (both Betaproteobacteria), a Chlorobiales genus, and a TM7 genus were in the core group as well but more prevalent in terrestrial environments. Similarly, Bacillus (Firmicutes), a new cyanobacterial genus, Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas (both Alphaproteobacteria), a novel Acidobacteriaceae genus, and Variovorax (Betaproteobacteria) frequently occurred in marine systems but represented low abundance taxa in other environments. Communities tended to cluster by biome and material, and many genera were unique to systems. For example, certain Rhizobiales

  14. Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability regulate plant productivity throughout the terrestrial biosphere, influencing the patterns and magnitude of net primary production (NPP) by land plants both now and into the future. These nutrients enter ecosystems via geologic and atmospheric pathways, a...

  15. Access: A Directory of Contacts, Environmental Data Bases, and Scientific Infrastructure on 175 Biosphere Reserves in 32 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.

    Following the EuroMAB meeting in Strasbourg, France (September 1991) and on an initiative of the Man and the Biosphere National Committee of the United States, a decision was made to create a research network from information available in biosphere reserves in 30 European countries, Canada and the United States. This Directory of EuroMAB Biosphere…

  16. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  17. Life in a dark biosphere: a review of circadian physiology in "arrhythmic" environments.

    PubMed

    Beale, Andrew David; Whitmore, David; Moran, Damian

    2016-12-01

    Most of the life with which humans interact is exposed to highly rhythmic and extremely predictable changes in illumination that occur with the daily events of sunrise and sunset. However, while the influence of the sun feels omnipotent to surface dwellers such as ourselves, life on earth is dominated, in terms of biomass, by organisms isolated from the direct effects of the sun. A limited understanding of what life is like away from the sun can be inferred from our knowledge of physiology and ecology in the light biosphere, but a full understanding can only be gained by studying animals from the dark biosphere, both in the laboratory and in their natural habitats. One of the least understood aspects of life in the dark biosphere is the rhythmicity of physiology and what it means to live in an environment of low or no rhythmicity. Here we describe methods that may be used to understand rhythmic physiology in the dark and summarise some of the studies of rhythmic physiology in "arrhythmic" environments, such as the poles, deep sea and caves. We review what can be understood about the adaptive value of rhythmic physiology on the Earth's surface from studies of animals from arrhythmic environments and what role a circadian clock may play in the dark.

  18. Developing a global mixed-canopy, height-variable vegetation structure dataset for estimating global vegetation albedo and biomass in the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model and GISS GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.; Kiang, N. Y.; Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.; Schaaf, C.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.; Zhao, F. A.; Yao, T.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining biosphere-atmosphere coupling are strongly influenced by vegetation structure. Thus, ecosystem carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration affecting global carbon and water balances will depend upon the spatial extent of vegetation, its vertical structure, and its physiological variability. To represent this globally, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) coupled to General Circulation Models (GCMs) make use of satellite and/or model-based vegetation classifications often composed by homogeneous communities. This work aims at developing a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) by incorporating varying vegetation heights for mixed plant communities to be used as input to the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), the DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. Information sources include the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014) along with the Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI)3g (Zhu et al. 2013). Further PFT partitioning is performed according to a climate classification utilizing the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and the NOAA Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) data. Final products are a GVSD consisting of mixed plant communities (e.g. mixed forests, savannas, mixed PFTs) following the Ecosystem Demography model (Moorcroft et al., 2001) approach represented by multi-cohort community patches at the sub-grid level of the GCM, which are ensembles of identical individuals whose differences are represented by PFTs, canopy height, density and vegetation structure sensitivity to allometric parameters. To assess the sensitivity of the GISS GCM to vegetation structure, we produce a range of estimates of Ent TBM biomass and plant

  19. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The biosphere comprises the Earth s crust, atmosphere, oceans, and ice caps and the living organisms that survive within this habitat. The discoveries of barophilic chemolithoautotrophic thermophiles living deep within the crust and in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and psychrophiles in permafrost and deep within the Antarctic Ice Sheet indicate the Earth s biosphere is far more extensive than previously recognized. Molecular biomarkers and Bacterial Paleontology provide evidence that life appeared very early on the primitive Earth and the origin of the biosphere is closely linked with the emergence of life. The role of comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust in the delivery of water, organics and prebiotic chemicals has long been recognized. Deuterium enrichment of seawater and comets indicates that comets delivered oceans to the early Earth. Furthermore, the similarity of the D/H ratios and the chemical compositions of CI carbonaceous meteorites and comets indicate that the CI meteorites may be remnants of cometary nuclei with most volatiles removed. Comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust also contain complex organic chemicals, amino acids, macromolecules, and kerogen-like biopolymers and may have played a crucial role in the delivery of complex organics and prebiotic chemicals during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Gyr) period of heavy bombardment. The existence of indigenous microfossils of morphotypes of cyanobacteria in the CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm that life originated endogenously in the primitive oceans of early Earth may require re-consideration. Recent data on the hot (300-400 K) black crust on comet P/Halley and Stardust images of P/Wild 2 showing depressions, tall cliffs, and pinnacles, indicate the presence of thick, durable, dark crusts on comets. If cavities within the ice and crust sustain vapor pressures in excess of 10 millibar, then localized pools of liquid water and brines could exist within the comet. Since life

  20. The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Edgeworth, Matt; Bennett, Carys; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ellis, Erle C.; Ellis, Michael A.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Haff, Peter K.; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB; Steffen, Will; Summerhayes, Colin; Syvitski, James P.; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Zhisheng, An

    2016-03-01

    Biospheric relationships between production and consumption of biomass have been resilient to changes in the Earth system over billions of years. This relationship has increased in its complexity, from localized ecosystems predicated on anaerobic microbial production and consumption to a global biosphere founded on primary production from oxygenic photoautotrophs, through the evolution of Eukarya, metazoans, and the complexly networked ecosystems of microbes, animals, fungi, and plants that characterize the Phanerozoic Eon (the last ˜541 million years of Earth history). At present, one species, Homo sapiens, is refashioning this relationship between consumption and production in the biosphere with unknown consequences. This has left a distinctive stratigraphy of the production and consumption of biomass, of natural resources, and of produced goods. This can be traced through stone tool technologies and geochemical signals, later unfolding into a diachronous signal of technofossils and human bioturbation across the planet, leading to stratigraphically almost isochronous signals developing by the mid-20th century. These latter signals may provide an invaluable resource for informing and constraining a formal Anthropocene chronostratigraphy, but are perhaps yet more important as tracers of a biosphere state that is characterized by a geologically unprecedented pattern of global energy flow that is now pervasively influenced and mediated by humans, and which is necessary for maintaining the complexity of modern human societies.

  1. Simulating estimation of California fossil fuel and biosphere carbon dioxide exchanges combining in situ tower and satellite column observations

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, Marc L.; Parazoo, Nicholas; Brophy, Kieran; ...

    2017-03-09

    Here, we report simulation experiments estimating the uncertainties in California regional fossil fuel and biosphere CO 2 exchanges that might be obtained by using an atmospheric inverse modeling system driven by the combination of ground-based observations of radiocarbon and total CO 2, together with column-mean CO 2 observations from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). The work includes an initial examination of statistical uncertainties in prior models for CO 2 exchange, in radiocarbon-based fossil fuel CO 2 measurements, in OCO-2 measurements, and in a regional atmospheric transport modeling system. Using these nominal assumptions for measurement and model uncertainties, we find thatmore » flask measurements of radiocarbon and total CO 2 at 10 towers can be used to distinguish between different fossil fuel emission data products for major urban regions of California. We then show that the combination of flask and OCO-2 observations yields posterior uncertainties in monthly-mean fossil fuel emissions of ~5–10%, levels likely useful for policy relevant evaluation of bottom-up fossil fuel emission estimates. Similarly, we find that inversions yield uncertainties in monthly biosphere CO 2 exchange of ~6%–12%, depending on season, providing useful information on net carbon uptake in California's forests and agricultural lands. Finally, initial sensitivity analysis suggests that obtaining the above results requires control of systematic biases below approximately 0.5 ppm, placing requirements on accuracy of the atmospheric measurements, background subtraction, and atmospheric transport modeling.« less

  2. Simulating estimation of California fossil fuel and biosphere carbon dioxide exchanges combining in situ tower and satellite column observations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Parazoo, Nicholas; Brophy, Kieran

    Here, we report simulation experiments estimating the uncertainties in California regional fossil fuel and biosphere CO 2 exchanges that might be obtained by using an atmospheric inverse modeling system driven by the combination of ground-based observations of radiocarbon and total CO 2, together with column-mean CO 2 observations from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2). The work includes an initial examination of statistical uncertainties in prior models for CO 2 exchange, in radiocarbon-based fossil fuel CO 2 measurements, in OCO-2 measurements, and in a regional atmospheric transport modeling system. Using these nominal assumptions for measurement and model uncertainties, we find thatmore » flask measurements of radiocarbon and total CO 2 at 10 towers can be used to distinguish between different fossil fuel emission data products for major urban regions of California. We then show that the combination of flask and OCO-2 observations yields posterior uncertainties in monthly-mean fossil fuel emissions of ~5–10%, levels likely useful for policy relevant evaluation of bottom-up fossil fuel emission estimates. Similarly, we find that inversions yield uncertainties in monthly biosphere CO 2 exchange of ~6%–12%, depending on season, providing useful information on net carbon uptake in California's forests and agricultural lands. Finally, initial sensitivity analysis suggests that obtaining the above results requires control of systematic biases below approximately 0.5 ppm, placing requirements on accuracy of the atmospheric measurements, background subtraction, and atmospheric transport modeling.« less

  3. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  4. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    PubMed

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-08-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  7. A modern earth narrative: What will be the fate of the biosphere?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The modern Earth Narrative is the scientific description of the natural and human history of the Earth, and it is based on two fundamental concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. Changes in the Earth's biosphere and geosphere are discussed from the perspective of natural variability and impacts of the rapid increase in the human population. The failure of humans to comprehend and understand the Earth Narrative, especially the place of humans in it, presages dire consequences for the Earth's biosphere. The actions humans take, individually and collectively, during the 21st century will likely determine the fate of many millions of species, including our own. It is argued that we must quickly establish an Earth System-based conservation ethic that has the objective of complete preservation of the Earth's biotic inheritance. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  9. Estimation of vegetation photosynthetic capacity from space-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence for terrestrial biosphere models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Berry, Joseph A; Joiner, Joanna; van der Tol, Christiaan; Huete, Alfredo; Gitelson, Anatoly; Voigt, Maximilian; Köhler, Philipp

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis simulations by terrestrial biosphere models are usually based on the Farquhar's model, in which the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax ) is a key control parameter of photosynthetic capacity. Even though Vcmax is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental controls, it is typically parameterized in models with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. Remote sensing can be used to produce a spatially continuous and temporally resolved view on photosynthetic efficiency, but traditional vegetation observations based on spectral reflectance lack a direct link to plant photochemical processes. Alternatively, recent space-borne measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can offer an observational constraint on photosynthesis simulations. Here, we show that top-of-canopy SIF measurements from space are sensitive to Vcmax at the ecosystem level, and present an approach to invert Vcmax from SIF data. We use the Soil-Canopy Observation of Photosynthesis and Energy (SCOPE) balance model to derive empirical relationships between seasonal Vcmax and SIF which are used to solve the inverse problem. We evaluate our Vcmax estimation method at six agricultural flux tower sites in the midwestern US using spaced-based SIF retrievals. Our Vcmax estimates agree well with literature values for corn and soybean plants (average values of 37 and 101 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively) and show plausible seasonal patterns. The effect of the updated seasonally varying Vcmax parameterization on simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) is tested by comparing to simulations with fixed Vcmax values. Validation against flux tower observations demonstrate that simulations of GPP and light use efficiency improve significantly when our time-resolved Vcmax estimates from SIF are used, with R(2) for GPP comparisons increasing from 0.85 to 0.93, and for light use efficiency from 0.44 to 0.83. Our results support the use of

  10. Atribacteria from the Subseafloor Sedimentary Biosphere Disperse to the Hydrosphere through Submarine Mud Volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Toki, Tomohiro; Ijiri, Akira; Morono, Yuki; Machiyama, Hideaki; Ashi, Juichiro; Okamura, Kei; Inagaki, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes (SMVs) are formed by muddy sediments and breccias extruded to the seafloor from a source in the deep subseafloor and are characterized by the discharge of methane and other hydrocarbon gasses and deep-sourced fluids into the overlying seawater. Although SMVs act as a natural pipeline connecting the Earth's surface and subsurface biospheres, the dispersal of deep-biosphere microorganisms and their ecological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in sediment and overlying seawater at two SMVs located on the Ryukyu Trench off Tanegashima Island, southern Japan. The microbial communities in mud volcano sediments were generally distinct from those in the overlying seawaters and in the well-stratified Pacific margin sediments collected at the Peru Margin, the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank off Oregon, and offshore of Shimokita Peninsula, northeastern Japan. Nevertheless, in-depth analysis of different taxonomic groups at the sub-species level revealed that the taxon affiliated with Atribacteria , heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria that typically occur in organic-rich anoxic subseafloor sediments, were commonly found not only in SMV sediments but also in the overlying seawater. We designed a new oligonucleotide probe for detecting Atribacteria using the catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). CARD-FISH, digital PCR and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes consistently showed that Atribacteria are abundant in the methane plumes of the two SMVs (0.58 and 1.5 × 10 4 cells/mL, respectively) but not in surrounding waters, suggesting that microbial cells in subseafloor sediments are dispersed as "deep-biosphere seeds" into the ocean. These findings may have important implications for the microbial transmigration between the deep subseafloor biosphere and the hydrosphere.

  11. Atribacteria from the Subseafloor Sedimentary Biosphere Disperse to the Hydrosphere through Submarine Mud Volcanoes

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Toki, Tomohiro; Ijiri, Akira; Morono, Yuki; Machiyama, Hideaki; Ashi, Juichiro; Okamura, Kei; Inagaki, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes (SMVs) are formed by muddy sediments and breccias extruded to the seafloor from a source in the deep subseafloor and are characterized by the discharge of methane and other hydrocarbon gasses and deep-sourced fluids into the overlying seawater. Although SMVs act as a natural pipeline connecting the Earth’s surface and subsurface biospheres, the dispersal of deep-biosphere microorganisms and their ecological roles remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in sediment and overlying seawater at two SMVs located on the Ryukyu Trench off Tanegashima Island, southern Japan. The microbial communities in mud volcano sediments were generally distinct from those in the overlying seawaters and in the well-stratified Pacific margin sediments collected at the Peru Margin, the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank off Oregon, and offshore of Shimokita Peninsula, northeastern Japan. Nevertheless, in-depth analysis of different taxonomic groups at the sub-species level revealed that the taxon affiliated with Atribacteria, heterotrophic anaerobic bacteria that typically occur in organic-rich anoxic subseafloor sediments, were commonly found not only in SMV sediments but also in the overlying seawater. We designed a new oligonucleotide probe for detecting Atribacteria using the catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). CARD-FISH, digital PCR and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes consistently showed that Atribacteria are abundant in the methane plumes of the two SMVs (0.58 and 1.5 × 104 cells/mL, respectively) but not in surrounding waters, suggesting that microbial cells in subseafloor sediments are dispersed as “deep-biosphere seeds” into the ocean. These findings may have important implications for the microbial transmigration between the deep subseafloor biosphere and the hydrosphere. PMID:28676800

  12. Clustering XCO2 temporal change to assess CO2 exchanging strength of biosphere-atmosphere with GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhonghua; Lei, Liping; Bie, Nian; Yang, Shaoyuan; Wu, Changjiang; Zeng, Zhao-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    The temporal change of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, greatly related to the local activities of CO2 uptake and emission, including biospheric exchange and anthropogenic emission, is one of important information for regions identification of carbon source and sink. Satellite observations of CO2 has been used for detecting the change of CO2 concentration for a long time. In this study, we used the grid data of column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) with the spatial resolution of 1 degree and the temporal resolution of 3 days from 1 June 2009 to 31 May 2014 over the land area of 30° - 60° N to implement a clustering of temporal changing characteristics for the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) XCO2 retrievals. Grid data is derived using the gap filling method of spatio-temporal geostatistics. The clustering method is one adjusted K-mean for the gap existed time-series data. As a result, types and number of clusters are specified based on the temporal characteristic of XCO2 by using the optimal clustering parameters. The biospheric absorption and surface emission of atmospheric CO2 is discussed through the analysis of the different yearly increase and seasonal amplitude of XCO2 each cluster combined with correlation analysis with vegetation index from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and fossil fuel CO2 emission data from Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (Odiac). Regions of strong or weak biosphere-atmosphere exchange, or significant disturbance from anthropogenic activities can be identified. In conclusion, gap filled XCO2 from satellite observations can help us to take an analysis of atmospheric CO2, results of the coupled biosphere-atmosphere, by their spatio-temporal characteristics as well as the relationship with the other remote sensing parameters e.g. MODIS related with biospheric photosynthetic or respiration activities.

  13. Multiple greenhouse gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri, Xu-Ri; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere. The sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since preindustrial times and leads to multiple feedbacks between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system. The strength of these feedbacks is determined by (i) the sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 and (ii) the greenhouse warming potential of the respective gas. Here, we quantify feedbacks from CO2, CH4, N2O, and land surface albedo in a consistent and comprehensive framework based on a large set of simulations conducted with an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. The modeled sensitivities of CH4 and N2O emissions are tested, demonstrating that independent data for non-land (anthropogenic, oceanic, etc.) GHG emissions, combined with simulated emissions from natural and agricultural land reproduces historical atmospheric budgets within their uncertainties. 21st-century scenarios for climate, land use change and reactive nitrogen inputs (Nr) are applied to investigate future GHG emissions. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O emissions increase from 9.0 by today to 9.8-11.1 (RCP 2.6) and 14.2-17.0 TgN2O-N/yr by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Without anthropogenic Nr inputs, the amplification is reduced by 24-32%. Soil CH4 emissions increase from 221 at present to 228-245 in RCP 2.6 and to 303-343 TgCH4/yr in RCP 8.5, and the land becomes a net source of C by 2100 AD. Feedbacks from land imply an additional warming of 1.3-1.5°C by 2300 in RCP 8.5, 0.4-0.5°C of which are due to N2O and CH4. The combined effect of multiple GHGs and albedo represents an increasingly positive total feedback to anthropogenic climate change with positive individual feedbacks from CH4, N2O, and albedo outweighing the diminishing negative feedback from CO2

  14. Agricultural conversion reduces biospheric vegetation productivity in the absence of external inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Running, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing global population, energy demand, and standard of living has driven humanity to co-opt a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. Here, we explored the impact of global-scale agricultural production on a basic resource fundamental to life on Earth: global terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). First, we compared current rates of agricultural NPP - derived from crop-specific agricultural statistics - with rates of natural NPP - derived from satellite measurements. Next, we disaggregated our results by climate zone, conversion type, crop type, management intensity, and region to identify where agricultural conversion has driven significant degradation of biospheric NPP. At the global-scale, our data indicate that agricultural conversion has resulted in a ~7% reduction in biospheric NPP (ΔNPP), although the impact varied widely at the pixel level. Positive ΔNPP values, signifying an increase in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred only in areas receiving significant external water and nutrient inputs (i.e., intensively managed areas). Conversely, negative ΔNPP values, signifying a reduction in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred over ~90% of agricultural lands globally, with the largest reductions in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (71% and 66% reductions in NPP, respectively). Without new global-scale policies that explicitly consider changes in NPP due to land cover conversion, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output - likely dependent on some level of expansion into natural ecosystems - could continue to drive net declines in biospheric NPP, with potential detrimental consequences for global carbon storage. A spatially explicit estimate of the effect of agricultural land cover conversion on natural primary production for 20 staple crops. ΔNPP was estimated independently for a) irrigated, b) high input, c) low

  15. Deep Biosphere Secrets of the Mediterranean Salt Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Lugli, Stefano; McGenity, Terry; Kuroda, Junichiro; Takai, Ken; Treude, Tina; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    One component of the IODP multi-platform drilling proposal called DREAM (Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messisnian Events), plans to investigate the deep biosphere associated to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) Salt Giant. We propose that the MSC Salt Giant, because of the variety of chemical environments it produces, has the potential to harbour an unprecedented diversity of microbial life with exceptional metabolic activity. Gypsum and anhydrite deposits provide a virtually unlimited source of sulphate at depths where oxidants are a rarity in other sedimentary environments. When reduced organic carbon comes into contact with these minerals there is the potential for a dynamic deep biosphere community of sulphate reducers to develop, with implications for sedimentary biogeochemical cycles and the souring of cruide oil. But the thickness of the Messinian evaporites and the range of chemical environments it harbours poses fundamental questions: will the interaction of several extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, pressure and chemical composition limit the ability of microbes to take advantage of such favourable thermodynamic conditions? And has such a diverse set of physical and chemical environments fostered microbal diversity, rather than phylogenetic specialization, as recent research into deep Mediterranean brine systems seems to indicate ? Over three kilometres in thickness, approaching the known temperature limits of life and with fluids precipitating carbonate, sulphate, halite and potash salts, microbes living within and around the MSC Salt Giant will be subject to the most exotic combinations of extremes, and have likely evolved yet unknown adaptations. Gypsum and Halite crystals contain fluid inclusions that are a micro-habitat in which microbes survive for tens of thousands, to possibly millions, of years, posing the fundamental question of cells devoting nearly all of their energy flow to somatic maintenance needs, rather than growth and

  16. Searching for a shadow biosphere on Earth as a test of the 'cosmic imperative'.

    PubMed

    Davies, P C W

    2011-02-13

    Estimates for the number of communicating civilizations in the galaxy, based on the so-called Drake equation, are meaningless without a plausible estimate for the probability that life will emerge on an Earth-like planet. In the absence of a theory of the origin of life, that number can be anywhere from 0 to 1. Distinguished scientists have been known to argue that life on Earth is a freak accident, unique in the observable universe and, conversely, that life is almost bound to arise in the course of time, given Earth-like conditions. De Duve, adopting the latter position, coined the phrase that 'life is a cosmic imperative'. De Duve's position would be immediately verified if we were to discover a second sample of life that we could be sure arose from scratch independently of known life. Given the current absence of evidence for life beyond Earth, the best way to test the hypothesis of the cosmic imperative is to see whether terrestrial life began more than once. If it did, it is possible that descendants of a second genesis might be extant, forming a sort of 'shadow biosphere' existing alongside, or perhaps interpenetrating, the known biosphere. I outline a strategy to detect the existence of such a shadow biosphere.

  17. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  18. A socio-environmental monitoring system for a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Kim

    2017-11-03

    To identify potentially critical changes in an area's ongoing ability to produce multiple ecosystem services, a monitoring system was designed and implemented for the Mornington Peninsula and Westernport Biosphere Reserve in southeast Australia. The system is underpinned by an "environmental vital signs" (EVS) approach that was adopted to provide early warning of critical changes in human and natural characteristics of the area. The six themes monitored are non-coastal water, land including vegetation, biodiversity, natural heritage, built environment (including human population and economic activity), and coasts. These are monitored for the entire area, and each of its five constituent town council areas. After a critical change in any of these is identified, further investigation is required to identify causal factors and, if required, determine an appropriate response. The system relies on data available from external (third-party) organisations to monitor the natural and human characteristics of the area that were important in its designation as a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Strengths and weaknesses associated with the use of third-party data are discussed. These include adoption of baseline years and data reporting periods for different factors, costs, and data quality.

  19. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Beth N; Larowe, Douglas E; Biddle, Jennifer F; Colwell, Frederick S; Glazer, Brian T; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B; Lapham, Laura L; Mills, Heath J; Sylvan, Jason B; Wankel, Scott D; Wheat, C Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists-all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these "extreme" environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) "theme team" on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  20. Influence of the biosphere and circulation on atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, A.; Jiang, X.; La, J.; Olsen, E. T.; Licata, S. J.; Yung, Y. L.

    2017-12-01

    Using multiple satellite CO2 retrievals (e.g., AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2), we have investigated seasonal changes of CO2 as a function of latitudes and altitudes. The annual cycle of atmospheric CO2 is closely related to the exchange of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere, so we also examine solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). High SIF value means more CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, which will lead to lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The satellite data demonstrate a negative correlation between atmospheric CO2 and SIF. SIF can be influenced by precipitation and evaporation. We have found a positive correlation between SIF and the difference of precipitation and evaporation, suggesting there is more CO2 uptake by vegetation when more water is available. In addition to the annual cycle, large-scale circulation, such as South Atlantic Walker Circulation, can also modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As seen from AIRS, GOSAT, and OCO-2 CO2 retrievals, there is less CO2 over the South Atlantic Ocean than over South America from December to March. Results in this study will help us better understand interactions between the biosphere, circulation, and atmospheric CO2.

  1. Development of a coupled model of a distributed hydrological model and a rice growth model for optimizing irrigation schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Homma, Koki; Koike, Toshio; Ohta, Tetsu

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of a distributed hydrological model and a rice growth model was developed in this study. The distributed hydrological model used in this study is the Water and Energy Budget-based Distributed Hydrological Model (WEB-DHM) developed by Wang et al. (2009). This model includes a modified SiB2 (Simple Biosphere Model, Sellers et al., 1996) and the Geomorphology-Based Hydrological Model (GBHM) and thus it can physically calculate both water and energy fluxes. The rice growth model used in this study is the Simulation Model for Rice-Weather relations (SIMRIW) - rainfed developed by Homma et al. (2009). This is an updated version of the original SIMRIW (Horie et al., 1987) and can calculate rice growth by considering the yield reduction due to water stress. The purpose of the coupling is the integration of hydrology and crop science to develop a tool to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. The efficient water use and optimal water allocation in the agricultural sector are necessary to balance supply and demand of limited water resources. In addition, variations in available soil moisture are the main reasons of variations in rice yield. In our model, soil moisture and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) are calculated inside SIMRIW-rainfed so that these variables can be simulated dynamically and more precisely based on the rice than the more general calculations is the original WEB-DHM. At the same time by coupling SIMRIW-rainfed with WEB-DHM, lateral flow of soil water, increases in soil moisture and reduction of river discharge due to the irrigation, and its effects on the rice growth can be calculated. Agricultural information such as planting date, rice cultivar, fertilization amount are given in a fully distributed manner. The coupled model was validated using LAI and soil moisture in a small basin in western Cambodia (Sangker River Basin). This

  2. Rates and extent of microbial debromination in the deep subseafloor biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, R. D.; Solomon, E. A.; Morris, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent genomic and porewater geochemical data suggest that reductive dehalogenation of a wide range of halogenated organic compounds could represent an important energy source for deep subseafloor microbial communities. At continental slope sites worldwide, there is a remarkably linear relationship between porewater profiles of ammonium and bromide, indicating that the factors controlling the distribution and rates of dehalogenation have the potential to influence carbon and nitrogen cycling in the deep subsurface biosphere. Though this metabolic pathway could play an important role in the cycling of otherwise refractory pools of carbon and nitrogen in marine sediments and provide energy to microbial communities in the deep subsurface biosphere, the rates and extent of dehalogenation in marine sediments are poorly constrained. Here we report net reaction rate profiles of debromination activity in continental slope sediments, calculated from numerical modeling of porewater bromide profiles from several margins worldwide. The reaction rate profiles indicate three common zones of debromination activity in slope sediments: 1) low rates of debromination, and a potential bromine sink, in the upper sediment column correlating to the sulfate reduction zone, with net bromide removal rates from -3.6 x 10^-2 to -4.85 x 10^-1 μmol m^-2 yr^-1, 2) high rates of debromination from the sulfate-methane transition zone to ~40-100 mbsf, with net bromide release rates between 7.1 x 10^-2 to 3.9 x 10^-1 μmol m^-2 yr^-1, and 3) an inflection point at ~40-100 mbsf, below which net rates of debromination decrease by an order of magnitude and at several sites are indistinguishable from zero. These results indicate that dehalogenating activity is widely distributed in marine sediments, providing energy to fuel deep subseafloor microbial communities, with potentially important consequences for the global bromine and nitrogen cycles.

  3. The General Laws of Chemical Elements Composition Dynamics in the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzh, Vyacheslav D.

    2013-04-01

    The key point of investigation of the specificity of the biosphere elemental composition formation is determination of patterns of redistribution of elemental average concentrations among various phases, like solid - liquid ( the lithosphere - the hydrosphere), which occurs as a result of a global continuous processing of inert matter by living substances. Our task here is to investigate this process in the system "lithosphere - hydrosphere" in view of the integrated involvement of living material in it. This process is most active in biogeochemical barriers, i.e. in places of "the life condensation" and runs under a nonlinear regularity that has been unknown before. It is established that this process results in a general relative increase in concentrations of chemical elements in the solid phase in proportion as their prevalence in the environment is reduced. This process running in various natural systems has practically the same parameter of nonlinearity (v) approximately equal to 0.7. For proto-lithosphere -"living material" - soil v = 0.75. For river - "living material" - ocean v = 0.67. For the contemporary factual awareness level these estimations of nonlinearity indices are practically negligible. Hence, it is for the first time that the existence of a universal constant of nonlinearity of elemental composition evolution in the biosphere has been proved and its quantitative evaluation has been made. REFERENCES 1. Korzh V.D. 1974. Some general laws governing the turnover of substance within the ocean-atmosphere-continent-ocean cycle. // Journal de Recherches Atmospheriques. Vol. 8. P. 653-660. 2. Korzh V.D. 2008. The general laws in the formation of the elemental composition of the Hydrosphere and Biosphere.// J. Ecologica, Vol. XV, P. 13-21. 3. Korzh V.D. 2012. Determination of general laws of elemental composition in Hydrosphere // Water: chemistry & ecology, Journal of water science and its practical application. # 1, P.56-62.

  4. Contributions of Planetary Science to Studies of Early Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The history of impact cratering on the Moon, and extrapolations of crater chronologies to the inner planets, suggests that the late accretionary history of the Earth overlapped with other crucial events in the its history, including the origin of terrestrial life. This evidence, acquired from studies of other planetary bodies in the inner solar system, has profoundly affected how we view the early history of the Earth and evolution of the biosphere. Pre-biotic chemical evolution and the origin of life would have been delayed by the probable existence of a global magma ocean until -4.2 Ga. The early crust was largely destroyed by recycling, thus accounting for the sparse Archean record on Earth. Once life had developed, large impacts may have extinguished it several times before it finally gained a foothold. Potentially sterilizing impacts could have occurred as late as 3.7 Ga. At the very least, large impacts would have forced the biosphere through major environmental "bottlenecks" thereby canalizing its subsequent evolution. One legacy of these early events may be the structure of the present RNA-tree which indicates that extreme thermophiles are primitive within the Archaea, and may be the last common ancestors of life. By 3.5 Ga, marine sedimentary sequences contain unequivocal microbial fossils that attest to the presence of a terrestrial biosphere. The diversity of microbial forms present in these earliest fossil assemblages implies a preceding interval of evolution during which major evolutionary advances (e.g. photosynthesis) could have taken place. Evidence cited above places the origin of life within the interval 3.5 and 4.2 Ga, a period of 700 Ma. Thus, it appears that terrestrial life not only evolved rapidly, but perhaps more than once. This expands the possibilities that life may have also developed elsewhere. Of the other planets in our solar system, Mars holds the greatest chance of having developed life. But, the present surface of Mars is hostile

  5. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Lee, Cathy; Schaaf, Thomas; Simmonds, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The area now managed as Glacier National Park was first set aside as a Forest Reserve in 1897 and then designated as a national park in 1910, six years before a national park service was created to oversee the growing number of parks that the US Congress was establishing. Waterton National Park was created by Canada immediately north of the US–Canada border during the same period. In 1932, a joint lobbying effort by private citizens and groups convinced both the United States and Canada to establish the world’s first trans-boundary park to explicitly underscore and symbolize the neighbourly relationship between these two countries. This became the world’s first ‘peace’ park and was named Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park. The combined park is managed collaboratively on many issues but each national park is separately funded and operates under different national statutes and laws. It was, however, jointly named a Biosphere Reserve in 1976 and a World Heritage Site in 1995. There have been recent efforts to significantly increase the size of Waterton National Park by adding publicly owned forests on the western side of the continental divide in British Columbia, Canada. For the purposes of this chapter, I will emphasize the US portion of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and refer to it as the Glacier Mountain Biosphere Reserve (MBR).

  6. Young students, satellites aid understanding of climate-biosphere link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael A.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Running, Steven W.

    Data collected by young students from kindergarten through high school are being combined with satellite data to develop a more consistent understanding of the intimate connection between climate dynamics and the terrestrial biosphere. Comparison of the two sets of data involving the onset of budburst among trees and other vegetation has been extremely encouraging.Surface-atmosphere interactions involving exchanges of carbon, water, and energy are strongly affected by interannual variability in the timing and length of the vegetation growing season, and satellite remote sensing has the unique ability to consistently monitor global spatiotemporal variability in growing season dynamics. But without a clear picture of how satellite information (Figure 1) relates to ground conditions, the application of satellite growing season estimates for monitoring of climate-vegetation interactions, calculation of energy budgets, and large-scale ecological modeling is extremely limited.The integrated phenological analysis of field data, satellite observations, and climate advocated by Schwartz [1998], for example, has been primarily limited by the lack of geographically extensive and consistently measured phenology databases.

  7. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  8. Towards a representation of priming on soil carbon decomposition in the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE (version 1.9.5.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenet, Bertrand; Esteban Moyano, Fernando; Peylin, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2016-03-01

    Priming of soil carbon decomposition encompasses different processes through which the decomposition of native (already present) soil organic matter is amplified through the addition of new organic matter, with new inputs typically being more labile than the native soil organic matter. Evidence for priming comes from laboratory and field experiments, but to date there is no estimate of its impact at global scale and under the current anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Current soil carbon decomposition models do not include priming mechanisms, thereby introducing uncertainty when extrapolating short-term local observations to ecosystem and regional to global scale. In this study we present a simple conceptual model of decomposition priming, called PRIM, able to reproduce laboratory (incubation) and field (litter manipulation) priming experiments. Parameters for this model were first optimized against data from 20 soil incubation experiments using a Bayesian framework. The optimized parameter values were evaluated against another set of soil incubation data independent from the ones used for calibration and the PRIM model reproduced the soil incubations data better than the original, CENTURY-type soil decomposition model, whose decomposition equations are based only on first-order kinetics. We then compared the PRIM model and the standard first-order decay model incorporated into the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems). A test of both models was performed at ecosystem scale using litter manipulation experiments from five sites. Although both versions were equally able to reproduce observed decay rates of litter, only ORCHIDEE-PRIM could simulate the observed priming (R2 = 0.54) in cases where litter was added or removed. This result suggests that a conceptually simple and numerically tractable representation of priming adapted to global models is able to capture the sign and magnitude of the

  9. Towards a representation of priming on soil carbon decomposition in the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE (version 1.9.5.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenet, B.; Moyano, F. E.; Peylin, P.; Ciais, P.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    Priming of soil carbon decomposition encompasses different processes through which the decomposition of native (already present) soil organic matter is amplified through the addition of new organic matter, with new inputs typically being more labile than the native soil organic matter. Evidence for priming comes from laboratory and field experiments, but to date there is no estimate of its impact at global scale and under the current anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Current soil carbon decomposition models do not include priming mechanisms, thereby introducing uncertainty when extrapolating short-term local observations to ecosystem and regional to global scale. In this study we present a simple conceptual model of decomposition priming, called PRIM, able to reproduce laboratory (incubation) and field (litter manipulation) priming experiments. Parameters for this model were first optimized against data from 20 soil incubation experiments using a Bayesian framework. The optimized parameter values were evaluated against another set of soil incubation data independent from the ones used for calibration and the PRIM model reproduced the soil incubations data better than the original, CENTURY-type soil decomposition model, whose decomposition equations are based only on first order kinetics. We then compared the PRIM model and the standard first order decay model incorporated into the global land biosphere model ORCHIDEE. A test of both models was performed at ecosystem scale using litter manipulation experiments from 5 sites. Although both versions were equally able to reproduce observed decay rates of litter, only ORCHIDEE-PRIM could simulate the observed priming (R2 = 0.54) in cases where litter was added or removed. This result suggests that a conceptually simple and numerically tractable representation of priming adapted to global models is able to capture the sign and magnitude of the priming of litter and soil organic matter.

  10. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  11. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists—all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these “extreme” environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) “theme team” on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:23874326

  12. The biosphere as a driver of global atmospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the biosphere on the evolution of atmospheric oxygen and ozone, and the consequences of that development for global atmospheric change, are discussed. Attention is given to the impact of oxygen and ozone on atmospheric photolysis rates, the effect of oxygen on the biogenic production of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide, and the effects of the evolution of atmospheric oxygen on fires and biomass burning. The influence of the latter on atmospheric processes, particularly the production of methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide, is considered.

  13. Weather summaries for Coram Experimental Forest, northwestern Montana-an International Biosphere Reserve

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Hungerford; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1984-01-01

    Presents weather data summaries (1934-82) for most of the weather stations within the Coram Experimental Forest (a Biosphere Reserve) in northwestern Montana and for three stations adjacent to the Forest. These data aid in the interpretation of silvicultural and other biological research, particularly the relationships of climatological variations to forest growth and...

  14. Environmental Art as an Innovative Medium for Environmental Education in Biosphere Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, M.; Chandler, L.; Baldwin, C.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of Biosphere Reserves (BR) is to foster environmental education for sustainable development. In this study we systematically analyse two cases in which environmental art is used as a mechanism to engage communities in "building environmental understanding", in Noosa BR in Australia and North Devon BR in the United Kingdom.…

  15. Deep-biosphere consortium of fungi and prokaryotes in Eocene subseafloor basalts.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, S; Ivarsson, M; Astolfo, A; Belivanova, V; Broman, C; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M

    2014-11-01

    The deep biosphere of the subseafloor crust is believed to contain a significant part of Earth's biomass, but because of the difficulties of directly observing the living organisms, its composition and ecology are poorly known. We report here a consortium of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic micro-organisms, occupying cavities in deep-drilled vesicular basalt from the Emperor Seamounts, Pacific Ocean, 67.5 m below seafloor (mbsf). Fungal hyphae provide the framework on which prokaryote-like organisms are suspended like cobwebs and iron-oxidizing bacteria form microstromatolites (Frutexites). The spatial inter-relationships show that the organisms were living at the same time in an integrated fashion, suggesting symbiotic interdependence. The community is contemporaneous with secondary mineralizations of calcite partly filling the cavities. The fungal hyphae frequently extend into the calcite, indicating that they were able to bore into the substrate through mineral dissolution. A symbiotic relationship with chemoautotrophs, as inferred for the observed consortium, may be a pre-requisite for the eukaryotic colonization of crustal rocks. Fossils thus open a window to the extant as well as the ancient deep biosphere. © 2014 The Authors. Geobiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Voytek, Mary A; Gronstal, Aaron L; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S; Sanford, Ward E; Horton, J Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S

    2012-03-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ∼35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ∼35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  17. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, J. Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ~35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ~35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  18. How Close Are We to the Temperature Tipping Point of the Biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    All biological processes accelerate rapidly with increasing temperature (Tinf); reaching a maximum rate (Tmax), after which they decline. However different biological processes may not be synchronised in their response to increasing temperatures resulting in major dis-equilibria of ecosystem processes. Particularly, the linked processes of photosynthesis and respiration have different curvature that is determined by their inherent sensitivity to temperature. Constraining the difference in temperature curves between photosynthesis and respiration allows us to quantify changes to global carbon metabolism and the land sink of carbon as a whole. During the last century the biosphere has acted as a sink of carbon from the atmosphere partly mitigating accumulation of CO2 derived from burning of fossil fuels Here we ask the following questions: As global temperature increases will photosynthesis and respiration become de-coupled and when? What is Tmax for the land sink, and where is current mean temperature range in regard to this important threshold? At what global and regional temperatures do we expect the biosphere to become a source of carbon to the atmosphere? To address these questions we used the recently released FLUXNET2015 dataset comprised of 212 eddy covariance flux tower sites which concurrently measure land-atmosphere carbon exchange along with micro-meteorological variables. Here, we illustrate our results for Tinf and Tmax of the land sink by biome and for the biosphere as a whole. Our results suggest that recent warming has already pushed us past the inflection point of photosynthesis, and that any additional warming will increase the cumulative annual dose of time spent past Tmax for the land sink. Even under moderate climate projections, we expect to see a slowing of the terrestrial carbon sink by as early as 2040.

  19. Deuterobiosphere the chemosynthetic second biosphere of the globe. A first review.

    PubMed

    Por, Francis D

    2008-06-01

    With the discovery of Ophel, a chemosynthesis-based continental subterranean environment (Por 2007), it became evident that such environments, previously known only from the sea, are spanning the world as a parallel biosphere, the deuterobiosphere. In this preliminary contribution the different known biomes of the deuterobiosphere are reviewed and some general and comparative features are listed. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  20. Impact of the ongoing Amazonian deforestation on local precipitation: A GCM simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. K.; Sud, Y. C.; Atlas, R.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation experiments were conducted to delineate the influence of in situ deforestation data on episodic rainfall by comparing two ensembles of five 5-day integrations performed with a recent version of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres General Circulation Model (GCM) that has a simple biosphere model (SiB). The first set, called control cases, used the standard SiB vegetation cover (comprising 12 biomes) and assumed a fully forested Amazonia, while the second set, called deforestation cases, distinguished the partially deforested regions of Amazonia as savanna. Except for this difference, all other initial and prescribed boundary conditions were kept identical in both sets of integrations. The differential analyses of these five cases show the following local effects of deforestation. (1) A discernible decrease in evapotranspiration of about 0.80 mm/d (roughly 18%) that is quite robust in the averages for 1-, 2-, and 5-day forecasts. (2) A decrease in precipitation of about 1.18 mm/d (roughly 8%) that begins to emerge even in 1-2 day averages and exhibits complex evolution that extends downstream with the winds. (3) A significant decrease in the surface drag force (as a consequence of reduced surface roughness of deforested regions) that, in turn, affects the dynamical structure of moisture convergence and circulation. The surface winds increase significantly during the first day, and thereafter the increase is well maintained even in the 2- and 5-day averages.

  1. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  2. Training Older Siblings to be Better Supervisors: An RCT Evaluating the "Safe Sibs" Program.

    PubMed

    Schell, Stacey L; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated a new online training program, Safe Sibs, aimed at improving supervision knowledge and behaviors of sibling supervisors. Participants included older children (7-11 years) and their younger siblings (2-5 years). A randomized controlled trial design was used, with older siblings randomly assigned to either an intervention or wait-list control group. Before and after either the intervention or wait-list period, older siblings completed measures of supervision knowledge and their supervision behaviors were unobtrusively observed when with their younger sibling. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvements in supervision knowledge (child development, knowledge of effective supervision practices, injury beliefs, intervention-specific knowledge) and in some aspects of supervision behavior (frequency of proactive safety behaviors to prevent supervisee access to injury hazards). Although adult supervision is ideal, this new program can support older children to become more knowledgeable and improved supervisors of younger ones. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evaluation of seven common lipid associated loci in a large Indian sib pair study.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Sajjad; Venkata, Kranthi Kumar M; Gupta, Vipin; Vinay, D G; Spurgeon, Charles J; Parameshwaran, Smitha; Madana, Sandeep N; Kinra, Sanjay; Bowen, Liza; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Reddy, K Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2012-11-14

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS), mostly in Europeans have identified several common variants as associated with key lipid traits. Replication of these genetic effects in South Asian populations is important since it would suggest wider relevance for these findings. Given the rising prevalence of metabolic disorders and heart disease in the Indian sub-continent, these studies could be of future clinical relevance. We studied seven common variants associated with a variety of lipid traits in previous GWASs. The study sample comprised of 3178 sib-pairs recruited as participants for the Indian Migration Study (IMS). Associations with various lipid parameters and quantitative traits were analyzed using the Fulker genetic association model. We replicated five of the 7 main effect associations with p-values ranging from 0.03 to 1.97x10(-7). We identified particularly strong association signals at rs662799 in APOA5 (beta=0.18 s.d, p=1.97 x 10(-7)), rs10503669 in LPL (beta =-0.18 s.d, p=1.0 x 10(-4)) and rs780094 in GCKR (beta=0.11 s.d, p=0.001) loci in relation to triglycerides. In addition, the GCKR variant was also associated with total cholesterol (beta=0.11 s.d, p=3.9x10(-4)). We also replicated the association of rs562338 in APOB (p=0.03) and rs4775041 in LIPC (p=0.007) with LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol respectively. We report associations of five loci with various lipid traits with the effect size consistent with the same reported in Europeans. These results indicate an overlap of genetic effects pertaining to lipid traits across the European and Indian populations.

  4. Between land and sea: divergent data stewardship practices in deep-sea biosphere research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, R.; Darch, P.

    2013-12-01

    Data in deep-sea biosphere research often live a double life. While the original data generated on IODP expeditions are highly structured, professionally curated, and widely shared, the downstream data practices of deep-sea biosphere laboratories are far more localized and ad hoc. These divergent data practices make it difficult to track the provenance of datasets from the cruise ships to the laboratory or to integrate IODP data with laboratory data. An in-depth study of the divergent data practices in deep-sea biosphere research allows us to: - Better understand the social and technical forces that shape data stewardship throughout the data lifecycle; - Develop policy, infrastructure, and best practices to improve data stewardship in small labs; - Track provenance of datasets from IODP cruises to labs and publications; - Create linkages between laboratory findings, cruise data, and IODP samples. In this paper, we present findings from the first year of a case study of the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), an NSF Science and Technology Center that studies life beneath the seafloor. Our methods include observation in laboratories, interviews, document analysis, and participation in scientific meetings. Our research uncovers the data stewardship norms of geologists, biologists, chemists, and hydrologists conducting multi-disciplinary research. Our research team found that data stewardship on cruises is a clearly defined task performed by an IODP curator, while downstream it is a distributed task that develops in response to local need and to the extent necessary for the immediate research team. IODP data are expensive to collect and challenging to obtain, often costing $50,000/day and requiring researchers to work twelve hours a day onboard the ships. To maximize this research investment, a highly trained IODP data curator controls data stewardship on the cruise and applies best practices such as standardized formats, proper labeling, and

  5. Environmental Consequences of an Emerging Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    It seems feasible to detect biological signatures ("biosignatures") in other planetary systems using the tools of astronomy. There are at least two types of biosignatures; spectral and/or polarization features created by biological products, and electromagnetic signals created by technology. The latter example of a biosignature requires SETI-like searches. This presentation addresses only spectral signatures of biological products and properties of habitable planets. Spectral biosignatures are indeed promising targets for near-term exploration. They can arise from organic constituents (e.g., vegetation) and/or inorganic products (e.g., atmospheric O2). Features originating from a planet's surface are likely to be localized in specific regions, whereas gaseous biosignatures can become globally distributed by atmospheric circulation. Biosignatures should be most abundant within environments that are, or once were, habitable. We currently believe that habitable environments necessarily provide Liquid water and biochemically useful energy. However, we do not yet fully comprehend the diversity of features that might arise within these environments that are non-biological in origin, yet mimic biosignatures. For example, atmospheres reflect the events leading to their origins as well as a host of ongoing planetary processes that might include biological activity. We are persuaded that abundant atmospheric oxygen in an environment with abundant liquid water constitutes definitive evidence of life. However, our own early biosphere thrived for more than a billion years in the absence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. The production of other, more reduced, gaseous biomarkers of "young" and/or anaerobic biospheres has not been systematically studied. Biological gas production is strongly controlled by the structure and function of microbial ecosystems. Investigations of microbial ecosystems that are close analogs of ancient communities offer multiple benefits. Such studies can

  6. Global change in the geosphere-biosphere: Initial priorities for an IGBP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Some of the factors are outlined that leads one to endorse the concept of focused, international geosphere-biosphere program, whose goal is to understand the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes that regulate the Earth's unique environment for life, the changes that are occurring in this system, and the manner in which they are influenced by human actions. There is a pressing need to assess the consequence of human activities in the context of natural global change and to provide the body of knowledge necessary to chart a wise course to the future. A number of specific objectives were developed which leads to the conclusion that the need for new programs of observation of the Earth as a planet, a better understanding of the interactive processes that governs its changes, the development of a new generation of coupled modes, and the design of suitable tests to guide the development of these models and the understanding of the processes involved. Some general recommendations are summarized.

  7. Impact of a global warming on biospheric sources of methane and its climatic consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Most of atmospheric methane originates by bacterial processes in anaerobic environments within the soil which are found to become more productive with increases in ambient temperature. A warming of climate, due to increasing levels of industrial gases resulting from fossil fuel burning, is thus likely to increase methane abundance within the atmosphere. This may lead to further heating of the atmosphere, since both methane and ozone (which is generated in the troposphere from reactions of methane) have greenhouse effects. This feedback mechanism has been explored with the use of a coupled climate-chemical model of the troposphere, by the calculation of the impact of the predicted global warming due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide and other industrial gases on the biospheric sources of methane.

  8. Multilevel modelling of somatotype components: the Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle and health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Souza, Michele; Chaves, Raquel N; Santos, Fernanda K Dos; Santos, Daniel; Hedeker, Donald; Maia, José A R

    2017-06-01

    Somatotype is a complex trait influenced by different genetic and environmental factors as well as by other covariates whose effects are still unclear. To (1) estimate siblings' resemblance in their general somatotype; (2) identify sib-pair (brother-brother (BB), sister-sister (SS), brother-sister (BS)) similarities in individual somatotype components; (3) examine the degree to which between and within variances differ among sib-ships; and (4) investigate the effects of physical activity (PA) and family socioeconomic status (SES) on these relationships. The sample comprises 1058 Portuguese siblings (538 females) aged 9-20 years. Somatotype was calculated using the Health-Carter method, while PA and SES information was obtained by questionnaire. Multi-level modelling was done in SuperMix software. Older subjects showed the lowest values for endomorphy and mesomorphy, but the highest values for ectomorphy; and more physically active subjects showed the highest values for mesomorphy. In general, the familiality of somatotype was moderate (ρ = 0.35). Same-sex siblings had the strongest resemblance (endomorphy: ρ SS > ρ BB > ρ BS ; mesomorphy: ρ BB = ρ SS > ρ BS ; ectomorphy: ρ BB > ρ SS > ρ BS ). For the ectomorphy and mesomorphy components, BS pairs showed the highest between sib-ship variance, but the lowest within sib-ship variance; while for endomorphy BS showed the lowest between and within sib-ship variances. These results highlight the significant familial effects on somatotype and the complexity of the role of familial resemblance in explaining variance in somatotypes.

  9. Atmospheric dynamics and bioregenerative technologies in a soil-based ecological life support system: Initial results from biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W.; Alvarez-Romo, N.; MacCallum, T.

    1994-11-01

    Biosphere 2 is the first man-made, soil-based, bioregenerative life support system to be developed and tested. The utilization and amendment of local space resources, e.g. martian soil or lunar regolith, for agricultural and other purposes will be necesary if we are to minimize the requirement for Earth materials in the creation of long-term off-planet bases and habitations. Several of the roles soil plays in Biosphere 2 are 1) for air purification 2) as a key component in created wetland systems to recycle human and animal wastes and 3) as nutrient base for a sustainable agricultural cropping program. Initial results from the Biosphere 2 closure experiment are presented. These include the accelerated cycling rates due to small reservoir sizes, strong diurnal and seasonal fluxes in atmospheric CO2, an unexpected and continuing decline in atmospheric oxygen, overall maintenance of low levels of trace gases, recycling of waste waters through biological regeneration systems, and operation of an agriculture designed to provide diverse and nutritionally adequate diets for the crew members.

  10. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  11. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    the system and create a thermodynamic drive sufficient to convert all of the dissolved inorganic carbon into methane. This indicates that the system is poised to create the reducing conditions necessary to support a subsurface biosphere very early in the serpentinizing process, and that the subsurface biosphere could extend upwards to very near the surface. The mixing model simulates the percolation of surface water into the active serpentinization zone. During the mixing process, methane is calculated to be more stable than carbonate species until approximately 100g of surface water have been added to 1 kg of the serpentinizing fluid. These results suggest that unreacted surface water flowing directly into the serpentinizing zone can create the disequilibria necessary for methanogenesis, and possibly other metabolisms, to proceed while still maintaining the low redox state of the system. As long as the recharge to the hyperalkaline reservoir does not exceed ten percent of the reservoir, methanogenesis and other serpentinization metabolisms can thrive off the disequilibria generated through mixing.

  12. Determining the Carbon Transport Rate of an Enclosed Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem in Biosphere 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Y. A.; Van Haren, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Determining how carbon moves through a tropical rainforest ecosystem is an important step towards understanding its role as a carbon sink system in the global carbon cycle. The paths by which carbon moves through forest ecosystems are reasonably well known. However, very little is known about how quickly this happens. We will present data from experiments where we isotopically pulse label the atmospheric carbon dioxide within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome with natural gas derived CO2 (∂13C ~ -40‰ vs. ~ -8.5‰ for ambient air). We are continually monitoring the CO2 concentration and isotope composition of the ambient air along a vertical profile to measure ecosystem gas exchange, and that of six branch-bag and five soil-chamber locations within the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest, with an Aerodyne Quantum Cascade Laser to trace the labeled carbon (precision for ∂13C = 0.02‰ and CO2 = 0.07ppm, calibrated to NOAA air standards). Environmental parameters such as light, relative humidity, soil moisture, and temperature are monitored at fifteen-minute intervals. We have selected one vine species and three different tree species for branch bag enclosures at two canopy heights that we expect represent the bulk photosynthetic biomass of the rainforest. The soil chambers are distributed randomly. By treating the Biosphere 2 tropical rainforest biome, a glass enclosed ecosystem with 1900m2 of ground, 26700m3 of air, and 92 different plant species, as a model ecosystem, we anticipate to determine carbon transport rates that would otherwise be practically impossible to determine in the real world due to the difficulty of isotopically labeling and monitoring entire canopies or even individual trees, which can reach heights over 60m. The data we have collected thus far will provide a baseline comparison for the labeling data. Comparing the branch bag data with the ecosystem data has helped us determine how well small branches represent the canopy and whole

  13. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Daniel R.; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W.; Boyd, Eric S.; Spear, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a “deep, hot biosphere” in the Earth’s crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth’s subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative. PMID:28674200

  14. Decadal trends in the seasonal-cycle amplitude of terrestrial CO 2 exchange resulting from the ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Ito, Akihiko; Inatomi, Motoko; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; ...

    2016-05-12

    The seasonal-cycle amplitude (SCA) of the atmosphere–ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO 2) exchange rate is a useful metric of the responsiveness of the terrestrial biosphere to environmental variations. It is unclear, however, what underlying mechanisms are responsible for the observed increasing trend of SCA in atmospheric CO 2 concentration. Using output data from the Multi-scale Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), we investigated how well the SCA of atmosphere–ecosystem CO 2 exchange was simulated with 15 contemporary terrestrial ecosystem models during the period 1901–2010. Also, we made attempt to evaluate the contributions of potential mechanisms such as atmospheric CO 2, climate, land-use,more » and nitrogen deposition, through factorial experiments using different combinations of forcing data. Under contemporary conditions, the simulated global-scale SCA of the cumulative net ecosystem carbon flux of most models was comparable in magnitude with the SCA of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Results from factorial simulation experiments showed that elevated atmospheric CO 2 exerted a strong influence on the seasonality amplification. When the model considered not only climate change but also land-use and atmospheric CO 2 changes, the majority of the models showed amplification trends of the SCAs of photosynthesis, respiration, and net ecosystem production (+0.19 % to +0.50 % yr –1). In the case of land-use change, it was difficult to separate the contribution of agricultural management to SCA because of inadequacies in both the data and models. The simulated amplification of SCA was approximately consistent with the observational evidence of the SCA in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Large inter-model differences remained, however, in the simulated global tendencies and spatial patterns of CO 2 exchanges. Further studies are required to identify a consistent explanation for the simulated and observed amplification trends, including their

  15. [Weltanschauung aspects of the problem of man, the biosphere and space].

    PubMed

    Agadzhanian, N A

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses philosophic approaches to the problem of man-environment interplay. Many important problems humanity faces today are associated with biology. Biomedical and astrophysical studies are being carried out to gain a better insight into the laws governing evolution and further development of the Universe. The emergence of a human society started a qualitatively new stage in the evolution of organic matter. A rapid progress of science and engineering is accompanied by a significant rearrangement of the natural environment and, particularly, of living beings. The biosphere is transforming into the sphere of intelligence, i.e. noosphere. However, natural phenomena are still more powerful than man-made productive forces. Man's excursion into outer space allowed him to look at himself as if from the outside and to evaluate critically his actual role, position and responsibility in the infinite Universe as compared with other forms of life and intelligence. The Universe may be boundlessly great but for human beings there is nothing better than the Earth. Our planet will long remain the base for the existence and development of humanity. Today man ought to take the streering-wheel of evolution and fate of the biosphere into his hands, in order to preserve, through the efforts of many generations, our planet as the gem of the Universe.

  16. Association analysis of 31 common polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes and its related traits in Indian sib pairs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Vinay, D G; Rafiq, S; Kranthikumar, M V; Janipalli, C S; Giambartolomei, C; Evans, D M; Mani, K R; Sandeep, M N; Taylor, A E; Kinra, S; Sullivan, R M; Bowen, L; Timpson, N J; Smith, G D; Dudbridge, F; Prabhakaran, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Reddy, K S; Ebrahim, S; Chandak, G R

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of the association of 31 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-beta cell function (HOMA-β), HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and type 2 diabetes in the Indian population. We genotyped 3,089 sib pairs recruited in the Indian Migration Study from four cities in India (Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore) for 31 SNPs in 24 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes in European populations. We conducted within-sib-pair analysis for type 2 diabetes and its related quantitative traits. The risk-allele frequencies of all the SNPs were comparable with those reported in western populations. We demonstrated significant associations of CXCR4 (rs932206), CDKAL1 (rs7756992) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, rs12255372) with fasting glucose, with β values of 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.01), 0.007 (p = 0.05), 0.01 (p = 0.003) and 0.08 (p = 0.01), respectively. Variants in NOTCH2 (rs10923931), TCF-2 (also known as HNF1B) (rs757210), ADAM30 (rs2641348) and CDKN2A/B (rs10811661) significantly predicted fasting insulin, with β values of -0.06 (p = 0.04), 0.05 (p = 0.05), -0.08 (p = 0.01) and -0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. For HOMA-IR, we detected associations with TCF-2, ADAM30 and CDKN2A/B, with β values of 0.05 (p = 0.04), -0.07 (p = 0.03) and -0.08 (p = 0.02), respectively. We also found significant associations of ADAM30 (β = -0.05; p = 0.01) and CDKN2A/B (β = -0.05; p = 0.03) with HOMA-β. THADA variant (rs7578597) was associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.04, 2.22; p = 0.03). We validated the association of seven established loci with intermediate traits related to type 2 diabetes in an Indian population using a design resistant to population stratification.

  17. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Ciais, Philippe; Zhang, Yao; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Wang, Weile; Poulter, Benjamin; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Niu, Shuli; Mao, Jiafu; Jain, Atul; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shi, Xiaoying; Ito, Akihiko; Wei, Yaxing; Huang, Yuefei; Wang, Guangqian

    2017-11-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO2 explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO2, but this direct CO2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.

  18. Bloom syndrome in sibs: first reports of hepatocellular carcinoma and Wilms tumor with documented anaplasia and nephrogenic rests.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Hui, P; McNamara, J; Schwartz, D; German, J; Reyes-Múgica, M

    2001-01-01

    The triad of small body size, immunodeficiency, and sun-sensitive facial erythema characterizes the phenotype Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a striking predisposition to multiple types of cancers that arise earlier than expected in the general population. Here we report two sibs with BS. The older, a 15-year-old-girl, developed a hepatocellular carcinoma, a neoplasm not yet reported in association with BS. Her younger brother developed an anaplastic Wilms tumor (WT) associated with nephrogenic rests at the age of 31/2 years, and this was followed by a myelodysplastic syndrome. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in all three neoplasms. These examples expand the spectrum of malignancies occurring in BS to include liver cell neoplasms, and confirm the association of nephrogenic rests with WT, even in the setting of BS.

  19. Evaluation of seven common lipid associated loci in a large Indian sib pair study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS), mostly in Europeans have identified several common variants as associated with key lipid traits. Replication of these genetic effects in South Asian populations is important since it would suggest wider relevance for these findings. Given the rising prevalence of metabolic disorders and heart disease in the Indian sub-continent, these studies could be of future clinical relevance. Methods We studied seven common variants associated with a variety of lipid traits in previous GWASs. The study sample comprised of 3178 sib-pairs recruited as participants for the Indian Migration Study (IMS). Associations with various lipid parameters and quantitative traits were analyzed using the Fulker genetic association model. Results We replicated five of the 7 main effect associations with p-values ranging from 0.03 to 1.97x10-7. We identified particularly strong association signals at rs662799 in APOA5 (beta=0.18 s.d, p=1.97 x 10-7), rs10503669 in LPL (beta =−0.18 s.d, p=1.0 x 10-4) and rs780094 in GCKR (beta=0.11 s.d, p=0.001) loci in relation to triglycerides. In addition, the GCKR variant was also associated with total cholesterol (beta=0.11 s.d, p=3.9x10-4). We also replicated the association of rs562338 in APOB (p=0.03) and rs4775041 in LIPC (p=0.007) with LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol respectively. Conclusions We report associations of five loci with various lipid traits with the effect size consistent with the same reported in Europeans. These results indicate an overlap of genetic effects pertaining to lipid traits across the European and Indian populations. PMID:23150898

  20. Re-assessment of feedbacks from biosphere to Indian Monsoon: RegCMv4.4.5.10 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Biosphere feedback plays an important role in the progression of moisture laden Indian summer monsoon winds over the land regions of India, towards the north-western regions of India, during the Indian summer monsoon regime. Hence, for understanding the biosphere-feedback to Indian monsoon numerical experiments for "control" and "design" cases are performed using ICTP RegCMv4.4.5.10 climate model forced with National Center for Atmospheric Research - II reanalysed fields. The RegCMv4.4.5.10 simulations are performed from 00GMT 1st November 1999 to 24 GMT 1st January 2011, with combination of mixed convective parameterization (viz. Emanuel and Grell) schemes over land and ocean, combined with "University of Washington- Planetary boundary layer" (UW-PBL) and Holtslag PBL scheme. Validation studies are then performed for correct representation of Indian summer monsoon features particularly precipitation and soil moisture. Then, four numerical experiments with LULCC change in the climate model are carried out (for the same initial, boundary forcings and time-period as in control experiment) for determining possible influence of vegetation cover (viz. extended desertification, deforestation and increase in afforestation, irrigated land) on Indian monsoon meteorology. Results from the extended desert and deforestation experiment, informs us that the moisture laden easterlies from Bay of Bengal are not able to move towards the land region owing to formation of anomalous anti-cyclone circulations, resulting in decrease in precipitation over India. From irrigation and afforestation experiment, it is found that there is increase in precipitation, precipitable water, recycling ratio, precipitation efficiency and development of anomalous cyclonic circulations over Central and North-west India. More details about the results from the numerical experiments performed will be explained.

  1. Continental Growth and Mantle Hydration as Earth System Feedback Cycles and possible Effects of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of Earth is charcterized by intertwined feedback cycles. We focus on two feedback cycles that include the mantle water budget and the continental crust and study possible effects of the Earth's biosphere. The first feedback loop includes cycling of water into the mantle at subduction zones and outgassing at volcanic chains and mid-ocean ridges. Water will reduce the viscosity of mantle rock, and therefore the speed of mantle convection and plate subduction will increase with the mantle water concentration, eventually enhancing the rates of mantle water regassing and outgassing. A second feedback loop includes the production and erosion of continental crust. Continents grow by volcanism above subduction zones, whose total length is determined by the total area of the continents. Furthermore, the erosion rate of the continents is proportional to the total surface area of continental crust. The rate of sediment subduction affects the rate of transport of water to the mantle and the production rate of new continental crust. We present a model that includes both cycles and show how the system develops stable and unstable fixed points in a plane defined by mantle water concentration and surface are of continents. The stable points represent either an Earth mostly covered by continents and a wet mantle or an Earth mostly covered by oceans with a dry mantle. The presently observed Earth is inbetween these extreme states but the state is intrinsically unstable. We couple the feedback model to a parameterized thermal evolution model. We show how Earth evolved towards its present unstable state. We argue that other feedback cycles such as the carbonate silicate cycle may act to stabilize the present state, however. By enhancing continental weathering and erosion, and eventually the sediment transport into subduction zones, the biosphere impacts both feedback cycles and might play a crucial role in regulating Earth's system and keep continental crust coverage and

  2. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Treesearch

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  3. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models. Current status and future directions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and loss from soil accounts for a large pro portion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Due to large pool size and variable residence time from years to millennia, even small changes in soil organic C(SOC) have substantial effects on the terrestrial C budget, thereby affecting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and identifyingmore » major driving forces controlling soil C storage and fluxes remains a key research challenge his study has compiled century-long (1901-2010)estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from ten terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) and two observation based datasets. The ten-TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate range from 4 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10 15g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C33 in 2010. Modeling approach estimates a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr -1 with a median value of 51Pg C yr -1 during 200–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude band while Rh differences are the largest in the tropics. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes have decreased SOC stocks while elevated CO 2 and atmospheric nitrogen deposition have increased SOC stocks though the response varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity,nutrient limitation and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil fluxes in this study. In addition, major sources of uncertainty from model estimation include exclusion of SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands as well as C

  4. VIS and NIR land surface albedo sensitivity of the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model to forcing leaf area index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.; Kiang, N. Y.; Ni-Meister, W.; Yang, W.; Schaaf, C.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.; Zhao, F. A.; Yao, T.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Carrer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a major controlling factor in vegetation-atmosphere transfers, modifying the components of the energy budget, the ecosystem productivity and patterns of regional and global climate. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are coupled to Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) to solve vegetation albedo by using simple schemes prescribing albedo based on vegetation classification, and approximations of canopy radiation transport for multiple plant functional types (PFTs). In this work, we aim at evaluating the sensitivity of the NASA Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), a demographic DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, in estimating VIS and NIR surface albedo by using variable forcing leaf area index (LAI). The Ent TBM utilizes a new Global Vegetation Structure Dataset (GVSD) to account for geographically varying vegetation tree heights and densities, as boundary conditions to the gap-probability based Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010). Land surface and vegetation characteristics for the Ent GVSD are obtained from a number of earth observation platforms and algorithms, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and plant functional types (PFTs) (Friedl et al., 2010), soil albedo derived from MODIS (Carrer et al., 2014), and vegetation height from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) (Simard et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014). Three LAI products are used as input to ACTS/Ent TBM: MODIS MOD15A2H product (Yang et al., 2006), Beijing Normal University LAI (Yuan et al., 2011), and Global Data Sets of Vegetation (LAI3g) (Zhu et al. 2013). The sensitivity of the Ent TBM VIS and NIR albedo to the three LAI products is assessed, compared against the previous GISS GCM vegetation classification and prescribed Lambertian albedoes (Matthews, 1984), and against

  5. Evaluation of injectable silica-embedded nanohydroxyapatite bone substitute in a rat tibia defect model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiguo; Ganz, Cornelia; Weber, Ulf; Adam, Martin; Holzhüter, Gerd; Wolter, Daniel; Frerich, Bernhard; Vollmar, Brigitte; Gerber, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In clinical practice, vertebral compression fractures occur after trauma and osteoporosis. Kyphoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure using bone filler material for the treatment of such fractures. A full synthetic injectable bone substitute (SIBS) was manufactured by means of spray drying. The aim of this study was to characterize the SIBS and to analyze the remodelling process during degradation of the biomaterial and new bone formation after implantation. SIBS is an aqueous suspension of donut-like microparticles. These microparticles consist of nanocrystallites of synthetic hydroxyapatite embedded in amorphous silica gel. After implantation of SIBS in a proximal tibial diaphyseal defect in 52 rats, grafts were harvested for subsequent analysis on different days. Newly formed bone originating from endosteum was observed on day 6. Hematomas in the medullary space and cortical wounds disappeared on day 12. The wound region was completely replaced by a composite of newly formed cancellous bone, extracellular matrix, and SIBS. At day 63 the cortical defect was fully healed by bone, while newly formed bone in the medullary space almost disappeared and was replaced with bone marrow. In conclusion, SIBS demonstrated a unique structure with osteoinductive and bioresorbable properties, which induced fast bone regeneration. Therefore, a clinical application of SIBS for kyphoplasty is promising. PMID:21845044

  6. Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model - Part 2: Deforestation control and investment in carbon capture and storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogutu, K. B. Z.; D'Andrea, F.; Ghil, M.; Nyandwi, C.; Manene, M. M.; Muthama, J. N.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses the global climate-economy-biosphere (CoCEB) model developed in Part 1 to investigate economic aspects of deforestation control and carbon sequestration in forests, as well as the efficiency of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies as policy measures for climate change mitigation. We assume - as in Part 1 - that replacement of one technology with another occurs in terms of a logistic law, so that the same law also governs the dynamics of reduction in carbon dioxide emission using CCS technologies. In order to take into account the effect of deforestation control, a slightly more complex description of the carbon cycle than in Part 1 is needed. Consequently, we add a biomass equation into the CoCEB model and analyze the ensuing feedbacks and their effects on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth. Integrating biomass into the CoCEB and applying deforestation control as well as CCS technologies has the following results: (i) low investment in CCS contributes to reducing industrial carbon emissions and to increasing GDP, but further investment leads to a smaller reduction in emissions, as well as in the incremental GDP growth; and (ii) enhanced deforestation control contributes to a reduction in both deforestation emissions and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, thus reducing the impacts of climate change and contributing to a slight appreciation of GDP growth. This effect is however very small compared to that of low-carbon technologies or CCS. We also find that the result in (i) is very sensitive to the formulation of CCS costs, while to the contrary, the results for deforestation control are less sensitive.

  7. Climate regulates the erosional carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    -stress POCbiosphere erosion model is proposed which can explain the patterns in the data. The model allows the climate sensitivity of this carbon flux to be assessed for the first time. For a 1% increase in annual runoff, POCbiosphere discharge is predicted to increase by 4%. In steeper catchments, POCbiosphere discharge increases more rapidly with an increase in annual runoff. For comparison, a 1% increase in annual runoff is predicted to increase carbon transfers by silicate weathering solute fluxes in mountains by 0.4-0.7%. Depending on the fate of the eroded POCbiosphere, river export of POCbiosphere from mountains may act as an important negative feedback on rising atmospheric CO2 and increased global temperature. Erosion of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere links mountain building and climate to the geological evolution of atmospheric CO2, while the carbon fluxes are sensitive to predicted changes in runoff over the coming century. Supplementary Table 2 - Global forested mountain river catchments with estimates of suspended sediment and POCbiosphere, and POCpetro yields, and annual runoff. Supplementary Table 3 - Geomorphic characteristics of mountain river catchments. Supplementary Table 4 - Outputs of binary mixing model.

  8. Response of Water Use Efficiency to Global Environmental Change Based on Output From Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhou, Sha; Yu, Bofu; Schwalm, Christopher R.

    Here, water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity and evapotranspiration at the ecosystem scale, is a critical variable linking the carbon and water cycles. Incorporating a dependency on vapor pressure deficit, apparent underlying WUE (uWUE) provides a better indicator of how terrestrial ecosystems respond to environmental changes than other WUE formulations. Here we used 20th century simulations from four terrestrial biosphere models to develop a novel variance decomposition method. With this method, we attributed variations in apparent uWUE to both the trend and interannual variation of environmental drivers. The secular increase in atmospheric CO 2more » explained a clear majority of total variation (66 ± 32%: mean ± one standard deviation), followed by positive trends in nitrogen deposition and climate, as well as a negative trend in land use change. In contrast, interannual variation was mostly driven by interannual climate variability. To analyze the mechanism of the CO 2 effect, we partitioned the apparent uWUE into the transpiration ratio (transpiration over evapotranspiration) and potential uWUE. The relative increase in potential uWUE parallels that of CO 2, but this direct CO 2 effect was offset by 20 ± 4% by changes in ecosystem structure, that is, leaf area index for different vegetation types. However, the decrease in transpiration due to stomatal closure with rising CO 2 was reduced by 84% by an increase in leaf area index, resulting in small changes in the transpiration ratio. CO 2 concentration thus plays a dominant role in driving apparent uWUE variations over time, but its role differs for the two constituent components: potential uWUE and transpiration.« less

  9. The interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere land surface model with a multi-energy balance (ISBA-MEB) option in SURFEXv8 - Part 1: Model description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, Aaron; Samuelsson, Patrick; Gollvik, Stefan; Napoly, Adrien; Jarlan, Lionel; Brun, Eric; Decharme, Bertrand

    2017-02-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are pushing towards improved realism owing to an increasing number of observations at the local scale, constantly improving satellite data sets and the associated methodologies to best exploit such data, improved computing resources, and in response to the user community. As a part of the trend in LSM development, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the representation of the land surface processes in the interactions between the soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA) LSM within the EXternalized SURFace (SURFEX) model platform. The force-restore approach in ISBA has been replaced in recent years by multi-layer explicit physically based options for sub-surface heat transfer, soil hydrological processes, and the composite snowpack. The representation of vegetation processes in SURFEX has also become much more sophisticated in recent years, including photosynthesis and respiration and biochemical processes. It became clear that the conceptual limits of the composite soil-vegetation scheme within ISBA had been reached and there was a need to explicitly separate the canopy vegetation from the soil surface. In response to this issue, a collaboration began in 2008 between the high-resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) consortium and Météo-France with the intention to develop an explicit representation of the vegetation in ISBA under the SURFEX platform. A new parameterization has been developed called the ISBA multi-energy balance (MEB) in order to address these issues. ISBA-MEB consists in a fully implicit numerical coupling between a multi-layer physically based snowpack model, a variable-layer soil scheme, an explicit litter layer, a bulk vegetation scheme, and the atmosphere. It also includes a feature that permits a coupling transition of the snowpack from the canopy air to the free atmosphere. It shares many of the routines and physics parameterizations with the standard version of ISBA. This paper is the first of two parts; in part one

  10. Soil Surface Runoff Scheme for Improving Land-Hydrology and Surface Fluxes in Simple SiB (SSiB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Evapotranspiration on land is hard to measure and difficult to simulate. On the scale of a GCM grid, there is large subgrid-scale variability of orography, soil moisture, and vegetation. Our hope is to be able to tune the biophysical constants of vegetation and soil parameters to get the most realistic space-averaged diurnal cycle of evaporation and its climatology. Field experiments such as First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE), Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and LBA help a great deal in improving our evapotranspiration schemes. However, these improvements have to be matched with, and coupled to, consistent improvement in land-hydrology; otherwise, the runoff problems will intrinsically reflect on the soil moisture and evapotranspiration errors. Indeed, a realistic runoff simulation also ensures a reasonable evapotranspiration simulation provided the precipitation forcing is reliable. We have been working on all of the above problems to improve the simulated hydrologic cycle. Through our participation in the evaluation and intercomparison of land-models under the behest of Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP), we identified a few problems with Simple SiB (SSIB; Xue et al., 1991) hydrology in regions of significant snowmelt. Sud and Mocko (1999) show that inclusion of a separate snowpack model, with its own energy budget and fluxes with the atmosphere aloft and soil beneath, helps to ameliorate some of the deficiencies of delayed snowmelt and excessive spring season runoff. Thus, much more realistic timing of melt water generation was simulated with the new snowpack model in the subsequent GSWP re-evaluations using 2 years of ISLSCP Initiative I forcing data for 1987 and 1988. However, we noted an overcorrection of the low meltwater infiltration of SSiB. While the improvement in snowmelt timing was found everywhere, the snowmelt infiltration has became excessive in some regions, e.g., Lena river basin. This leads to much reduced runoff in many basins as

  11. Network Analysis of Earth's Co-Evolving Geosphere and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, R. M.; Eleish, A.; Liu, C.; Morrison, S. M.; Meyer, M.; Consortium, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    A fundamental goal of Earth science is the deep understanding of Earth's dynamic, co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through deep time. Network analysis of geo- and bio- `big data' provides an interactive, quantitative, and predictive visualization framework to explore complex and otherwise hidden high-dimension features of diversity, distribution, and change in the evolution of Earth's geochemistry, mineralogy, paleobiology, and biochemistry [1]. Networks also facilitate quantitative comparison of different geological time periods, tectonic settings, and geographical regions, as well as different planets and moons, through network metrics, including density, centralization, diameter, and transitivity.We render networks by employing data related to geographical, paragenetic, environmental, or structural relationships among minerals, fossils, proteins, and microbial taxa. An important recent finding is that the topography of many networks reflects parameters not explicitly incorporated in constructing the network. For example, networks for minerals, fossils, and protein structures reveal embedded qualitative time axes, with additional network geometries possibly related to extinction and/or other punctuation events (see Figure). Other axes related to chemical activities and volatile fugacities, as well as pressure and/or depth of formation, may also emerge from network analysis. These patterns provide new insights into the way planets evolve, especially Earth's co-evolving geosphere and biosphere. 1. Morrison, S.M. et al. (2017) Network analysis of mineralogical systems. American Mineralogist 102, in press. Figure Caption: A network of Phanerozoic Era fossil animals from the past 540 million years includes blue, red, and black circles (nodes) representing family-level taxa and grey lines (links) between coexisting families. Age information was not used in the construction of this network; nevertheless an intrinsic timeline is embedded in the network topology. In

  12. Toward an understanding of global change: Initial priorities for US contributions to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A limited number of high-priority research initiatives are recommended for early implementation as part of the U.S. contribution to the preparatory phase of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. The recommendations are based on the committee's analysis of the most critical gaps in the scientific knowledge needed to understand the changes that are occurring in the earth system not being addressed by existing programs. The report articulates a number of important key issues and interactions that characterize global change in the geosphere-biosphere system on time scales of decades to centuries; identifies the knowledge that is the most urgently needed to improve understanding of those issues and interactions; and formulates initial priorities for initial U.S. contributions to the IGBP, recognizing the contributions of other ongoing and proposed programs.

  13. International Co-ordinating Council of the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Man and the Biosphere Program is an interdisciplinary program of research which emphasizes an ecological approach to the study of interrelationships between man and the environment. It is concerned with subjects of global or major regional significance which require international cooperation. This final report discusses areas in which…

  14. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico.

  15. FluidCam 1&2 - UAV-based Fluid Lensing Instruments for High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging and Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment of Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V.; Instrella, R.

    2016-02-01

    We present NASA ESTO FluidCam 1 & 2, Visible and NIR Fluid-Lensing-enabled imaging payloads for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Developed as part of a focused 2014 earth science technology grant, FluidCam 1&2 are Fluid-Lensing-based computational optical imagers designed for automated 3D mapping and remote sensing of underwater coastal targets from airborne platforms. Fluid Lensing has been used to map underwater reefs in 3D in American Samoa and Hamelin Pool, Australia from UAV platforms at sub-cm scale, which has proven a valuable tool in modern marine research for marine biosphere assessment and conservation. We share FluidCam 1&2 instrument validation and testing results as well as preliminary processed data from field campaigns. Petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk reefs demonstrate broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to improving bathymetry data for physical oceanographic models and understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production, carbon sequestration.

  16. FluidCam 1&2 - UAV-Based Fluid Lensing Instruments for High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging and Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment of Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V.

    2015-12-01

    We present NASA ESTO FluidCam 1 & 2, Visible and NIR Fluid-Lensing-enabled imaging payloads for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Developed as part of a focused 2014 earth science technology grant, FluidCam 1&2 are Fluid-Lensing-based computational optical imagers designed for automated 3D mapping and remote sensing of underwater coastal targets from airborne platforms. Fluid Lensing has been used to map underwater reefs in 3D in American Samoa and Hamelin Pool, Australia from UAV platforms at sub-cm scale, which has proven a valuable tool in modern marine research for marine biosphere assessment and conservation. We share FluidCam 1&2 instrument validation and testing results as well as preliminary processed data from field campaigns. Petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk reefs demonstrate broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to improving bathymetry data for physical oceanographic models and understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production, carbon sequestration.

  17. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 10 research interns for a 10 week period during the summer of 1998. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 10 students for Columbia University summer field courses. Students participating in these programs were involved in numerous earth systems activities, collecting data in the field and conducting analyses in the laboratory. Students enrolled in the field program were expected to design independent research projects as part of their coursework. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Field school students were involved in field trips exposing them to the geology and ecology of the region including Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California. Interns participated in laboratory-based research. All students were expected to complete oral and written presentations of their work during the summer.

  18. Is the genetic landscape of the deep subsurface biosphere affected by viruses?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rika E; Brazelton, William J; Baross, John A

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are powerful manipulators of microbial diversity, biogeochemistry, and evolution in the marine environment. Viruses can directly influence the genetic capabilities and the fitness of their hosts through the use of fitness factors and through horizontal gene transfer. However, the impact of viruses on microbial ecology and evolution is often overlooked in studies of the deep subsurface biosphere. Subsurface habitats connected to hydrothermal vent systems are characterized by constant fluid flux, dynamic environmental variability, and high microbial diversity. In such conditions, high adaptability would be an evolutionary asset, and the potential for frequent host-virus interactions would be high, increasing the likelihood that cellular hosts could acquire novel functions. Here, we review evidence supporting this hypothesis, including data indicating that microbial communities in subsurface hydrothermal fluids are exposed to a high rate of viral infection, as well as viral metagenomic data suggesting that the vent viral assemblage is particularly enriched in genes that facilitate horizontal gene transfer and host adaptability. Therefore, viruses are likely to play a crucial role in facilitating adaptability to the extreme conditions of these regions of the deep subsurface biosphere. We also discuss how these results might apply to other regions of the deep subsurface, where the nature of virus-host interactions would be altered, but possibly no less important, compared to more energetic hydrothermal systems.

  19. Is the Genetic Landscape of the Deep Subsurface Biosphere Affected by Viruses?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rika E.; Brazelton, William J.; Baross, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are powerful manipulators of microbial diversity, biogeochemistry, and evolution in the marine environment. Viruses can directly influence the genetic capabilities and the fitness of their hosts through the use of fitness factors and through horizontal gene transfer. However, the impact of viruses on microbial ecology and evolution is often overlooked in studies of the deep subsurface biosphere. Subsurface habitats connected to hydrothermal vent systems are characterized by constant fluid flux, dynamic environmental variability, and high microbial diversity. In such conditions, high adaptability would be an evolutionary asset, and the potential for frequent host–virus interactions would be high, increasing the likelihood that cellular hosts could acquire novel functions. Here, we review evidence supporting this hypothesis, including data indicating that microbial communities in subsurface hydrothermal fluids are exposed to a high rate of viral infection, as well as viral metagenomic data suggesting that the vent viral assemblage is particularly enriched in genes that facilitate horizontal gene transfer and host adaptability. Therefore, viruses are likely to play a crucial role in facilitating adaptability to the extreme conditions of these regions of the deep subsurface biosphere. We also discuss how these results might apply to other regions of the deep subsurface, where the nature of virus–host interactions would be altered, but possibly no less important, compared to more energetic hydrothermal systems. PMID:22084639

  20. Bayesian optimization of the Community Land Model simulated biosphere-atmosphere exchange using CO 2 observations from a dense tower network and aircraft campaigns over Oregon

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Andres; Law, Beverly E.; Göckede, Mathias; ...

    2016-09-15

    Here, the vast forests and natural areas of the Pacific Northwest comprise one of the most productive ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. The heterogeneous landscape of Oregon poses a particular challenge to ecosystem models. We present a framework using a scaling factor Bayesian inversion to improve the modeled atmosphere-biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. Observations from 5 CO/CO 2 towers, eddy covariance towers, and airborne campaigns were used to constrain the Community Land Model CLM4.5 simulated terrestrial CO 2 exchange at a high spatial and temporal resolution (1/24°, 3-hourly). To balance aggregation errors and the degrees of freedom in the inversemore » modeling system, we applied an unsupervised clustering approach for the spatial structuring of our model domain. Data from flight campaigns were used to quantify the uncertainty introduced by the Lagrangian particle dispersion model that was applied for the inversions. The average annual statewide net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was increased by 32% to 29.7 TgC per year by assimilating the tropospheric mixing ratio data. The associated uncertainty was decreased by 28.4% to 29%, on average over the entire Oregon model domain with the lowest uncertainties of 11% in western Oregon. The largest differences between posterior and prior CO 2 fluxes were found for the Coast Range ecoregion of Oregon that also exhibits the highest availability of atmospheric observations and associated footprints. In this area, covered by highly productive Douglas-fir forest, the differences between the prior and posterior estimate of NEP averaged 3.84 TgC per year during the study period from 2012 through 2014.« less

  1. Bayesian optimization of the Community Land Model simulated biosphere-atmosphere exchange using CO 2 observations from a dense tower network and aircraft campaigns over Oregon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schmidt, Andres; Law, Beverly E.; Göckede, Mathias

    Here, the vast forests and natural areas of the Pacific Northwest comprise one of the most productive ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. The heterogeneous landscape of Oregon poses a particular challenge to ecosystem models. We present a framework using a scaling factor Bayesian inversion to improve the modeled atmosphere-biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. Observations from 5 CO/CO 2 towers, eddy covariance towers, and airborne campaigns were used to constrain the Community Land Model CLM4.5 simulated terrestrial CO 2 exchange at a high spatial and temporal resolution (1/24°, 3-hourly). To balance aggregation errors and the degrees of freedom in the inversemore » modeling system, we applied an unsupervised clustering approach for the spatial structuring of our model domain. Data from flight campaigns were used to quantify the uncertainty introduced by the Lagrangian particle dispersion model that was applied for the inversions. The average annual statewide net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was increased by 32% to 29.7 TgC per year by assimilating the tropospheric mixing ratio data. The associated uncertainty was decreased by 28.4% to 29%, on average over the entire Oregon model domain with the lowest uncertainties of 11% in western Oregon. The largest differences between posterior and prior CO 2 fluxes were found for the Coast Range ecoregion of Oregon that also exhibits the highest availability of atmospheric observations and associated footprints. In this area, covered by highly productive Douglas-fir forest, the differences between the prior and posterior estimate of NEP averaged 3.84 TgC per year during the study period from 2012 through 2014.« less

  2. Poroelastic Parameters of Peru Margin Sediments: Implications for Flow and Transport at Multiple Scales in the Marine Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettemy, G. L.; Cikoski, C.; Tobin, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader investigation of the deep marine subsurface environment, the first biosphere-focused drilling expedition, Leg 201, of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) occupied five unique sites in the Peru Margin (in a 1200 km2 region centered at 10 S, 80E). These sites represent the entire range of shallow biogeological conditions associated with this convergent margin:deep-water, mixed clay-pelagic sediments ocean-ward of the trench; slope-apron and prism toe sediments at the deformation front; and several distinct lithostratigraphic sequences on the continental shelf. Microbial enumeration and pore-water geochemistry results show that each particular site is both consistent and unique--consistent in terms of general biotic quantity and activity as predicted by energy flux and redox potential given the depositional environment and sedimentary record, but unique at key biogeological boundaries such as lithologic and/or physical property interfaces. This research addresses questions related to our understanding of how and why these boundaries form by looking at poroelastic and hydrologic parameters measured at multiple scales, from sub-millimeter to several centimeters. The issue of measurement scale, especially in regard to permeability and diffusivity characterization, is vital to interpreting observations of biologically-mediated diagenetic fronts (e.g., dolomitic lenses, depth- or time-varying barite fronts). These parameters are derived from (i) hydrologic and wave propagation experiments, (ii) SEM images, and (iii) shipboard split-core measurements, and structured in a modified Biot poroelasticity framework. This approach also allows quantification of the local heterogeneity of these parameters at the scale applicable to (and controlled by) microbial life; these results can then be used to formulate predictive models of the impact of biogeochemical processes. Ultimately, these models could then be used in interpretation of new remote-sensed data (e

  3. Using NDACC column measurements of carbonyl sulfide to estimate its sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Marshall, Julia; Palm, Mathias; Deutscher, Nicholas; Roedenbeck, Christian; Warneke, Thorsten; Notholt, Justus; Baker, Ian; Berry, Joe; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Jones, Nicholas; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Lejeune, Bernard; Hannigan, James; Conway, Stephanie; Strong, Kimberly; Campbell, Elliott; Wolf, Adam; Kremser, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is taken up by plants during photosynthesis through a similar pathway as carbon dioxide (CO2), but is not emitted by respiration, and thus holds great promise as an additional constraint on the carbon cycle. It might act as a sort of tracer of photosynthesis, a way to separate gross primary productivity (GPP) from the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) that is typically derived from flux modeling. However the estimates of OCS sources and sinks still have significant uncertainties, which make it difficult to use OCS as a photosynthetic tracer, and the existing long-term surface-based measurements are sparse. The NDACC-IRWG measures the absorption of OCS in the atmosphere, and provides a potential long-term database of OCS total/partial columns, which can be used to evaluate OCS fluxes. We have retrieved OCS columns from several NDACC sites around the globe, and compared them to model simulation with OCS land fluxes based on the simple biosphere model (SiB). The disagreement between the measurements and the forward simulations indicates that (1) the OCS land fluxes from SiB are too low in the northern boreal region; (2) the ocean fluxes need to be optimized. A statistical linear flux model describing OCS is developed in the TM3 inversion system, and is used to estimate the OCS fluxes. We performed flux inversions using only NOAA OCS surface measurements as an observational constraint and with both surface and NDACC OCS column measurements, and assessed the differences. The posterior uncertainties of the inverted OCS fluxes decreased with the inclusion of NDACC data comparing to those using surface data only, and could be further reduced if more NDACC sites were included.

  4. Strategy for modeling putative multilevel ecosystems on Europa.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Louis N; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    A general strategy for modeling ecosystems on other worlds is described. Two alternative biospheres beneath the ice surface of Europa are modeled, based on analogous ecosystems on Earth in potentially comparable habitats, with reallocation of biomass quantities consistent with different sources of energy and chemical constituents. The first ecosystem models a benthic biosphere supported by chemoautotrophic producers. The second models two concentrations of biota at the top and bottom of the subsurface water column supported by energy harvested from transmembrane ionic gradients. Calculations indicate the plausibility of both ecosystems, including small macroorganisms at the highest trophic levels, with ionotrophy supporting a larger biomass than chemoautotrophy.

  5. Modelling climate change responses in tropical forests: similar productivity estimates across five models, but different mechanisms and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, L.; Harper, A.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Galbraith, D. R.; Imbuzeiro, H. M. A.; Powell, T. L.; Doughty, C.; Levine, N. M.; Malhi, Y.; Saleska, S. R.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Meir, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-04-01

    Accurately predicting the response of Amazonia to climate change is important for predicting climate change across the globe. Changes in multiple climatic factors simultaneously result in complex non-linear ecosystem responses, which are difficult to predict using vegetation models. Using leaf- and canopy-scale observations, this study evaluated the capability of five vegetation models (Community Land Model version 3.5 coupled to the Dynamic Global Vegetation model - CLM3.5-DGVM; Ecosystem Demography model version 2 - ED2; the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator version 2.1 - JULES; Simple Biosphere model version 3 - SiB3; and the soil-plant-atmosphere model - SPA) to simulate the responses of leaf- and canopy-scale productivity to changes in temperature and drought in an Amazonian forest. The models did not agree as to whether gross primary productivity (GPP) was more sensitive to changes in temperature or precipitation, but all the models were consistent with the prediction that GPP would be higher if tropical forests were 5 °C cooler than current ambient temperatures. There was greater model-data consistency in the response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to changes in temperature than in the response to temperature by net photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf area index (LAI). Modelled canopy-scale fluxes are calculated by scaling leaf-scale fluxes using LAI. At the leaf-scale, the models did not agree on the temperature or magnitude of the optimum points of An, Vcmax or gs, and model variation in these parameters was compensated for by variations in the absolute magnitude of simulated LAI and how it altered with temperature. Across the models, there was, however, consistency in two leaf-scale responses: (1) change in An with temperature was more closely linked to stomatal behaviour than biochemical processes; and (2) intrinsic water use efficiency (IWUE) increased with temperature, especially when combined with drought. These results suggest

  6. Monitoring recreational impacts in wilderness of Kamchatka (on example of Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve)

    Treesearch

    Anya V. Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment and monitoring program that was designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in a wilderness in Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application to a case study conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (Kamchatka peninsula,...

  7. Biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems - Community characteristics and relationships with multispectral surface reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Bartlett, David S.; Fan, Song-Miao; Bakwin, Peter S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    CO2 exchange rates were measured at selected tundra sites near Bethel, Alaska using portable, climate-controlled, instrumented enclosures. The empirically modeled exchange rate for a representative area of vegetated tundra was 1.2 +/- 1.2 g/sq m/d, compared to a tower-measured exchange over the same time period of 1.1 +.0- 1.2 g/sq m/d. Net exchange in response to varying light levels was compared to wet meadow and dry upland tundra, and to the net exchange measured by the micrometeoroidal tower technique. The multispectral reflectance properties of the sites were measured and related to exchange rates in order to provide a quantitative foundation for the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor biosphere/atmosphere CO2 exchange in the tundra biome.

  8. Characterization of Reconstructed Ancestral Proteins Suggests a Change in Temperature of the Ancient Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Satoshi

    2017-08-06

    Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms. However, the in silico studies that assess the ancestral base content of ribosomal RNAs, the frequency of each amino acid in ancestral proteins, and estimate the environmental temperatures of ancient organisms, show conflicting results. The characterization of ancestral proteins reconstructed in vitro suggests that ancient organisms had very thermally stable proteins, and therefore were thermophilic or hyperthermophilic. Experimental data supports the idea that only thermophilic ancestors survived the catastrophic increase in temperature of the biosphere that was likely associated with meteorite impacts during the early history of Earth. In addition, by expanding the timescale and including more ancestral proteins for reconstruction, it appears as though the Earth's surface temperature gradually decreased over time, from Archean to present.

  9. Interaction between Hydrosphere and Biosphere: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated terrestrial ecosystems and the overlying atmosphere are dynamically linked though the continuous transfer of mass, energy and momentum. The hydrologic variability interacts with the vegetation at time scales ranging from hours to days to inter-annual and decadal. The existing distribution of ecosystems is a result of evolutionary selections in response to environmental constraints which are themselves modified as terrestrial systems evolve until reaching a dynamic equilibrium. However this balance is changing, often rapidly, in response to anthropogenic influences such as climate change, land use/land cover change, and urban and agricultural expansions. Evidence suggests that vegetation response is adaptive in that they alter their survival strategies in response to environmental change, for example, through development of deep rooting and using hydraulic redistribution to better utilize the available moisture in the deeper soil layers. Yet little is known on how this impacts the hydrologic cycle and its variability. Active and adaptive control of vegetation and atmospheric flow moves soil-moisture that is no longer constrained by watershed boundaries. How do the atmospheric and terrestrial moisture, and vegetation interact to produce the observed variability in the water cycle and how does/will this variability change in response to the anthropogenic influences? What are the ecological consequences of this change? These broad questions lie at the heart of understanding the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. Some specific questions to address are: · How does biosphere mediate the interaction between long time scale sub-surface hydrology and short time scale atmospheric hydrologic cycle? · How has this interaction given rise to the observed self-organized patterns of ecosystems and how do these ecosystems sustain the hydrologic regime needed for their own sustenance? · How are the dynamic regimes of ecohydrologic interactions affected by

  10. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB.more » Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods

  11. Three centuries of dual pressure from land use and climate change on the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostberg, Sebastian; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Human land use and anthropogenic climate change (CC) are placing mounting pressure on natural ecosystems worldwide, with impacts on biodiversity, water resources, nutrient and carbon cycles. Here, we present a quantitative macro-scale comparative analysis of the separate and joint dual impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and CC on the terrestrial biosphere during the last ca. 300 years, based on simulations with a dynamic global vegetation model and an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical, hydrological and vegetation-structural shifts. We find that by the beginning of the 21st century LULCC and CC have jointly caused major shifts on more than 90% of all areas now cultivated, corresponding to 26% of the land area. CC has exposed another 26% of natural ecosystems to moderate or major shifts. Within three centuries, the impact of LULCC on landscapes has increased 13-fold. Within just one century, CC effects have caught up with LULCC effects.

  12. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  13. Homozygous parent affected sib pair method for detecting disease predisposing variants: application to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W P; Barbosa, J; Rich, S S; Thomson, G

    1993-01-01

    For complex genetic diseases involving incomplete penetrance, genetic heterogeneity, and multiple disease genes, it is often difficult to determine the molecular variant(s) responsible for the disease pathogenesis. Linkage and association studies may help identify genetic regions and molecular variants suspected of being directly responsible for disease predisposition or protection, but, especially for complex diseases, they are less useful for determining when a predisposing molecular variant has been identified. In this paper, we expand upon the simple concept that if a genetic factor predisposing to disease has been fully identified, then a parent homozygous for this factor should transmit either of his/her copies at random to any affected children. Closely linked markers are used to determine identity by descent values in affected sib pairs from a parent homozygous for a putative disease predisposing factor. The expected deviation of haplotype sharing from 50%, when not all haplotypes carrying this factor are in fact equally predisposing, has been algebraically determined for a single locus general disease model. Equations to determine expected sharing for multiple disease alleles or multiple disease locus models have been formulated. The recessive case is in practice limiting and therefore can be used to estimate the maximum proportion of putative susceptibility haplotypes which are in fact predisposing to disease when the mode of inheritance of a disease is unknown. This method has been applied to 27 DR3/DR3 parents and 50 DR4/DR4 parents who have at least 2 children affected with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The transmission of both DR3 and DR4 haplotypes is statistically different from 50% (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). An upper estimate for the proportion of DR3 haplotypes associated with a high IDDM susceptibility is 49%, and for DR4 haplotypes 38%. Our results show that the joint presence of non-Asp at DQ beta position 57 and Arg

  14. Exploring the dark energy biosphere, 15 seconds at a time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, C.; Tossey, L.; Biddle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Science communication often suffers from numerous pitfalls including jargon, complexity, ageneral lack of (science) education of the audience, and short attention spans. With the Center for Dark EnergyBiosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), Delaware Sea Grant is expanding its collection of 15 Second Science videos, whichdeliver complex science topics, with visually stimulating footage and succinct audio. Featuring a diverse cast of scientistsand educators in front of the camera, we are expanded our reach into the public and classrooms. We're alsoexperimenting with smartphone-based virtual reality, for a more immersive experience into the deep! We will show youthe process for planning, producing, and posting our #15secondscience videos and VR segments, and how we areevaluating effectiveness.

  15. Multi-model analysis of terrestrial carbon cycles in Japan: limitations and implications of model calibration using eddy flux observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Hajima, T.; Ueyama, M.; Sasai, T.; Hirata, R.; Saigusa, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Takagi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models show large differences when simulating carbon and water cycles, and reducing these differences is a priority for developing more accurate estimates of the condition of terrestrial ecosystems and future climate change. To reduce uncertainties and improve the understanding of their carbon budgets, we investigated the utility of the eddy flux datasets to improve model simulations and reduce variabilities among multi-model outputs of terrestrial biosphere models in Japan. Using 9 terrestrial biosphere models (Support Vector Machine - based regressions, TOPS, CASA, VISIT, Biome-BGC, DAYCENT, SEIB, LPJ, and TRIFFID), we conducted two simulations: (1) point simulations at four eddy flux sites in Japan and (2) spatial simulations for Japan with a default model (based on original settings) and a modified model (based on model parameter tuning using eddy flux data). Generally, models using default model settings showed large deviations in model outputs from observation with large model-by-model variability. However, after we calibrated the model parameters using eddy flux data (GPP, RE and NEP), most models successfully simulated seasonal variations in the carbon cycle, with less variability among models. We also found that interannual variations in the carbon cycle are mostly consistent among models and observations. Spatial analysis also showed a large reduction in the variability among model outputs. This study demonstrated that careful validation and calibration of models with available eddy flux data reduced model-by-model differences. Yet, site history, analysis of model structure changes, and more objective procedure of model calibration should be included in the further analysis.

  16. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    A biosphere stands for a set of biomes (regional biological communities) interacting in a materially closed (though energetically open) ecological system (CES). Earth's biosphere, the thin layer of life on the planet's surface, can be seen as a natural CES- where life "consumables" are regenerated/restored via biological, geological and chemical processes. In Life Sciences, artificial CESs- local ecosystems extracts with varying scales and degrees of closure, are considered convenient/representatives objects of study. For outer space, these concepts have been applied to the issue of life support- a significant consideration as long as distance from Earth increases. In the nineties, growing on the Russian expertise on biological life support, backed by a multidisciplinary science team, the famous Biosphere 2 appeared. That private project innovated, by assembling a set of Earth biomes samples- plus an organic ag one, inside a closed Mars base-like structure, next to 1.5 ha under glass, in Arizona, US. The crew of 8 inside completed their two years contract, though facing setbacks- the system failed, e.g., to produce enough food/air supplies. But their "failures"- if this word can be fairly applied to science endeavors, were as meaningful as their achievements for the future of life support systems (LSS) research. By this period, the Russians had accumulated experience in extended orbital stays, achieving biological outcomes inside their stations- e.g. complete wheat cycles. After reaching the Moon, the US administration decided to change national priorities, putting the space program as part of a "détente" policy, to relieve international tensions. Alongside the US space shuttle program, the Russians were invited to join the new International Space Station (ISS), bringing to that pragmatic project, also their physical/chemical LSS- top air/water regenerative technology at the time. Present US policy keeps the ISS operational, extending its service past its planned

  17. FLUXNET to MODIS: Connecting the dots to capture heterogenious biosphere metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, K. D.; Schwalm, C.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Massey, R.; Poulter, B.; Kolb, T.

    2015-12-01

    Eddy co-variance flux towers provide our most widely distributed network of direct observations for land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Carbon flux sensitivity analysis is a method that uses in situ networks to understand how ecosystems respond to changes in climatic variables. Flux towers concurrently observe key ecosystem metabolic processes (e..g. gross primary productivity) and micrometeorological variation, but only over small footprints. Remotely sensed vegetation indices from MODIS offer continuous observations of the vegetated land surface, but are less direct, as they are based on light use efficiency algorithms, and not on the ground observations. The marriage of these two data products offers an opportunity to validate remotely sensed indices with in situ observations and translate information derived from tower sites to globally gridded products. Here we provide correlations between Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI) and MODIS gross primary production with FLUXNET derived estimates of gross primary production, respiration and net ecosystem exchange. We demonstrate remotely sensed vegetation products which have been transformed to gridded estimates of terrestrial biosphere metabolism on a regional-to-global scale. We demonstrate anomalies in gross primary production, respiration, and net ecosystem exchange as predicted by both MODIS-carbon flux sensitivities and meteorological driver-carbon flux sensitivities. We apply these sensitivities to recent extreme climatic events and demonstrate both our ability to capture changes in biosphere metabolism, and differences in the calculation of carbon flux anomalies based on method. The quantification of co-variation in these two methods of observation is important as it informs both how remotely sensed vegetation indices are correlated with on the ground tower observations, and with what certainty we can expand these observations and relationships.

  18. Classification of self-injurious behaviour across the continuum of relative environmental-biological influence.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, L P; Frank-Crawford, M A

    2017-10-13

    Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is generally considered to be the product of interactions between dysfunction stemming from the primary developmental disability and experiences that occasion and reinforce SIB. As a result of these complex interactions, SIB presents as a heterogeneous problem. Recent research delineating subtypes of SIB that are nonsocially mediated, including one that is amenable to change and one that is highly invariant, enables classification of SIB across a broader continuum of relative environmental-biological influence. Directly examining how the functional classes of SIB differ has the potential to structure research, will improve our understanding this problem, and lead to more targeted behavioural and pharmacological interventions. Recognising that SIB is not a single entity but is composed of distinct functional classes would better align research with conceptual models that view SIB as the product of interactions between environmental and biological variables. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DELINEATING SUBTYPES OF SELF-INJURIOUS BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is maintained by automatic reinforcement in roughly 25% of cases. Automatically reinforced SIB typically has been considered a single functional category, and is less understood than socially reinforced SIB. Subtyping automatically reinforced SIB into functional categories has the potential to guide the development of more targeted interventions and increase our understanding of its biological underpinnings. The current study involved an analysis of 39 individuals with automatically reinforced SIB and a comparison group of 13 individuals with socially reinforced SIB. Automatically reinforced SIB was categorized into 3 subtypes based on patterns of responding in the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. These response features were selected as the basis for subtyping on the premise that they could reflect functional properties of SIB unique to each subtype. Analysis of treatment data revealed important differences across subtypes and provides preliminary support to warrant additional research on this proposed subtyping model. PMID:26223959

  20. Latent Class Analysis of Early Developmental Trajectory in Baby Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Gross, Alden L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Methods: Sibs-A (N = 204) were assessed…

  1. Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiation therapy of right sided breast cancer with and without flattening filter - A treatment planning study.

    PubMed

    Maier, Johannes; Knott, Bernadette; Maerz, Manuel; Loeschel, Rainer; Koelbl, Oliver; Dobler, Barbara

    2016-08-31

    The aim of the study was to compare the two irradiation modes with (FF) and without flattening filter (FFF) for three different treatment techniques for simultaneous integrated boost radiation therapy of patients with right sided breast cancer. An Elekta Synergy linac with Agility collimating device is used to simulate the treatment of 10 patients. Six plans were generated in Monaco 5.0 for each patient treating the whole breast and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) volume: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and a tangential arc VMAT (tVMAT), each with and without flattening filter. Plan quality was assessed considering target coverage, sparing of the contralateral breast, the lungs, the heart and the normal tissue. All plans were verified by a 2D-ionisation-chamber-array and delivery times were measured and compared. The Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Significantly best target coverage and homogeneity was achieved using VMAT FFF with V95% = (98.7 ± 0.8) % and HI = (8.2 ± 0.9) % for the SIB and V95% = (98.3 ± 0.7) % for the PTV, whereas tVMAT showed significantly lowest doses to the contralateral organs at risk with a Dmean of (0.7 ± 0.1) Gy for the contralateral lung, (1.0 ± 0.2) Gy for the contralateral breast and (1.4 ± 0.2) Gy for the heart. All plans passed the gamma evaluation with a mean passing rate of (99.2 ± 0.8) %. Delivery times were significantly reduced for VMAT and tVMAT but increased for IMRT, when FFF was used. Lowest delivery times were observed for tVMAT FFF with (1:20 ± 0:07) min. Balancing target coverage, OAR sparing and delivery time, VMAT FFF and tVMAT FFF are considered the preferable of the investigated treatment options in simultaneous integrated boost irradiation of right sided breast cancer for the combination of an Elekta Synergy linac with Agility and the treatment planning

  2. WE-AB-204-03: A Novel 3D Printed Phantom for 4D PET/CT Imaging and SIB Radiotherapy Verification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Soultan, D; Murphy, J; Moiseenko, V

    Purpose: To construct and test a 3D printed phantom designed to mimic variable PET tracer uptake seen in lung tumor volumes. To assess segmentation accuracy of sub-volumes of the phantom following 4D PET/CT scanning with ideal and patient-specific respiratory motion. To plan, deliver and verify delivery of PET-driven, gated, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy plans. Methods: A set of phantoms and inserts were designed and manufactured for a realistic representation of lung cancer gated radiotherapy steps from 4D PET/CT scanning to dose delivery. A cylindrical phantom (40x 120 mm) holds inserts for PET/CT scanning. The novel 3D printed insert dedicatedmore » to 4D PET/CT mimics high PET tracer uptake in the core and lower uptake in the periphery. This insert is a variable density porous cylinder (22.12×70 mm), ABS-P430 thermoplastic, 3D printed by uPrint SE Plus with inner void volume (5.5×42 mm). The square pores (1.8×1.8 mm2 each) fill 50% of outer volume, resulting in a 2:1 SUV ratio of PET-tracer in the void volume with respect to porous volume. A matching in size cylindrical phantom is dedicated to validate gated radiotherapy. It contains eight peripheral holes matching the location of the porous part of the 3D printed insert, and one central hole. These holes accommodate adaptors for Farmer-type ion chamber and cells vials. Results: End-to-end test were performed from 4D PET/CT scanning to transferring data to the planning system and target volume delineation. 4D PET/CT scans were acquired of the phantom with different respiratory motion patterns and gating windows. A measured 2:1 18F-FDG SUV ratio between inner void and outer volume matched the 3D printed design. Conclusion: The novel 3D printed phantom mimics variable PET tracer uptake typical of tumors. Obtained 4D PET/CT scans are suitable for segmentation, treatment planning and delivery in SIB gated treatments of NSCLC.« less

  3. Quantifying the Importance of the Rare Biosphere for Microbial Community Response to Organic Pollutants in a Freshwater Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K.; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A.; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (<0.1%), the so-called “rare biosphere.” How often, and via what mechanisms, e.g., clonal amplification versus horizontal gene transfer, the rare taxa and genes contribute to microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20-liter planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA) and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below the detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) or metagenomic sequencing methods, but they increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic data sets revealed distinct cooccurring alleles of degradation genes, frequently carried on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlies distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and they provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species. IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal

  4. Quantifying the Importance of the Rare Biosphere for Microbial Community Response to Organic Pollutants in a Freshwater Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Weigand, Michael R; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-04-15

    A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (<0.1%), the so-called "rare biosphere." How often, and via what mechanisms, e.g., clonal amplification versus horizontal gene transfer, the rare taxa and genes contribute to microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20-liter planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA) and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below the detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) or metagenomic sequencing methods, but they increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic data sets revealed distinct cooccurring alleles of degradation genes, frequently carried on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlies distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and they provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species. IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal species, the so

  5. Fluid Lensing, Applications to High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging & Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment from Airborne and Space-borne Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid Lensing is a theoretical model and algorithm I present for fluid-optical interactions in turbulent flows as well as two-fluid surface boundaries that, when coupled with an unique computer vision and image-processing pipeline, may be used to significantly enhance the angular resolution of a remote sensing optical system with applicability to high-resolution 3D imaging of subaqueous regions and through turbulent fluid flows. This novel remote sensing technology has recently been implemented on a quadcopter-based UAS for imaging shallow benthic systems to create the first dataset of a biosphere with unprecedented sub-cm-level imagery in 3D over areas as large as 15 square kilometers. Perturbed two-fluid boundaries with different refractive indices, such as the surface between the ocean and air, may be exploited for use as lensing elements for imaging targets on either side of the interface with enhanced angular resolution. I present theoretical developments behind Fluid Lensing and experimental results from its recent implementation for the Reactive Reefs project to image shallow reef ecosystems at cm scales. Preliminary results from petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk coral reefs in American Samoa (August, 2013) show broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, gl