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Sample records for biosphere reserve chile

  1. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  2. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection, management and utilization of biosphere reserves.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; Stanley L. Krugman

    1979-01-01

    This publication is directed to the analysis of the selection, management, and utilization of Biosphere Reserves as viewed by scientists from the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet papers focus on types of research and monitoring programs that should be developed on Biosphere Reserves, with emphasis on their use in pollutant monitoring....

  4. The First International Biosphere Reserve Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1984-01-01

    Presents objectives (and related activities) of a plan designed for international collaboration in conserving key natural areas (biosphere reserves) of the globe. The plan (focusing on such areas as management, conservation, research, monitoring, and environmental education/training) was formulated during the First International Biosphere Reserve…

  5. Valuing biodiversity attributes and water supply using choice experiments: a case study of La Campana Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, Chile.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess public economic preferences for biodiversity conservation and water supply and to analyse the factors influencing those preferences. A survey based on the choice experiment method was carried out at Peñuelas National Reserve, Chile, an area that is threatened by both occasional forest fires and the growing housing market. The input of local administrators was used to define environmental attributes of the area related to biodiversity conservation and water supply. Attributes were selected for analysis by the choice experiment. The selected attributes were the following: existence of endemic orchid species, chances of observing animals with scenic attraction, additional protection for an endemic amphibian, and availability of drinkable water in the future. A monetary variable consisting of an increase in the rate for entry to the area was also incorporated to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for additional protection for the selected attributes. Three hundred four Chilean visitors to the reserve were randomly selected for interviews. Econometric analysis based on the Theory of Utility Maximization shows that visitors are willing to pay to protect the selected attributes. WTP values for the attributes range from CHP $2,600 ($5.4) to $6,600 ($14) per person per visit. The results of this research provide reserve managers information about tradeoffs that could be used to enhance public support and maximise the social benefits of nature conservation management programmes.

  6. Reviewing Biosphere Reserves globally: effective conservation action or bureaucratic label?

    PubMed

    Coetzer, Kaera L; Witkowski, Edward T F; Erasmus, Barend F N

    2014-02-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) model of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme reflects a shift towards more accountable conservation. Biosphere Reserves attempt to reconcile environmental protection with sustainable development; they explicitly acknowledge humans, and human interests in the conservation landscape while still maintaining the ecological values of existing protected areas. Conceptually, this model is attractive, with 610 sites currently designated globally. Yet the practical reality of implementing dual 'conservation' and 'development' goals is challenging, with few examples successfully conforming to the model's full criteria. Here, we review the history of Biosphere Reserves from first inception in 1974 to the current status quo, and examine the suitability of the designation as an effective conservation model. We track the spatial expansion of Biosphere Reserves globally, assessing the influence of the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves and Seville strategy in 1995, when the BR concept refocused its core objectives on sustainable development. We use a comprehensive range of case studies to discuss conformity to the Programme, the social and ecological consequences associated with implementation of the designation, and challenges in aligning conservation and development. Given that the 'Biosphere Reserve' label is a relatively unknown designation in the public arena, this review also provides details on popularising the Biosphere Reserve brand, as well as prospects for further research, currently unexploited, but implicit in the designation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  8. Bibliography on the international network of biosphere reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Since the first biosphere reserves were designated in 1976 as part as UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Program, they have continued to demonstrate the value of conservation in sustaining society. A considerable body of literature has been produced concerning the concept of biosphere reserves and its implication through research and special programs. The bibliography references that literature. Most often, MAB committees and associated organizations are the principal sources of the cited literature. A list of addresses for these principal sources is provided at the end of the bibliography. The bracketed code letters following each entry correspond to a principal known or most likely source on the list. Copies of individual publications may be obtained from these addresses, usually at no cost. The bibliography was prepared in cooperation with the UNESCO MAB Secretariat by the Project Directorate on Biosphere Reserves of the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program and its successor, the U.S. MAB Coordinating Committee for Biosphere Reserves, and the Secretariat of the U.S. MAB Program.

  9. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  10. Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain): Conservation against development?

    PubMed

    Castillo-Eguskitza, Nekane; Rescia, Alejandro J; Onaindia, Miren

    2017-08-15

    The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index. However, it can be broadly observed that the region included inside the protected area presents better conservation features (native forest) and rural systems (forestry and primary economic sector) than the region outside the protected area while maintaining similar socioeconomic and cultural conditions. We suggest that the designation of the Biosphere Reserve does not influence the local population negatively but does safeguard its conservation, which could have enhanced socioeconomic and cultural development. Thus, even though certain changes must be made to replace the conifer plantations and encourage agricultural activities, the designation of the protected area fulfills its sustainability goal and enhances the local population's quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. USA: Glacier National Park, Biosphere Reserve and GLORIA Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Lee, Cathy; Schaaf, Thomas; Simmonds, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The area now managed as Glacier National Park was first set aside as a Forest Reserve in 1897 and then designated as a national park in 1910, six years before a national park service was created to oversee the growing number of parks that the US Congress was establishing. Waterton National Park was created by Canada immediately north of the US–Canada border during the same period. In 1932, a joint lobbying effort by private citizens and groups convinced both the United States and Canada to establish the world’s first trans-boundary park to explicitly underscore and symbolize the neighbourly relationship between these two countries. This became the world’s first ‘peace’ park and was named Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park. The combined park is managed collaboratively on many issues but each national park is separately funded and operates under different national statutes and laws. It was, however, jointly named a Biosphere Reserve in 1976 and a World Heritage Site in 1995. There have been recent efforts to significantly increase the size of Waterton National Park by adding publicly owned forests on the western side of the continental divide in British Columbia, Canada. For the purposes of this chapter, I will emphasize the US portion of the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park and refer to it as the Glacier Mountain Biosphere Reserve (MBR).

  12. Pollutant monitoring in the Olympic National Park Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Brown, K W

    1981-03-01

    Interest in global contamination has been instrumental in the establishment of over 33 Biosphere Reserves in the United States. These reserves include pristine areas that have been protected from industrial development. They serve as areas in which present and future environmental pollution can be assessed.Pollutant monitoring studies are being conducted in the Olympic National Park Biosphere Reserve by the U.S. Park Service and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Studies are designed to identify levels of trace element and organic contaminants in physical and biological media. Ten remote sites were selected for intensive sampling. These areas were located in the Hoh, Quinault, and Dosewallips River drainages; at Anderson and Grand Pass; near Ozette Lake and, at the northern edge of Blue Glacier. Their proximity to vehicle-traveled roads varied from 3 to 20 kilometers.Samples were taken in air, water, soil, litter and vegetation. Samples will be analyzed for organic and heavy metal contaminants. Airborne particulate size and chemical characterization is being investigated.

  13. Selection criteria for adding management units to the SAMAB regional biosphere reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.; Martin, G.; Abrell, J.; Meriwether, D. )

    1994-06-01

    The SAMAB (Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere) regional biosphere reserve initially consisted of three land management units in the southern Appalachians (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's National Environmental Research Park). Traditional biosphere reserves in UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program have been defined by [open quote]core[close quote], [open quote]buffer[close quote], and [open quote]transition[close quote] zones. These concepts are difficult to apply to regional biosphere reserves. Therefore, selection criteria for incorporating additional land management units into SAMAB were developed which recognize 4 components of the regional reserve: biosphere reserve (core) units, varied and harmonious landscapes, modified landscapes, and the zone of cooperation. Selection criteria define ecological, political, logistic, and educational requirements for inclusion. The Tennessee River Gorge Trust is currently under evaluation for inclusion in SAMAB.

  14. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  15. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters.

    PubMed

    Carr, David L

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration.

  16. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration. PMID:19657470

  17. Man and the Biosphere: Ground Truthing Coral Reefs for the St. John Island Biosphere Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Michael J.; And Others

    Research on the coral species composition of St. John's reefs in the Virgin Islands was conducted through the School for Field Studies (SFS) Coral Reef Ecology course (winter 1984). A cooperative study program based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (Unesco) program, Man and the Biosphere, was undertaken by…

  18. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    PubMed

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  19. Chicle harvesting and extractive reserves in the Maya Biosphere b: Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Dugelby, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chicle latex has been extracted from the forests of northern Guatemala for over 100 years and is a key element in the extractive reserve component of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. The carrying capacity of the reserve for chicle extraction can be estimated from a model incorporating ecological data (such as latex yields per tree and population structure of chicle trees, Manilkara zapota, Sapot.) with socio-ecological and political information concerning camp and chicle resource availability, harvester tapping behavior, and historical and present-day institutional organization. I estimate that chicle harvestors currently utilize and area larger than the multiple use zone of the reserve in a unsustainable manner. Simple reduction of harvestors numbers will not ensure sustainability; institutional reforms are also in order. Extractive reserves can play an important role in preserving tropical forests. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on prevailing ecological, socio-economic, and political conditions. Wise planning and management of extractive reserves demands an understanding of the system`s carrying capacity. In addition, a strong institutional foundation is necessary to assure effective monitoring and enforcement of harvesting regulations.

  20. Understanding local community's values, worldviews and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hernes, Maya I; Metzger, Marc J

    2017-01-15

    Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey. The survey revealed that residents of the GSABR greatly value wildlife and beauty of nature, and that the majority of the respondents showed concern for the environment from an ecocentric worldview. Results also revealed that the most influential tested socio-demographic characteristic affecting people's relationship to their environment is their professional affiliation. Tourism and recreation were seen as major benefits of the recent biosphere designation. Results did highlight contrasting benefits from the designation for different stakeholder groups, which could potentially lead to tensions and should be considered in the reserve management. Given the community's supportive world views and perceptions, greater participation in the biosphere's management in likely to be welcomed and should be used to avoid or mediate any conflicts. The mixed-method survey developed for this study, proved successful in eliciting these themes in the GSABR. We recommend other biosphere reserves replicate this research, to gain better understanding of local communities and increase their support and participation in reserve management.

  1. Alien species of mammals and their impact on natural ecosystems in the biosphere reserves of Russia.

    PubMed

    Neronov, Valery M; Khlyap, Ludmila A; Bobrov, Vladimir V; Warshavsky, Andrey A

    2008-06-01

    The paper analyses the results of a survey of 37 Russian biosphere reserves using questionnaires concerning the presence of alien species of mammals, their pathways of penetration, and their impacts on protected ecosystems. The penetration of alien mammals into terrestrial ecosystems of Russia is extensive, both in places with maximum human environmental impact (inhabited areas and agricultural lands) and in biosphere reserves with minimal human impact. There are 62 mammal species registered as alien in Russian ecosystems and they account for 22% of the terrestrial mammal fauna of Russia. The percentage of alien species in biosphere reserves is 32.6% at most. In most regions, Castor fiber, Ondatra zibethicus, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canis familiaris, Neovison vison and Sus scrofa are very dangerous, and both Castor fiber and Sus scrofa can have environment-forming impacts. © 2008 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Weather summaries for Coram Experimental Forest, northwestern Montana-an International Biosphere Reserve

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Hungerford; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1984-01-01

    Presents weather data summaries (1934-82) for most of the weather stations within the Coram Experimental Forest (a Biosphere Reserve) in northwestern Montana and for three stations adjacent to the Forest. These data aid in the interpretation of silvicultural and other biological research, particularly the relationships of climatological variations to forest growth and...

  3. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  4. Governing Portable Conservation and Development Landscapes: Reconsidering Evidence in the Context of the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgert, Laureen

    2014-01-01

    Conservation-with-development landscapes, such as UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserves, differentiate between areas of "nature" and "society". In Paraguay's Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve, as elsewhere, this model has been used to support governance that focuses on conservation in the "core area" and sustainable…

  5. Plant diversity in Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve (Mazandaran province) in north of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifnia, F; Asri, Y; Gholami-Terojeni, T

    2007-05-15

    Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve is located in north of Iran, it covers an area about 68800 ha. In this survey the plant specimens were collected from different parts of area during two growing seasons. The aim of this research was identify the plant species, introducing the Flora and determination of life forms. In Miankaleh area 261 species recognized, that belong to 60 families and 177 genera. Among these families represented in area Asteracea, Poaceae, Papilionaceae, Cyperaceae and Brassicaeae had the highest number of species 34, 34, 26, 10 and 10, respectively. Fifty four species (20.68%) were endemics of Irano-Turanian region, the following species of them were endemics for Iran: Lindelofia kandavanensis, Papaver tenuifolium, P. chelidonifolium, Scorzonera tortusissima, Scrophularia gaubae, Crepis gaubae and Crepis papposissima. Therophytes and hemicryptophytes with 137 species (52.5%) and 76 species (29%) were respectively the most frequent life forms of the Biosphere Reserve.

  6. Mangrove loss leads to fish hyperutilization of seagrass beds in a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Bologna, P A X

    2014-05-01

    Hurricanes severely damaged a mangrove forest in a UNESCO biosphere reserve in the U.S. Virgin Islands. The system has yet to recover and when alternative habitats have been destroyed, it is shown that juvenile fishes will hyperutilize seagrass beds at densities significantly greater than in areas that maintain functioning mangroves. Despite over a decade of recovery time, the affected mangrove system remains inhospitable to juvenile fishes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Access: A Directory of Contacts, Environmental Data Bases, and Scientific Infrastructure on 175 Biosphere Reserves in 32 Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of State, Washington, DC. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.

    Following the EuroMAB meeting in Strasbourg, France (September 1991) and on an initiative of the Man and the Biosphere National Committee of the United States, a decision was made to create a research network from information available in biosphere reserves in 30 European countries, Canada and the United States. This Directory of EuroMAB Biosphere…

  8. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  9. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren; Bekoe, Samuel Oppong; Hansen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

  10. Man in Biosphere Reserve: a Remote Sensing Study in Similipal, Orissa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Jeyaram, A.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The Similipal is a densely forested hill-range in the heart of Mayurbhanj district,Orissa, lying close to the eastern-most end of the Easternghats. Similipal Biosphere Reserve is located in the Mahanadian Biogeographical Region and within the Biotic Province, Chhotanagpur Plateau.There are 4 villages in the core and 61 villages in the buffer area of the biosphere reserve .Agriculture is not well developed and employment opportunities are very poor , most of the people derive their income from collection of NTFP and sale of firewood and timber. A collaborative work is carried out by Regional Remote Sensing Centre(East) and Anthropological survey of India,Kolkata to study the impact of those four villages in the core area of SBR on the conservation of natural resources over the decades.Change in vegetation density as measured by NDVI over the decades is analysed to study the impact of these villages on the core area of Similipal Biosphere Reserve.

  11. [Historical presence of invasive fish in the biosphere reserve sierra de Huautla, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Mojica, Humberto; de Rodríguez-Romero, Felipe Jesús; Díaz-Pardo, Edmundo

    2012-06-01

    The effects of invasive species on native ecosystems are varied, and these have been linked to the disappearance or decline of native fauna, changes in community structure, modification of ecosystems and as vectors of new diseases and parasites. Besides, the development of trade in species for ornamental use has contributed significantly to the import and introduction of invasive fish in some important areas for biodiversity conservation in Mexico, but the presence of these species is poorly documented. In this study we analyzed the fish community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Huautla by looking at diversity changes in the last 100 years. For this, we used databases of historical records and recent collections for five sites in the Amacuzac river, along the Biosphere Reserve area. We compared the values of similarity (Jaccard index) between five times series (1898-1901, 1945-1953, 1971-1980, 1994-1995 and 2008-2009), and we obtained values of similarity (Bray-Curtis) between the five sites analyzed. In our results we recognized a total of 19 species for the area, nine non-native and ten native, three of which were eliminated for the area. Similarity values between the early days and current records were very low (.27); the major changes in the composition of the fauna occurred in the past 20 years. The values of abundance, diversity and similarity among the sampling sites, indicate the dominance of non-native species. We discuss the role of the ornamental fish trade in the region as the leading cause of invasive introduction in the ecosystem and the possible negative effects that at least four non-native species have had on native fauna and the ecosystem (Oreochromis mossambicus, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P pardalis). There is an urgent need of programs for registration, control and eradication of invasive species in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve and biodiversity protection areas in Mexico.

  12. MODERN PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES- A CONSERVAION TOOL FOR CERTAIN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, S.; Arumugasamy, K.

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested. PMID:22557048

  13. Modern propagation techniques- a conservaion tool for certain endemic medicinal plants in nilgiri biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Paulsamy, S; Arumugasamy, K

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested.

  14. Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Ponce, Fernando; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kahn, Ted R.

    2009-07-01

    Ecuador's Yasuní Man and the Biosphere Reserve—located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator—is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The Yasuní Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting Yasuní more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the Yasuní region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, Yasuní National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative Yasuní-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  15. Using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator of PCBs and PBDEs in the dinghushan biosphere reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Li, Ke-Lin; Peng, Ying; Feng, An-Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Sheng; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-07-01

    The Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is a nature reserve and a site for the study of tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems. Rapid industrialization and intensive electronic waste-recycling activities around the biosphere reserve have resulted in elevated levels of industrial organic contaminants in the local environment that may cause adverse effects on wildlife that inhabits this area. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 2 alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs)-decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE)-were investigated in the biosphere reserve and a reference site by using the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) as a bioindicator. Residue concentrations in kingfishers from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve ranged from 490 ng/g to 3000 ng/g, 51 ng/g to 420 ng/g, 0.44 ng/g to 90 ng/g, and 0.04 ng/g to 0.87 ng/g lipid weight for ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs, DBDPE, and BTBPE, respectively. With the exception of the BTBPE, these levels were 2 to 5 times higher than those detected in kingfishers from the reference site. The contaminant patterns from the biosphere reserve were also different, with larger PCB contributions in comparison with the reference site. The estimated predator-prey biomagnification factors (BMFs) showed that most of the PCB and PBDE congeners and BTBPE were biomagnified in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve. The calculated toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations of major coplanar PCB congeners in kingfishers from the biosphere reserve ranged from 18 pg/g to 66 pg/g wet weight, with some of these TEQ concentrations reaching or exceeding the levels known to impair bird reproduction and survival. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Managing the megacity for global sustainability: the new york metropolitan region as an urban biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Alfsen-Norodom, Christine; Boehme, Susan E; Clemants, Steven; Corry, Melody; Imbruce, Valerie; Lane, Benjamin D; Miller, Roberta Balstad; Padoch, Christine; Panero, Marta; Peters, Charles M; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William; Walsh, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR), while not originally conceived to include urban areas, was intended to include sites representing all significant ecosystems with the goal of support for sustainable development locally and globally. Drawing on the example of the New York Metropolitan Region (NYMR), which has a population of 21.4 million, it is argued here that the eventual inclusion of the largest of the world's cities in WNBR not only is within the logic of the biosphere reserve concept, but would also benefit the network and its goals. The ecological significance of the NYMR, its role as a driver for global environmental change, as well as the efforts under way in the city to improve urban environmental management and governance are all examined. Potential added value to the WNBR of including megacities such as the NYMR is considered, in particular, regarding the sharing of best practices, lessons learned, and the strengthening of links between megacities and their global natural resource bases.

  17. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    PubMed

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  18. Comparative Assessment of Public Opinion on the Landscape Quality of Two Biosphere Reserves in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire ( n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  19. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  20. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    PubMed

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  1. Oral health status of children aged 6-12 years from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Jipa, Ilia Teodora; Amariei, Corneliu I

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of children aged 6-12 years old living in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. The entire population of 6-12-year-olds living in the Reserve was targeted. A cross-sectional study consisting of dental examinations based on World Health Organization (WHO) 1997 criteria was performed in 2011. Dental caries, periodontal (gingival) health, oral hygiene, orthodontic status, and dental fluorosis were assessed at the children?s schools by one examiner. A total of 595 children were examined. The overall mean DMFT was 2.01 (range 0-13) and 32.9% of children had caries-free permanent teeth. The mean DMFT for 12-year-olds was 2.46. Gingival bleeding was found in 32.8% of the children and oral hygiene worsened with age. Only 8% of 12-year-olds were free of dental plaque. There was a low need for orthodontic treatment (89% of children were Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need grade 1 or 2) and only 2% had any noticeable fluorosis. The oral health status of children living in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve can be classified as quite poor, especially due to the low number of caries-free children and the high prevalence of children with gingival bleeding and poor or fair oral hygiene. Malocclusion and fluorosis do not appear to be public health problems for this population. Considering the poor economic development of the region, with bad access to dental services, special health education programmes are necessary in order to reach the WHO oral health goals for 2020.

  2. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    PubMed

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation.

  3. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  4. Small-scale co-management for the sustainable use of Xilingol biosphere reserve, inner Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bijoor, Neeta; Li, WenJun; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Ganlin

    2006-02-01

    There exists a negative externality of livestock breeding due to the difference between private and social breeding cost in Xilingol Biosphere Reserve (XBR), Inner Mongolia, that has caused extensive ecological degradation of the grassland. The property rights regime, the household production responsibility system (HPRS), was adopted in the 1980s to increase livestock production in XBR. Although HPRS has successfully increased production by promoting private economic interests, it has led to grassland degradation due to inefficient enforcement of stock rate. Through interviews conducted with government representatives and herding families in all management units of XBR, we elucidate the shortfalls of the current management regime and the Fencing Grassland and Moving Users policy initiated in 2002 to restore grassland. We propose an alternative property rights regime, small-scale co-management, to concurrently promote both individual economic interests and grassland conservation by improving the enforcement of stock rate.

  5. Seasonal Variation of Eutrophication in Some Lakes of Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Török, Liliana; Török, Zsolt; Carstea, Elfrida M; Savastru, Dan

    2017-01-01

      To understand the trophic state of lakes, this study aims to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton assemblages and the main factors that influence their seasonal variation. Sampling campaigns were carried out in three lakes from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. Spectral analysis of specific phytoplankton pigments was applied as a diagnostic marker to establish the distribution and composition of phytoplankton taxonomic groups. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to quantify changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The relative contribution of the main phytoplankton groups to the total phytoplankton biomass and the trend of development during succession of the seasons showed that cyanobacteria could raise potential ecological or human health problems. Moreover, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that Cryptophyta and cyanobacteria were the main contributors to the protein-like components of DOM. It was concluded that fluorescence could be used to provide a qualitative evaluation of the eutrophication degree in Danube Delta lakes.

  6. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  7. Organochlorines in the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France).

    PubMed

    Roche, H; Vollaire, Y; Persic, A; Buet, A; Oliveira-Ribeiro, C; Coulet, E; Banas, D; Ramade, F

    2009-01-01

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas.

  8. Biodiversity, biosphere reserves, and the Big Apple: a study of the New York Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Solecki, William D; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the dimensions of biodiversity-urban society interactions within the New York Metropolitan Region, a 31-county area with a population of 21.5 million, and to explore pathways to reconcile dysfunctional relationships between these two ever-entwined systems. The article builds on the premise that urban biodiversity exists at a crucial nexus of ecological and societal interactions, linking local, regional, and global scales, and that urban ecologies are projected to become even more dynamic in the future, particularly as a result of global climate change. The pathway proposed to reconcile the biodiversity-urban society relationships is the incorporation of biosphere reserve strategies into regional environmental planning efforts focused on the New York/New Jersey Harbor/Estuary specifically and on the greater New York Metropolitan Region in general. The concepts of the "ecological footprint" and vulnerability to global environmental change are used to analyze the current interactions between biodiversity and urban society, and to evaluate the efficacy of adopting biosphere reserve strategies in the region. New York has long been at the forefront of American environmentalism and landscape planning. Coupled with this history is a still small but growing interest in regional environmental planning efforts (e.g., the U.S. EPA Harbor Estuary Program) and green infrastructure (e.g., the 2002 Humane Metropolis Conference organized by the Ecological Cities Project). The research presented here aims to contribute to these nascent activities. As a megacity, New York may serve as a model for other major cities of the world.

  9. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  10. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve.

  11. Crop damage and livestock depredation by wildlife: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Maikhuri, R K; Nautiyal, S; Saxena, K G

    2002-11-01

    The success of conserving biological resources in any Biosphere Reserve or protected area depends on the extent of support and positive attitudes and perceptions of local people have towards such establishments. Ignoring the dependence of the local people for their subsistence needs on resources of such areas leads to conflicts between protected area managers and the local inhabitants. Crop yield losses and livestock depredation were serious problems observed in most buffer zone villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In the present study 10 villages situated in the buffer zone of Nanada Devi Biosphere Reserve (1612 km2 area) in Chamoli district of Uttaranchal, India were studied during 1996-97 using a questionnaire survey of each household (419 = households; 2253 = total population in 1991; 273 ha = cultivated area). Estimates of crop yield losses were made using paired plots technique in four representative villages for each crop species. The magnitude of crop yield losses varied significantly with the distance of agricultural field from forest boundary. The total crop yield losses were high for wheat and potato in all the villages. The spatial distribution of total crop yield losses in any village indicated that they were highest in the area near to forest and least in the area near to village for all crops. Losses from areas near to forest contributed to more than 50% of total losses for each crop in all villages. However, in Lata, Peng and Tolma villages, the losses are high for kidney bean and chemmi (local variety of kidney bean) which varied between 18.5% to 30% of total losses in those villages. Potato alone represents 43.6% of total crop yield loss due to wildlife in Dronagiri village in monetary terms. Among the crops, the monetary value of yield losses are least for amaranth and highest for kidney bean. The projected total value of crop yield losses due to wildlife damage for buffer zone villages located in Garhwal Himalaya is about Rs. 538,620 (US

  12. The Efficacy of Landscape-Level Conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Fangzheng; Cui, Guofa

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alteration is rather common in many protected areas (PAs), jeopardizing the efficacy of PAs conservation. However, the general consensus is that PAs still remain effective in habitat conservation. To assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation, we examined landscape alterations in the Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve (CMBR), which was established in 1960 as a “flagship” protected area in China. Based on analyses of high-resolution satellite images and data of forest inventory, field survey and interview, we developed two new indexes to assess the efficacy of landscape conservation, i.e. the quality index of protected landscape and the interference index of anthropogenic landscape. From 1993 to 2012, the quality index increased from 74.48 to 75.50, and the interference index decreased from 0.49 to 0.06, suggesting that the overall quality of protected landscape improved and the degree of anthropogenic interference decreased in CMBR. The increase in landscape quality was mainly due to the progressive vegetation recovery of previous cutover land in the windthrow area, the cease of the use of the cultivated land, and the amelioration of spatial pattern of protected landscape. We conclude that the current landscape conservation methods used in CMBR are effective, and the method we developed has the potential to be used to assess the efficacy of landscape-level conservation in nature reserves worldwide. PMID:24743693

  13. The application of the biosphere reserve concept to urban areas: the case of green rooftops for habitat network in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwi-Gon

    2004-06-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first shows how the principles of the ecosystem approach can be applied to green rooftops, and the second attempts to illustrate it through a case study. In particular, it suggests new approaches and techniques for creation of green rooftops in a perspective of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve. To endow urban rooftops with the roles and functions of urban habitat network and urban biosphere reserve, it is necessary to apply "an ecosystem approach to urban management." In this article, an ecosystem approach to urban management is illustrated with Seoul as an example. The Habitat Network in Seoul will be reviewed with a focus on the model suggested by MAB Urban Group. Then, the roles and functions of Myeongdong UNESCO Green Rooftop and its possible contribution to building the Seoul Urban Biosphere Network will be described. The UNESCO Green Rooftop is 628 m(2) and was created on the 12th floor rooftop of UNESCO Building in Myeongdong 2-ga, Jung-ku, Seoul. In the green rooftop, which was created with goals of securing green areas and biotopes in downtown, creating an urban econetwork, securing a base for urban ecosystem study and environment education, and disseminating an idea of coexistence between nature and humankind, wetland, meadow, scrub and woodland, wall revegetation, and a vegetable field are created. Also, rainwater recycling facilities and a solar energy water circulation system were set up. Rest facilities including observation and education facilities were built. Based on the Seoul example, as well as urban biosphere reserve models suggested by the MAB Urban Group, we suggest several principles to be applied for a green rooftops to qualify as a category of urban biosphere reserves.

  14. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile.

  15. Exposure to trace elements of flamingos living in a biosphere reserve, the Camargue (France).

    PubMed

    Amiard-Triquet, C; Pain, D; Delves, H T

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has shown that some adult flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus collected from the Camargue Biosphere Reserve had tissue metal concentrations considerably higher than the average for this species. As the range of these birds is large, the origin of the contamination was unknown. Blood and feather samples from nestling flamingos were therefore analysed for trace metals to determine the presence and origin of local contamination. A comparison of elemental concentration in the feathers of nestling and adult flamingos revealed higher concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Se in adults, and higher concentrations of Zn in juveniles. This was attributed to increased exposure to atmospheric pollutants of adults, and either differences in Zn requirements and metabolism between adults and juveniles, or a local contamination of the juveniles' food supply by Zn. Concentrations of Zn in serum were also very elevated compared with human standards. Cd, Cu, Zn and Se concentrations were analysed in outer (O) and inner (I) barbs (i.e. barbs that are, respectively, exposed or not exposed to external deposits) of greater coverts of nestling flamingos. A comparison of elemental concentrations in these two feather components indicates a local atmospheric contamination by Cd, Cu and Pb.

  16. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  17. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  18. [The orchid community in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario, Cuba].

    PubMed

    García-González, Alfredo; Pérez Márquez, Rolando

    2011-12-01

    The Biosphere Reserve Sierra del Rosario is located in Western Cuba and two different areas can be characterized: one for tourism and forestry activities, El Taburete (ET), and the other for conservation and research, El Salón (ES). With the aim to know the effect of visitation activities on the orchid community in the Reserve, a comparative study between the disturbed area and the preserved one was undertaken. The field work, held between 2004-2005, consisted on four transects in each locality (10 x 100m, 0.1ha). For each transect, the existing orchid species (terrestrial and epiphytic), kind of phorophytes, and level of occupation were identified. Different analysis were considered: dominance-diversity, Sorensen similarity, the dominance index and the relative abundance of the most abundant species. Our results showed 27 phorophytes species, 20 species in ET (98 phorophytes), and 16 species in ES (76 phorophytes). A total of 22 genus, 26 species and 8 326 individuals of orchids were identified. In ET, 17 genus, 18 species and 5 075 individuals were found, while for ES were 15 genus, 18 species and 3 251 individuals. Both locations have a similarity of species of 57.14%. Oeceoclades maculata, an invasive species, was the most abundant. The most dominant species were Microchilus plantagineus in ES and O. maculata in ET. The dominance in ET was of 81.79%, while in ES of 69.27%. It is important to sketch management plans focused on controlling O. maculata in both areas, and the restoration of the disturbed area.

  19. Modeling the biophysical impacts of global change in mountain biosphere reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bugmann, H.K.M.; Bjornsen, F. Ewert; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Kaab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of greatly changing climatic, economic, and societal drivers constitutes a significant challenge. Management decisions must be based on a sound understanding of the future dynamics of these systems. The present article reviews the elements required for an integrated effort to project the impacts of global change on mountain regions, and recommends tools that can be used at 3 scientific levels (essential, improved, and optimum). The proposed strategy is evaluated with respect to UNESCO's network of Mountain Biosphere Reserves (MBRs), with the intention of implementing it in other mountain regions as well. First, methods for generating scenarios of key drivers of global change are reviewed, including land use/land cover and climate change. This is followed by a brief review of the models available for projecting the impacts of these scenarios on (1) cryospheric systems, (2) ecosystem structure and diversity, and (3) ecosystem functions such as carbon and water relations. Finally, the cross-cutting role of remote sensing techniques is evaluated with respect to both monitoring and modeling efforts. We conclude that a broad range of techniques is available for both scenario generation and impact assessments, many of which can be implemented without much capacity building across many or even most MBRs. However, to foster implementation of the proposed strategy, further efforts are required to establish partnerships between scientists and resource managers in mountain areas.

  20. Intracultural variation of knowledge about wild plant uses in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leading scholars in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine continuously stress the need for moving beyond the bare description of local knowledge and to additionally analyse and theorise about the characteristics and dynamics of human interactions with plants and related local knowledge. Analyses of the variation of local knowledge are thereby perceived as minimal standard. In this study we investigate the distribution and variation of wild plant knowledge in five domains: food, drinks, human medicine, veterinary medicine and customs. We assess relations between the wild plant knowledge of informants and their socio-demographic as well as geographic background. Method Research was conducted in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria. Structured questionnaires were used to inquire wild plant knowledge from 433 informants with varying socio-demographic and geographic background. Children assisted in the data collection. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear models. Results and discussion A majority of respondents is familiar with wild plant uses, however to varying degrees. Knowledge variations depend on the socio-demographic and geographic background of the informants as well as on the domains of knowledge under investigation: women, older informants and homegardeners report more human medicinal applications and applications in drinks than men, younger informants and non-homegardeners; farmers know a greater variety of veterinary medicinal applications than non-farmers; the place of residence relates significantly to food and veterinary uses. Customs are difficult to investigate in standardized matrices. The household-related distribution of work and the general socio-cultural context are especially helpful in order to explain intracultural variation of knowledge in the Grosses Walsertal. Conclusions Research on the intracultural variation of local knowledge exposes cultural characteristics and highlights the cultural

  1. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners.

  2. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  3. Multidimensional spatial characterization of plant invasions in 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Flores, Erick

    Invasive species are considered an agent of ecological change with more significant effects than global warming. Exotic plant invasions threaten biodiversity and ecosystem viability worldwide. Their effects in the Sonoran Desert ecosystems are a growing concern among ecologists and land managers. We hypothesized that highly dynamic desert environments are unstable, therefore more vulnerable to invasion by exotic plant species. To test this hypothesis we used a multidimensional approach to assess the spatial distribution of two exotic species: Brassica tournefortii (Saharan mustard) and Schismus arabicus (Arabian grass), in a portion of 'El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar' Biosphere Reserve (PBR) in northwestern Sonora, Mexico. This approach combined genetic algorithms, geographic information systems, field methods, statistical analysis, and remote sensing modeling at multiple spatial and temporal scales to predict and test the current and potential distribution of the invasives over dynamic landscapes. Predicted probability of invasion was influenced strongly by human factors: Road networks were the strongest predictors of presence, revealing the potential importance of humans as vectors of invasiveness. Dynamic landscapes, associated mostly with vegetation losses, were detected spectrally in the eastern portion of the study area, very likely associated with past agricultural and current grazing activity. Combined models of high probability for invasion by B. tournefortii and S. arabicus over dynamic landscapes were tested against confirmed locations of the invasives and land cover types associated with invasion. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the study and suggest that more dynamic landscapes are more prone to invasion by these two exotic plants in the PBR. B. tournefortii was found associated mostly with landscapes occupied by microphyllous desert scrub and grassland, as well as sarcocaulescent desert scrub. S. arabicus was found more abundantly in the

  4. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  5. Mapping Topoclimate and Microclimate in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    Overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico select areas of the high elevation Oyamel fir -pine forest providing a canopy that protects them from extremes of cold, heat, sun, and wind. These exacting microclimatic conditions are found in relatively small areas of forest with appropriate topography and canopy cover. The major goal of this investigation is to map topoclimatic and microclimatic conditions within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve by combining temperature monitoring (iButton Thermochrons), hemispherical canopy photography, multiple regression, and GIS modeling. Temperature measurements included base weather stations and arrays of Thermochrons (on the north-side of trees at 2m height) across local topographic and canopy cover gradients. Topoclimatic models of minimum temperatures included topographic position, slope, and elevation, and predicted that thermal belts on slopes and cold air drainage into canyons create local minimum temperature gradients of 2°C. Topoclimatic models of maximum temperatures models included elevation, topographic position, and relative solar exposure, with local gradients of 3°C. These models, which are independent of forest canopy structure, were then projected across the entire region. Forest canopy structure, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, was assessed with hemispherical photography at each Thermochron site. Canopy cover affected minimum temperatures primarily on the calmest, coldest nights. Maximum temperatures were predicted by direct radiation below the canopy. Fine- scale grids (25 m spacing) at three overwintering sites characterized effects of canopy gaps and edges on temperature and wind exposure. The effects of temperature variation were considered for lipid loss rates, ability to take flight, and freezing mortality. Lipid loss rates were estimated by measured hourly temperatures. Many of the closed canopy sites allowed for substantial lipid reserves at the end of the season (March 15), but

  6. Silicon’s organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon’s biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon’s erosion of soil particles. A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2·a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2·a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26×1010 kg of silicon in

  7. Temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and oil characteristics at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhanim, M. N.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine temporal variation of vegetation litterfall and soil nutrients at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve (TCBR), Pahang. A total of 1.5 ha sampling area consisting of 30 permanent sampling plots (20 × 25 m) was selected in the three TCBR management zones i.e the core, buffer and transition zones. Each zone consisted of 10 permanent sampling plots. Litter traps were installed in the 30 permanent sampling plots and the litters were collected started in December 2012. Soil samples from each sampling plot were obtained in December 2012 to represent the wet season and the soils were analysed. This paper reports our initial findings for the first five months of the litterfall data. Mean annual litterfall of the study site was estimated at 7,670.58±1.32 kg ha-1y-1. The proportion of leaf litter component (82.16%) was the highest compared to other components. The litterfall varied monthly, whereby April 2013 had the highest value at 10.37 kg and the highest mean monthly litterfall at 0.35±0.2 kg. Core zone had the highest litterfall at 0.37±0.03 kg in April 2013, whilst buffer zone recorded 0.07±0.01 kg in January 2013 that was the lowest value of litterfall production. However, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed there was no significant difference amongst the mean monthly dry weight (kg) of litterfall between the three zones (p=0.05) at TCBR from December 2012 to April 2013. Physical characteristics of the soil revealed that the core zone had sandy clay texture while the buffer and transition zones were clay loam texture. The percentage of organic matter and air dry moisture were the highest at core zone. For the soil chemical characteristics, soil pH of the three study sites were very acidic. Exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were low whilst the electrical capacity (EC) was between 2.16±0.09 until 2.24±0.07 mS/cm for all three management zones. However, ANOVA also showed there were no significant differences in

  8. Silicon's organic pool and biological cycle in moso bamboo community of Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-ji; Lin, Peng; He, Jian-yuan; Yang, Zhi-wei; Lin, Yi-ming

    2006-11-01

    Biomineralization of Si by plants into phytolith formation and precipitation of Si into clays during weathering are two important processes of silicon's biogeochemical cycle. As a silicon-accumulating plant, the widely distributed and woody Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (moso bamboo) contributes to storing silicon by biomineralization and, thus, prevents eutrophication of nearby waterbodies through silicon's erosion of soil particles.A study on the organic pool and biological cycle of silicon (Si) of the moso bamboo community was conducted in Wuyishan Biosphere Reserve, China. The results showed that: (1) the standing crop of the moso bamboo community was 13355.4 g/m2, of which 53.61%, 45.82% and 0.56% are represented by the aboveground and belowground parts of moso bamboos, and the understory plants, respectively; (2) the annual net primary production of the community was 2887.1 g/(m2 x a), among which the aboveground part, belowground part, litterfalls, and other fractions, accounted for 55.86%, 35.30%, 4.50% and 4.34%, respectively; (3) silicon concentration in stem, branch, leaf, base of stem, root, whip of bamboos, and other plants was 0.15%, 0.79%, 3.10%, 4.40%, 7.32%, 1.52% and 1.01%, respectively; (4) the total Si accumulated in the standing crop of moso bamboo community was 448.91 g/m2, with 99.83% of Si of the total community stored in moso bamboo populations; (5) within moso bamboo community, the annual uptake, retention, and return of Si were 95.75, 68.43, 27.32 g/(m2 x a), respectively; (6) the turnover time of Si, which is the time an average atom of Si remains in the soil before it is recycled into the trees or shrubs, was 16.4 years; (7) the enrichment ratio of Si in the moso bamboo community, which is the ratio of the mean concentration of nutrients in the net primary production to the mean concentration of nutrients in the biomass of a community, was 0.64; and lastly, (8) moso bamboo plants stored about 1.26x10(10) kg of silicon in the

  9. The impact of human frequentation on coastal vegetation in a biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Kerbiriou, Christian; Leviol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Julliard, Romain

    2008-09-01

    We aimed to assess the impacts of recreational trampling on rare species, plant communities and landscape structure in the Iroise Biosphere Reserve (western France). Focusing on coastal grasslands, we first identified indicators discriminating human-induced short grasslands (i.e. maintained short by intensive trampling) from natural short grasslands (i.e. maintained by environmental constraints): the presence of lichens and succulent or woody species, which are known to be highly sensitive to trampling, as well as a shallow soil were good indicators of natural short grasslands. Recreational activities affected the majority of plots containing rare species, but one third of rare species (according to their habitat preference) appeared currently not threatened by recreational activities. The other rare species were found in grasslands with low trampling intensity and were not found in grasslands with greater trampling intensity. One lichen species (Teloshistes flavicans) was not affected by trampling intensity, while two plants species (Scilla verna and Ophioglossum lusitanicum) showed higher abundances when trampling was low to medium. When it occurs in natural short grasslands, tourist trampling reduced drastically plant species richness. However, when considering maritime high grasslands, we observed that species richness was higher under low trampling vs. no trampling, but decreased at higher trampling intensity. At a landscape scale, the mean annual rate of path creation was about 1.6% and tourist trampling has already completely destroyed 3.5 ha of natural coastal vegetation. Trampling of maritime-high grassland has also created 31 ha of short grasslands, which represent 50.8% of the whole short grassland habitat of the island. Moreover trampling affected respectively, 41% and 15% of natural short grasslands and maritime-high grasslands. One of the main suggestions for managers to minimise trampling impacts should be to protect areas of rocky soil covered by

  10. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    PubMed

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  11. Long term changes in forest cover and land use of Similipal Biosphere Reserve of India using satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, K. R. L.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar

    2016-04-01

    The spatial changes in forest cover of Similipal biosphere reserve, Odisha, India over eight decades (1930-2012) has been quantified by using multi-temporal data from different sources. Over the period, the forest cover reduced by 970.8 km2 (23.6% of the total forest), and most significantly during the period, 1930-1975. Human-induced activities like conversion of forest land for agriculture, construction of dams and mining activities have been identified as major drivers of deforestation. Spatial analysis indicates that 399 grids (1 grid = 1 × 1 km) have undergone large-scale changes in forest cover (>75 ha) during 1930-1975, while only 3 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1975-1990. Annual net rate of deforestation was 0.58 during 1930-1975, which has been reduced substantially during 1975-1990 (0.04). Annual gross rate of deforestation in 2006-2012 is indeed low (0.01) as compared to the national and global average. This study highlights the impact and effectiveness of conservation practices in minimizing the rate of deforestation and protecting the Similipal Biosphere Reserve.

  12. Bioaccumulation and distribution of metals in sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohammadreza

    2012-10-01

    The metal pollution in Sediments and Avicenna marina tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve was monitored for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Nickel (Ni) with atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the mean concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in the water and sediments were much higher than the recommended threshold limits in the most stations, also the highest means of Pb, Cd, and Ni were observed in Avicenna roots and it were 25.26 ± 4.86, 2.17 ± 0.74, and 26.72 ± 6.17 (μg g(-1)) respectively. Calculating BCF (bioconcentration factor) index illustrates that A. marina accumulates Pb, Cd, and Ni 1.62, 1.52 and 0.73 times greater than sediment levels respectively, So it can show that A. marina may be employed as a biological indicator exposure of Cd, Pb, and Ni with temporal monitoring, also the factories were main sources of metals contamination in the Hara Biosphere Reserve.

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools of a biosphere reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools were examined in a biosphere reserve of the Southern Western Ghats, India. The immature mosquitoes in stream pools were collected from stream substrates of bedrock pool, boulder cavity and sand puddle. The collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified. In total, 16 species from four genera of mosquitoes were collected. The mosquito species from Culex and Anopheles were predominantly occurred. The bedrock pool had the highest diversity and abundance of mosquitoes. The statistical analyses showed that the substrate specificity and the seasons were positively related to the distribution of mosquitoes rather than spatial pattern. This study described the spatial and temporal pattern of mosquitoes in stream pools of the Southern Western Ghats. This information would be helpful to National Vector borne disease control program for surveillance and control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Land change in the southern Yucatán and Calakmul biosphere reserve: effects on habitat and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Vester, Henricus F M; Lawrence, Deborah; Eastman, J Ronald; Turner, B L; Calmé, Sophie; Dickson, Rebecca; Pozo, Carmen; Sangermano, Florencia

    2007-06-01

    The southern Yucatán contains the largest expanse of seasonal tropical forests remaining in Mexico, forming an ecocline between the drier north of the peninsula and the humid Petén, Guatemala. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve resides in the center of this region as part of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. The reserve's functions are examined in regard to land changes throughout the region, generated over the last 40 years by increasing settlement and the expansion and intensification of agriculture. These changes are documented from 1987/1988 to 2000, and their implications regarding the capacity of the reserve to protect the ecocline, forest habitats, and butterfly diversity are addressed. The results indicate that the current landscape matrix serves the biotic diversity of the reserve, with several looming caveats involving the loss of humid forests and the interruption of biota flow across the ecocline, and the amount and proximity of older forest patches beyond the reserve. The highly dynamic land cover changes underway in this economic frontier warrant an adaptive management approach that monitors the major changes underway in mature forest types, while the paucity of systematic ecological and environment-development studies is rectified in order to inform policy and practice.

  15. Legal framework for biosphere reserves as learning sites for sustainable development: a comparative analysis of Ukraine and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Marine; Hahn, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Volker; Angelstam, Per; Axelsson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels.

  16. Are rainforest owl monkeys cathemeral? Diurnal activity of black-headed owl monkeys, Aotus nigriceps, at Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru.

    PubMed

    Khimji, Shenaz N; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Aotus are traditionally considered strictly nocturnal, however, in recent years cathemeral habits have been described in a single species of owl monkey, Aotus azarai, which occur in the highly seasonal habitat of the Argentinean Chaco. This finding raises the question as to whether other species of Aotus exhibit cathemeral activity in less seasonal habitats. In this study, we observed the diurnal activity of one group of A. nigriceps living in the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Peru over 65 days. The data collected indicate that A. nigriceps has only sporadic diurnal bouts of activity. In addition, nocturnal luminosity of the previous night, rainfall, and temperature did not correlate with the minor diurnal activity exhibited. This suggests that for A. nigriceps the potential costs of shifting to diurnality may outweigh its prospective advantages in this rainforest environment.

  17. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  18. Access 1996: A directory of permanent plots which monitor flora, fauna, climate, hydrology, soil, geology, and the effects of anthropogenic changes at 132 biosphere reserves in 27 countries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This directory summarizes information about environmental data collected in permanent monitoring and research plots in 132 biosphere reserves in Canada, the United States, and 25 European countries. The text of the directory is organized alphabetically by country and, within each country, alphabetically according to the name of the biosphere reserve. Tabular summaries of information on permanent plots are provided. The summaries are organized topically . A general summary of basic information on permanent plots is followed by more detailed information on permanent plots dedicated primarily to monitroing and research on particular topics.

  19. Fifty-year spatiotemporal analysis of landscape changes in the Mont Saint-Hilaire UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Quebec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Béliveau, Marc; Germain, Daniel; Ianăş, Ana-Neli

    2017-05-01

    Diachronic analysis with a GIS-based classification of land-use changes based on aerial photographs, orthophotos, topographic maps, geotechnical reports, urban plans, and using landscape metrics has permitted insight into the driving forces responsible for landscape fragmentation in the Mont Saint-Hilaire (MSH) Biosphere Reserve over the period 1958-2015. Although the occurrence of exogenous factors, such as extreme weather and fires, can have a significant influence on the fragmentation of the territory in time and space, the accelerated development of the built environment (+470%) is nevertheless found to be primarily responsible for landscape fragmentation and the loss of areas formerly occupied by orchards, agriculture, and woodlands. The landscape metrics used corroborate these results, with a simplification of the shape of polygons, and once again reveal the difficulties of harmonizing different land uses. MSH has become somewhat of a forest island in a sea of residential development and agriculture. To counter this isolation of fragmented habitat components, forest corridors have been proposed and developed for the Biosphere Reserve and particularly for the core area. Two corridors, to the north and south, are used to connect the protected area and other wooded areas at the regional scale, in order to promote genetic exchange between populations of various species. In that regard, the forest buffer zone around the hill continues to play a key role and has great ecological value for species and ecological preservation and conservation. However, appropriate management and landscape preservation actions should recognize and focus on landscape composition and the associated geographical configuration.

  20. Decadal time-scale monitoring of forest fires in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    PubMed

    Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Rao, P V V Prasada; Jha, C S

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the spatial extent and distribution of forest fires is essential for sustainable forest resource management. There is no comprehensive data existing on forest fires on a regular basis in Biosphere Reserves of India. The present work have been carried out to locate and estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas using Resourcesat-1 data and fire frequency covering decadal fire events (2004-2013) in Similipal Biosphere Reserve. The anomalous quantity of forest burnt area was recorded during 2009 as 1,014.7 km(2). There was inconsistency in the fire susceptibility across the different vegetation types. The spatial analysis of burnt area shows that an area of 34.2 % of dry deciduous forests, followed by tree savannah, shrub savannah, and grasslands affected by fires in 2013. The analysis based on decadal time scale satellite data reveals that an area of 2,175.9 km(2) (59.6 % of total vegetation cover) has been affected by varied rate of frequency of forest fires. Fire density pattern indicates low count of burnt area patches in 2013 estimated at 1,017 and high count at 1,916 in 2004. An estimate of fire risk area over a decade identifies 12.2 km(2) is experiencing an annual fire damage. Summing the fire frequency data across the grids (each 1 km(2)) indicates 1,211 (26 %) grids are having very high disturbance regimes due to repeated fires in all the 10 years, followed by 711 grids in 9 years and 418 in 8 years and 382 in 7 years. The spatial database offers excellent opportunities to understand the ecological impact of fires on biodiversity and is helpful in formulating conservation action plans.

  1. Ethno-medicinal uses and screening of plants for antibacterial activity from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the variety and the extent of medicinal plants used in the health care system of tribal inhabitants of Similipal Biosphere Reserve. In addition to this, such plants were also screened for antibacterial properties against common pathogenic bacteria. Semi-structured interview was carried out with 42 informants (mean age 42, 86% male, 14% female) at 24 locations in and around SBR, regarding the use of plants for the treatment of various human ailments. Antibacterial screening is adopted with the documented ethnomedicinal plants using methanol and aqueous extracts against eight bacterial strains. A total of 187 plant species belonging to 74 families were documented for frequent medicinal uses against common ailments such as stomach problems, fever, skin diseases, diarrhea and dysentery. Although all parts of plant are used, leaves and bark are most common. Tribals used the plant parts both in form of decoction (taken orally as in internal problems) and paste (external use). Out of 187 plant species, 120 plants recorded antibacterial activity against test bacterial strain. This study revealed that self care using medicinal plants is a common practice by the tribes of SBR. About 64% of the used plants have scientifically proved medicinal values with respect to the antibacterial properties. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Bharat K; Badola, Hemant K

    2008-01-01

    Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera). As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt. PMID:18826658

  3. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had <10% canopy cover), 925 ha were degraded (i.e., areas for which canopy forest decreased), and 122 ha were affected by climatic conditions. Of the total 2179 ha of affected area, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging: 1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging. Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012. Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005-2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern. However, dire regional social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve's long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  5. Trends in Deforestation and Forest Degradation after a Decade of Monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    VIDAL, OMAR; LÓPEZ-GARCÍA, JOSÉ; RENDÓN-SALINAS, EDUARDO

    2014-01-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world’s most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had <10% canopy cover), 925 ha were degraded (i.e., areas for which canopy forest decreased), and 122 ha were affected by climatic conditions. Of the total 2179 ha of affected area, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging: 1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging. Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012. Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005–2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern. However, dire regional social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve’s long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico—which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations—are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. PMID:24001209

  6. Environmental gradients regulate the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton assemblages in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thanh-Luu

    2017-07-01

    This paper covers spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical variables in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (CGMBR), Vietnam, based on field measurement conducted monthly at nine stations during February 2009 to January 2010. Species diversity, richness and phytoplankton abundance were calculated. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental factors and phytoplankton community. A total of 126 species were recorded with a clear dominance of Bacillariophyceae, which formed about 76.4% of the total phytoplankton counts with an annual average of 44.900 cells/L. Other algal classes like Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chrysophyceae sustained low counts, forming collectively about 14% of the total abundance of phytoplankton. Although Chaetoceros and Coscinodiscus were the most dominant genera, Schroederella and Skeletonema showed high abundance during the studied period. Among the nine environmental parameters tested in this study, salinity, nitrate and ammonium were found to be significantly different between two seasons. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between stations for the studied variables. Results of CCA indicated that phytoplankton assemblage in the CGMBR was influenced by salinity, nitrate and phosphate concentration. This is the first study simultaneously investigating the phytoplankton communities and their environment in this area and it is essential in order to set up the baseline of future studies.

  7. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  8. Pastoralists in a changing environment: The competition for grazing land in and around the W Biosphere Reserve, Benin Republic.

    PubMed

    Tamou, Charles; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; de Boer, Imke J M; Oosting, Simon J

    2017-09-21

    Pastoralists face increasing competition for land with crop farmers and nature in and around the W Biosphere Reserve (WBR) in Benin. Our aim was to describe and analyse land use changes in order to understand their drivers, and to describe and analyse the viewpoints of relevant stakeholders in order to understand the competition for land. To this end, remote sensing data, regional statistics, and survey data were collected. We found that crop land expansion around the WBR was the direct driver of decrease of the grazing land area. Population growth and rising demand for food crops, and government support to the cotton sector were indirect drivers of grazing land reduction. Furthermore, competing claims on land among users arose from the complex interaction of crop expansion, presence of WBR and the way it is governed, the lack of support to pastoralists, and the increasing shift of pastoralists' lifestyle into one of settled crop farmers. Pastoralism is under threat and its survival depends on the successful implementation of policies to support pastoralists and protect grazing lands.

  9. Physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the coral reef environment of the Gulf of Mannar marine biosphere reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Kannapiran, E; Kannan, L; Purushothaman, A; Thangarajdou, T

    2008-03-01

    Investigation on physico-chemical parameters and bacteial characteristics of the coral reef environs of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve was studied. The study found the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on one another and also on the distribution of the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in the coral reef areas. Nutrients exhibited considerable seasonal and spatial variations with influence on the bacterial population. Coral reef areas recorded higher bacterial population density both in water (3.5 to 18 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1)) and sediment (1 to 14 x 10(7) CFU g(-1)) samples than the non coral reef areas (3.4 to 10.5 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in water and 0.9 to 7 x 10(6) CFU g(-1)). The study also found the dominance of gram negative groups at all the three stations (64.73, 63,5 and 72.59%) with Pseudomonas contributing maximum number of strains in all the samples. In addition Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Cytophaga, Enterobacter and Alcaligenes were also recorded. The gram positive group was represented by Bacillus, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter and Corynebacterium. The genetic composition of THB isolated from the coral mucus revealed the presence of Vibrio and Micrococcus in all the coral mucus.

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in the tribal population of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forest, Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Pradeep; Srinivasan, R; Anish, T S; Nandakumar, G; Jambulingam, P

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), a neglected tropical disease, is reported to be prevalent in tribal villages located in the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve forests of Western Ghats, Kerala state, India. We carried out an investigation to characterize the species of Leishmania parasites involved in these infections prevalent among one of the oldest human tribal populations in India. Skin aspirates collected from 13 clinically diagnosed cases were subjected to histopathological investigations, serological rapid tests using 'rk39' and molecular diagnostics. Clinical manifestations recorded among the patients were hypo-pigmented erythematous nodules/papules on limbs and other parts of the body. Histopathological investigations of these skin lesions among patients showed Leishman-Donovan bodies in macrophages. None of the patients were found to be positive for rk39 tests, which detect active visceral leishmaniasis. Using three different genetic markers [kinetoplast minicircle DNA, 3' UTR region of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp70 gene] we identified the parasite species involved in these infections to be Leishmania donovani. The 6-phosphogluconate (6-PGDH) gene sequences of the parasite isolates from Western Ghats indicated close genetic relatedness to L. donovani isolates reported from Sri Lanka, also causing CL. This could be cited as another instance of 'local endemism' of organisms in this single 'bio-geographic unit'.

  11. Biochemical constituents of a wild strain of Schizophyllum commune isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve (ABR), India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arpita Mani; Tiwary, Bhupendra N

    2013-08-01

    A wild strain of Schizophyllum commune (MTCC 9670) isolated from Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve of Central India was evaluated for the production of bioactive compounds. The chemical constituents of wild and in vitro grown cultures were compared. Under optimized conditions, different organic and aqueous extracts from mycelia and fruiting bodies were used to extract chemical components from the cultures grown in vitro. The gas chromatography combined wih mass spectrometry analysis of extracts identified two phenolic compounds, namely Phenyl benzoate (C13H10O2) and 4-(phenyl methoxy) phenol (C13H12O2) in the ethanolic extract of in vitro grown fruiting bodies and one antibacterial compound Pyrrolo (1, 2-a) piperazine-3, 6-dione (C7H10O2N2) in the methanolic extract of mycelia. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the gallic acid and L-ascorbic acid were identifiable antioxidant components in the extracts possessing high free radical scavenging activity. The findings suggest that the wild strain of S. commune may serve as the source of novel bioactive compounds with effective antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  12. [Abundance and species diversity of tabanids (Diptera) in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-Makokou (Gabon) during the rainy season].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Makanga, B K; Acapovi-Yao, G; Desquesnes, M; M'Batchi, B

    2012-05-01

    The abundance and species diversity of tabanids were evaluated by trapping of insects using Vavoua traps, during the rainy season, from October 4 to November 30, 2009, in three different habitats: primary forest, secondary forest and village, in the biosphere reserve Ipassa-IRET Makokou in Gabon. Eight species belonging to three genera of tabanids have been identified for a total of 402 specimens caught. The tabanid species numerically the most abundant were: Tabanus secedens Walker, 1854 (55.2%), Tabanus obscurehirtus Ricardo, 1908 (13.9%), Chrysops dimidiatus Wulp, 1885 (11.2%) and Chrysops silaceus Austen, 1907 (10.7%). The less abundant species were Tabanus par Walker, 1854 (3.2%), Tabanus besti arbucklei Austen, 1912 (3%), Tabanus marmorosus congoicola Bequaert, 1930 (1%) and Ancala fasciata fasciata (Fabricius, 1775) (0.5%). Specimens of the genera Tabanus and Chrysops could not be identified, these insects represented respectively 0.7% and 0.5% of the insects trapped. The highest proportion of tabanids was trapped in secondary forest (75.1%) and the lower in primary forest (4.5%).

  13. Fractionation of metals and As in sediments from a biosphere reserve (Odiel salt marshes) affected by acidic mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Morillo, José; Usero, José; Rojas, Raquel

    2008-04-01

    The Odiel salt marshes (Marismas del Odiel) are an important nature area declared a Biosphere Reserve, but they are greatly affected by pollution from the Odiel River. Surface sediments from this area were analysed using the latest version of the BCR sequential extraction procedure to determine the fractionation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn among four geochemical phases (acid-soluble, reducible, oxidisable and residual). The total content of each of the metals and As was also determined. The results showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, with maximums of 791 mg kg(-1) of As, 8.5 mg kg(-1) of Cd, 2,740 mg kg(-1) of Cu, 1,580 mg kg(-1) of Pb and 3,920 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The concentrations of Cr, Mn and Ni were low since there are no sources of pollution by them in the area. A comparison of the metal and As levels with the sediment quality guidelines showed that the pollution is sufficient to produce noxious effects in aquatic organisms in most of the Odiel salt marshes. Based on the chemical distribution of the elements, it was found that Cd and Zn were the most mobile (i.e., elements that can pass easily into the water under changing environmental conditions). However, Cr, Fe, Ni and As were present in the greatest percentages in the residual fraction, which implies that these elements are strongly linked to the sediments.

  14. An assessment of land-use/land-cover change of Bistrishko branishte biosphere reserve using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, L.; Feilong, L.; Panayotov, M.

    2014-03-01

    Land-Use/Land-Cover (LU/LC) change detection using satellite data has gained momentum with the advance of the pre-operational phase of regional and global earth observation programmes such as GEOS, GMES, and GOFC-GOLD to name but a few. Present study aims at revealing LU/LC change of Bistrishko branishte biosphere reserve using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ radiometer satellite data. The LU/LC classification of the study area is done for the period 2007-2012, and difference images, between LU/LC maps, have been created. The classification scheme follows CORINE2000 Level 3 with few additional classes introduced to map changes. The methods used in the study are geoinformation, cartography, and statistical. The results show that in effect of 2012 wildfire 0.72 km2 from reserve territory was devastated. The temporal changes which are taking place after the 60 ha windthrow in 2001, the 200 ha bark-beetle outbreak in 2003-2011 and the wildfire from June 2012 were further investigated using ASD HH FS spectrometer in 2011. As a result the increase in '331 Broad-leaved forest' and '312 Coniferous forest' LU/LC classes is attributed to the increase of the territory of deciduous species after a large bark beetle outbreak, which took place between 2003 and 2011, which devastated most of the old Picea abies trees, while the decrease of 'Outbreak' and '332 Bare rock' LU/LC classes is mainly due to the wildfire which took place in June 2012.

  15. Challenges to conservation: land use change and local participation in the Al Reem Biosphere Reserve, West Qatar.

    PubMed

    Sillitoe, Paul; Alshawi, Ali A; Al-Amir Hassan, Abdul K

    2010-10-21

    One response to humanity's unsustainable use of natural resources and consequent degradation, even destruction of the environment, is to establish conservation areas to protect Nature and preserve biodiversity at least in selected regions. In Qatar, the government has shown strong support for this approach, confronted by the environmental consequences of oil and gas extraction and rapid urban development, by designating about one-tenth of the country a conservation area. Located in the west of the peninsula, it comprises the Al Reem Reserve, subsequently declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Several approaches have figured in conservation, currently popular is co-management featuring participation of the local population, which recognises that people's activities often contribute to today's environment, with the promotion of bio-cultural diversity. However, these assumptions may not hold where rapid social and cultural change occurs, as in Qatar. We explore the implications of such change, notably in land use. We detail changes resulting with the move from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles: in land access, which now features tribal-state control, and herding strategies, which now feature migrant labour and depend on imported fodder and water, underwritten by the country's large gas and oil revenues. Current stocking arrangements - animals herded in much smaller areas than previously - are thought responsible for the degradation of natural resources. The place of animals, notably camels, in Qatari life, has also changed greatly, possibly further promoting overstocking. Many local people disagree. What are the implications of such changes for the participatory co-management of conservation areas? Do they imply turning the clock back to centrally managed approaches that seek to control access and local activities?

  16. Challenges to conservation: land use change and local participation in the Al Reem Biosphere Reserve, West Qatar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    One response to humanity's unsustainable use of natural resources and consequent degradation, even destruction of the environment, is to establish conservation areas to protect Nature and preserve biodiversity at least in selected regions. In Qatar, the government has shown strong support for this approach, confronted by the environmental consequences of oil and gas extraction and rapid urban development, by designating about one-tenth of the country a conservation area. Located in the west of the peninsula, it comprises the Al Reem Reserve, subsequently declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Several approaches have figured in conservation, currently popular is co-management featuring participation of the local population, which recognises that people's activities often contribute to today's environment, with the promotion of bio-cultural diversity. However, these assumptions may not hold where rapid social and cultural change occurs, as in Qatar. We explore the implications of such change, notably in land use. We detail changes resulting with the move from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles: in land access, which now features tribal-state control, and herding strategies, which now feature migrant labour and depend on imported fodder and water, underwritten by the country's large gas and oil revenues. Current stocking arrangements - animals herded in much smaller areas than previously - are thought responsible for the degradation of natural resources. The place of animals, notably camels, in Qatari life, has also changed greatly, possibly further promoting overstocking. Many local people disagree. What are the implications of such changes for the participatory co-management of conservation areas? Do they imply turning the clock back to centrally managed approaches that seek to control access and local activities? PMID:20964818

  17. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  18. Building a community of practice for sustainability: strengthening learning and collective action of Canadian biosphere reserves through a national partnership.

    PubMed

    Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  20. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level.

  1. Chile.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden.

  2. Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Shalini; Maikhuri, RK; Kala, CP; Rao, KS; Saxena, KG

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables. PMID:18510780

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a coastal lagoon of the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Ernesto; Vega-Cendejas, M Eugenia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Composition and abundance of the ichthyofauna in estuarine and coastal lagoon systems of the South Pacific in Mexico have been scarcely studied. In particular, there is a lack of information on how environmental variables determine the spatio-temporal structure of fish assemblages in those habitats. In this study, fishes were sampled by drop net during twelve months (May 2004 - April 2005) in 22 sites distributed along the Carretas-Pereyra lagoon, located in the Biosphere Reserve La Encrucijada, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 11,797 individuals (40 species, in 30 genera and 21 families). Dormitator latifrons was the most dominant species in terms of the Importance Value index, IV (23.05%), followed by Lile gracilis (10.31%), Poecilia sphenops (8.60%) and Poecilia butleri (7.30%). D. latifrons also accounted for more than one half of the total biomass (50.14%). Species richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity indexes showed similar temporal fluctuations, reaching their highest values during the dry season. The system evidenced temporal variations in salinity, having observed four different regimes: freshwater, oligohaline, mesohaline and polyhaline. Mean richness and diversity indexes achieved their highest values during the mesohaline period. On the other hand, mean abundances (CPUE) were highest during the freshwater period. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that salinity and temperature were the most important environmental parameters affecting associations of fishes in terms of their abundances. Correlation analyses revealed that among the environmental variables measured in this study, transparency showed the most significant negative correlation with fish richness and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index. At a local scale, results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages are determined by differences in the regimes of salinity and transparency, primarily driven by freshwater input from rivers.

  4. Wild leafy vegetables: a study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Shalini; Maikhuri, R K; Kala, C P; Rao, K S; Saxena, K G

    2008-05-30

    Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables.

  5. Orthoptera (Insecta: Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea, Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and other areas of conservation interest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Felix, Rob P W H; Massa, Bruno

    2016-11-09

    An annotated checklist of 51 Orthoptera taxa (Tettigonioidea, Pyrgomorphoidea and Acridoidea) of Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Bale Mountains National Park and some additional sites in Ethiopia is presented. Ten species are newly recorded for the country. Four species are new to science: Peropyrrhicia attilioi n. sp., P. keffensis n. sp., P. semiensis n. sp. and Coryphosima danieli n. sp. The status of Peropyrrhicia cooperi Uvarov, 1934 and P. scotti Uvarov, 1934 is revised: both are considered valid species.

  6. [Distribution and abundance of fish community in the littoral area of "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Rojas, Sandra; Ayala-Pérez, Luis Amado; Sosa-López, Atahualpa; Villalobos-Zapata, Guillermo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve (RBLP) is a critical habitat for many aquatic and terrestrial species. It has the biggest and better conserved seagrass beds, and it represents an important habitat for food, protection and breeding of aquatic organisms, and a temporal refuge for migratory species. The objective of this study was to describe the ichthyofauna diversity in the littoral coastal area of the RBLP, to identify the ecological dominant species, and to analyze the abundance of the fish community and its temporal and spatial changes, and their relationship with some environmental variables. Monthly fish samples were obtained with the aid of trawl nets, from 24 samplings sites distributed along the reserve, between May 2009 and April 2010. The trawl net was operated 288 times and 21 795 individuals with 279.5kg of weight were collected. A total of 46 fish species grouped in 34 genera and 23 families were identified. In a spatial scale, the abundance showed the next ranges: 0.018-0.094ind./m2; 0.249-1.072 g/m2 and 9.75-19.32g/ind.; the diversity indexes obtained were: H'n=1.46-2.15, J'=0.45-0.71 and D'=2.08-3.92. In a temporal scale, the abundance and diversity ranged between: 0.026-0.066ind./m2; 0.342-0.764g/m2 and 6.49-22.98g/ind.; H'n=1.76-2.08; J'=0.52-0.64 and D'=3.07-4.18. Eleven dominant species were identified with a representation of the 94.39% in number of individuals, and 89.66% in weight of the total catch. From the total, eight species had economic or commercial importance, especially Lagodon rhomboides and Haemulon plumierii. The cluster analyses identified four fish associations; these results are discussed in order to identify relationships between habitat-species. Finally, the canonical correspondence analysis evidenced an association between H. plumierii with salinity and dissolved solids. The RBLP has high habitat diversity and its fish community has developed strategies to use all the spatial and temporal conditions and to satisfy the needs

  7. Relevance of the Paraná River hydrology on the fluvial water quality of the Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    The increasing frequency of extreme events in large rivers may affect not only their flow, but also their water quality. In the present study, spatial and temporal changes in fluvial physico-chemical variables were analyzed in a mega-river delta during two extreme hydrological years (La Niña-El Niño) and related to potential explanatory factors. Basic water variables were evaluated in situ at 13 points (distant 2-35 km from each other) in watercourses of the Delta Biosphere Reserve (890 km(2)) in the Lower Paraná River (Argentina) in nine surveys (October 2008-July 2010) without meteorological tides. Samples for laboratory analyses were collected from each main river. Multivariate tests by permutations were applied. The period studied was influenced by a drought, within a long period dominated by low flows combined with dry weather and wildfires, and a large (10 years of recurrence) and prolonged (7 months) flood. The hydrological phase, followed by the season and the hydrological year (according to the ENSO event) were the principal explanatory factors of the main water quality changes, whereas the drainage sub-basin and the fluvial environment (river or stream) were secondary explanatory factors. During the drought period, conductivity, turbidity, and associated variables (e.g., major ions, silicon, and iron concentrations) were maximal, whereas real color was minimal. In the overbanking flood phase, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration were minimal, whereas real color was maximal. Dissolved oxygen saturation was also low in the receding flood phase and total major ion load doubled after the arrival of the overbanking stage. The water quality of these watercourses may be affected by the combination of several influences, such as the Paraná River flow, the pulses with sediments and solutes from the Bermejo River, the export of the Delta floodplain properties mainly by the flood, the season, and the saline tributaries to the Lower Paraná River. The high

  8. Identifying and closing gaps in environmental monitoring by means of metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics using the UNESCO biosphere reserve Rhoen (Germany) as an example.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther

    2006-03-01

    In Germany, environmental monitoring is intended to provide a holistic view of the environmental condition. To this end the monitoring operated by the federal states must use harmonized, resp., standardized methods. In addition, the monitoring sites should cover the ecoregions without any geographical gaps, the monitoring design should have no gaps in terms of ecologically relevant measurement parameters, and the sample data should be spatially without any gaps. This article outlines the extent to which the Rhoen Biosphere Reserve, occupying a part of the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia, fulfills the listed requirements. The investigation considered collection, data banking and analysis of monitoring data and metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics. Metadata on the monitoring networks were collected by questionnaires and provided a complete inventory and description of the monitoring activities in the reserve and its surroundings. The analysis of these metadata reveals that most of the monitoring methods are harmonized across the boundaries of the three federal states the Rhoen is part of. The monitoring networks that measure precipitation, surface water levels, and groundwater quality are particularly overrepresented in the central ecoregions of the biosphere reserve. Soil monitoring sites are more equally distributed within the ecoregions of the Rhoen. The number of sites for the monitoring of air pollutants is not sufficient to draw spatially valid conclusions. To fill these spatial gaps, additional data on the annual average values of the concentrations of air pollutants from monitoring sites outside of the biosphere reserve had therefore been subject to geostatistical analysis and estimation. This yields valid information on the spatial patterns and temporal trends of air quality. The approach illustrated is applicable to similar cases, as, for example, the harmonization of international monitoring networks.

  9. Gathering "tea"--from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2012-08-13

    Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man's relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people's knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve's natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association's informal guidelines for gathering reflect people's attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people's appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people's regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable conservation and use of the Biosphere Reserve

  10. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of < 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  11. Recovery of Durvillaea antarctica (Durvilleales) inside and outside Las Cruces Marine Reserve, Chile.

    PubMed

    Castilla, J C; Campo, M A; Bustamante, R H

    2007-07-01

    We present the results for over two decades of monitoring on intertidal food-gatherers and the population of the low rocky shore dweller kelp Durvillaea antarctica, a short-distance disperser, inside and outside the no-take marine reserve, Estacion Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), at Las Cruces, central Chile. It was hypothesized that protection of an initially extremely depleted population would recover by recolonizing first the no-take area and then adjacent non-protected (exploited) areas. We found that recovery of D. antarctica occurred slowly inside ECIM, with increase in density and biomass, of up to three orders of magnitude as compared to an adjacent non-protected area, which showed approximately 2-yr delay. These results suggest that the kelp population inside ECIM was likely regulated via intraspecific competition, which did not occur outside. Results showed no evidence for juvenile vs. adult density dependence other than a weak relationship for the central area of ECIM. These findings also suggest that the population recovery and cross-boundary seeding subsides affected the population dynamics. Understanding these dynamics may enhance management and conservation policies. Our work highlights the critical value of baseline and long-term comparative studies in marine no-take protected and non-protected areas for understanding how population processes respond to human and conservation practices.

  12. The structure of mesofauna complexes in soils of the forest-park zone of Moscow and the Prioksko-Terrasnyi Biospheric Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyvolova, A. Yu.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Buyvolov, Yu. A.; Bykova, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A comparative analysis of quantitative parameters of the complexes of large soil invertebrates (mesofauna) in slightly disturbed biotopes of the Kuz'minki-Lyublino natural forest park of Moscow and in natural biotopes of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi Biospheric Reserve as a representative territory of the zone of mixed forests. It is shown that soil mesofauna in forest cenoses of the urban park preserves its natural features, though significant changes take place in the dominant complex. An increase in the biomass (up to 43 g/m2) of invertebrates has been observed in the forest-park soils at the expense of a greater population density of earthworms; the portion of saprophages in them increases, whereas the portion of predators is smaller than that in the native soils of the reserve.

  13. Gathering “tea” – from necessity to connectedness with nature. Local knowledge about wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering is an essential element in livelihood strategies all over the world. However due to changing circumstances in Europe, the reason for gathering has altered from one of necessity in the past to a pleasurable activity today. Wild plant gathering has therefore also received renewed attention as a form of intangible cultural heritage expressing local preferences, habits and man’s relationship with nature. In the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal (Austria), local people’s knowledge of the gathering of wild plants and their perception of their own gathering activities are being documented. The focus of this paper is on the uses of herbal teas and the informal guidelines for gathering plants that have been issued by the Bergtee (mountain tea) association. Methods Thirty-six free-list interviews were conducted with subsequent semi-structured interviews and three focus group meetings held with members of the Bergtee association. Participatory observation (gathering and processing plants, mixing and marketing tea) also allowed for greater understanding of what had been reported. Results In total, 140 different gathered plant species were listed by respondents. Herbal tea is the most frequently mentioned use. The Bergtee association, founded by a young man and two middle-aged women in the valley, is a good example of the link between biological and cultural diversity, with the aim of sharing the biosphere reserve’s natural treasures as well as local plant-related knowledge in the form of herbal tea products. The association’s informal guidelines for gathering reflect people’s attitude to nature: monetary income does not play a major role in gathering plants; instead people’s appreciation of the value of the nature around them is to the fore. Conclusions Gathering wild plants can be seen as an expression of people’s regional identity. The conscious appreciation of nature and related local knowledge is crucial for the sustainable

  14. The Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the earth's biosphere, considering how the microbial, animal and plant life (which make up the biosphere) are sustained by the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Also considers how these three earth features have powerfully shaped the evolution of these organisms. (JN)

  15. The Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Preston

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the earth's biosphere, considering how the microbial, animal and plant life (which make up the biosphere) are sustained by the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Also considers how these three earth features have powerfully shaped the evolution of these organisms. (JN)

  16. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  17. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

    2017-03-01

    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  18. Resource management and fertility in Mexico’s Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve: Campos, cash, and contraception in the lobster-fishing village of Punta Allen

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the link between marine resource management, and the universal contraceptive use among married couples in the lobster- fishing village of Punta Allen, located in the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Several reasons appear to contribute to small desired and actual family sizes. Some of these include a medical clinic staff effective in promoting family planning, cooperative and private resource ownership, changing cultural attitudes, geographical limitations to population and economic growth, and a desire to conserve the environment for aesthetic and economic motives. Lastly, families desired to preserve a sustained balance between benefiting from lobster harvests today and safeguarding this marine resource for their children in the future. PMID:19672473

  19. Origin and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in sediment and fish from the biosphere reserve of Urdaibai (Bay of Biscay, Basque country, Spain).

    PubMed

    Puy-Azurmendi, Eunate; Navarro, Asunción; Olivares, Alba; Fernandes, Denise; Martínez, Elena; López de Alda, Miren; Porte, Cinta; Cajaraville, Miren P; Barceló, Damià; Piña, Benjamin

    2010-08-01

    The Urdaibai estuary is a UNESCO biosphere reserve impacted by recreational, agricultural and industrial activities. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major pollutants in Urdaibai, and their control and the identification of their sources is central on the preservation of the area. Chemical analysis by GC-MS showed a significant pollution by PAHs in Urdaibai sediment samples, mainly from pyrolytic sources, with minor contributions from oil spills. Measurement of the dioxin-like activity using a yeast-based bioassay showed an excess of biological activity in sediment samples from the inner part of the estuary. Analysis of PAH metabolites in bile of thicklip grey mullet (Chelon labrosus) showed a large excess of 2-naphthol over 1-naphthol or 1-pyrenol, suggesting a specific contamination in the inner Urdaibai estuary by some industrial process. Therefore, the combination of these three techniques defined different PAH pollution sources in Urdaibai: a major pyrolytic origin, occasional oil spills, and specific industrial activities.

  20. Green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Singdevsachan, Sameer Kumar; Parida, Umesh Kumar; Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, green synthesis and cost effective approach of silver nanoparticles using wild medicinal mushroom Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat. from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India is reported. The biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle analyser and scanning electron microscopy studies. It was found by dynamic light scattering analysis, that the average size and charges of the AgNPs were 133.0 ± 0.361 nm and -6.01 ± 5.30 mV, respectively. Moreover, the Fourier transform infrared study was also conducted to identify the biomolecules or functional groups responsible for the reduction of Ag and stabilisation of the AgNPs. The potential biomedical application with reference to antimicrobial activity of the synthesised AgNPs was investigated against some pathogenic microorganisms viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri.

  1. Conservation, conflict and the governance of fisher wellbeing: analysis of the establishment of the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Bavinck, Maarten; Vivekanandan, Vriddagiri

    2011-04-01

    This article examines one MPA--the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve--located in southern India, and four types of social conflict that have surrounded its establishment. Taking the strength of wellbeing aspirations as point of departure, we focus on two themes: the implications of MPA embeddedness in wider societal systems, and the consequences of natural and social variety for governance. We conclude first of all that conflict resolution depends on MPA authorities' willingness to engage with the interferences that emerge from outside the MPA area. Secondly, we point out the varying wellbeing aspirations of the population and the need to develop governance partnerships. The latter are argued to contribute to more balanced decision making, as well as to a greater appreciation among the target population of the 'fairness' of MPA policy.

  2. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Tewari, D. D.; Baboo, Biplab

    2015-08-01

    A large volume of literature describes adverse consequences of conservation-induced displacement on indigenous communities depended on natural resources of wildlife habitat. Resettlement policies in protected areas the world over are mainly designed and implemented without consideration of social and economic costs of exclusion. This study examined income and poverty profile of tribal residents in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve in India, relative to the households relocated out of the reserve. The income from different sources and livelihood diversification of displaced reserve dwellers reflected changes resulting from the loss of access to natural and household assets. The results contradicted common perception about impoverishment outcome of relocation. It showed an increase in the per capita income for poorer segments with an overall 8 % increase in absolute household income and corresponding improvement in the poverty ratio (head count ratio) and FGT index (0.241) for the relocated community. Contrary to other studies, the finding did not observe social alignment or marginalization; however, on-farm livelihood diversification reduced with increased dependence on off-farm sources. Expulsion of people from forest reserves to support conservation is inadequate in restricting habitat use of locals unless suitable alternative livelihood options are available for forest dependent was proven from the study.

  3. Displacement, Deprivation and Development: The Impact of Relocation on Income and Livelihood of Tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Tewari, D D; Baboo, Biplab

    2015-08-01

    A large volume of literature describes adverse consequences of conservation-induced displacement on indigenous communities depended on natural resources of wildlife habitat. Resettlement policies in protected areas the world over are mainly designed and implemented without consideration of social and economic costs of exclusion. This study examined income and poverty profile of tribal residents in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve in India, relative to the households relocated out of the reserve. The income from different sources and livelihood diversification of displaced reserve dwellers reflected changes resulting from the loss of access to natural and household assets. The results contradicted common perception about impoverishment outcome of relocation. It showed an increase in the per capita income for poorer segments with an overall 8% increase in absolute household income and corresponding improvement in the poverty ratio (head count ratio) and FGT index (0.241) for the relocated community. Contrary to other studies, the finding did not observe social alignment or marginalization; however, on-farm livelihood diversification reduced with increased dependence on off-farm sources. Expulsion of people from forest reserves to support conservation is inadequate in restricting habitat use of locals unless suitable alternative livelihood options are available for forest dependent was proven from the study.

  4. A Regional-Scale Groundwater Model Supporting Management of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve and its Catchment, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, B. R.; Merediz Alonso, G.; Rebolledo Vieyra, M.; Marin, L.; Supper, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is a rapidly developing area featuring a booming tourism industry. The number of hotel rooms in the Riviera Maya has increased from 2600 in 1996 to 26,000 in 2005, while the total population in the Mexican federal state of Quintana Roo has grown from 500,000 in 1990 to 1,115,000 in 2005. This explosive growth threatens the region's water resources, which primarily consist of a less than 50m thick freshwater lens residing in the regional karst aquifer underlying the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, a 6400 km2 combined marine/terrestrial nature protection area is situated south of Tulum (approx. 87.3° - 88° W, 19° - 20° N). The site is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and is protected under the Ramsar Convention. It includes extensive freshwater wetlands, saline/brackish mangrove swamps, tropical rainforests and parts of the world's second largest coral reef. The freshwater supply to the system occurs primarily via subsurface inflow. Large freshwater springs emerge through vertical sinkholes (cenotes) in the lagoons of Sian Ka'an. Management of this unique ecosystem in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the surrounding areas requires detailed knowledge on the groundwater flow paths in and around the reserve. Moreover, mapping and delineation of its groundwater catchment zone and groundwater traveling time zones is essential. To this end, a regional-scale steady-state groundwater flow model of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere reserve and its catchment was developed. The model is implemented in MIKE SHE with a finite-difference cell size of 1 km2 and is driven with temporally averaged climate forcings. The karst aquifer is treated as an equivalent porous medium. Darcy's law is assumed to be valid over regional scales and the main structural elements of the karst aquifer are included in the model as zones of varying hydraulic conductivity. High conductivity zones in the Sian Ka

  5. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  7. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  8. Importance of dung incorporation activity by three species of coprophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) macrofauna in pastureland on "La Michilía" biosphere reserve in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anduaga, Sofía; Huerta, Carmen

    2007-06-01

    The dung incorporation activity of three species of coprophagous beetle macrofauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Dichotomius colonicus (Say), Phanaeus quadridens (Say), and Copris klugi sierrensis Matthews, was studied on a hectare of pastureland on "La Michilía" Biosphere Reserve. In total, 223 specimens of the three species were recorded. On the basis of abundance, the dominant species was D. colonicus. A substantial percentage (31% in September and 51% in October) of dung pats remained on the surface, untouched by beetles. Most of the specimens observed (92%) were found amassing dung in galleries. The dung accumulation capacity of D. colonicus varied from 5 to 135 g of dung (dry weight)/pair, whereas C. klugi sierrensis amassed an average of 24.3 +/- 8.5 g/pair and P. quadridens amassed an average of 12 +/- 2.5 g/pair. Based on dung burying efficiency, D. colonicus was considered the most beneficial of the three species in the study area. It dug deeper, wider galleries and incorporated the largest amount of dung into the soil.

  9. Physiognomic structure of agro-forestry landscapes: method of evaluation and guidelines for design, on the example of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Kułak, Agnieszka; Michalik-Śnieżek, Malwina; Lorens, Bogdan

    2016-10-01

    Harmonious planning of agro-forestry landscapes plays a increasing role in building a social satisfaction flowing from the high quality of the environment on the rural areas. It is also a very good way to create a unique place identity of protected areas, rest areas etc. especially valuable regions. The objectives of the paper are: 1) elaboration the method of evaluation and mapping the physiognomic landscape composition on the rural areas with a high natural values; 2) testing this method on dominated by forests, peatbogs and arable lands the central part of the West Polesie UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Eastern Poland); 3) formulation of guidelines on the design of landscape interiors and view openings composition, highlighting the unique features of West Polesie landscape and building a sense of the place identity; 4) to show the necessary to enshrine the values of physiognomic landscape composition in land use policy. In evaluation and mapping the landscape composition, a special attention was paid to the role of agro-forest ecotones. The results of the research part of the study as well as a guidelines on landscape design have been presented in the form of a map, study figures and a description.

  10. In vitro nematicidal effects of medicinal plants from the Sierra de Huautla, Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    PubMed

    López-Aroche, U; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; Mendoza de Gives, P; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Valladares-Cisneros, G; Arias-Ataide, D M; Hernández-Velázquez, V

    2008-03-01

    Twenty extracts from plants from Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico were evaluated against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae in an in vitro assay. The plant species evaluated were Bursera copallifera, B. grandifolia, Lippia graveolens, Passiflora mexicana, Prosopis laevigata, Randia echinocarpa and Urtica dioica. The plants were separated into their parts and macerated with different solvents (n-hexane, acetone, ethanol and methanol). An in vitro assay was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity against unsheathed third stage H. contortus infective larvae. The experiment was carried out in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with three replicates per treatment and using a concentration of 20 mg ml- 1. Ten 5 microl aliquots were taken from the corresponding wells and deposited on a slide for microscopical observation at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exposure. The evaluation criteria were based on the average numbers of live and/or dead larvae in the different treatments. Alive and dead larval numbers were statistically analysed through the ANOVA test (P>0.01). The Tukey test was used as a complementary tool to determine which treatment was different from the other treatments (P>0.05). The highest mortality was observed with P. laevigata hexanic extract from stem and leaves combined, which produced 51%, 81% and 86% larval mortality at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exposure, respectively. On the other hand, B. copallifera stem acetonic extract exhibited 18%, 59% and 66% nematicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively.

  11. Multi-taxa coral reef community structure in relation to habitats in the Baa Atoll Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve (Maldives), and implications for its conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, H.; Bigot, L.; Bourmaud, C.; Chabanet, P.; Gravier-Bonnet, N.; Hamel, M. A.; Payri, C.; Mattio, L.; Menou, J. L.; Naeem, S.; Rilwan, Y.; Sattar, S.; Scott, L.; Shiham, A.; Vigliola, L.; Andréfouët, S.

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of species in their environment is largely defined by habitat characteristics. Both species and habitat distributions can be used to define conservation areas, especially in highly diversified ecosystems like coral reefs where biodiversity inventories are lacking. The main objective of this study was to test the relationship between multi-taxa community structure (defined by richness, species lists, and taxonomic distinctness) and habitat typology in the Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve of Baa Atoll (Maldives). Species richness per taxon was described at 18 stations located on different habitats mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. A total of 1012 species were described including 178 macroalgae, 173 corals, 121 hydroids, 351 fish and 189 (other) macro-invertebrates. Rarity was extremely high for macro-invertebrates, algae and hydrozoans. The results highlighted a marked difference in species composition between stations for macro-algae and corals but not for other groups (hydroids, fish and macro-invertebrates). These distribution patterns were not strongly correlated to differences in habitat characteristics, which created a weak spatial structure of communities between habitats probably caused by differential exposure of atolls to monsoons and the 1998 bleaching event. Community differences between stations were often due to rarity. Therefore, identifying a network of protected areas that includes occurrences of all species may pose challenges. This is overcome by conservation planning scenarios using medium-size (of the order of 1 km2) management units.

  12. Additive partitioning of testate amoeba species diversity across habitat hierarchy within the pristine southern taiga landscape (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Komarov, Alexander A; Mitchell, Edward A D; Shimano, Satoshi; Smirnova, Olga V; Aleynikov, Alexey A; Mazei, Yuri A

    2015-02-01

    In order to better understand the distribution patterns of terrestrial eukaryotic microbes and the factors governing them, we studied the diversity partitioning of soil testate amoebae across levels of spatially nested habitat hierarchy in the largest European old-growth dark coniferous forest (Pechora-Ilych Biosphere Reserve; Komi Republic, Russia). The variation in testate amoeba species richness and assemblage structure was analysed in 87 samples from six biotopes in six vegetation types using an additive partitioning procedure and principal component analyses. The 80 taxa recorded represent the highest value of species richness for soil testate amoebae reported for taiga soils so far. Our results indicate that testate amoeba assemblages were highly aggregated at all levels and were mostly controlled by environmental factors rather than dispersal processes. The variation in species diversity of testate amoebae increased from the lowest to the highest hierarchical level. We conclude that, similarly to macroscopic organisms, testate amoeba species richness and community structure are primarily controlled by environmental conditions within the landscape and suggest that metacommunity dynamics of free-living microorganisms are driven by species sorting and/or mass effect processes.

  13. Geospatial risk assessment and trace element concentration in reef associated sediments, northern part of Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve, Southeast Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Ramasamy, S; Simon Peter, T; Godson, Prince S; Chandrasekar, N; Magesh, N S

    2017-08-21

    Fifty two surface sediments were collected from the northern part of the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve to assess the geospatial risk of sediments. We found that distribution of organic matter and CaCO3 distributions were locally controlled by the mangrove litters and fragmented coral debris. In addition, Fe and Mn concentrations in the marine sediments were probably supplied through the riverine input and natural processes. The Geo-accumulation of elements fall under the uncontaminated category except Pb. Lead show a wide range of contamination from uncontaminated-moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated category. The sediment toxicity level of the elements revealed that the majority of the sediments fall under moderately to highly polluted sediments (23.07-28.84%). The grades of potential ecological risk suggest that predominant sediments fall under low to moderate risk category (55.7-32.7%). The accumulation level of trace elements clearly suggests that the coral reef ecosystem is under low to moderate risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gender and climate change in the Indian Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities, and livelihood diversification at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2015-08-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, livestock rearing, seasonal or long-term migration, and localized natural resource extraction. While warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios in general, we find that climate change is also undermining local communities' livelihood assets in gender-specific ways. In this paper, we present a case study from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand, India) that both outlines the implications of climate change for women farmers in the area and highlights the potential for ecotourism (as a form of livelihood diversification) to strengthen both key livelihood assets of women and local communities' adaptive capacity more broadly. The paper intentionally employs a categorical focus on women but also addresses issues of inter-group and gender diversity. With this special issue in mind, suggestions for related research are proposed for consideration by climate scientists and social systems and/or policy modelers seeking to support gender justice through socially transformative perspectives and frameworks.

  15. Ziziphora tenuior L. essential oil from Dana Biosphere Reserve (Southern Jordan); Chemical characterization and assessment of biological activities.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Paoli, M; Tomi, F; Efferth, T; Salgueiro, L

    2016-12-24

    . Importantly, concentrations devoid of toxicity on several mammalian cell types still displayed anti-inflammatory activity (0.16 and 0.32µL/mL). These findings add significant information to the pharmacological activity of Z. tenuior, thus justifying and reinforcing the use of this plant in traditional medicine. Additionally, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of the oil at non-toxic concentrations, opens new avenues for its further exploitation, for instance in health-care product development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blue Carbon Accumulation Rates for the Pacific Coast of Canada: Examples from Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and the Clayoquot Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, S. G.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Pellatt, M. G.; McGowan, A. E.; Postlethwaite, V. R.; Robinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    While a complete understanding of the carbon cycle is a crucial component of well-designed climate policy, the carbon dynamics of vegetated, coastal ecosystems are poorly understood when compared with other ecosystems. `Blue carbon' refers to the carbon stored in coastal systems such as salt marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangroves; research indicates that these blue carbon ecosystems sequester carbon at high rates, potentially greater than terrestrial forests per unit area. However, specific data on their carbon accumulation rates, as well as spatial extents of the ecosystems themselves, is limited, especially in the temperate Northeast Pacific coast. This study incorporates several sites from Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and around Clayoquot Sound on the Pacific coast of Canada, where we measure carbon density and accumulation rates of soils and peats underlying estuarine salt marshes. Elemental analysis and loss-on-ignition quantified soil carbon which, alongside bulk density, 210Pb, and 14C radioisotope dating, produces carbon accumulation rate estimates. This study will provide the Government of Canada (Parks Canada) and the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (Canada, Mexico and the USA) with data regarding blue carbon stocks on the west coast of Canada. This information will serve as a baseline to inform scientists and managers about typical saltmarsh carbon accumulation rates in relatively undisturbed study sites. These data may inform future studies on the feasibility of northern, temperate salt marshes as carbon sinks, and can contribute to the growing interest in conserving coastal ecosystems for purposes of carbon sequestration.

  17. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance.

  18. Baseline study of morphometric traits of wild Capsicum annuum growing near two biosphere reserves in the Peninsula of Baja California for future conservation management.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-05-10

    Despite the ecological and socioeconomic importance of wild Capsicum annuum L., few investigations have been carried out to study basic characteristics. The peninsula of Baja California has a unique characteristic that it provides a high degree of isolation for the development of unique highly diverse endemic populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the growth type, associated vegetation, morphometric traits in plants, in fruits and mineral content of roots, stems and leaves of three wild populations of Capsicum in Baja California, Mexico, near biosphere reserves. The results showed that the majority of plants of wild Capsicum annuum have a shrub growth type and were associated with communities consisting of 43 species of 20 families the most representative being Fabaceae, Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Significant differences between populations were found in plant height, main stem diameter, beginning of canopy, leaf area, leaf average and maximum width, stems and roots dry weights. Coverage, leaf length and dry weight did not show differences. Potassium, sodium and zinc showed significant differences between populations in their roots, stems and leaves, while magnesium and manganese showed significant differences only in roots and stems, iron in stems and leaves, calcium in roots and leaves and phosphorus did not show differences. Average fruit weight, length, 100 fruits dry weight, 100 fruits pulp dry weight and pulp/seeds ratio showed significant differences between populations, while fruit number, average fruit fresh weight, peduncle length, fruit width, seeds per fruit and seed dry weight, did not show differences. We concluded that this study of traits of wild Capsicum, provides useful information of morphometric variation between wild populations that will be of value for future decision processes involved in the management and preservation of germplasm and genetic resources.

  19. Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeet; Das, Gitishree; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A number of wild crops remain unexplored in this world and among them some have excellent medicinal and nutritional properties. India is a harbor of biodiversity in general and phytodiversity in particular. The plant diversity is distributed from the Western Ghats to Eastern Ghats, along with the North-Eastern region and from the Greater Himalayas to the plain of Ganga. Among these distributed floral regions of the country, the Eastern Ghats are important due to their rich floral diversity. The forests of Odisha form a major part of Eastern Ghats in general and the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) in particular. The SBR is inhabited by many local communities. The food and medicinal habits of these communities are not fully explored even today. They are dependent on the forests of SBR for their food and medicine. Among their collections from forests, root and tuberous plants play a significant role. The local communities of SBR use about 89 types of tuberous plants for various purposes. Dioscorea is one such tuber, having maximum use among the local of SBR. However, less documentation and no specific reports are available on the food and medicinal values of the species available in this part of the World. Dioscorea species, popularly known as Yam worldwide and as Ban Aalu in Odisha, India, is a prime staple medicinal-food substitute for the majority of rural and local people of the state of India. Of the 13 Dioscorea species available in SBR, 10 species are known to be bitter in taste and unpalatable when taken raw. Since less documentation is available on the Dioscorea species of SBR and their traditional uses, the present study was focused on the ethnobotany, nutritional and pharmacological values of these species along its nutraceutical importance. PMID:28261094

  20. Density variations and their influence on carbon stocks: case-study on two Biosphere Reserves in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Maaike; De Haulleville, Thalès; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that allometric equations for aboveground biomass and carbon stock estimates are improved significantly if density is included as a variable. However, not much attention is given to this variable in terms of exact, measured values and density profiles from pith to bark. Most published case-studies obtain density values from literature sources or databases, this way using large ranges of density values and possible causing significant errors in carbon stock estimates. The use of one single fixed value for density is also not recommended if carbon stock increments are estimated. Therefore, our objective is to measure and analyze a large number of tree species occurring in two Biosphere Reserves (Luki and Yangambi). Nevertheless, the diversity of tree species in these tropical forests is too high to perform this kind of detailed analysis on all tree species (> 200/ha). Therefore, we focus on the most frequently encountered tree species with high abundance (trees/ha) and dominance (basal area/ha) for this study. Increment cores were scanned with a helical X-ray protocol to obtain density profiles from pith to bark. This way, we aim at dividing the tree species with a distinct type of density profile into separate groups. If, e.g., slopes in density values from pith to bark remain stable over larger samples of one tree species, this slope could also be used to correct for errors in carbon (increment) estimates, caused by density values from simplified density measurements or density values from literature. In summary, this is most likely the first study in the Congo Basin that focuses on density patterns in order to check their influence on carbon stocks and differences in carbon stocking based on species composition (density profiles ~ temperament of tree species).

  1. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    PubMed

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  2. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope quantitative structural assessment of dominant species from the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Camargue Biosphere Reserve, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persic, Ana; Roche, Hélène; Ramade, François

    2004-06-01

    The Vaccarès Lagoon (Camargue Biosphere Reserve), a complex brackish ecosystem, is the natural habitat for numerous freshwater, marine and euryhaline species forming a particularly intricate food web. The main objectives of this study were to describe its trophic relations and investigate factors influencing its structure and dynamics. The combined stable C and N isotope method was used to establish a quantitative assessment of the trophic status of Vaccarès organisms. Although the levels of δ15N and δ13C showed large intraspecific and interspecific variations, the isotopic signatures of the species assessed revealed a general trend of 15N enrichment with trophic level. Distribution of the biota into four trophic compartments—depositivore, zooplanktivore, predator, and top-predator—was corroborated by the general analysis of the relationship between δ13C and δ15N. Analysis of seasonal and annual isotopic variations showed that natural environmental changes (increase in food abundance, climatic and salinity variations) as well as individual metabolic capacities would affect the relative stability of an organism's trophic position. No significant correlation was found between isotopic variation and size and growth in fishes except for the eel population where the positive correlation between these two parameters confirmed intra-population trophic variations. Finally, separately examined species exhibited significant, although incoherent, correlation between their isotopic signature and lipid content. This study confirms the efficiency of the isotopic approach in trophic studies and highlights the need for further investigations of anthropic environmental modifications occurring in this protected area and frequently disturbing its food web.

  3. An assessment of metal contamination risk in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve, southern Iran with a focus on application of pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Iman; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Khuzestani, Reza Bashiri

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pollution status of metals in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve using pollution indicators. For this purpose, sediment samples from nine locations were collected and characterized for metal content (Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Fe) using the total digestion technique. Comparison of metal concentrations with that of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) demonstrated no association with negative biological effects for Cu and Zn, while the values of Pb and Cr mainly illustrated to have association with negative biological effects. The results of the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) indicated no contamination for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe, while the values of Pb demonstrated to have moderate contamination based on I geo values. The analysis of the enrichment factor (EF) showed no enrichment for Cu and Zn and minor enrichment for Pb and Cr. Similar results were also found for quantification of contamination (QoC) analysis, where the values of Cu and Zn demonstrated to have a geogenic source of contamination, while the values of Pb and Cr mainly illustrated to have an anthropogenic source of contamination. According to EF and QoC calculations, the values of Cu and Zn were derived mainly from natural processes and exposure of material from the earth's crust, while the values for Pb and Cr were enriched by anthropogenic activities. The results of the contamination factor (Cf(i)) demonstrated low contamination levels for Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu and moderate contamination levels for Pb. The pollution load index (PLI), showing the overall contamination of metals, demonstrated moderate pollution status in the study area.

  4. Bottlenecks in Geospatial Data-Driven Decision-Making for Natural Disaster Management: A Case Study of Forest Fire Prevention and Control in Guatemala's Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenter, J. S.; Mueller, J. M.; Morrison, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual forest fires are a source of great economic and environmental cost in the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), a region of high ecological and historical value in Guatemala's department of Petén. Scarce institutional resources, limited local response capacity, and difficult terrain place a premium on the use of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR, but also present significant institutional barriers to optimizing the value of this data. Drawing upon key informant interviews and a contingent valuation survey of national and local actors conducted during a three-year performance evaluation of the USAID/NASA Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), this paper traces the flow of SERVIR data from acquisition to decision in order to assess the institutional and contextual factors affecting the value of Earth observation data for forest fire management in the MBR. Findings indicate that the use of satellite data for forest fire management in the MBR is widespread and multi-dimensional: historical assessments of land use and land cover, fire scarring, and climate data help central-level fire management agencies identify and regulate fire-sensitive areas; regular monitoring and dissemination of climate data enables coordination between agricultural burning activities and fire early warning systems; and daily satellite detection of thermal anomalies in land surface temperature permits first responders to monitor and react to "hotspot" activity. Findings also suggest, however, that while the decentralized operations of Petén's fire management systems foster the use of Earth observation data, systemic bottlenecks, including budgetary constraints, inadequate data infrastructure and interpretation capacity, and obstacles to regulatory enforcement, impede the flow of information and use of technology and thus impact the value of that data, particularly in remote and under-resourced areas of the MBR. A geographic expansion and fortification

  5. Bovine tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: the role of wild ungulates as disease reservoirs in the last Iberian lynx strongholds.

    PubMed

    Gortázar, Christian; Torres, María José; Vicente, Joaquín; Acevedo, Pelayo; Reglero, Manuel; de la Fuente, José; Negro, Juan José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2008-07-23

    Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4%) wild boar, 26 (27.4%) red deer and 18 (18.5%) fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001). Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001) and red deer (p<0.01), whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01). The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to consider wildlife

  6. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis in Doñana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds

    PubMed Central

    Gortázar, Christian; Torres, María José; Vicente, Joaquín; Acevedo, Pelayo; Reglero, Manuel; de la Fuente, José; Negro, Juan José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Doñana National Park (DNP) in southern Spain is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve where commercial hunting and wildlife artificial feeding do not take place and traditional cattle husbandry still exists. Herein, we hypothesized that Mycobacterium bovis infection prevalence in wild ungulates will depend on host ecology and that variation in prevalence will reflect variation in the interaction between hosts and environmental risk factors. Cattle bTB reactor rates increased in DNP despite compulsory testing and culling of infected animals. In this study, 124 European wild boar, 95 red deer, and 97 fallow deer were sampled from April 2006 to April 2007 and analyzed for M. bovis infection. Modelling and GIS were used to identify risk factors and intra and inter-species relationships. Infection with M. bovis was confirmed in 65 (52.4%) wild boar, 26 (27.4%) red deer and 18 (18.5%) fallow deer. In the absence of cattle, wild boar M. bovis prevalence reached 92.3% in the northern third of DNP. Wild boar showed more than twice prevalence than that in deer (p<0.001). Modelling revealed that M. bovis prevalence decreased from North to South in wild boar (p<0.001) and red deer (p<0.01), whereas no spatial pattern was evidenced for fallow deer. Infection risk in wild boar was dependent on wild boar M. bovis prevalence in the buffer area containing interacting individuals (p<0.01). The prevalence recorded in this study is among the highest reported in wildlife. Remarkably, this high prevalence occurs in the absence of wildlife artificial feeding, suggesting that a feeding ban alone would have a limited effect on wildlife M. bovis prevalence. In DNP, M. bovis transmission may occur predominantly at the intra-species level due to ecological, behavioural and epidemiological factors. The results of this study allow inferring conclusions on epidemiological bTB risk factors in Mediterranean habitats that are not managed for hunting purposes. Our results support the need to consider wildlife

  8. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  9. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Shaw, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (Heerz ecmahlasp. n. and Heerz macrophthalmasp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (Lissopsius pacificussp. n. and Lissopsius jalisciensissp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (Ondigus cuixmalensissp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2(nd) and 3(rd) domain regions) DNA sequence data.

  10. Five new species of the genera Heerz Marsh, Lissopsius Marsh and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho and van Achterberg (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Chamela-Cuixmala biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Martínez, Juan José; Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Shaw, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Five new species belonging to the poorly known Neotropical doryctine parasitoid wasps genera Heerz Marsh (Heerz ecmahla sp. n. and Heerz macrophthalma sp. n.), Lissopsius Marsh (Lissopsius pacificus sp. n. and Lissopsius jalisciensis sp. n.) and Ondigus Braet, Barbalho & van Achterberg (Ondigus cuixmalensis sp. n.) are described from the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere reserve in Jalisco, Mexico. Keys to the described species of the above three genera are provided. The phylogenetic placement of the examined taxa is investigated based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S, 2nd and 3rd domain regions) DNA sequence data. PMID:22328849

  11. Mega wildfire in the World Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO), Torres del Paine National Park, Patagonia - Chile 2012: Work experience in extreme behavior conditions in the context of global warming

    Treesearch

    René Cifuentes Medina

    2013-01-01

    Mega wildfires are critical, high-impact events that cause severe environmental, economic and social damage, resulting, in turn, in high-cost suppression operations and the need for mutual support, phased use of resources and the coordinated efforts of civilian government agencies, the armed forces, private companies and the international community. The mega forest...

  12. Conservation, Conflict and the Governance of Fisher Wellbeing: Analysis of the Establishment of the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavinck, Maarten; Vivekanandan, Vriddagiri

    2011-04-01

    This article examines one MPA—the Gulf of Mannar National Park and Biosphere Reserve—located in southern India, and four types of social conflict that have surrounded its establishment. Taking the strength of wellbeing aspirations as point of departure, we focus on two themes: the implications of MPA embeddedness in wider societal systems, and the consequences of natural and social variety for governance. We conclude first of all that conflict resolution depends on MPA authorities' willingness to engage with the interferences that emerge from outside the MPA area. Secondly, we point out the varying wellbeing aspirations of the population and the need to develop governance partnerships. The latter are argued to contribute to more balanced decision making, as well as to a greater appreciation among the target population of the `fairness' of MPA policy.

  13. The Role of Biosphere Reserves in Environmental Education and Training = Le Role des reserves de la biosphere dans l'education et la formation environnementales. Report of the Unesco/MAB Symposium Held During the Unesco/UNEP International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 17-21, 1987). Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, George, Ed.

    Environmental education and training have been key elements of Unesco's Program on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) since its inception in 1971. The MAB Program is an intergovernmental program of research, training, demonstration and distribution of information, aimed at providing the scientific background and the trained personnel to deal with…

  14. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  15. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  16. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Wu

    2003-07-16

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  17. Biosphere 2 anew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The seven scientists who volunteered to live in Biosphere 2 for the past 6.5 months will be reentering the real world this Saturday, September 17, as Biosphere's new management team shifts into high gear to revitalize the $150 million sealed ecosystem's science plan. The new management team stepped in April 1 after a court order obtained by the project's owner Ed Bass kicked out its then prevailing management team. In mid-August, Biosphere 2 announced that it had joined forces with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in a nonprofit venture to set a new research agenda for the reportedly troubled 3.2-acre facility. Biosphere has commissioned about a dozen white papers to be written during the next 7 months to help articulate the optimum science program. “The past really isn't the issue,” says biogeochemist Bruno Marino, Biosphere's new research director.

  18. Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andrés Island, SeaFlower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Palmer-Cantillo, Shelly; Mancera, J Ernesto

    2010-07-01

    To understand the coastal water quality of San Andrès Island, and provide tools for the management of its marine resources, we present the historical analysis of the island monitoring, which includes ammonia, nitrites, nitrate, phosphates, fecal and total coliforms. The anthropogenic pressure on the coastal system is heavy, with water nutrification, posing at risk seagrass and coral ecosystems. During dry season, biologically available nitrogen is 3-9 times higher than the maximum recommended for coral reefs, while during wet season values are 2-6.4 times the maximum. Biologically available phosphorous is also high, 1-8 times the maximum during dry season, 2-13 times during wet season. In some sites the concentration of pathogenic bacteria is above the limits set by law for primary and secondary contact. It is urgent to improve the management of sewage discharge, the main polluting source of San Andres coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  20. New species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the anus and the gill lamellae of Astyanax aeneus (Pisces, Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2013-01-01

    As part of a biological inventory of the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules from Chiapas State (southeastern, Mexico), the following monogenoid ectoparasites infecting the external surface of the anal opening and the gill lamellae of the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) in ten streams were found: Cacatuocotyle chajuli sp. nov. (anus), Cacatuocotyle exiguum sp. nov., and Cacatuocotyle sp. (gill lamellae). C. chajuli is differentiated from its single congener, Cacatuocotyle paranaensis (Boeger et al. Syst Parasitol 36:75-78, 1997), from the gills of Characidium lanei (Characidae) from Paraná Brazil, in having a noticeably V-shaped haptoral bar and larger hooks and anchors. C. exiguum differs from these two latter species in the size of its anchors. Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual specimens of C. chajuli and C. exiguum from different streams are provided. The present data support the statement about three species of Astyanax, which harbor the richest monogenoidean diversity in the Neotropics with a total of 18 species reported up to now. Occurrences of species of Cacatuocotyle on different sites of infection on three distant host species [including a Neotropical cichlid (Cichlidae) species] suggest that these monogenoideans switching to new hosts can result in the availability of potential hosts within the same habitat instead of showing signs of preferential switching between closely related hosts or on their respective microhabitats.

  1. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F.; Borús, Juan A.

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only slightly

  2. Recent changes (1973-2014 versus 1903-1972) in the flow regime of the Lower Paraná River and current fluvial pollution warnings in its Delta Biosphere Reserve.

    PubMed

    Puig, Alba; Olguín Salinas, Héctor F; Borús, Juan A

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in flow regimes of large rivers may originate or increase risks to ecosystems and humans. The Paraná River basin (South America) undergoes human pressures (e.g., heavy damming in the upper basin, deforestation, and mixed pollution) that may affect the water quantity and quality of its terminal Delta (Argentina). In this study, after applying univariate and multivariate change-point detection and trend analyses to the daily data series of flows incoming to the Delta (Paraná-Santa Fe section), flow characteristics were compared by Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Environmental Flow Components (EFC). Some flood characteristics were also compared from hydrometric levels in the middle Delta (San Pedro station). Chemical and microbiological water variables in the main rivers of the "Paraná Delta" Biosphere Reserve were examined during two extreme hydrologic years (October 2008 to July 2010) to detect potential risk factors in association with hydrologic conditions. In the Lower Paraná River, a historical period (1903-1972) and two more altered periods (1973-1999 wet period and 2000-2014 dry period) were identified. Flow duration curves evidenced different changes in both altered periods, reflecting the joint effect of climatic variability and human influence. The most evident alterations in the flow regime were the lack of record of the extreme-low-flow component, the attenuation of monthly flow seasonality, and the increase in the number of reversals (dry period) and in the variability of maximum and minimum flow dates. These alterations are consistent with the monthly and daily flow regulation by upstream dams evidenced by available data from the current dry period. In the middle Delta, the marked monthly seasonality in flood days decreased only in the wet period. The proportion between the number of flood days exceeding the evacuation level and that of those exceeding the warning level doubled in the wet period but decreased only

  3. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  4. Earth's early biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  5. Earth's early biosphere.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, D J

    1998-05-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  6. [Origin of biosphere].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, V F; Starobogatov, Ia I

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of origin of life on the planet are briefly considered. The problem of origin of biosphere is discussed, with a suggestion that the origin of living organisms and biosphere are two aspects of the same process. There is put forward a hypothesis of embryosphere--the primary medium, in which preorganisms could appear. The ecosystemic approach to origin of life poses a question about sources of the matter and energy used by the primary life as well as about causes of the biochemical unity that exists in all Earth organisms.

  7. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  8. Pilot longitudinal mosquito surveillance study in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and the first reports of Anopheles algeriensis Theobald, 1903 and Aedes hungaricus Mihályi, 1955 for Romania.

    PubMed

    Török, Edina; Tomazatos, Alexandru; Cadar, Daniel; Horváth, Cintia; Keresztes, Lujza; Jansen, Stephanie; Becker, Norbert; Kaiser, Achim; Popescu, Octavian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jöst, Hanna; Lühken, Renke

    2016-04-11

    Mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses) are of growing importance in many countries of Europe. In Romania and especially in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBR), mosquito and mobovirus surveillance are not performed on a regular basis. However, this type of study is crucially needed to evaluate the risk of pathogen transmission, to understand the ecology of emerging moboviruses, or to plan vector control programmes. We initiated a longitudinal mosquito surveillance study with carbon dioxide-baited Heavy Duty Encephalitis Vector Survey traps at four sampling sites to analyse the spatio-temporal pattern of the (i) mosquito species composition and diversity, (ii) functional groups of mosquitoes (oviposition sites, overwintering stage, and number of generations), and (iii) the occurrence of potential West Nile virus (WNV) vectors. During 2014, a total of 240,546 female mosquitoes were collected. All species were identified using morphological characteristics and further confirmed by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene analysis of selected specimens. The two most common taxa were Coquilettidia richiardii (40.9 %) and Anopheles hyrcanus (34.1 %), followed by Culex pipiens (sensu lato) (s.l.)/Cx. torrentium (7.7 %), Aedes caspius (5.7 %), Cx. modestus (4.0 %), An. maculipennis (s.l.) (3.9 %), and Ae. vexans (3.0 %). A further seven species were less common in the area studied, including two new records for Romania: An. algeriensis and Ae. hungaricus. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene demonstrated the evolutionary relatedness of most species with specimens of the same species collected in other European regions, except Ae. detritus and An. algeriensis, which exhibited high genetic diversity. Due to the dominance of Cq. richiardii and An. hyrcanus (75 % of all collected specimens), the overall phenology and temporal pattern of functional groups basically followed the phenology of both species. A huge proportion of the mosquito population in the course

  9. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  10. Reconnecting to the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Folke, Carl; Jansson, Asa; Rockström, Johan; Olsson, Per; Carpenter, Stephen R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Daily, Gretchen; Danell, Kjell; Ebbesson, Jonas; Elmqvist, Thomas; Galaz, Victor; Moberg, Fredrik; Nilsson, Måns; Osterblom, Henrik; Ostrom, Elinor; Persson, Asa; Peterson, Garry; Polasky, Stephen; Steffen, Will; Walker, Brian; Westley, Frances

    2011-11-01

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere--a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  11. Biosphere Model Report, Errata 1

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasolek

    2003-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  12. Biospheric energization and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Ozel, M. E.; Gunduz, G.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the physical properties of a hypothetical molecular schema giving rise to an autocatalytic biosphere. A key concept is the driving of terrestrial life as a parametric oscillation: i.e. that the biosphere behaves fundamentally as an oscillatory system into which solar energy is diurnally deposited. The schema, containing 'A, B and C' type components acting together in a 'bottom-up' driving mechanism, underlies all biospheric superstructure. Surviving modes of the oscillation are consistent with Darwinian organization, or hierarchical structures appearing to have top-down propagation through the growth of cellular replication. The model was detailed by Budding et al (2012), where experimental support from the work of Powner et al (2009) is presented, as well as suggestions on supportive fossil evidence. Although the growth in total energization is very slow in this model, it is important to notice its exponential character, suggestive of potential instability. The model is applicable to generally expectable processes on planets, including zonal segregation, complexity growth and Haeckel's biogenic principle within surviving life-forms. Fermi's exobiological paradox can be resolved in terms of the exponential growth and low L solutions of Drake's equation. Feasible values for the particular growth of selected species (the human one in herelevent terrestrial case) allow for L to be less than a few  100 y, recalling Rees' (2004) 'final century' discussion. This arises when the species' disposable energization attains a value comparable to that of the total available daily driving energy. At that point, accidental, or stochastic disturbances of this species' energy ("error") can significantly disrupt the daily driving mechanism.

  13. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  14. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  15. Biosphere 2: The True Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and current developments of the Biosphere 2 Project, a prototype for enclosed self-sustaining structures for space colonization built in the Arizona Desert. Biosphere 2 was created to educate and provide solutions to environmental problems and revenue from research. (MCO)

  16. Biosphere 2: The True Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history and current developments of the Biosphere 2 Project, a prototype for enclosed self-sustaining structures for space colonization built in the Arizona Desert. Biosphere 2 was created to educate and provide solutions to environmental problems and revenue from research. (MCO)

  17. Implications of Biospheric Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, Edd; Demircan, Osman; Gündüz, Güngör; Emin Özel, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Our physical model relating to the origin and development of lifelike processes from very simple beginnings is reviewed. This molecular ('ABC') process is compared with the chemoton model, noting the role of the autocatalytic tuning to the time-dependent source of energy. This substantiates a Darwinian character to evolution. The system evolves from very simple beginnings to a progressively more highly tuned, energized and complex responding biosphere, that grows exponentially; albeit with a very low net growth factor. Rates of growth and complexity in the evolution raise disturbing issues of inherent stability. Autocatalytic processes can include a fractal character to their development allowing recapitulative effects to be observed. This property, in allowing similarities of pattern to be recognized, can be useful in interpreting complex (lifelike) systems.

  18. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  19. The Earth's Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  20. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  1. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  2. The deep subterranean biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1993-08-01

    The main purpose with this review is to summarise present research on the microbiology of deep subterranean environments, deeper than 50-100 m. Included are mainly studies where drilling, excavation, core sampling and ground water sampling have been made for research. Studies done in environments penetrated for commercial purposes, such as water wells, mining, oil recovery etc., have been dismissed because of the obvious risk for contamination during the penetration. Different measures that can be applied to reduce the risk of microbial contamination of sampled specimens by the access operations are discussed. The requirement for reliable estimations of the present microbial biomass, its activity and diversity in subterranean ecosystems, is fundamental. An array of different methods to achieve this goal are presented. The depth limit for subterranean life is suggested to be set by temperature, provided there is energy available for microbial life. If so, it should be possible to enrich thermophilic bacteria from deep hot ground waters which also has been done. There are only a few sites where the subterranean microbiology has been studied in multidisiplinary programs including chemistry and geology. The two most extensively published sites are the sediments of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina, USA, studied in a subsurface program, initiated and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, and crystalline bed-rock in Sweden studied in a program concerning the safety of future underground repositories for nuclear waste. This review presents an array of independent reports suggesting that microbial life is widespread at depth in the crust of earth—the deep subterranean biosphere. The obvious consequences is that microbes may be involved in many subterranean geochemical processes, such as diagenesis, weathering, precipitation, and in oxidation or reduction reactions of metals, carbon, nitrogen and sulfur—just as they are in most terranean environments.

  3. The Biosphere: A Decadal Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Curran, Paul J.; Mlynzcak, Marty; Miller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on biosphere-climate interactions including the influences of human activities. Recognizing this is only one aspect of biospheric processes, this places an emphasis of those biogeochemical processes that have a profound effect on numerous other aspects of the biosphere and the services it provides, services which are critical to sustaining life on Earth. And, the paper will focus on the various scientific aspects of assessing the availability of fresh water, including its sensitivity to climate variance and land use changes. Finally, this paper hopes to emphasize the potential role that greatly expanded space observations and interactive modeling can play in developing our understanding of Earth and its the living systems.

  4. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American Grey Fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2017-03-06

    The South American Grey Fox (Lycalopex griseus) is a canid widely distributed in southern South America, however some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (Bsta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H ' = 2.46 (Hmax' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (> 90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the Northern zone; O. cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the Central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the Southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the Austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes /km(2) . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Planetary Bootstrap: A Prelude to Biosphere Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, Alexander B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with systemic status as well as with some phenomenological and evolutionary aspects of biosphere. Biosphere is represented as multilevel autopoietic system in which different organizational levels are nested into each other. The conceptual model of punctuated epigenesis, biosphere evolutionary process is suggested, in which endogenous planetary organizational crises play role of evolutionary mechanism, creating novelty. The hypothesis is proposed, that the biosphere reaction on the humankind destructive activity reminds the distributed immune response of biological organism, described by F.Varela in his "cognitive immunology". The biosphere evolution is interpreted as the hermeneutical spiral of "Process Being" self-uncovering thus illustrating the historical process of transformation of biosphere as the type of Being in the periods of crises. Some arguments are adduced in favor of biosphere phenomenology development and application of the methods of second-order cybernetics to actual problems of planetary scale.

  6. A global biogeocenotical biosphere simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseyev, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    This model of the D. Forrester type, constructed in differential equations, predicts the food and mineral supply for the factors biosphere population, depending on two socio-economic factors, until about the year 2500. If contemporary rates of natural resources utilization are maintained and there is no management of the environment, food resources will begin to limit human population growth after 2200, and mineral resources will after 2300. A decrease in the biosphere pollution, increase in effective agricultural production, and discovery of new energy sources may forestall or completely avert the onset of a crisis situation. Conservation measures, according to the model, are to a considerable extent realizable only if carried out simultaneously in both areas.

  7. Signatures of a shadow biosphere.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul C W; Benner, Steven A; Cleland, Carol E; Lineweaver, Charles H; McKay, Christopher P; Wolfe-Simon, Felisa

    2009-03-01

    Astrobiologists are aware that extraterrestrial life might differ from known life, and considerable thought has been given to possible signatures associated with weird forms of life on other planets. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the possibility that our own planet might also host communities of weird life. If life arises readily in Earth-like conditions, as many astrobiologists contend, then it may well have formed many times on Earth itself, which raises the question whether one or more shadow biospheres have existed in the past or still exist today. In this paper, we discuss possible signatures of weird life and outline some simple strategies for seeking evidence of a shadow biosphere.

  8. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  9. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on

  10. Historical overview of the Biosphere 2 project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive historical overview is given of the Biosphere 2 project. The overview begins in late 1969, as the moon landings commenced, when work began on ecological projects which laid the conceptual foundation for the current Biosphere 2 project. Continuing through to taking a complete functional suite of microbes together with their associated aquatic elements and an air volume and putting them inside a closed lab flask in which to measure the oxygen and CO2 levels, study energy flows and visually observe the changes therein. The laws of biospherics formulated by the author which can be tested in the Biosphere 2 project are listed.

  11. The biosphere: Problems and solutions; Proceedings of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere, Miami Beach, FL, April 23, 24, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The objective of the Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere was to provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research findings on the environmental effects of human activities. The topics discussed are related to biosphere reserves, environmental aspects of hydrocarbon fuels, radioactivity and nuclear waste, land management, acid rains, water quality, water resources, coastal resources management, the pollution of rivers, industrial waste, economic development and the environment, health hazards and solutions, endangered species, environmentally compatible systems, space pollution, and global considerations. Attention is given to questions regarding global security and sustainable development, environethics as a global strategy for environmental quality, a gestalt approach to the environment, potential indicators for monitoring biosphere reserves, a review of regional impacts associated with the development of U.S. synthetic fuel resources, water resources in the Soviet Union, and pollution-free pesticides.

  12. Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Michael R; Hilbert, Martin; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    Evolution has transformed life through key innovations in information storage and replication, including RNA, DNA, multicellularity, and culture and language. We argue that the carbon-based biosphere has generated a cognitive system (humans) capable of creating technology that will result in a comparable evolutionary transition. Digital information has reached a similar magnitude to information in the biosphere. It increases exponentially, exhibits high-fidelity replication, evolves through differential fitness, is expressed through artificial intelligence (AI), and has facility for virtually limitless recombination. Like previous evolutionary transitions, the potential symbiosis between biological and digital information will reach a critical point where these codes could compete via natural selection. Alternatively, this fusion could create a higher-level superorganism employing a low-conflict division of labor in performing informational tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Biosphere Reserve Program in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jerry F.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the key sites chosen in the United States for environmental research and monitoring as part of an international program that protects major centers for ecological and environmental research. (MLH)

  14. Agroforestry adoption in the Calakmul biosphere reserve, Campeche, Mexico

    Treesearch

    D. Evan Mercer; Jeremy Haggar; Ann Snook; Mauricio Sosa

    2005-01-01

    Since farmers engage in a complex, dynamic process of learning-by-doing, evaluating economic incentives, and assessing risks in deciding whether to adopt agroforestry systems, a multi-pronged research approach is required for a complete analysis of adoption potential and to develop effective technological and institutional interventions. A case study is presented for...

  15. Learning for Resilience? Exploring Learning Opportunities in Biosphere Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Lisen; Lundholm, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The interdependence of society and nature, the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems, and the global deterioration of ecosystem services provide the rationale for a growing body of literature focusing on social-ecological resilience--the capacity to cope with, adapt to and shape change--for sustainable development. Processes of…

  16. Learning for Resilience? Exploring Learning Opportunities in Biosphere Reserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Lisen; Lundholm, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The interdependence of society and nature, the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems, and the global deterioration of ecosystem services provide the rationale for a growing body of literature focusing on social-ecological resilience--the capacity to cope with, adapt to and shape change--for sustainable development. Processes of…

  17. Seismology in Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kausel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Geology and Geophysics, which is under the faculties of Mathematics and Physical Sciences of the University of Chile, is the organization that is responsible for the Seismological Service of Chile and for installing,operating, and maintaining the seismological stations as well as all the strong-motion stations in Chile.

  18. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Developing Starlight connections with UNESCO sites through the Biosphere Smart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Cipriano

    2015-08-01

    The large number of UNESCO Sites around the world, in outstanding sites ranging from small islands to cities, makes it possible to build and share a comprehensive knowledge base on good practices and policies on the preservation of the night skies consistent with the protection of the associated scientific, natural and cultural values. In this context, the Starlight Initiative and other organizations such as IDA play a catalytic role in an essential international process to promote comprehensive, holistic approaches on dark sky preservation, astronomical observation, environmental protection, responsible lighting, sustainable energy, climate change and global sustainability.Many of these places have the potential to become models of excellence to foster the recovery of the dark skies and its defence against light pollution, included some case studies mentioned in the Portal to the Heritage of Astronomy.Fighting light pollution and recovering starry sky are already elements of a new emerging culture in biosphere reserves and world heritage sites committed to acting on climate change and sustainable development. Over thirty territories, including biosphere reserves and world heritage sites, have been developed successful initiatives to ensure night sky quality and promote sustainable lighting. Clear night skies also provide sustainable income opportunities as tourists and visitors are eagerly looking for sites with impressive night skies.Taking into account the high visibility and the ability of UNESCO sites to replicate network experiences, the Starlight Initiative has launched an action In cooperation with Biosphere Smart, aimed at promoting the Benchmark sites.Biosphere Smart is a global observatory created in partnership with UNESCO MaB Programme to share good practices, and experiences among UNESCO sites. The Benchmark sites window allows access to all the information of the most relevant astronomical heritage sites, dark sky protected areas and other places

  1. The Study of Socio-Biospheric Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Andrew M.

    Concepts, tools, and a methodology are needed which will permit the analysis of emergent socio-biospheric problems and facilitate their effective management. Many contemporary problems may be characterized as socio-biospheric; for example, pollution of the seas, acid rain, the growth of cities, and an atmosphere loaded with carcinogens. However,…

  2. The Study of Socio-Biospheric Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Andrew M.

    Concepts, tools, and a methodology are needed which will permit the analysis of emergent socio-biospheric problems and facilitate their effective management. Many contemporary problems may be characterized as socio-biospheric; for example, pollution of the seas, acid rain, the growth of cities, and an atmosphere loaded with carcinogens. However,…

  3. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    2005-11-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. We find that from the Archaean to the future a procaryotic biosphere always exists. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  4. The spider genus Cyrioctea Simon on Chañaral Island (Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve, Atacama, Chile): description of a new species, and the male of Cyrioctea cruz Platnick (Araneae, Zodariidae).

    PubMed

    Grismado, Cristian J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2016-05-02

    A faunistic survey on Chañaral Island, Atacama, near the northern Pacific coast of Chile, allowed the discovery and description of a new species of the spider genus Cyrioctea: C. islachanaral sp. nov., based on females collected by pitfall traps. Strikingly, this new species shares morphological characters with some Southern African representatives of this genus rather than with the species of continental South America. The male of the species C. cruz Platnick, previously known from continental Chile (northern Coquimbo), is described for the first time based on specimens collected in the same locality.

  5. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-21

    This analysis report, ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'', is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the ERMYN (Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada) biosphere model for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, its input parameters, and the application of the model to perform the dose assessment for the repository. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of the two reports that develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and lists its input parameters. Model input parameters are developed and described in detail in five analysis report (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976], BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239], and BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors (DFs) for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). The volcanic ash exposure scenario is hereafter referred to as the volcanic ash scenario. For the volcanic ash scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process

  6. Life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

    1982-04-01

    Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

  7. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  8. Climate Teleconnections and the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Ault, T.

    2015-12-01

    Teleconnection patterns have been demonstrated to impact many aspects of weather and climate on sub-seasonal to interannual timescales, yet their influence on biophysical systems is under explored. Some teleconnection patterns, like the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are well known to ecologists and land surface modelers, while others have remained in the realm of atmospheric science. Because teleconnection patterns influence many different aspects of global climate, their impacts on the biosphere are similarly diverse and in many cases contradictory - if a peak in a teleconnection pattern (e.g. an El Nino year) causes cooler temperatures but more rainfall, whether that leads to more or less plant growth will depend on the broader context of the ecosystem. Understanding where and how teleconnection patterns have influenced the biosphere in the past could both improve our understanding of the Earth system and lead to better models. Here we compare a global thirty year satellite record of Leaf Area Index (LAI3g; Zhu et al 2013) to six different teleconnection patterns: ENSO, NAO, the Antarctic Oscillation, the Atlantic Gradient, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole. We found that while ENSO and NAO do have strong influences on vegetation patterns as has been shown previously, the other teleconnection patterns we considered are comparable in their reach and strength of signal. We also suggest that geographical patterns of correlation like those described here could serve as a 'second tier' of benchmarking data for Earth system models - climate models should be able to simulate the biophysical impacts of well-organized modes of climate variability, not just their meteorological dynamics.

  9. [Search for life in deep biospheres].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Takeshi

    2003-12-01

    The life in deep biospheres bridges conventional biology and future exobiology. This review focuses the microbiological studies from the selected deep biospheres, i.e., deep-sea hydrothermal vents, sub-hydrothermal vents, terrestrial subsurface and a sub-glacier lake. The dark biospheres facilitate the emergence of organisms and communities dependent on chemolithoautotrophy, which are overwhelmed by photoautotrophy (photosynthesis) in the surface biospheres. The life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents owes much to chemolithoautotrophy based on the oxidation of sulfide emitted from the vents. It is likely that similarly active bodies such as the Jovian satellite Europa may have hydrothermal vents and associated biological communities. Anoxic or anaerobic condition is characteristic of deep subsurface biospheres. Subsurface microorganisms exploit available oxidants, or terminal electron acceptors (TEA), for anaerobic respiration. Sulfate, nitrate, iron (III) and CO2 are the representative TEAs in the deep subsurface. Below the 3000-4000 m-thick glacier on Antarctica, there have been >70 lakes with liquid water located. One of such sub-glacial lakes, Lake Vostok, is about to be drill-penetrated for microbiological studies. These deep biosphere "platforms" provide new knowledge about the diversity and potential of the Earth's life. The expertise obtained from the deep biosphere expeditions will facilitate the capability of exobiologial exploration.

  10. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  11. Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alling, Abigail; Leigh, Linda S.; Maccallum, Taber; Alvarez-Romo, Norberto

    1990-01-01

    The Biosphere 2 Test Module is a facility which has the capability to do either short or long term closures: five month closures with plants were conducted. Also conducted were investigations of specific problems, such as trace gas purification by bioregenerative systems by in-putting a fixed concentration of a gas and observing its uptake over time. In other Test Module experiments, the concentration of one gas was changed to observe what effects this has on other gases present or on the system. The science of biospherics which encompasses the study of closed biological systems provides an opening into the future in space as well as in the Earth's biosphere.

  12. Delving into the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, S. L.; Sogin, M. L.; Boetius, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Brazelton, W. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Edwards, K. J.; Fisk, M. R.; Gaidos, E.; Gralnick, J.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazar, C.; Lavalleur, H.; Lever, M. A.; Marteinsson, V.; Moser, D. P.; Orcutt, B.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, R.; Ramette, A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Sylvan, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Teske, A.; Walsh, E. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Census of Deep Life organized an international survey of microbial community diversity in terrestrial and marine deep subsurface environments. Habitats included subsurface continental fractured rock aquifers, volcanic and metamorphic subseafloor sedimentary units from the open ocean, subsurface oxic and anoxic sediments and underlying basaltic oceanic crust, and their overlying water columns. Our survey employed high-throughput pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4-V6 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. We detected 1292 bacterial genera representing 40 phyla, and 99 archaeal genera from 30 phyla. Of these, a core group of thirteen bacterial genera occurred in every environment. A genus of the South African Goldmine Group (Euryarchaeota) was always present whenever archaea were detected. Members of the rare biosphere in one system often represented highly abundant taxa in other environments. Dispersal could account for this observation but mechanisms of transport remain elusive. Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria) represented highly abundant taxa in marine communities and terrestrial rock, but generally low abundance organisms in groundwater. Some of these taxa could represent sample contamination, and their extensive distribution in several systems requires further assessment. An unknown Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes) genus, Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Acidovorax and Aquabacterium (both Betaproteobacteria), a Chlorobiales genus, and a TM7 genus were in the core group as well but more prevalent in terrestrial environments. Similarly, Bacillus (Firmicutes), a new cyanobacterial genus, Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas (both Alphaproteobacteria), a novel Acidobacteriaceae genus, and Variovorax (Betaproteobacteria) frequently occurred in marine systems but represented low abundance taxa in other environments. Communities tended to cluster by biome and material, and many genera were unique to systems. For example, certain Rhizobiales

  13. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash

  14. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  15. Emissions From the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Guenther, A.; Belote, A.; Klos, K.

    2004-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a critical role in the functioning of the earth system. Vegetation emits significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and aerosols to the atmosphere through several pathways that include physiological and biochemical processes and disturbances such as wildfire and herbivory. Biogenic VOC emissions can affect chemical processes that determine air quality and control the lifetimes of longer lived chemical species. Direct aerosol emissions from vegetation and wildfires and secondary aerosols formed by biogenic VOC can impact public health, change cloud properties, and control climate processes. Biogenic emissions play a critical role in many atmospheric and biogeochemical processes. Therefore, to realistically simulate the earth system, including air quality and climate, reasonable estimates of biogenic emissions must be included in those simulations. This paper presents an overview of biogenic emissions from undisturbed vegetation and from wildfire. Models that simulate these emissions have been developed to create inputs for regional and global chemical transport models and for climate models. Despite the success in biogenic emission model development, technical challenges for such modeling still exist. Biogenic emission models use a variety of input information, including satellite data, field observations, and output from other models (e.g. NCEP, MM5, WRF). These inputs have a variety of spatial and temporal resolutions and are available in many different formats. Several of the challenges encountered when modeling biogenic emissions will be addressed, including difficulties in applying different input datasets due to format, size, and spatial resolution and limitations in software that hinder the processing of emission estimates.

  16. Feedbacks between climate change and biosphere integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lade, Steven; Anderies, J. Marty; Donges, Jonathan; Steffen, Will; Rockström, Johan; Richardson, Katherine; Cornell, Sarah; Norberg, Jon; Fetzer, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    The terrestrial and marine biospheres sink substantial fractions of human fossil fuel emissions. How the biosphere's capacity to sink carbon depends on biodiversity and other measures of biosphere integrity is however poorly understood. Here, we (1): review assumptions from literature regarding the relationships between the carbon cycle and the terrestrial and marine biospheres; and (2) explore the consequences of these different assumptions for climate feedbacks using the stylised carbon cycle model PB-INT. We find that: terrestrial biodiversity loss could significantly dampen climate-carbon cycle feedbacks; direct biodiversity effects, if they exist, could rival temperature increases from low-emission trajectories; and the response of the marine biosphere is critical for longer term climate change. Simple, low-dimensional climate models such as PB-INT can help assess the importance of still unknown or controversial earth system processes such as biodiversity loss for climate feedbacks. This study constitutes the first detailed study of the interactions between climate change and biosphere integrity, two of the 'planetary boundaries'.

  17. Biomedical program at Space Biospheres Ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walford, Roy

    1990-01-01

    There are many similarities and some important differences between potential health problems of Biosphere 2 and those of which might be anticipated for a space station or a major outpost on Mars. The demands of time, expense, and equipment would not readily allow medical evacuation from deep space for a serious illness or major trauma, whereas personnel can easily be evacuated from Biosphere 2 if necessary. Treatment facilities can be somewhat less inclusive, since distance would not compel the undertaking of heroic measures or highly complicated surgical procedures on site, and with personnel not fully trained for these procedures. The similarities are given between medical requirements of Biosphere 2 and the complex closed ecological systems of biospheres in space or on Mars. The major problems common to all these would seem to be trauma, infection, and toxicity. It is planned that minor and moderate degrees of trauma, including debridement and suturing of wounds, x ray study of fractures, will be done within Biosphere 2. Bacteriologic and fungal infections, and possibly allergies to pollen or spores are expected to be the commonest medical problem within Biosphere 2.

  18. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  19. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  20. Chile 1920-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul W.

    1981-01-01

    Annotated bibliography on the history of Chile during 60 years in the middle of the twentieth century is presented. A general outline of major Chilean developments during this period is presented to aid college level history instructors develop curriculum on Chile. Outline topics are the end of the Parliamentary Republic, 1920-31; popular front…

  1. Causes and timing of future biosphere extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    2006-03-01

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle, ocean floor, continental crust, biosphere, and the kerogen, as well as the combined ocean and atmosphere reservoir. The model is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. During the entire existence of the biosphere procaryotes are always present. 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears. The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0.54 Gyr ago. In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance. We show that there is no evidence for an implosion-like extinction in contrast to the Cambrian explosion. In dependence of their temperature tolerance complex multicellular life and eucaryotes become extinct in about 0.8-1.2 Gyr and 1.3-1.5 Gyr, respectively. The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1.6 Gyr.

  2. Analysis of Low-Biomass Microbial Communities in the Deep Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Morono, Y; Inagaki, F

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the subseafloor biosphere has been explored by scientific ocean drilling to depths of about 2.5km below the seafloor. Although organic-rich anaerobic sedimentary habitats in the ocean margins harbor large numbers of microbial cells, microbial populations in ultraoligotrophic aerobic sedimentary habitats in the open ocean gyres are several orders of magnitude less abundant. Despite advances in cultivation-independent molecular ecological techniques, exploring the low-biomass environment remains technologically challenging, especially in the deep subseafloor biosphere. Reviewing the historical background of deep-biosphere analytical methods, the importance of obtaining clean samples and tracing contamination, as well as methods for detecting microbial life, technological aspects of molecular microbiology, and detecting subseafloor metabolic activity will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Victor Kovda, Soil Science and Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovda, I.

    2012-04-01

    Victor Kovda (1904-1991) was one of the most famous soil scientists at the national and international soil science community. He published more than 500 scientific works including about 400 papers, 17 collective monographs, 30 personal monographs, and more than 200 interviews and popular papers describing the role of soils not only for food production, but for the functioning of the biosphere. Victor Kovda was a talented organizer, who founded the new Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry (known at the present time as the Institute of physico-chemical and biological problems of soil science in Pushchino, Russia). During six years from 1959 to 1964 he was the head of Science Department in UNESCO, where he initiated a set of international projects (ex. Soil World Map of FAO-UNESCO, Source-book on irrigation and drainage). He continued his international activity after UNESCO as a President of the International Soil Science Society (1968-1974), organizer of the X international Soil Science Congress in Moscow (1974), president of SCOPE (1973-1976), working for ICSU. The last three decades of his national and international activities Victor Kovda initiated and was strongly involved in the popularization of biosphere role and functions of soils and soil cover. The start point for this activity was his special talk "Biosphere and man" presented during the intergovernmental conference in the framework of the international program "Man and Biosphere" organized by UNESCO in 1968 in Paris. The next key presentation "Soil as a component of biosphere" Victor Kovda gave as a plenary lecture during the X International congress of soil scientists. This presentation determined the focus of soil science for the next decades: at least Russian soil science became oriented towards the investigation of biosphere functions and role of soils. Soils science was accepted not only for agriculture and food production, but also as a fundamental science with a large environmental

  4. Past and Future of the Anthropogenic Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    Human populations and their use of land have now transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes). As anthromes have emerged as the dominant global forms of ecological pattern and process, human interactions with terrestrial ecosystems have become a key earth system process, determining the structure and functioning of the biosphere. This presentation explores Ester Boserup’s land use intensification theories as models for understanding the emergence and dynamics of anthromes and their ecological processes, including their biogeochemistry and community structure, from the mostly wild biosphere of the Holocene to the primarily anthropogenic biosphere of the present and future. Existing global models and data for human population growth and land use over the Holocene differ in their portrayal of the global transition to a mostly anthropogenic biosphere. Yet there is little doubt that human populations have continued to grow over the long term and that anthromes have been increasingly important global ecological systems for millennia. This is conclusive evidence that human interactions with ecosystems can be sustained over the long-term, albeit under conditions that may no longer be realizable by either Earth or human systems. The classic Malthusian paradigm, in which human population growth outstrips natural resources leading to population collapse is unsupported by historical observations at global scale. Boserupian intensification is the better model, providing a robust theoretical foundation in which socio-ecological systems evolve as human populations increase, towards increasingly efficient use of limiting natural resources and enhanced production of anthropogenic ecological services such as food. This is not a story of technical advance, but rather of the forced adoption of ever more energy-intensive technical solutions in support of ever increasing population demands. And it does explain historical changes in the biosphere

  5. Ecology and exploration of the rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael D J; Neufeld, Josh D

    2015-04-01

    The profound influence of microorganisms on human life and global biogeochemical cycles underlines the value of studying the biogeography of microorganisms, exploring microbial genomes and expanding our understanding of most microbial species on Earth: that is, those present at low relative abundance. The detection and subsequent analysis of low-abundance microbial populations—the 'rare biosphere'—have demonstrated the persistence, population dynamics, dispersion and predation of these microbial species. We discuss the ecology of rare microbial populations, and highlight molecular and computational methods for targeting taxonomic 'blind spots' within the rare biosphere of complex microbial communities.

  6. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Geochemical determination of biospheric CO/sub 2/ fluxes to the atmosphere. Annual progress report, June 1, 1979-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stuiver, M

    1981-03-24

    Research progress is reported - for an investigation of aspects of the carbon cycle through the use of C13/C12 and C14/C12 abundance ratios. The objective is to increase knowledge of past biospheric carbon reservoir changes that have resulted in increases or reductions of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels. C13 trends in trees from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and from Chile were determined. (ACR)

  8. The legacy of biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. P.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trice gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  9. The legacy of Biosphere 2 for the study of biospherics and closed ecological systems.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Nelson, M; Alling, A

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics, led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research findings and publications that have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of atmospheric leak detection and sealing, while achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal biogeochemical cycling and ranges of atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained with good health with lowered atmospheric oxygen levels could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and

  10. Coastal Chile Perspective View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-04

    This perspective view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.

  11. Volcano Chaiten, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-15

    Chaiten Volcano, Chile continues to erupt after first exploding in May 2008 following about 9,000 years of inactivity. This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows vegetation in red. You can clearly see the extent of the plume.

  12. 'Rare biosphere' bacteria as key phenanthrene degraders in coastal seawaters.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Caroline; Séverin, Tatiana; Vétion, Gilles; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Fagervold, Sonja K; Ghiglione, Jean-François

    2014-11-01

    By coupling DNA-SIP and pyrosequencing approaches, we identified Cycloclasticus sp. as a keystone degrader of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) despite being a member of the 'rare biosphere' in NW Mediterranean seawaters. We discovered novel PAH-degrading bacteria (Oceanibaculum sp., Sneathiella sp.) and we identified other groups already known to possess this function (Alteromonas sp., Paracoccus sp.). Together with Cycloclasticus sp., these groups contributed to potential in situ phenanthrene degradation at a rate >0.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), sufficient to account for a considerable part of PAH degradation. Further, we characterized the PAH-tolerant bacterial communities, which were much more diverse in the polluted site by comparison to unpolluted marine references. PAH-tolerant bacteria were also members of the rare biosphere, such as Glaciecola sp. Collectively, these data show the complex interactions between PAH-degraders and PAH-tolerant bacteria and provide new insights for the understanding of the functional ecology of marine bacteria in polluted waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  14. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  15. The biosphere as a biogeomeride and its biotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, B. S.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of a geomeride proposed by V.N. Beklemishev in 1928 and subsequently mistakenly forgotten is of basic significance for the development of the biosphere doctrine, global ecology, and stratigraphy. In the article, notions "biosphere," "living matter," and "geomeride" are discussed. The specified term "biogeomeride" is proposed to emphasize the significance of the living constituent of the biosphere in its biodiversity.

  16. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    PubMed

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent developments in assessment of long-term radionuclide behavior in the geosphere-biosphere subsystem.

    PubMed

    Smith, G M; Smith, K L; Kowe, R; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M; Thiry, Y; Read, D; Molinero, J

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on permitting, controlling and monitoring releases of radioactivity into the environment rely on a great variety of factors. Important among these is the prospective assessment of radionuclide behavior in the environment, including migration and accumulation among and within specific environmental media, and the resulting environmental and human health impacts. Models and techniques to undertake such assessments have been developed over several decades based on knowledge of the ecosystems involved, as well as monitoring of previous radionuclide releases to the environment, laboratory experiments and other related research. This paper presents developments in the assessment of radiation doses and related research for some of the key radionuclides identified as of potential significance in the context of releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities for solid radioactive waste. Since releases to the biosphere from disposal facilities involve transfers from the geosphere to the biosphere, an important aspect is the combined effects of surface hydrology, near-surface hydrogeology and chemical gradients on speciation and radionuclide mobility in the zone in which the geosphere and biosphere overlap (herein described as the geosphere-biosphere subsystem). In turn, these aspects of the environment can be modified as a result of environmental change over the thousands of years that have to be considered in radioactive waste disposal safety assessments. Building on the experience from improved understanding of the behavior of the key radionuclides, this paper proceeds to describe development of a generic methodology for representing the processes and environmental changes that are characteristic of the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The information that is provided and the methodology that is described are based on international collaborative work implemented through the BIOPROTA forum, www.bioprota.org. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Weighing the deep continental biosphere.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for widespread microbial activity in deep continental fractures and aquifers, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling on Earth and the habitability of other planetary bodies. Whitman et al. (P Natl Acad Sci USA, 95, 1998, 6578) estimated a continental subsurface biomass on the order of 10(16) -10(17) g C. We reassess this value in the light of more recent data including over 100 microbial population density measurements from groundwater around the world. Making conservative assumptions about cell carbon content and the ratio of attached and free-living microorganisms, we find that the evidence continues to support a deep continental biomass estimate of 10(16) -10(17) g C, or 2-19% of Earth's total biomass. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Legacy of Biosphere 2 for Biospherics and Closed Ecological System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.

    The unprecedented challenges of creating Biosphere 2, the world's first laboratory for biospherics, the study of global ecology and long-term closed ecological system dynamics led to breakthrough developments in many fields, and a deeper understanding of the opportunities and difficulties of material closure. This paper will review these accomplishments and challenges, citing some of the key research accomplishments and publications which have resulted from the experiments in Biosphere 2. Engineering accomplishments included development of a technique for variable volume to deal with pressure differences between the facility and outside environment, developing methods of leak detection and sealing, and achieving new standards of closure, with an annual atmospheric leakrate of less than 10%, or less than 300 ppm per day. This degree of closure permitted detailed tracking of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and trace gases such as nitrous oxide and ethylene over the seasonal variability of two years. Full closure also necessitated developing new approaches and technologies for complete air, water, and wastewater recycle and reuse within the facility. The development of a soil-based highly productive agricultural system was a first in closed ecological systems, and much was learned about managing a wide variety of crops using non-chemical means of pest and disease control. Closed ecological systems have different temporal b ogeochemical cycling and ranges ofi atmospheric components because of their smaller reservoirs of air, water and soil, and higher concentration of biomass, and Biosphere 2 provided detailed examination and modeling of these accelerated cycles over a period of closure which measured in years. Medical research inside Biosphere 2 included the effects on humans of lowered oxygen: the discovery that human productivity can be maintained down to 15% oxygen could lead to major economies on the design of space stations and planetary/lunar settlements. The improved

  20. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  1. Data management at Biosphere 2 center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreary, Leone F.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the history of Biosphere 2, the collecting and recording of biological data has been sporadic. Currently no active effort to administer and record regular biological surveys is being made. Also, there is no central location, such as an on-site data library, where all records from various studies have been archived. As a research institute, good, complete data records are at the core of all Biosphere 2's scientific endeavors. It is therefore imperative that an effective data management system be implemented within the management and research departments as soon as possible. Establishing this system would require three general phases: (1) Design/implement a new archiving/management program (including storage, cataloging and retrieval systems); (2) Organize and input baseline and intermediate data from existing archives; and (3) Maintain records by inputting new data.

  2. Data management at Biosphere 2 center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreary, Leone F.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the history of Biosphere 2, the collecting and recording of biological data has been sporadic. Currently no active effort to administer and record regular biological surveys is being made. Also, there is no central location, such as an on-site data library, where all records from various studies have been archived. As a research institute, good, complete data records are at the core of all Biosphere 2's scientific endeavors. It is therefore imperative that an effective data management system be implemented within the management and research departments as soon as possible. Establishing this system would require three general phases: (1) Design/implement a new archiving/management program (including storage, cataloging and retrieval systems); (2) Organize and input baseline and intermediate data from existing archives; and (3) Maintain records by inputting new data.

  3. Assessing biosphere feedbacks on Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The evolution and ecology of plant life has been shaped by the direct and indirect influence of plate tectonics. Climatic change and environmental upheaval associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces have triggered biosphere level ecological change, physiological modification and pulses of both extinction and origination. This talk will investigate the influence of large scale changes in atmospheric composition on plant ecophysiology at key intervals of the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, I will assess the extent to which plant ecophysiological response can in turn feedback on earth system processes such as the global hydrological cycle and biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Palaeo-atmosphere simulation experiments, palaeobotanical data and recent historical (last 50 years) data-model comparison will be used to address the extent to which plant physiological responses to atmospheric CO2 can modulate global climate change via biosphere level feedback.

  4. International Geosphere/Biosphere Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The present status of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) is discussed. The IGBP will contribute to the understanding of the Earth as a system, and could deal with problems such as acid rain and the CO/sub 2/ greenhouse effect. The IGBP will be an international and interdisciplinary study of the Earth as a system and the man induced and natural changes in that system. In the U.S. it will involve several Federal agencies and universities.

  5. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.

  6. Harvesting the biosphere: the human impact.

    PubMed

    Smil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The human species has evolved to dominate the biosphere: global anthropomass is now an order of magnitude greater than the mass of all wild terrestrial mammals. As a result, our dependence on harvesting the products of photosynthesis for food, animal feed, raw materials, and energy has grown to make substantial global impacts. During the past two millennia these harvests, and changes of land use due to deforestation and conversions of grasslands and wetlands, have reduced the stock of global terrestrial plant mass by as much as 45 percent, with the twentieth-century reduction amounting to more than 15 percent. Current annual harvests of phytomass have been a significant share of the global net primary productivity (NPP, the total amount of new plant tissues created by photosynthesis). Some studies put the human appropriation of NPP (the ratio of these two variables) as high as 40 percent but the measure itself is problematic. Future population growth and improved quality of life will result in additional claims on the biosphere, but options to accommodate these demands exist without severely compromising the irreplaceable biospheric services.

  7. Was there a late Archean biospheric explosion?

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F

    2008-08-01

    There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that the evolution of the planet drives the evolution of the biosphere. There have been 2 significant stages in Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels rose rapidly, and both appear to be associated with supercontinent cycles. The earlier biospheric event, which extends across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary (ca. 3.0-2.2 Ga), has received little attention and is the focus of this study. Recent work on the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia has shown that concretion formed by microbial activity during the diagenesis of these sediments are absent from early Archean sediments but abundant in late Archean and early Paleoproterozoic successions of the Hamersley Basin, appearing abruptly in sedimentary rocks younger than 2.7 Ga. This study suggests that their internal architecture may have been defined by the diffusion of humic acids and the formation of polymer gels during diagenesis. The data imply that the biosphere expanded suddenly shortly after 3.0 Ga and may have begun to raise the oxygen levels of the oceanic water column earlier than thought-possibly as much as 300 my earlier.

  8. Is there a deep, cold biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priscu, J. C.; Christner, B. C.; Foreman, C. M.; Mikucki, J. A.; Wolf, C. F.; Voytek, M. A.; Mogk, D. W.

    2003-04-01

    Earth's biosphere is cold, with 14% being polar and 90% (by volume) cold ocean; more than 70% of Earth’s freshwater is present as ice. New discoveries of microbial life in cold and saline lakes, permanent lake ice and glacial ice are extending the bounds of our biosphere. The recent description of potential bacterial life in Lake Vostok, and the discovery of at least 100 other Antarctic subglacial lakes extends the known boundaries for life on Earth even further. We estimate that there are 1.2 × 1025 prokaryotic cells present in Antarctica's subglacial lakes. If the prokaryotes immured in the Antarctic ice sheet (8.8 × 1025 cells) are considered, the total number of prokaryotes in the liquid plus solid water phases of Antarctica is 10 × 1025 cells, which equates to 0.003 Pg of carbon (1 Pg = 1015 g). This carbon reservoir is similar to that for all of our planets freshwater rivers and lakes combined (0.004 Pg). The cryospheric carbon reservoir should be considered in future definitions of Earth's biosphere and included in calculations of Earth's carbon balance.

  9. Gene expression in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Orsi, William D; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Christman, Glenn D; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2013-07-11

    Scientific ocean drilling has revealed a deep biosphere of widespread microbial life in sub-seafloor sediment. Microbial metabolism in the marine subsurface probably has an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, but deep biosphere activities are not well understood. Here we describe and analyse the first sub-seafloor metatranscriptomes from anaerobic Peru Margin sediment up to 159 metres below the sea floor, represented by over 1 billion complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence reads. Anaerobic metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids seem to be the dominant metabolic processes, and profiles of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) transcripts are consistent with pore-water sulphate concentration profiles. Moreover, transcripts involved in cell division increase as a function of microbial cell concentration, indicating that increases in sub-seafloor microbial abundance are a function of cell division across all three domains of life. These data support calculations and models of sub-seafloor microbial metabolism and represent the first holistic picture of deep biosphere activities.

  10. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    Available from <http://www.rr.ee.gov.bo/ministerio/ POLITICA EXTERIOR /memoria.htm >. Internet. Accessed 28 October 2004. Gray, Colin. “Thinking...Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at

  11. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  12. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    To achieve sustainable and healthy closed ecological systems requires successful solutions to the challenge of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/soil leachate and evaporateed water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system, total footprint of the airtight area is 12,700 m2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m3 with a total water capacity of some 6 x 106 liters of water presented a complex challenge because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as a range of analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40m3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15m3 - is a very simplified system, but with some similar issues such as salinity management and the provision of water quality sufficient for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, adequately freshwater was needed for terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4x106 liters, soil with 2 x 106 liters, primary storage tanks with a capacity for up to 8 x 105 liters and storage tanks for condensate collection and mixing tanks with 1.5 x 105 liters to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 x 103 liters), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 x 103 liters). Key technologies included condensation from humidity in the airhandlers and from the glass

  13. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-10

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]).

  14. Biospheric Cooling and the Emergence of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

    The long-term cooling history of the Earth's biosphere implies a temperature constraint on the timing of major events in biologic evolution, e.g., emergence of cyanobacteria, eucaryotes and Metazoa apparently occurred at times when temperatures were near their upper growth limits. Could biospheric cooling also have been a necessary condition for the emergence of veterbrates and their encephalization? The upper temperature limit for vertebrate growth is about 10 degrees below the limit for Metazoa (50 degrees C). Heterothermy followed by full homeothermy was likely a necessary condition for greater encephalization because of the energy requirement of larger brains. The temperature differential between an animal and a cooler environment, all other factors equal, will increase the efficiency of heat loss from the brain, but too large a differential will shift metabolic energy away from the brain to the procurement of food. Encephalization has also entailed the evolution of internal cooling mechanisms to avoid overheating the brain. The two periods of pronounced Phanerozoic cooling, the PermoCarboniferous and late Cenozoic, corresponded to the emergence of mammal-like reptiles and hominids respectively, with a variety of explanations offered for the apparent link. The origin of highly encephalized whales, dolphins and porpoises occurred with the drop in ocean temperatures 25-30 mya. Of course, other possible paths to encephalization are conceivable, with radically different solutions to the problem of heat dissipation. But the intrinsic requirements for information processing capacity necessary for intelligence suggest our terrestrial pattern may resemble those of alien biospheres given similar histories.

  15. Snowball Earth: Response of the biosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2001-05-01

    Snowball Earth is a script for global catastrophe that rivals giant impact theories in the likely severity of its environmental effects. This is particularly true for the "hard" version of the hypothesis, which requires the atmosphere to be effectively isolated from the ocean so that its carbon dioxide concentration can build up to the level ( ~100 PAL) ultimately required to melt the ice. However, coupled GCM-EMB models (Hyde et al. Nature 405, 425-430; Crowley & Hyde, GRL 28, 283-286) allow equatorial open water solutions under plausible Neoproterozoic conditions. These "softer" scenarios are more appealing if one considers the possible effects of snowball Earth episodes on the global biosphere. The meager Neoproterozoic fossil record makes it difficult to observe the biospheric response directly, but we know from evolutionary trees constructed from aligned protein and DNA sequences from living organisms, calibrated by the fossil record, that many lines of descent passed through the Cryogenian glacial periods. They include various kinds of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, a range of protists, and probably, a number of different kinds of animals and fungi. In addition, most of the microbial groups shown on comprehensive 16S rRNA trees have molecular clock ages that predate the snowball episodes. As the global environmental perturbations associated with the "hard" snowball hypothesis (freezing temperatures; huge and rapid changes in temperature; sudden carbon dioxide overload) are thought to have been biologically limiting during the Phanerozoic, the inferred response of the biosphere to Neoprotereozic glaciations may, indeed, provide a way of testing alternative snowball Earth scenarios.

  16. Visualizing viral assemblies in a nanoscale biosphere.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Brian L; Showalter, Shannon P; Dukes, Madeline J; Tanner, Justin R; Demmert, Andrew C; McDonald, Sarah M; Kelly, Deborah F

    2013-01-21

    We present a novel microfluidic platform to examine biological assemblies at high-resolution. We have engineered a functionalized chamber that serves as a "nanoscale biosphere" to capture and maintain rotavirus double-layered particles (DLPs) in a liquid environment. The chamber can be inserted into the column of a transmission electron microscope while being completely isolated from the vacuum system. This configuration allowed us to determine the structure of biological complexes at nanometer-resolution within a self-contained vessel. Images of DLPs were used to calculate the first 3D view of macromolecules in solution. We refer to this new fluidic visualization technology as in situ molecular microscopy.

  17. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  18. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek; K.R. Rautenstrauch

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003). Some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available at the time this report is issued. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003), describes the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63, uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the Amargosa Valley population, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312. Amargosa Valley is the community, located in the direction of the projected groundwater flow path, where most of the farming in the area occurs. The parameter values developed in this report support the

  19. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-10

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

  20. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed Central

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-01-01

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived. PMID:14728789

  1. Water: the bloodstream of the biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ripl, Wilhelm

    2003-12-29

    Water, the bloodstream of the biosphere, determines the sustainability of living systems. The essential role of water is expanded in a conceptual model of energy dissipation, based on the water balance of whole landscapes. In this model, the underlying role of water phase changes--and their energy-dissipative properties--in the function and the self-organized development of natural systems is explicitly recognized. The energy-dissipating processes regulate the ecological dynamics within the Earth's biosphere, in such a way that the development of natural systems is never allowed to proceed in an undirected or random way. A fundamental characteristic of self-organized development in natural systems is the increasing role of cyclic processes while loss processes are correspondingly reduced. This gives a coincidental increase in system efficiency, which is the basis of growing stability and sustainability. Growing sustainability can be seen as an increase of ecological efficiency, which is applicable at all levels up to whole landscapes. Criteria for necessary changes in society and for the design of the measures that are necessary to restore sustainable landscapes and waters are derived.

  2. Extending the sub-sea-floor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon; Querellou, Joël; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Prieur, Daniel; Parkes, R John

    2008-05-23

    Sub-sea-floor sediments may contain two-thirds of Earth's total prokaryotic biomass. However, this has its basis in data extrapolation from ~500-meter to 4-kilometer depths, whereas the deepest documented prokaryotes are from only 842 meters. Here, we provide evidence for low concentrations of living prokaryotic cells in the deepest (1626 meters below the sea floor), oldest (111 million years old), and potentially hottest (~100 degrees C) marine sediments investigated. These Newfoundland margin sediments also have DNA sequences related to thermophilic and/or hyperthermophilic Archaea. These form two unique clusters within Pyrococcus and Thermococcus genera, suggesting unknown, uncultured groups are present in deep, hot, marine sediments (~54 degrees to 100 degrees C). Sequences of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea were also present, suggesting a deep biosphere partly supported by methane. These findings demonstrate that the sub-sea-floor biosphere extends to at least 1600 meters below the sea floor and probably deeper, given an upper temperature limit for prokaryotic life of at least 113 degrees C and increasing thermogenic energy supply with depth.

  3. Matrix-bound phosphine in Antarctic biosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Sun, Liguang; Kong, Deming; Geng, Jinju; Wang, Ning; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaorong

    2006-08-01

    Phosphine (PH(3)) is a natural gaseous carrier of phosphorus in its geochemical cycles, and it might be of importance to the phosphorus balance of natural ecosystem. For the first time phosphine levels were investigated in the Earth's coldest, driest, and most southerly Antarctic biosphere. Matrix-bound phosphine (MBP) was found in sea animal guanos, ornithogenic sediments and soils. Phosphine concentrations varied with different sea animal guanos. Average phosphine concentrations in empire penguin, gentoo penguin, sea lion, skua and gull guanos were 2.54+/-1.28 ng kg(-1), 6.21+/-2.15 ng kg(-1), 9.12+/-4.66 ng kg(-1), 11.90+/-1.29 ng kg(-1) and 14.55+/-6.74 ng kg(-1), respectively. The contents of phosphorus in these various matrixes have an important effect on MBP concentrations. The levels of phosphine appeared an increasing tendency with the content of TP, IP and OP in sea animal guanos, ornithogenic sediments or soils. The correlation between PH(3) and Fe, Mn, Al in these matrixes was also analyzed and discussed. Phosphine showed an obviously positive correlation with Fe in sea animal guanos. However, excessively high Fe, Al and Mn may inhibit the formation of PH(3) in the ornithogenic soils or sediments in the Antarctic biosphere.

  4. Extrasolar Planetary Complex Biosphere Organization as Exemplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Martin; Williams, Darren; Doyle, Laurence

    Planetary habitability has usually been defined with reference to the physiological tolerances of human beings, or, in a more general sense, in terms of a modelled planet's ability to retain liquid water (essential for life as we know it) on its surface for a few Gyr. Another way of investigating habitability is with regard to the global mode of biosphere organization. Every combination of stellar composition and main sequence luminosity evolution, planetary characteristics and history, and biosphere organisation is unique, and will have its own specific inner and outer Habitable Zone radii. We illustrate this with modelled equilibrium partial pressures of CO_2. Although, as pointed out by previous workers, plants' CO_2 compensation points (where respiration exactly balances photosynthetic production) are just a few p.p.m. for some species, plants in the real world need to grow, repair tissue loss, reproduce and colonise new areas as they become available. This means that Earth-type forest ecosystems will require CO_2 levels comparable to those of the present day Earth. Reductions in equilibrium CO_2 with progressievely higher insolation, will define different inner margins for the Forest H.Z. with different axial obliquities and continential configurations.

  5. [Euthanasia in Chile].

    PubMed

    Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca

    2016-12-01

    Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.

  6. AMOS in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Slovak astronomers from Comenius University continue in installation of their original AMOS meteor system, particularly in Atacama desert in Chile. AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) is observing almost entire sky by video and provides meteor trajectory and orbital data. Two AMOS cameras were installed in Space Observatory (San Pedro de Atacama) and in Paniri Caur Observatory in Chiu-Chiu. The distance of stations is 83.5 km and almost ideal for triangulation.

  7. "Modular Biospheres" - A new platform for education and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    A new type of testbed platform for education and research a modular biosphere has emerged from research which dates back to the Biosphere 2 and the effort to develop bioregenerative technologies for space life support Two examples of this type of facility are the Biosphere 2 Test Module a glass and spaceframe structure which runs on incident sunlight for plant growth and the Laboratory Biosphere a cylindrical opaque chamber which uses artificial lights for plant growth Both types of system require a variable volume lung chamber to relieve pressure differences between the modular biosphere and the outside environment Modular biosphere facilities offer unique research and public education opportunities Ecosystem behavior can be studied since all state conditions can be precisely specified and tracked over different ranges of time periods With material closure apart from small air exchange rate which can be determined biogeochemical cycles can be studied as elements transit between soil water plants and atmosphere Such studies offer a major step upward from studies conducted with phytotrons which because of their small size limit the number of organisms to a very small number Modular biospheres differ from ecological microcosms because of their material closure thus a much more thorough examination of nutrient cycling can be conducted and their larger volume Though large in comparison with phytotrons and microcosms modular biospheres are small enough that they can be reconfigured -- with elements changed --

  8. NEW DIRECTIONS: VOCS AND BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shallcross and Monks [New Directions: a Role For Isoprene in Biosphere-Climate-Chemistry Feedbacks, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34 (2000) pp. 1659-1660] recently summarized the importance of biogenic isoprene in a biosphere-atmosphere system under constant change. In this art...

  9. NEW DIRECTIONS: VOCS AND BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shallcross and Monks [New Directions: a Role For Isoprene in Biosphere-Climate-Chemistry Feedbacks, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34 (2000) pp. 1659-1660] recently summarized the importance of biogenic isoprene in a biosphere-atmosphere system under constant change. In this art...

  10. Chile stand management for mechanical green chile harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently the red chile crop is mechanically harvested. Because the pods will be dehydrated before consumption, breakage and bruising of red pods is not a concern. Green chile, however, is currently hand harvested because of the fragile nature of the fruit and the need to avoid pod damage. Hand h...

  11. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-09

    This analysis report is one of a series of technical reports that document the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This report is one of the five biosphere reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model, as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. Figure 1-1 is a graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., scientific analyses and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 156605], uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the residents of the unincorporated town of Amargosa Valley, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312 [DIRS 156605]. The output of this report is used as direct input in the two analyses identified in Figure 1-1 that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios. The parameter values developed in this report are reflected in the TSPA through the BDCFs. The analysis was performed in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'', and the technical work plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]).

  12. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 10 research interns for a 10 week period during the summer of 1998. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 10 students for Columbia University summer field courses. Students participating in these programs were involved in numerous earth systems activities, collecting data in the field and conducting analyses in the laboratory. Students enrolled in the field program were expected to design independent research projects as part of their coursework. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Field school students were involved in field trips exposing them to the geology and ecology of the region including Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California. Interns participated in laboratory-based research. All students were expected to complete oral and written presentations of their work during the summer.

  13. Biospheric primary production during an ENSO transition.

    PubMed

    Behrenfeld, M J; Randerson, J T; McClain, C R; Feldman, G C; Los, S O; Tucker, C J; Falkowski, P G; Field, C B; Frouin, R; Esaias, W E; Kolber, D D; Pollack, N H

    2001-03-30

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) provides global monthly measurements of both oceanic phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass and light harvesting by land plants. These measurements allowed the comparison of simultaneous ocean and land net primary production (NPP) responses to a major El Niño to La Niña transition. Between September 1997 and August 2000, biospheric NPP varied by 6 petagrams of carbon per year (from 111 to 117 petagrams of carbon per year). Increases in ocean NPP were pronounced in tropical regions where El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on upwelling and nutrient availability were greatest. Globally, land NPP did not exhibit a clear ENSO response, although regional changes were substantial.

  14. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the

  17. Precambrian paleontology and acrochrons of the biosphere evolution: On the theory of the expanding biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, B. S.

    2012-04-01

    What is pre-life? We have no idea, since it is hidden in chemical molecules that conceal its future genetic potential. From the biological standpoint, a prokaryotic cyanobacteria cell represents a culmination of biochemical evolution. Its appearance on the Earth marked the starting point of the formation of the first biogeocoenosis on the planet, i.e., the onset of its biosphere. After having started, approximately 4.0-3.7 Ga ago, biosphere evolution has continued uninterrupted on the Earth. Its whole course is reflected in the geochronological record of the stratisphere, the stratified shell of the Earth. In the stratigraphic sense, this record comprises the Archean, Proterozoic (i.e., Karelian and Riphean), and Phanerozoic (i.e., Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic). They correspond to acrochrons, i.e., the main stages in biosphere evolution. According to the Precambrian paleontology, the first three acrochrons represent a pre-Vendian stage in the evolution of unicellular prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that terminated in the Riphean with the appearance of their colonial communities. The true metacellular structure of tissue Metaphyta and Metazoa started forming only in the Late Neoproterozoic (Late Riphean). The Vendian Period was marked by a radiation of macrotaxonomic diversity with the appearance of the main multicellular types of the Phanerozoic organization level. Therefore, the last acrochron (lasting from approximately 650 Ma ago) should be considered as corresponding to the Vendian-Phanerozoic period. The Cambrian explosion corresponds to the mass expansion of skeletal Metazoa.

  18. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  19. Novel N4 Bacteriophages Prevail in the Cold Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuanchao; Buchan, Alison; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Coliphage N4 is a lytic bacteriophage discovered nearly half a century ago, and it was considered to be a "genetic orphan" until very recently, when several additional N4-like phages were discovered to infect nonenteric bacterial hosts. Interest in this genus of phages is stimulated by their unique genetic features and propagation strategies. To better understand the ecology of N4-like phages, we investigated the diversity and geographic patterns of N4-like phages by examining 56 Chesapeake Bay viral communities, using a PCR-clone library approach targeting a diagnostic N4-like DNA polymerase gene. Many new lineages of N4-like phages were found in the bay, and their genotypes shift from the lower to the upper bay. Interestingly, signature sequences of N4-like phages were recovered only from winter month samples, when water temperatures were below 4°C. An analysis of existing metagenomic libraries from various aquatic environments supports the hypothesis that N4-like phages are most prolific in colder waters. In particular, a high number of N4-like phages were detected in Organic Lake, Antarctica, a cold and hypersaline system. The prevalence of N4-like phages in the cold biosphere suggests these viruses possess yet-to-be-determined mechanisms that facilitate lytic infections under cold conditions. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Country profile: Chile.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The first case of AIDS in Chile was diagnosed in 1984. There have been 1060 cases reported since then throughout the country, or 8.2 cases for every 100,000 Chileans. 92.8% of all people with AIDS in Chile are male, with the male:female AIDS patient ratio increasing from 12.9:1 for the period 1984-1991 to 15.2:1 currently. This increase in the proportion of male AIDS cases suggests the existence of a rapidly increasing male HIV infection rate. 82% of reported cases are the result of unprotected sexual intercourse, 66.8% of which are among males who identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. The 7.2:1 ratio of homosexual/bisexual transmission to heterosexual transmission for 1984-1989, however, declined to 3.9:1 for 1990-1994, indicating an increase in the extent of HIV/AIDS transmission through sex between men and women. Heterosexual sex is the reported means of transmission for 15.2% of currently identified AIDS cases in Chile. The mode of transmission was unknown for 10% of reported cases, due to vertical transmission among 1%, and the result of the direct exchange of blood among 7%. 60% of these latter cases were reported among IV drug users, 20% were reported as the result of blood transfusion, and 16% were reported in hemophiliacs. Most transmissions by blood transfusion occurred before 1987, when blood product controls were implemented. Infection due to IV drug use grew to 69.8% of such blood-related cases in 1990-94, compared to just 29.4% of cases in 1984-89. 81.5% of all cases are among people aged 20-49 years, with 64.1% of cases among individuals aged 30-49. Those under age 20 comprise 2.3% of total cases and those aged 20-29 years comprise 17.4%.

  1. Landsat View: Santiago, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Santiago, Chile, ranks among the world's fastest growing cities. Chile is South America's fifth largest economy with strong export and tourism markets. More than a third of Chile's population lives in Santiago as of 2009. Taken on January 9, 1985, and January 30, 2010, this pair of images from the Landsat 5 satellite illustrates the city's steady growth. The images were made with infrared and visible light (Landsat bands 4, 3, and 2) so that plant-covered land is red. Bare or sparsely vegetated land is tan, and the city is dark silver. In the fifteen years that elapsed between 1985 and 2010, the city expanded away from the Andes Mountains along spoke-like lines, which are major roads. ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B.

    PubMed

    Simón, I; Naito, M; Thorne, M C; Walke, R

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of "Reference Biospheres" to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'.

  3. Regionally strong feedbacks between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia K.; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Berry, Joseph; Entekhabi, Dara; Kolassa, Jana; Lee, Jung-Eun; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interact through a series of feedback loops. Variability in terrestrial vegetation growth and phenology can modulate fluxes of water and energy to the atmosphere, and thus affect the climatic conditions that in turn regulate vegetation dynamics. Here we analyse satellite observations of solar-induced fluorescence, precipitation, and radiation using a multivariate statistical technique. We find that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks are globally widespread and regionally strong: they explain up to 30% of precipitation and surface radiation variance in regions where feedbacks occur. Substantial biosphere-precipitation feedbacks are often found in regions that are transitional between energy and water limitation, such as semi-arid or monsoonal regions. Substantial biosphere-radiation feedbacks are often present in several moderately wet regions and in the Mediterranean, where precipitation and radiation increase vegetation growth. Enhancement of latent and sensible heat transfer from vegetation accompanies this growth, which increases boundary layer height and convection, affecting cloudiness, and consequently incident surface radiation. Enhanced evapotranspiration can increase moist convection, leading to increased precipitation. Earth system models underestimate these precipitation and radiation feedbacks mainly because they underestimate the biosphere response to radiation and water availability. We conclude that biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks cluster in specific climatic regions that help determine the net CO2 balance of the biosphere.

  4. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  5. Chiquicamata Mine, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    Chuquicamata, in Chile's Atacama Desert, is the largest open pit copper mine in the world, by excavated volume. The copper deposits were first exploited in pre-Hispanic times. Open pit mining began in the early 20th century when a method was developed to work low grade oxidized copper ores. The image was acquired September 2, 2007, covers an area of 19.5 by 29.3 km, and is located at 22.1 degrees south, 68.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20973

  6. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-28

    3 OVERSEAS TRAINING BY REGIONAL AREA AND COUNTRY U.S. Territories United Kingdom Oman Chile and Special Locations Pakistan Colombia East Asia and...17.0 Underground Asbestos Storage Removal Tanks Naval Reserve 133 $42.1 $ 2.3 $ 5.6 Asbestos Underground Removal Storage Tanks Marine Corps 41 $ 8.2

  7. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  8. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles Valley...

  9. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  10. Soil-related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Smith

    2003-07-02

    This analysis is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2003 [163602]). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development at the time this report is issued and therefore not available. This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. ''The Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters needed to evaluate doses from pathways associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation and ash

  11. A simplified biosphere model for global climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Kinter, J. L.; Shukla, J.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the simple biosphere model (SIB) of Sellers et al. (1986) is performed in an effort to bridge the gap between the typical hydrological treatment of the land surface biosphere and the conventional general circulation model treatment, which is specified through a single parameter. Approximations are developed that stimulate the effects of reduced soil moisture more simply, maintaining the essence of the biophysical concepts utilized in SIB. Comparing the reduced parameter biosphere with those from the original formulation in a GCM and a zero-dimensional model shows the simplified version to reproduce the original results quite closely.

  12. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Consequences of an Emerging Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    It seems feasible to detect biological signatures ("biosignatures") in other planetary systems using the tools of astronomy. There are at least two types of biosignatures; spectral and/or polarization features created by biological products, and electromagnetic signals created by technology. The latter example of a biosignature requires SETI-like searches. This presentation addresses only spectral signatures of biological products and properties of habitable planets. Spectral biosignatures are indeed promising targets for near-term exploration. They can arise from organic constituents (e.g., vegetation) and/or inorganic products (e.g., atmospheric O2). Features originating from a planet's surface are likely to be localized in specific regions, whereas gaseous biosignatures can become globally distributed by atmospheric circulation. Biosignatures should be most abundant within environments that are, or once were, habitable. We currently believe that habitable environments necessarily provide Liquid water and biochemically useful energy. However, we do not yet fully comprehend the diversity of features that might arise within these environments that are non-biological in origin, yet mimic biosignatures. For example, atmospheres reflect the events leading to their origins as well as a host of ongoing planetary processes that might include biological activity. We are persuaded that abundant atmospheric oxygen in an environment with abundant liquid water constitutes definitive evidence of life. However, our own early biosphere thrived for more than a billion years in the absence of abundant atmospheric oxygen. The production of other, more reduced, gaseous biomarkers of "young" and/or anaerobic biospheres has not been systematically studied. Biological gas production is strongly controlled by the structure and function of microbial ecosystems. Investigations of microbial ecosystems that are close analogs of ancient communities offer multiple benefits. Such studies can

  14. Dark Matter of the Biosphere: the Amazing World of Bacteriophage Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hatfull, Graham F

    2015-08-01

    Bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities in the biosphere, and this dynamic and old population is, not surprisingly, highly diverse genetically. Relative to bacterial genomics, phage genomics has advanced slowly, and a higher-resolution picture of the phagosphere is only just emerging. This view reveals substantial diversity even among phages known to infect a common host strain, but the relationships are complex, with mosaic genomic architectures generated by illegitimate recombination over a long period of evolutionary history. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-06-27

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699], Section 6.2). Parameter values

  16. Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-05

    This analysis report is one of a series of technical reports that document the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This report is one of the five biosphere reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model, as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. Figure 1-1 is a graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN. This figure shows relationships among the products (i.e., scientific analyses and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172782]). The purpose of this analysis report is to define values for biosphere model parameters that are related to the dietary, lifestyle, and dosimetric characteristics of the receptor. The biosphere model, consistent with the licensing rule at 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173164], uses a hypothetical person called the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) to represent the potentially exposed population. The parameters that define the RMEI are based on the behaviors and characteristics of the residents of the unincorporated town of Amargosa Valley, consistent with the requirements of 10 CFR 63.312 [DIRS 173164]. The output of this report is used as direct input in the two analyses identified in Figure 1-1 that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios. The parameter values developed in this report are reflected in the TSPA through the BDCFs. The analysis was performed in accordance with LP-SIII.9Q-BSC, ''Scientific Analyses'', and the technical work plan (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172782]). The scope of the revision was

  17. Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion.

    PubMed

    Galy, Valier; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-05-14

    Riverine export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean affects the atmospheric carbon inventory over a broad range of timescales. On geological timescales, the balance between sequestration of POC from the terrestrial biosphere and oxidation of rock-derived (petrogenic) organic carbon sets the magnitude of the atmospheric carbon and oxygen reservoirs. Over shorter timescales, variations in the rate of exchange between carbon reservoirs, such as soils and marine sediments, also modulate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The respective fluxes of biospheric and petrogenic organic carbon are poorly constrained, however, and mechanisms controlling POC export have remained elusive, limiting our ability to predict POC fluxes quantitatively as a result of climatic or tectonic changes. Here we estimate biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes for a suite of river systems representative of the natural variability in catchment properties. We show that export yields of both biospheric and petrogenic POC are positively related to the yield of suspended sediment, revealing that POC export is mostly controlled by physical erosion. Using a global compilation of gauged suspended sediment flux, we derive separate estimates of global biospheric and petrogenic POC fluxes of 157(+74)(-50) and 43(+61)(-25) megatonnes of carbon per year, respectively. We find that biospheric POC export is primarily controlled by the capacity of rivers to mobilize and transport POC, and is largely insensitive to the magnitude of terrestrial primary production. Globally, physical erosion rates affect the rate of biospheric POC burial in marine sediments more strongly than carbon sequestration through silicate weathering. We conclude that burial of biospheric POC in marine sediments becomes the dominant long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink under enhanced physical erosion.

  18. High Performance Geostatistical Modeling of Biospheric Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Smith, J. A.; Schnase, J. L.; Crosier, C. S.; Stohlgren, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    We are using parallel geostatistical codes to study spatial relationships among biospheric resources in several study areas. For example, spatial statistical models based on large- and small-scale variability have been used to predict species richness of both native and exotic plants (hot spots of diversity) and patterns of exotic plant invasion. However, broader use of geostastics in natural resource modeling, especially at regional and national scales, has been limited due to the large computing requirements of these applications. To address this problem, we implemented parallel versions of the kriging spatial interpolation algorithm. The first uses the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in a master/slave paradigm on an open source Linux Beowulf cluster, while the second is implemented with the new proprietary Xgrid distributed processing system on an Xserve G5 cluster from Apple Computer, Inc. These techniques are proving effective and provide the basis for a national decision support capability for invasive species management that is being jointly developed by NASA and the US Geological Survey.

  19. Summer Research Internships at Biosphere 2 Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Colodner, Debra; Griffin, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    Through the support of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, Biosphere 2 Center hosted 11 research interns for 6 to 8 weeks each during the summer of 1997. In addition, we were able to offer scholarships to 14 students for Columbia University summer field courses. These two types of programs engaged students in much of the range of activity of practicing Earth Scientists, with an emphasis on the collection and analysis of data in both the field and the laboratory. Research interns and students in the field courses also played an important part in the design and evolution of their research projects. In addition to laboratory and field research, students participated in weekly research seminars by resident and visiting scientists. Research interns were exposed to the geology and ecology of the region via short field trips to the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, Mount Lemmon, Aravaipa Canyon and the Gulf of California, while field course students were exposed to laboratory-based research via intern-led hands-on demonstrations of their work. All students made oral and written presentations of their work during the summer, and two of the research interns have applied to present their results at the National Conference on Undergraduate Research in Maryland in April, 1998.

  20. Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment of radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Cancio, D; Simón, I; Moraleda, M; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Trueba, C

    2007-10-01

    The development of radioactive waste disposal facilities requires implementation of measures that will afford protection of human health and the environment over a specific temporal frame that depends on the characteristics of the wastes. The repository design is based on a multi-barrier system: (i) the near-field or engineered barrier, (ii) far-field or geological barrier and (iii) the biosphere system. Here, the focus is on the analysis of this last system, the biosphere. A description is provided of conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools used to develop the Biosphere Assessment Methodology in the context of high-level waste (HLW) disposal facilities in Spain. This methodology is based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology" and provides a logical and systematic approach with supplementary documentation that helps to support the decisions necessary for model development. It follows a five-stage approach, such that a coherent biosphere system description and the corresponding conceptual, mathematical and numerical models can be built. A discussion on the improvements implemented through application of the methodology to case studies in international and national projects is included. Some facets of this methodological approach still require further consideration, principally an enhanced integration of climatology, geography and ecology into models considering evolution of the environment, some aspects of the interface between the geosphere and biosphere, and an accurate quantification of environmental change processes and rates.

  1. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This ASTER image was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change. This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02670

  2. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  3. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  4. Chile Altiplano Unconformity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11159

  5. Andes Mountains, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-260-078 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- The ice visible along the bottom of this view is the north end of the larger (southern) of two great remaining ice field of the Andes Mountains in Chile. The longest glacier visible here flows down into the Calen Fjord (an arm of the Pacific Ocean known as Canal Baker) where numerous calved icebergs can be seen floating. The other three glaciers end in glacier-cut valleys with small lakes - the bigger lake has numerous icebergs as well. the river snaking through the mountains to the fjord drains water from the great Lake O'Higgins, which lies out of the picture to the right. Glacial mud can be seen emptying into the fjord and discoloring the water with its milky color.

  6. Chile Informed Question Paper - Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    superior military strength and regional economic integration. Internally, Chile also faces little threat; however, militants from the Mapuche ...considered a significant threat.11 The most significant internal security concern is the ongoing campaign by Mapuche indigenous community militants to

  7. Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

    2014-06-10

    Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models--which assume ecological equivalence of species--to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role.

  8. Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Smith

    2004-09-09

    This report presents one of the analyses that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the details of the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and the required input parameters. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A schematic representation of the documentation flow for the Biosphere input to TSPA is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the evolutionary relationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This figure is included to provide an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application, and is not intended to imply that access to the listed documents is required to understand the contents of this report. This report, ''Soil-Related Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five analysis reports that develop input parameters for use in the ERMYN model. This report is the source documentation for the six biosphere parameters identified in Table 1-1. The purpose of this analysis was to develop the biosphere model parameters associated with the accumulation and depletion of radionuclides in the soil. These parameters support the calculation of radionuclide concentrations in soil from on-going irrigation or ash deposition and, as a direct consequence, radionuclide concentration in other environmental media that are affected by radionuclide concentrations in soil. The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) where the governing procedure was defined as AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. This

  9. Inferring deep biosphere function and diversity through (near) surface biosphere portals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Cardace, D.; Woycheese, K. M.; Swingley, W.; Schubotz, F.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    The consideration of surface expressions of the deep subsurface- such as springs- remains one of the most economically viable means to query the deep biosphere's diversity and function. Hot spring source pools are ideal portals for accessing and inferring the taxonomic and functional diversity of related deep subsurface microbial communities. Consideration of the geochemical composition of deep vs. surface fluids provides context for interpretation of community function. Further, parallel assessment of 16S rRNA data, metagenomic sequencing, and isotopic compositions of biomass in surface springs allows inference of the functional capacities of subsurface ecosystems. Springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the Philippines, and Turkey are considered here, incorporating near-surface, transition, and surface ecosystems to identify 'legacy' taxa and functions of the deep biosphere. We find that source pools often support functional capacity suited to subsurface ecosystems. For example, in hot ecosystems, source pools are strictly chemosynthetic, and surface environments with measureable dissolved oxygen may contain evidence of community functions more favorable under anaerobic conditions. Metagenomic reads from a YNP ecosystem indicate the genetic capacity for sulfate reduction at high temperature. However, inorganic sulfate reduction is only minimally energy-yielding in these surface environments suggesting the potential that sulfate reduction is a 'legacy' function of deeper biosphere ecosystems. Carbon fixation tactics shift with increased surface exposure of the thermal fluids. Genes related to the rTCA cycle and the acetyl co-A pathway are most prevalent in highest temperature, anaerobic sites. At lower temperature sites, fewer total carbon fixation genes were observed, perhaps indicating an increase in heterotrophic metabolism with increased surface exposure. In hydrogen and methane rich springs in the Philippines and Turkey, methanogenic taxa dominate source

  10. A conceptual design and implementation of the Lunar Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Yunping; Rong, Long; Liu, Hong

    It is necessary for human beings to establish a lunar biosphere on the moon similar to the biosphere on the earth in order to realize long-term human habitation, which will make it possible to exploit the resources there. This paper analyzes the environmental factors on the lunar surface; selects the appropriate location on the moon to set up the lunar biosphere; and designs two conceptual architecture configurations. Moreover, after comprehensively con-sidering the functions and running mechanism of lunar biosphere, we designed the internal configuration of the lunar biosphere and divided the whole system into several parallel sub-systems. Each subsystem was mainly composed of six parts: human habitation, cultivation, resource storage, food and water processing, wastes treatment and wastes storage; these parts are mutually connected through mass exchange and run circularly. Being one system, these subsystems possess independence, i.e. they can be individually isolated and run independently when accidents happen. In space distribution, the highest efficiency is achieved with the op-timization of the system structure. As for the function, the extensibility of the system's scale was also considered and the processing of lunar soil using earth worm was designed.

  11. Venus and Mars as Failed Biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinspoon, D.

    2014-04-01

    What kinds of planets can support life? A widely held belief is that to support life, a planet should have stable bodies of liquid surface water. This assumption has in turn led to the conventional notion of a habitable zone (HZ) as a range of distances from a star where water can exist on the surface of a solid planet for biologically relevant timescales. As our understanding of terrestrial planet evolution has increased, the importance of water abundance as a substance controlling many evolutionary factors has become increasingly clear. This is true of biological evolution, as the presence of liquid water is widely regarded as the key to the possibility of finding "life as we know it" on other worlds. It is also true of geological and climatic evolution. Water is among the most important climatically active atmospheric gasses on the terrestrial planets. It is also a controlling variable for tectonic style and geologic processes, as well as a mediator of surface-atmosphere chemical reactions. Of the three local terrestrial planets, two have lost their oceans either to a subsurface cryosphere or to space, and one has had liquid oceans for most of its history. It is likely that planetary desiccation in one form or another is common among extrasolar terrestrial planets near the edges of their habitable zones. Thus, understanding the sources and sinks for surface water and characterizing the longevity of oceans and the magnitude of loss mechanisms on terrestrial planets of differing size, composition and proximity to stars of various stellar types, as well as the range of physical parameters which facilitates plate tectonics, is key to defining stellar habitable zones. The global biosphere of Earth has greatly altered many physical properties of the planet, and it is unclear to what extent the long-term habitability of Earth is the result of its inhabitation. Only comparative planetology, eventually including comparison with other inhabited planets, will answer this

  12. [Protomedicato in Chile].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olea, J

    1991-09-01

    In 1566 Alonso de Villadiego was nominated by the Chilean Cabildo as "Adviser and Examiner in Surgery". By means of this edict, the Spanish Crown paralleled its classical health organization, inspired in rules coming from XIIIth century. The Hospital del Socorro was the focal point of these activities. It turned to be prosperous under the administration of "San Juan de Dios" monks (1617), who rebaptized the Hospital with their name. During the administration of the "Universidad de San Felipe" (1738-1839), the Protomedicato followed the standards imposed by the Cahir of Prima Medicina. Domingo Nevin, Frenchman, and José Antonio Ríos, Chilean, were the first and the last doctors in charge of this task. Ríos conducted the antivariolic campaign, supervised the "Midwifery Law" and controlled the medical and paramedical practice. Afterwards, the Institution plunged into a profound crisis to reflourish in 1833 when it was incorporated within the structure of the School of Medicine. Blest, Cox, Bustillos and Moran were the architects of its splendour. With the foundation of the Universidad de Chile in 1842, its Faculty of Medicine took over the Protomedicato functions. The Institution came to an end in 1892.

  13. Erosion dynamics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretier, Sebastien; Tolorza, Violeta; Regard, Vincent; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Aguilar, German

    2016-04-01

    Erosion and sediment transport in arid environments is thought to depend on the frequency of large floods as well as on mean precipitation rate and slope, but their relative impact remains a matter of active debate. The Chilean Andes are elongated along a sharp precipitation rate gradient, offering the possibility to rank these factors over different time spans. We compare suspended load measurements-derived decennial erosion rates and 10Be-derived millennial erosion rates along this gradient. Both parameters follow the same latitudinal trend and peak where the climate is Mediterranean (mean runoff ~0.55 m/m), confirming that slope is the main factor even along this contrasted climate. The comparison of these erosion rates documents the progressive contribution of rare and strong climatic events on the millennial erosion from humid to arid catchments. In the wetter BíoBio catchment, the separation of suspended sediment yield during base and direct flows shows that the dynamics of groundwater circulation controls most of the sediment hysteresis at gauging stations at annual scale. In addition, the mega El Maule earthquake (Mw8.8 in 2010), in front of humid to semi-arid catchments, has not increased the suspended sediment concentration in rivers, excepted in the steepest and driest catchments. Over millennial scales, preliminary 10Be concentrations in individual gravels and cobbles suggest mean river transport rates of several m/yr in an arid canyon of north Chile.

  14. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Frasca, T

    2000-01-01

    Confidentiality is a critical issue in the conduct of HIV tests in Chile. Though HIV testing is confidential in the public health system (through the use of a coding system), syphilis tests which are conducted simultaneously with HIV, require clients to provide their identity as well as address. In response to this concern, the National AIDS Commission has launched training programs in all 26 public health services for staff involved with HIV/AIDS programs. The training programs allow professional staff and volunteers to understand the importance of confidentiality. Nevertheless, cases of breaches of confidentiality have been reported, raising doubts as to the ability of the system to maintain confidentiality. These cases often occur at the hospitals or clinics where staff is insensitive to the needs of their clients and oblivious of their rights. Hence, it is highlighted that to reinforce confidentiality, patients, advocacy groups, human rights activists and health care administrators must pay attention to the many ways in which confidentiality is breached.

  15. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  16. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Hahn Ibanez, M

    1997-01-01

    In anticipation of social discrimination, an estimated 65% of parents of HIV-infected children in Chile do not inform school authorities of their child's infection. In several well-publicized cases, disclosure of a child's HIV status resulted in the child's expulsion from a preschool or primary school. In response to this situation, the Faculty of Education of Bias Canas Catholic University launched a program in 1992 aimed at educating teachers about HIV/AIDS and the special needs of infected children. The program is being implemented, in conjunction with the Interdisciplinary Project on Children and HIV/AIDS, in the cities with the highest HIV prevalences: Antafagasta, Concepcion, Valparaiso, and Santiago. Community-based educational programs have been organized to dispel misinformation about HIV/AIDS and counter prejudice. In addition, programs for teachers focused on the integration of HIV-infected children into the school system have been held. Costs for the teacher training are shared by the participating teachers, their school, and the program. A second program--Integral Attention for Seropositive Children--has been initiated and university students connected to the program are serving as interns in Santiago preschools. The experiences of both these programs have been recounted in a manual and video.

  17. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11090

  18. [Ross operation in Chile].

    PubMed

    Turner G, Eduardo; Muñoz C, Rodrigo; Cumsille G, Miguel; Iturra U, Sebastián; Strodthoff R, Pablo; Ulzurrún T, Nicolás; Rodríguez A, Juan

    2010-04-01

    Donald Ross introduced the pulmonary autograft for aortic valve replacement with reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a homograft. Despite its advantages over conventional valve prostheses, the Ross Operation is performed in a minority of patients who need an aortic valve replacement throughout the world. To report the operative and long term results of a series of patients subjected to Ross operation in Chile. Between 1996 and 2006, 131 patients aged 35+/-11 years (62% males) were subjected to an aortic root replacement with a pulmonary autograft and reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a pulmonary homograft. Seventy percent had congenital valve disease. Associated procedures were done in 39%. Patients were followed for a mean of 56+/-30 months. Operative mortality was 2.3%. Two patients had the autografts replaced intraoperatively because of tears in the proximal suture line and one within a month of the operation after suffering autograft endocarditis. At last follow up all patients are in functional class 1 or 2. Autograft reoperations were done in two patients who developed dilation with valve regurgitation (both had aortic regurgitation as primary indication for aortic valve replacement). Three patients required reoperation for pulmonary homograft dysfunction. Another three patients had uneventful pregnancies with normal newborns. Actuarial freedom from any reoperation at 10 years is 93%. The Ross Operation has low operative morbidity and mortality with excellent long term results. Reoperations have been rare within 10 years of follow up both for the autograft or the homograft.

  19. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. [Chile: Standing up again].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  1. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher B; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-11-01

    Species invasions are of global significance, but predicting their impacts can be difficult. Introduced ecosystem engineers, however, provide an opportunity to test the underlying mechanisms that may be common to all invasive engineers and link relationships between changes in diversity and ecosystem function, thereby providing explanatory power for observed ecological patterns. Here we test specific predictions for an invasive ecosystem engineer by quantifying the impacts of habitat and resource modifications caused by North American beavers (Castor canadensis) on aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure and stream ecosystem function in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. We compared responses to beavers in three habitat types: (1) forested (unimpacted) stream reaches, (2) beaver ponds, and (3) sites immediately downstream of beaver dams in four streams. We found that beaver engineering in ponds created taxonomically simplified, but more productive, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Specifically, macroinvertebrate richness, diversity and number of functional feeding groups were reduced by half, while abundance, biomass and secondary production increased three- to fivefold in beaver ponds compared to forested sites. Reaches downstream of beaver ponds were very similar to natural forested sections. Beaver invasion effects on both community and ecosystem parameters occurred predominantly via increased retention of fine particulate organic matter, which was associated with reduced macroinvertebrate richness and diversity (via homogenization of benthic microhabitat) and increased macroinvertebrate biomass and production (via greater food availability). Beaver modifications to macroinvertebrate community structure were largely confined to ponds, but increased benthic production in beaver-modified habitats adds to energy retention and flow for the entire stream ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of beavers on taxa richness (negative) and measures of

  2. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  3. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  4. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Landenmark, Hanna K E; Forgan, Duncan H; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

  5. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Landenmark, Hanna K. E.; Forgan, Duncan H.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time. PMID:26066900

  6. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.

  8. Influence of weather-climatic conditions on biospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorushko, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The significance of meteorological processes and phenomena in the biosphere functioning is revealed. The influence of various weather conditions on human health is considered; the factors and mechanisms of their action are described. The impact of meteorological processes on animals is discussed and concrete examples of such impacts are presented. The influence of meteorological processes and phenomena on plants at different stages of their life (pollination, growth, ripening, transport of seeds, damage, and death) and on some abiotic natural components is shown. It is inferred that weather-climatic conditions have a great influence on biospheric processes.

  9. Culturing captures members of the soil rare biosphere.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Hogan, Clifford S; Klimowicz, Amy K; Linske, Matthew; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2012-09-01

    The ecological significance of rare microorganisms within microbial communities remains an important, unanswered question. Microorganisms of extremely low abundance (the 'rare biosphere') are believed to be largely inaccessible and unknown. To understand the structure of complex environmental microbial communities, including the representation of rare and prevalent community members, we coupled traditional cultivation with pyrosequencing. We compared cultured and uncultured bacterial members of the same agricultural soil, including eight locations within one apple orchard and four time points. Our analysis revealed that soil bacteria captured by culturing were in very low abundance or absent in the culture-independent community, demonstrating unexpected accessibility of the rare biosphere by culturing.

  10. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  11. Chiliques Volcano, Chile

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-19

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24, 2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen. The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03493

  12. Follow the Methane: The Search for Deep Biospheres on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, J.; Boyce, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    Methane seepages indicate gas pathways that could fuel microbial sulfate reduction at depth. Sulfur isotope studies can indicate microbial activity in the ancient deep biosphere on Earth, and could be applied to seek ancient deep biosphere on Mars.

  13. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Global redox cycle of biospheric carbon: Interaction of photosynthesis and earth crust processes.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Alexander A

    2015-11-01

    A model of the natural global redox cycle of biospheric carbon is introduced. According to this model, carbon transfer between biosphere and geospheres is accompanied by a conversion of the oxidative forms, presented by CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate ions, into the reduced forms, produced in photosynthesis. The mechanism of carbon transfer is associated with two phases of movement of lithospheric plates. In the short-term orogenic phase, CO2 from the subduction (plates' collisions) zones fills the "atmosphere-hydrosphere" system, resulting in climate warming. In the long-term quiet (geosynclynal) phase, weathering and photosynthesis become dominant depleting the oxidative forms of carbon. The above asymmetric periodicity exerts an impact on climate, biodiversity, distribution of organic matter in sedimentary deposits, etc. Along with photosynthesis expansion, the redox carbon cycle undergoes its development until it reaches the ecological compensation point, at which CO2 is depleted to the level critical to support the growth and reproduction of plants. This occurred in the Permo-Carboniferous time and in the Neogene. Shorter-term perturbations of the global carbon cycle in the form of glacial-interglacial oscillations appear near the ecological compensation point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL DRIVERS OF RURAL OUT-MIGRATION TO THE MAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUATEMALA

    PubMed Central

    López-Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical agricultural frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identifying environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding this process could be useful for developing policies to reduce both environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also to palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehending this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This paper presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. Results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. PMID:24069068

  16. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, mestizo communities’s ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. Methods To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro–Wilk’s W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Results Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4–6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0–0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women’s and men’s knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student’s test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. Conclusion This research improves our understanding of the socio-economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management. PMID:24467777

  17. Soil classification using Thematic Mapper data at Mapimi Biosphere Reserve, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rios, Juan Jose

    Soil is an essential part of any terrestrial ecosystem. Scientists, technicians, and farmers have studied its physical and chemical properties for many years for agriculture and soil conservation. These studies usually require field sampling and laboratory analysis that are time-consuming and destructive to the samples being analyzed. Remotely sensed data are an alternative that provides reliable information at low cost based on a non-destructive technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Landsat Thematic Mapper data to classify soils in and lands. To this end, two Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from the Chihuahuan Desert were used: (1) the calibration area scene in Dona Ana County, NM, mapped with the Soil Taxonomy System, and (2) the study area scene at Mapimi, Mexico mapped with the FAO system. Furthermore, four remote sensing approaches were created to determine the best method to identify soil mapping units. They were named simple , technical, scaled, and complex. The agreement of TM and soils maps was tested using the error matrix approach in a supervised classification. Spectral signatures were selected by separability analysis applying the transformed divergency technique. Once determined on the calibration area, the best approach was applied to the scene in Mexico. The results revealed that the simple approach, based on thermal band discrimination, obtained classification accuracies of 70.67%, suggesting bands 2, 4, and 7 as the best for identifying soil mapping units. The technical approach, based on the principal components analysis technique, obtained accuracies of 66.86%, suggesting that data reduction is possible through this technique. The scaled approach, based on band ratios, achieved accuracies of 61.43%, suggesting ratios 1/5, 3/4, and 5/4 as the best transformations. The complex approach, based on indices, obtained accuracies of 28.50%, distinguishing SAVI, SVI, and albedo as the best data transformations. Based on its data reduction and its statistical accuracy, the technical approach was selected to classify soils at Mapimi, which then produced accuracies of 70.27%. Because of its agreement with both the soil Taxonomy and the FAO classification systems, remotely sensed data are a meaningful alternative for detecting different soil types in and environments.

  18. Ethnobotany of Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Angels; Vallès, Joan

    2007-03-01

    The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used in the health field (human and veterinary medicine), 280 in human and animal food and 236 have another kind of popular use. Medicinal species represent around 16.5% of Montseny's vascular flora. In a previous paper we addressed plant use in human medicine, and the present paper deals with veterinarian uses. As a reflection of the importance of rural life in the region, at least until recent times, a substantial number of medicinal plants (89 species, representing 6% of the flora of the territory and 6.4% of all medicinal use-reports in the region) is used in veterinary medicine. These remedies are mostly for cows, calves, sheep, pigs and horses, and secondarily, to poultry, rabbits and dogs. The main ailments treated are postnatal problems, intestinal troubles, wounds and dermatological problems. In many cases, the use of these remedies in veterinary medicine is fully consistent with their use in human medicine.

  19. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Mariano, Nestor A; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-01-27

    Worldwide, mestizo communities' ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro-Wilk's W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4-6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0-0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women's and men's knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student's test, T15 = 4.8, p < 0.001). Occupation, gender and age were statistically significant associated to ethnobotanical knowledge (p < 0.05), whereas income, education level, and place of origin were not. This research improves our understanding of the socio-economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information could help in the development of proposals to improve biocultural conservation and strengthen traditional knowledge systems for effective forest management.

  20. Concentrations of rare-earth elements in soils of the Prioksko-Terrasnyi state biospheric reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, L. V.; Asainova, Zh. S.; Yoshida, S.; Ivanov, I. V.

    2012-10-01

    The concentrations of rare-earth elements were studied in the profiles of soddy podburs and mucky-humus gley soils. The soil horizons differed significantly in the contents of Corg (0-26%), the physical clay (<0.01 mm) fraction (3-31%), the acidity (pH 4 to 5.5), and the presence/absence of Al-Fe-humus accumulations. The most significant relationship was observed between the concentrations of rare-earth elements and the physical clay content, particularly for Nd: x(Nd, mg/kg) = 7 + 1.6 y (fraction <0.01 mm, %). Weak biogenic accumulations in the upper horizons were observed for Nd, Ce, and Dy; Nd, Pr, and La accumulated in the Al-Fe-humus illuvial horizon. The concentrations of rare-earth elements in the studied soils formed the following sequence (mg/kg): Nd (20-101)-Ce (10-44)-La, Sm, Gd, Dy, Yb (3-20)-Pr (1-4)-Ho (0.1-0.4)-Tm, Lu, and Tl (0.0). A clear trend was observed to higher contents of even-numbered elements as compared with odd-numbered elements, excluding La.

  1. Phenol compounds in solutions of soils of different types in the central forest state biosphere reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, M. S.; Ivanilova, S. V.

    2008-04-01

    The interannual, seasonal, and daily dynamics of the contents of phenol compounds in the soil solution of a peat-podzolic-gleyic soil in the southern taiga are considered. The concentrations of phenol compounds in the studied soil remain relatively stable. In the solutions obtained from different soil types, the main limiting factor is the degree of hydromorphism, which manifests itself via the biological factor—the intensity of the microorganisms activity and the composition and quality of the forest litters.

  2. Assessment of environmental factors that affect the fireflies for ecotourism in Unesco Tasik Chini biosphere reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Norzeana; Sulaiman, Norela

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to study the firefly species found in Tasik Chini, the soil factors that suitable for larval development fireflies flashes, and the sociological aspects of the community's availability to engage in firefly ecotourism. This was achieved through firefly sampling, soil analysis, abiotic data collection and by questionnaire surveys from local community perceptions and knowledge on fireflies and ecotourism. Fireflies sampling were conducted from December 2011 to January 2013 at Kampung Melai and Kampung Cenahan. Three non-synchronize fireflies genus were found, namely Colophotia sp., Pygoluciola sp., and Pyrocoelia sp. A total of 25 questionnaires were given to four groups of respondents consisting orang asli (5 respondents), boat operator (2 respondents), resort workers (5 respondents) and FELDA residents (13 respondents). The questionnaires were analysed using Rasch Winstep Software based on Rasch Measurement Model. Results of the survey indicated that the local community was not ready for ecotourism in their area. Meanwhile, the soil pH was very acidic and the heavy metals concentration was high, which is not good for the development of firefly larvae. In conclusion, Tasik Chini was not having the potential for ecotourism. Despite the fact, improvement of soils with soil remediation methods can be apply for enhancing larvae development and having more awareness campaign of ecotourism to local community.

  3. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  4. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  5. Evidence for an active rare biosphere within freshwater protists community.

    PubMed

    Debroas, Didier; Hugoni, Mylène; Domaizon, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the active rare biosphere at the RNA level are mainly focused on Bacteria and Archaea and fail to include the protists, which are involved in the main biogeochemical cycles of the earth. In this study, the richness, composition and activity of the rare protistan biosphere were determined from a temporal survey of two lakes by pyrosequencing. In these ecosystems, the always rare OTUs represented 77.2% of the total OTUs and 76.6% of the phylogenetic diversity. From the various phylogenetic indices computed, the phylogenetic units (PUs) constituted exclusively by always rare OTUs were discriminated from the other PUs. Therefore, the rare biosphere included mainly taxa that are distant from the reference databases compared to the dominant ones. In addition, the rarest OTUs represented 59.8% of the active biosphere depicted by rRNA and the activity (rRNA:rDNA ratio) increased with the rarity. The high rRNA:rDNA ratio determined in the rare fraction highlights that some protists were active at low abundances and contribute to ecosystem functioning. Interestingly, the always rare and active OTUs were characterized by seasonal changes in relation with the main environmental parameters measured. In conclusion, the rare eukaryotes represent an active, dynamic and overlooked fraction in the lacustrine ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Second annual southern Appalachian man and the biosphere conference

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.R.

    1991-11-01

    Brief summaries are presented from the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere Conference. Topics include, but are not limited to, Hardwood and Red Spruce decline; land use and management; forest/atmosphere interactions; environmental monitoring; wetland habitats; fish studies in Tennessee reservoirs; tree plantations for energy use.

  7. National policies for biosphere greenhouse gas management: issues and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Steven A

    2002-11-01

    Biosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) management consists of preserving and enhancing terrestrial carbon pools and producing biomass as a fossil fuel substitute. The discussion of this topic has focused primarily on carbon-accounting and project-level issues, particularly relating to carbon sequestration as a source of emissions credits under the Kyoto Protocol. While international consensus on these matters is needed, this paper argues that an important domestic policy agenda also deserves attention. National policies for biosphere GHG management are necessary to bring about large-scale changes in land-use, forestry, and agricultural practices and can address some of the technical and policy issues that have proven to be particularly problematic from carbon-accounting and project-level perspectives. These policies should minimize land-use and resource-management conflicts, account for collateral benefits, and ensure institutional compatibility with existing resource-management regimes. Issues relating to project permanence, leakage, and transaction costs should also be addressed. A range of policy instruments should be used and biosphere GHG management should be one component of an integrated approach to environmental and resource management. Countries promoting biosphere GHG management as an important element of their climate change strategies should be developing these domestic policies to complement international negotiations and to demonstrate that carbon sequestration and biomass production can make an effective contribution to the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations.

  8. Publications of the biospheric research program: 1981-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Janice S. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a list of publications of investigators supported by the Biospheric Research Program of the Biological Systems Research Branch, Life Sciences Division, and the Office of Space Science and Applications. It includes publications dated as of December 31, 1987 and entered into the Life Sciences Bibliographic Database at the George Washington University. Publications are organized by the year published.

  9. Ecology of the rare microbial biosphere of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Galand, Pierre E; Casamayor, Emilio O; Kirchman, David L; Lovejoy, Connie

    2009-12-29

    Understanding the role of microbes in the oceans has focused on taxa that occur in high abundance; yet most of the marine microbial diversity is largely determined by a long tail of low-abundance taxa. This rare biosphere may have a cosmopolitan distribution because of high dispersal and low loss rates, and possibly represents a source of phylotypes that become abundant when environmental conditions change. However, the true ecological role of rare marine microorganisms is still not known. Here, we use pyrosequencing to describe the structure and composition of the rare biosphere and to test whether it represents cosmopolitan taxa or whether, similar to abundant phylotypes, the rare community has a biogeography. Our examination of 740,353 16S rRNA gene sequences from 32 bacterial and archaeal communities from various locations of the Arctic Ocean showed that rare phylotypes did not have a cosmopolitan distribution but, rather, followed patterns similar to those of the most abundant members of the community and of the entire community. The abundance distributions of rare and abundant phylotypes were different, following a log-series and log-normal model, respectively, and the taxonomic composition of the rare biosphere was similar to the composition of the abundant phylotypes. We conclude that the rare biosphere has a biogeography and that its tremendous diversity is most likely subjected to ecological processes such as selection, speciation, and extinction.

  10. [Teacher's Guides for Grade 7-Biosphere and Grade 8-Geoscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueringer, June

    Provided are two teacher's guides for coordinating classroom instruction with two instructional television series, each consisting of thirty 15-minute lessons. One guide entitled "Biosphere" is for use with seventh grade life science while the other guide entitled "Geoscope" is for use with eighth grade earth science. Each guide provides…

  11. Implementation of the Biosphere Compatibility Principle in Urban Planning: How to Train Next-Generation Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Zinaida Ilyinichna; Yudenkova, Olga Valeryevna; Ishkov, Aleksandr Dmitrievich; Shnyrenkov, Evgeny Anatolyevich

    2015-01-01

    The co-authors address the relevant issues concerning the need to implement the principle of the biosphere compatibility as the core prerequisite for the symbiotic co-existence of man and nature. Caring treatment of the biosphere, termination of its excessive exploitation, analysis of the ratio between the biospheric potential of specific areas…

  12. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud

  13. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud

  14. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  15. Carbon 13 exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Thompson, M. V.; Randerson, J. T.; MalmströM, C. M.; Vitousek, P. M.; Collatz, G. James; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A. S.; Badeck, F.; John, J.

    1997-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the gross 12C and 13C exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and their influence on the δ13C variations in the atmosphere. The photosynthetic discrimination Δ against 13C is derived from a biophysical model coupled to a general circulation model [Sellers et al., 1996a], where stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation are determined simultaneously with the ambient climate. The δ13C of the respired carbon is calculated by a biogeochemical model [Potter et al., 1993; Randerson et al., 1996] as the sum of the contributions from compartments with varying ages. The global flux-weighted mean photosynthetic discrimination is 12-16‰, which is lower than previous estimates. Factors that lower the discrimination are reduced stomatal conductance and C4 photosynthesis. The decreasing atmospheric δ13C causes an isotopic disequilibrium between the outgoing and incoming fluxes; the disequilibrium is ˜0.33‰ for 1988. The disequilibrium is higher than previous estimates because it accounts for the lifetime of trees and for the ages rather than turnover times of the biospheric pools. The atmospheric δ13C signature resulting from the biospheric fluxes is investigated using a three-dimensional atmospheric tracer model. The isotopic disequilibrium alone produces a hemispheric difference of ˜0.02‰ in atmospheric δ13C, comparable to the signal from a hypothetical carbon sink of 0.5 Gt C yr-1 into the midlatitude northern hemisphere biosphere. However, the rectifier effect, due to the seasonal covariation of CO2 fluxes and height of the atmospheric boundary layer, yields a background δ13C gradient of the opposite sign. These effects nearly cancel thus favoring a stronger net biospheric uptake than without the background CO2 gradient. Our analysis of the globally averaged carbon budget for the decade of the 1980s indicates that the biospheric uptake of fossil fuel CO2 is likely to be greater than the oceanic uptake; the

  16. Coastal Chile Shaded Relief View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-04

    This color-coded shaded relief view from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission of coastal Chile indicates the epicenter red marker of the 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010, just offshore of the Maule region in the Bahia de Chanco.

  17. Women and Politics in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  18. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Treesearch

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  19. Drivers and patterns of land biosphere carbon balance reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Stehfest, Elke; van Minnen, Jelle G.; Strengers, Bart; von Bloh, Werner; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Kram, Tom; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The carbon balance of the land biosphere is the result of complex interactions between land, atmosphere and oceans, including climatic change, carbon dioxide fertilization and land-use change. While the land biosphere currently absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, this carbon balance might be reversed under climate and land-use change (‘carbon balance reversal’). A carbon balance reversal would render climate mitigation much more difficult, as net negative emissions would be needed to even stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We investigate the robustness of the land biosphere carbon sink under different socio-economic pathways by systematically varying climate sensitivity, spatial patterns of climate change and resulting land-use changes. For this, we employ a modelling framework designed to account for all relevant feedback mechanisms by coupling the integrated assessment model IMAGE with the process-based dynamic vegetation, hydrology and crop growth model LPJmL. We find that carbon balance reversal can occur under a broad range of forcings and is connected to changes in tree cover and soil carbon mainly in northern latitudes. These changes are largely a consequence of vegetation responses to varying climate and only partially of land-use change and the rate of climate change. Spatial patterns of climate change as deduced from different climate models, substantially determine how much pressure in terms of global warming and land-use change the land biosphere will tolerate before the carbon balance is reversed. A reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance can occur as early as 2030, although at very low probability, and should be considered in the design of so-called peak-and-decline strategies.

  20. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  1. Group dynamics challenges: Insights from Biosphere 2 experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Gray, Kathelin; Allen, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups is vital for long duration space exploration/habitation and for terrestrial CELSS (Controlled Environmental Life Support System) facilities with human participants. Biosphere 2 had important differences and shares some key commonalities with both Antarctic and space environments. There were a multitude of stress factors during the first two year closure experiment as well as mitigating factors. A helpful tool used at Biosphere 2 was the work of W.R. Bion who identified two competing modalities of behavior in small groups. Task-oriented groups are governed by conscious acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time and resources, and intelligent management of challenges. The opposing unconscious mode, the "basic-assumption" ("group animal") group, manifests through Dependency/Kill the Leader, Fight/Flight and Pairing. These unconscious dynamics undermine and can defeat the task group's goal. The biospherians experienced some dynamics seen in other isolated teams: factions developing reflecting personal chemistry and disagreements on overall mission procedures. These conflicts were exacerbated by external power struggles which enlisted support of those inside. Nevertheless, the crew evolved a coherent, creative life style to deal with some of the deprivations of isolation. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 vividly illustrates both vicissitudes and management of group dynamics. The crew overrode inevitable frictions to creatively manage both operational and research demands and opportunities of the facility, thus staying 'on task' in Bion's group dynamics terminology. The understanding that Biosphere 2 was their life support system may also have helped the mission to succeed. Insights from the Biosphere 2 experience can help space and remote missions cope successfully with the inherent challenges of small, isolated crews.

  2. WEB-DHM: A distributed biosphere hydrological model developed by coupling a simple biosphere scheme with a hillslope hydrological model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The coupling of land surface models and hydrological models potentially improves the land surface representation, benefiting both the streamflow prediction capabilities as well as providing improved estimates of water and energy fluxes into the atmosphere. In this study, the simple biosphere model 2...

  3. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A

  4. Quantification of Biosphere and Anthropogenic CO2 using WRF-VPRM Mesoscale Transport and Biosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroensan, A.; Ahmadov, R.; Petron, G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Kretschmer, R.; Gerbig, C.; Olsen, L. M.; Stanier, C. O.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding of carbon dioxide (CO2) regional sources and sinks is crucial for estimating current and future carbon budgets. Here, we evaluate the skill of a diagnostic biosphere model, Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model, VPRM, online-coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF to simulate CO2 biosphere fluxes and total CO2 concentrations in the Midwest, USA with high spatial resolution (4km x 4km horizontally, 30 vertical levels of which 9 are below 1.5 km). Extensive evaluation data and bottom up inventories are available for this area and period from the Mid Continent Intensive (e.g. RING2 measurements, http://www.ring2.psu.edu/) Preliminary results of July 2008 yield average net fluxes over the State of Iowa of NEE in June, July, and August 2008 of -0.7 µmol/m2, -5.8 µmol/m2, and -6.3 µmol/m2, respectively. Results at two Ameriflux sites in Ames, Iowa (Brook Field sites 10 and 11), with the current VPRM parameters simulated lower GEE and respiration fluxes compared to fluxes of NOAA Carbon Tracker products and observations. While absolute values of gross fluxes in WRF-VPRM are lower than the limited observations and Carbon Tracker, the net flux in WRF-VPRM generally exceeds that of Carbon Tracker for the summer 2008 period. CO2 concentrations simulated with the above fluxes and 4-km WRF-VPRM were compared to hourly CO2 data from NOAA tall tower at West Branch Iowa (WBI). Vulcan anthropogenic emissions (Gurney, 2009) were used included as well together with initial condition and boundary condition from Carbon Tracker (Peters et al, 2007) so as to give a simulated total CO2 concentration. Two planetary boundary layer schemes, YSU and MYJ, in WRF version 3.0.1 were tested in these CO2 simulations. The MYJ scheme predicted better results for wind speed and wind direction than YSU scheme. When compared to CO2 measurement at WBI (hourly average at 30m, 99m, and 379m above ground), both schemes performed similarly, with the

  5. Artificial biospheres as a model for global ecology on planet Earth.

    PubMed

    Allen, J

    2000-01-01

    Artificial biospheres of the scale and complexity of Biosphere 2 can only work with coordinated rigorous design at each level of ecology: biospheres, biomes, bioregions, ecosystems, communities, patches, phases, physical-chemical functions, guilds, populations, organisms, and cells (both eucaryotic and procaryotic). This article reviews these theoretical concepts and provides examples of how this structure was applied to the design and development of Biosphere 2. In addition to this ecological engineering design, the addition of humans as inhabitants in the closed system required design of ethnological patterns and of technical and cybernetic systems for meeting specifically human requirements of labor efficiency, climate, nutrition, wastewater recycle, and pure air and water. Ecological levels of biospheric complexity can be directly applied to studies of the Earth's biosphere and, in fact, must be used to understand complex biospheric processes.

  6. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  7. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  8. Evaluation of Features, Events, and Processes (FEP) for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek; P. Rogers

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of biosphere features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the corresponding technical basis for the excluded FEPs and the descriptions of how the included FEPs were incorporated in the biosphere model. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations at 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report concern characteristics of the reference biosphere, the receptor, and the environmental transport and receptor exposure pathways for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios considered in biosphere modeling. This revision provides the summary of the implementation of included FEPs in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included); for excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This report is one of the 10 documents constituting the biosphere model documentation suite. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' describes in detail the biosphere conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters and their development. Outputs from these six reports are used in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis and Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' to generate the biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for

  9. An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D

    2011-12-01

    We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.

  10. Cytonuclear genetics of experimental fish hybrid zones inside Biosphere 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Avise, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Two species of mosquitofish (family Poeciliidae) known to hybridize in nature were introduced into freshwater habitats inside Biosphere 2, and their population genetics were monitored after 2 years. Within four to six generations, nuclear and cytoplasmic markers characteristic of Gambusia holbrooki had risen greatly in frequency, although some Gambusia affinis alleles and haplotypes were retained primarily in recombinant genotypes, indicative of introgressive hybridization. The temporal cytonuclear dynamics proved similar to population genetic changes observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations outside of Biosphere 2, thus indicating strong directional selection favoring G. holbrooki genotypes across the range of environments monitored. When interpreted in the context of species-specific population demographies observed previously, results suggest that the extremely rapid evolution in these zones of secondary contact is attributable primarily to species differences in life-history traits.

  11. Exploration and protection of Europa's biosphere: implications of permeable ice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Europa has become a high-priority objective for exploration because it may harbor life. Strategic planning for its exploration has been predicated on an extreme model in which the expected oceanic biosphere lies under a thick ice crust, buried too deep to be reached in the foreseeable future, which would beg the question of whether other active satellites might be more realistic objectives. However, Europa's ice may in fact be permeable, with very different implications for the possibilities for life and for mission planning. A biosphere may extend up to near the surface, making life far more readily accessible to exploration while at the same time making it vulnerable to contamination. The chances of finding life on Europa are substantially improved while the need for planetary protection becomes essential. The new National Research Council planetary protection study will need to go beyond its current mandate if meaningful standards are to be put in place. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. Cambrian explosion triggered by geosphere-biosphere feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bloh, Werner; Bounama, Christine; Franck, Siegfried

    2003-09-01

    A new hypothesis for the cause of the Cambrian explosion is presented. For that the evolution of the planet Earth is described by the co-evolution of the geosphere-biosphere system. Here we specify our previously published Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle by introducing three different types of biosphere: procaryotes, eucaryotes, and complex multicellular life. They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows. The biotic enhancement of silicate weathering by complex multicellular life adds an additional feedback to the system and triggers the Cambrian explosion. The Cambrian explosion is characterized by a sudden increase of biomass and a rapid cooling, which amplified the spread of complex multicellular life. Cooling events in the Neoproterozoic, however, could force a premature appearance of complex multicellular life.

  13. Lunar subsurface architecture enhanced by artificial biosphere concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassi, Jason D.; Rocha, Carlos J.; Carr, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of artificial biosphere technology with subselene architecture can create a life-enhancing, productive habitat that is safe from solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations while maximizing resources brought from Earth and derived from lunar regolith. In the short term, the resulting biotectural (biosphere and architectural) designs will not only make the structures more habitable, productive, and manageable, but will ultimately provide the self-sufficiency factors necessary for the mature lunar settlement. From a long-term perspective, this biotecture approach to astronautics and extraterrestrial development (1) helps reduce mass lift requirements, (2) contributes to habitat self-sufficiency, and (3) actualizes at least one philosophy of solar system exploration, which is to exploit nonterrestrial resources in an effort to conserve our natural resources on this planet.

  14. Impact of geoengineering schemes on the terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Thompson, S.; Duffy, P. B.; Caldeira, K.; Delire, C.

    2002-11-01

    Climate stabilization via ``Geoengineering'' schemes seek to mitigate climate change due to increased greenhouse gases by compensating reduction in solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on terrestrial biosphere using equilibrium simulations from a coupled atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere model. Climate stabilization would tend to limit changes in vegetation distribution brought on by climate change, but would not prevent CO2-induced changes in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) or biomass; indeed, if CO2 fertilization is significant, then a climate-stabilized world could have higher NPP than our current world. Nevertheless, there are many reasons why geoengineering is not a preferred option for climate stabilization.

  15. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-02-10

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  16. [Chile: social protection in health].

    PubMed

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  17. Technical Review of the Laboratory Biosphere Closed Ecological System Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W.; van Thillo, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J.; Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.

    The "Laboratory Biosphere", a new closed ecological system facility in Santa Fe, New Mexico (USA) has been constructed and became operational in May 2002. Built and operated by the Global Ecotechnics consortium (Biosphere Technologies and Biosphere Foundation with Biospheric Design Inc., and the Institute of Ecotechnics), the research apparatus for intensive crop growth, biogeochemical cycle dynamics and recycling of inedible crop biomass comprises a sealed cylindrical steel chamber and attached variable volume chamber (lung) to prevent pressures caused by the expansion and contraction of the contained air. The cylindrical growing chamber is 3.7m (12 feet) long and 3.7m (12 foot) diameter, giving an internal volume of 34 m3 (1200 ft 3 ). The two crop growth beds cover 5.5 m2, with a soil depth of 0.3m (12 inches), with 12 x 1000 watt high-pressure sodium lights capable of variable lighting of 40-70 mol per m2 per day. A small soil bed reactor in the chamber can be activated to help with metabolism of chamber trace gases. The volume of the attached variable volume chamber (lung) can range between 0-11 m3 (0-400 ft 3 ). Evapotranspired and soil leachate water are collected, combined and recycled to water the planting beds. Sampling ports enable testing of water quality of leachate, condensate and irrigation water. Visual inspection windows provide views of the entire interior and growing beds. The chamber is also outfitted with an airlock to minimize air exchange when people enter and work in the chamber. Continuous sensors include atmospheric CO2 and oxygen, temperature, humidity, soil moisture, light level and water levels in reservoirs. Both "sniffer" (air ports) and "sipper" (water ports) will enable collection of water or air samples for detailed analysis. This paper reports on the development of this new soil-based bioregenerative life support closed system apparatus and its technical challenges and capabilities.

  18. Carbonyl Sulfide Serves as Tattletale for Biosphere Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, G.; Campbell, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, anthropogenic CO2 emissions over a geographic region can be calculated in several ways: 1) based on energy consumption using emission factors within city limits, 2) using 14CO2 as tracer for fossil CO2, and 3) subtracting the biosphere signal from observation (measured) CO2 data. In order to calculate the ecosystem CO2 emissions (respiration and photosynthesis), ecosystem models such as SiB, CASA, or others are used. However, it is not clear which is the best one to determine the ecosystem signal because they all give different results in terms of GPP. We first show simulations of biosphere CO2 given by SiB, CASA, and CAN-IBIS over central California. Each model gives different values of CO2 GPP. Using these values to determine fossil fuel CO2 contribution can give very different results. We suggest that COS can be used to determine which ecosystem model best represents the biosphere signal. Just like CO2, COS is taken up by photosynthesis but is not given off in respiration and can thus be used as a trace gas to estimate GPP. We begin with COS surface fluxes provided by SiB, CASA and CAN-IBIS for a 9km-resolution domain over the Bay Area of San Francisco and part of the San Joaquin Valley. Simulations using the atmospheric model WRF provide the meteorological data, which along with the COS fluxes, are used to run the transport model STEM over a 10-day period in March 2015. Simulations of COS mixing ratio based on the various surface flux models are compared to observed data available from several locations. The model that best represents COS uptake consequently also provides the most accurate simulation of CO2 biosphere signal, and is used to estimate fossil fuel CO2 emissions.

  19. SeaWiFS Third Anniversary Global Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    September 18,2000 is the third anniversary of the start of regular SeaWiFS operations of this remarkable planet called Earth. This SeaWiFS image is of the Global Biosphere depicting the ocean's long-term average phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration acquired between September 1997 and August 2000 combined with the SeaWiFS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over land during July 2000.

  20. Evolution of the Early Earth and Its Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of life on Earth is a rich tapestry of adaptation and innovation which was shaped, at least in part, by the changing surface environment of our planet. To the extent that all rocky planets have followed similar evolutionary paths, studies of our own biosphere can guide us in our search for extraterrestrial life. Understanding the nature, timing, and causes of long-term changes in the global environment is a key objective.

  1. Persistence of antifouling agents in the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Ranke, Johannes

    2002-04-01

    Risk indicators provide an interesting way to compare chemical substances with respect to the risks of their large-scaled release. The present study implies that, for antifouling agents used in commercial shipping, residence times in the marine biosphere are especially suitable to represent their inherent potential to cause exposure of organisms. A simple box model is described providing the possibility to estimate residence times in the marine biosphere from water-particle equilibrium partitioning constants and half-lives in water and sediment. Resulting residence times in the marine biosphere range from about 5 d (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) up to about 40,000 yr (copper). For an evaluation of the validity of the model, calculated values are compared with measured environmental concentrations. Remaining uncertainties are also discussed. The main purpose of the presented residence times is to serve as a basis for decisions in antifouling paint development or environmentally conscious purchasing of antifouling paints.

  2. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Terrestrial Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Thompson, S. L.; Duffy, P. B.; Caldeira, K. G.; Delire, C.

    2002-12-01

    Climate stabilization via "Geoengineering" schemes seek to mitigate climate change due to increased greenhouse gases by compensating reduction in solar radiation incident on earth's surface. Though the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing from greenhouse gases differs from that of sunlight, it was shown in recent studies that these schemes would largely mitigate regional or seasonal climate change for a doubling and quadrupling of the atmospheric CO2 content. In this study, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on terrestrial biosphere using equilibrium simulations from a coupled atmosphere-terrestrial biosphere model (CCM3-IBIS). Geoengineering schemes would tend to limit changes in vegetation distribution brought on by climate change, but would not prevent CO2 -induced changes in NPP or biomass; indeed, if CO2 fertilization is significant, then a climate-stabilized world could have higher NPP than our current world. Nevertheless, there are many reasons why geoengineering is not a preferred option for climate stabilization.Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Terrestrial Biosphere

  3. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  4. [Autochthonous cutaneous larva migrans in Chile. A case report].

    PubMed

    González F, Carmen G; Galilea O, Natalia M; Pizarro C, Kharla

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is the most common tropical dermatitis. It is caused by nematodes hosted by cats and dogs. Humans act as an accidental reservoir. Clinically, it manifests as a slow-growing, elevated linear, erythematous and pruritic plaque, on the sole of the foot. Diagnosis is clinical, based on the morphology of the lesion associated with recent travel to endemic areas. To present an autochthonous case of CLM in Chile. A 3-year-old boy, presented with a linear lesion on his foot, clinically compatible with CLM. He received a single dose of ivermectin and had complete resolution of the lesion. The patient had no history of travel outside of Chile, but had contact with dogs. CLM is classically described as travellers dermatitis. We present this case, because there are no previous reports of CLM acquired in Chile by children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Qualitative properties of the minimal model of carbon circulation in the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestunov, Aleksandr; Fedotov, Anatoliy; Medvedev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Substantial changes in the biosphere during recent decades have caused legitimate concern in the international community. The fact that feedbacks between the atmospheric CO2 concentration, global temperature, permafrost, ocean CO2 concentration and air humidity increases the risk of catastrophic phenomena on the planetary scale. The precautionary principle allows us to consider greenhouse effect using the mathematical models of the biosphere-climate system. Minimal models do not allow us to make a quantitative description of the "biosphere-climate" system dynamics, which is determined by the aggregate effect of the set of known climatic and biosphere processes. However, the study of such models makes it possible to understand the qualitative mechanisms of biosphere processes and to evaluate their possible consequences. The global minimal model of long-term dynamics of carbon in biosphere is considered basing on assumption that anthropogenous carbon emissions in atmosphere are absent [1]. Qualitative analysis of the model shows that there exists a set of model parameters (taken from the current estimation ranges), such that the system becomes unstable. It is also shown that external influences on the carbon circulation can lead either to degradation of the biosphere or to global temperature change [2]. This work is aimed at revealing the conditions under which the biosphere model can become unstable, which can result in catastrophic changes in the Earth's biogeocenoses. The minimal model of the biosphere-climate system describes an improbable, but, nevertheless, a possible worst-case scenario of the biosphere evolution takes into consideration only the most dangerous biosphere mechanisms and ignores some climate feedbacks (such as transpiration). This work demonstrates the possibility of implementing the trigger mode in the biosphere, which can lead to dramatic changes in the state of the biosphere even without additional burning of fossil fuels. This mode

  6. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  7. Using observations to evaluate biosphere-atmosphere interactions in models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Julia; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed H.; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions influence the hydrologic cycle by altering climate and weather patterns (Charney, 1975; Koster et al., 2006; Seneviratne et al., 2006), contributing up to 30% of precipitation and radiation variability in certain regions (Green et al., 2017). They have been shown to contribute to the persistence of drought in Europe (Seneviratne et al., 2006), as well as to increase rainfall in the Amazon (Spracklen et al., 2012). Thus, a true representation of these feedbacks in Earth System Models (ESMs) is crucial for accurate forecasting and planning. However, it has been difficult to validate the performance of ESMs since often-times surface and atmospheric flux data are scarce and/or difficult to observe. In this study, we use the results of a new global observational study (using remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence to represent the biosphere flux) (Green et al., 2017) to determine how well a suite of 13 ESMs capture biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. We perform a Conditional Multivariate Granger Causality analysis in the frequency domain with radiation, precipitation and temperature as atmospheric inputs and GPP as the biospheric input. Performing the analysis in the frequency domain allows for separation of feedbacks at different time-scales (subseasonal, seasonal or interannual). Our findings can be used to determine whether there is agreement between models, as well as, to pinpoint regions or time-scales of model bias or inaccuracy, which will provide insight on potential improvement. We demonstrate that in addition to the well-known problem of convective parameterization over land in models, the main issue in representing feedbacks between the land and the atmosphere is due to the misrepresentation of water stress. These results provide a direct quantitative assessment of feedbacks in models and how to improve them. References: Charney, J.G. Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological

  8. Earth's Early Biosphere and the Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David

    2004-01-01

    Our biosphere has altered the global environment principally by influencing the chemistry of those elements most important for life, e g., C, N, S, O, P and transition metals (e.g., Fe and Mn). The coupling of oxygenic photosynthesis with the burial in sediments of photosynthetic organic matter, and with the escape of H2 to space, has increased the state of oxidation of the Oceans and atmosphere. It has also created highly reduced conditions within sedimentary rocks that have also extensively affected the geochemistry of several elements. The decline of volcanism during Earth's history reduced the flow of reduced chemical species that reacted with photosynthetically produced O2. The long-term net accumulation of photosynthetic O2 via biogeochemical processes has profoundly influenced our atmosphere and biosphere, as evidenced by the O2 levels required for algae, multicellular life and certain modem aerobic bacteria to exist. When our biosphere developed photosynthesis, it tapped into an energy resource that was much larger than the energy available from oxidation-reduction reactions associated with weathering and hydrothermal activity. Today, hydrothermal sources deliver globally (0.13-1.1)x10(exp l2) mol yr(sup -1) of reduced S, Fe(2+), Mn(2+), H2 and CH4; this is estimated to sustain at most about (0.2-2)xl0(exp 12)mol C yr(sup -1) of organic carbon production by chemautotrophic microorganisms. In contrast, global photosynthetic productivity is estimated to be 9000x10(exp 12) mol C yr(sup -1). Thus, even though global thermal fluxes were greater in the distant geologic past than today, the onset of oxygenic photosynthesis probably increased global organic productivity by some two or more orders of magnitude. This enormous productivity materialized principally because oxygenic photosynthesizers unleashed a virtually unlimited supply of reduced H that forever freed life from its sole dependence upon abiotic sources of reducing power such as hydrothermal emanations

  9. Putting the Deep Biosphere on the Map for Oceanography Courses: Gas Hydrates As a Case Study for the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.

  10. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  11. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  12. The Cretaceous iron belt of northern Chile: role of oceanic plates, a superplume event, and a major shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Oyarzún, Jorge; Ménard, Jean Jacques; Lillo, Javier

    2003-08-01

    The Cretaceous constitutes a turning point in the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic history of Chile. The geological evidence indicates that a major change occurred in late Neocomian time when superplume emplacement (Mid-Pacific Superplume) and plate reorganization processes took place in the Pacific. The superplume event resulted in a major ridge-push force resulting in increased coupling between the subducting and overriding plates. This completely changed the tectonic setting of Chile ending the Early Cretaceous extensional period (aborted rifting in the back-arc basin), and increasing stress at a crustal scale. As a consequence, overpressurized dioritic magmas were pushed up mainly along the best possible structural path in northern Chile, i.e., the Atacama Fault Zone, eventually forming a +500-km-long belt of Kiruna-type iron deposits with reserves of ~2,000 Mt (60% Fe), a unique case in Chile's geological history.

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  14. A comparison between the example reference biosphere model ERB 2B and a process-based model: simulation of a natural release scenario.

    PubMed

    Almahayni, T

    2014-12-01

    The BIOMASS methodology was developed with the objective of constructing defensible assessment biospheres for assessing potential radiological impacts of radioactive waste repositories. To this end, a set of Example Reference Biospheres were developed to demonstrate the use of the methodology and to provide an international point of reference. In this paper, the performance of the Example Reference Biosphere model ERB 2B associated with the natural release scenario, discharge of contaminated groundwater to the surface environment, was evaluated by comparing its long-term projections of radionuclide dynamics and distribution in a soil-plant system to those of a process-based, transient advection-dispersion model (AD). The models were parametrised with data characteristic of a typical rainfed winter wheat crop grown on a sandy loam soil under temperate climate conditions. Three safety-relevant radionuclides, (99)Tc, (129)I and (237)Np with different degree of sorption were selected for the study. Although the models were driven by the same hydraulic (soil moisture content and water fluxes) and radiological (Kds) input data, their projections were remarkably different. On one hand, both models were able to capture short and long-term variation in activity concentration in the subsoil compartment. On the other hand, the Reference Biosphere model did not project any radionuclide accumulation in the topsoil and crop compartments. This behaviour would underestimate the radiological exposure under natural release scenarios. The results highlight the potential role deep roots play in soil-to-plant transfer under a natural release scenario where radionuclides are released into the subsoil. When considering the relative activity and root depth profiles within the soil column, much of the radioactivity was taken up into the crop from the subsoil compartment. Further improvements were suggested to address the limitations of the Reference Biosphere model presented in this paper

  15. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  16. Estimating the seasonal carbon source-sink geography of a natural, steady-state terrestrial biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, Elgene O.

    1988-01-01

    The estimation of the seasonal dynamics of biospheric-carbon sources and sinks to be used as an input to global atmospheric CO2 studies and models is discussed. An ecological biosphere model is given and the advantages of the model are examined. Monthly maps of estimated biospheric carbon source and sink regions and estimates of total carbon fluxes are presented for an equilibrium terrestrial biosphere. The results are compared with those from other models. It is suggested that, despite maximum variations of atmospheric CO2 in boreal latitudes, the enormous contributions of tropical wet-dry regions to global atmospheric CO2 seasonality can not be ignored.

  17. Influence of geoengineered climate on the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Naik, Vaishali; Wuebbles, Donald J; Delucia, Evan H; Foley, Jonathan A

    2003-09-01

    Various geoengineering schemes have been proposed to counteract anthropogenically induced climate change. In a previous study, it was suggested that a 1.8% reduction in solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface could noticeably reduce regional and seasonal climate change from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the response of the terrestrial biosphere to reduced solar radiation in a CO2-rich climate was not investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that a reduction in incident solar radiation in a Doubled CO2 atmosphere will diminish the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems, potentially accelerating the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. We used a dynamic global ecosystem model, the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), to investigate this hypothesis in an unperturbed climatology. While this simplified modeling framework effectively separated the influence of CO2 and sunlight on the terrestrial biosphere, it did not consider the complex feedbacks within the Earth's climate system. Our analysis indicated that compared to a Doubled CO2 scenario, reduction in incident solar radiation by 1.8% in a double CO2 world will have negligible impact on the NPP of terrestrial ecosystems. There were, however, spatial variations in the response of NPP-engineered solar radiation. While productivity decreased by less than 2% in the tropical and boreal forests as hypothesized, it increased by a similar percentage in the temperate deciduous forests and grasslands. This increase in productivity was attributed to an approximately 1% reduction in evapotranspiration in the Geoengineered scenario relative to the Doubled CO2 scenario. Our initial hypothesis was rejected because of unanticipated effects of engineered solar radiation on the hydrologic cycle. However, any geoengineering approaches that reduce incident solar radiation need to be thoroughly analyzed in view of the implications on ecosystem productivity and the hydrologic cycle.

  18. Crucial crises in biology: life in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R

    1998-12-01

    The origin and evolution of life on Earth are the result of a series of crises that have taken place on the planet over about 4500 millions of years since it originated. Biopoiesis (origin of life), ecopoiesis (origin of ecosystems) and the first ecosystems (stromatolites and microbial mats), as well as eukaryopoiesis (origin of nucleated cells) are revised. The paper then focuses on the study of the deep biosphere, describing ecosystems never found before, which are independent of solar radiation and have changed previous assumptions about the requirements of life; even the concept of biosphere, as Vernadsky defined it, has increased its scope. Since the discovery, in 1987, of bacteria growing in the crevices of rocks at 500 m deep, in boreholes drilled near the Savanna River, Aiken, South Carolina, other bacteria have been found in the deep subsurface reaching depths of about 3 km (e.g., in the Columbia River Basalt Group, near Richland, Washington state), in an anaerobic, hot, high-pressure environment. Some kinds of microorganisms can thrive at such depths, living in many cases a geochemical existence, by using very specialized metabolisms, which depend on the local environments. The existence of organisms independent from photosynthetic production is the most outstanding, novel feature of the deep biosphere. Living beings might not need other energy and chemical sources than those which occur in the development of all planetary bodies. Life, therefore, could even be an ineluctable outcome of planetary evolution and, as a corollary, a natural continuation of the usual development of physical phenomena in the universe.

  19. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  20. Terrestrial Biosphere Dynamics in the Climate System: Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J.; Whitlock, C.; Huntley, B.

    2002-12-01

    The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that climate change as large as is likely to occur in the next two centuries will drive change in the terrestrial biosphere that is both large and difficult to predict, or plan for. Many species, communities and ecosystems could experience rates of climate change, and "destination climates" that are unprecedented in their time on earth. The paleorecord also makes it clear that a wide range of possible climate system behavior, such as decades-long droughts, increases in large storm and flood frequency, and rapid sea level rise, all occurred repeatedly in the past, and for poorly understood reasons. These types of events, if they were to reoccur in the future, could have especially devastating impacts on biodiversity, both because their timing and spatial extent cannot be anticipated, and because the biota's natural defenses have been compromised by land-use, reductions in genetic flexibility, pollution, excess water utilization, invasive species, and other human influences. Vegetation disturbance (e.g., by disease, pests and fire) will undoubtedly be exacerbated by climate change (stress), but could also speed the rate at which terrestrial biosphere change takes place in the future. The paleoenvironmental record makes it clear that major scientific challenges include an improved ability to model regional biospheric change, both past and future. This in turn will be a prerequisite to obtaining realistic estimates of future biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks, and thus to obtaining better assessments of future climate change. These steps will help generate the improved understanding of climate variability that is needed to manage global biodiversity. However, the most troubling message from the paleoenvironmental record is that unchecked anthropogenic climate change could make the Earth's 6th major mass extinction unavoidable.

  1. Imprint of denitrifying bacteria on the global terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Benjamin Z; Bai, Edith

    2009-12-22

    Loss of nitrogen (N) from land limits the uptake and storage of atmospheric CO(2) by the biosphere, influencing Earth's climate system and myriads of the global ecological functions and services on which humans rely. Nitrogen can be lost in both dissolved and gaseous phases; however, the partitioning of these vectors remains controversial. Particularly uncertain is whether the bacterial conversion of plant available N to gaseous forms (denitrification) plays a major role in structuring global N supplies in the nonagrarian centers of Earth. Here, we use the isotope composition of N ((15)N/(14)N) to constrain the transfer of this nutrient from the land to the water and atmosphere. We report that the integrated (15)N/(14)N of the natural terrestrial biosphere is elevated with respect to that of atmospheric N inputs. This cannot be explained by preferential loss of (14)N to waterways; rather, it reflects a history of low (15)N/(14)N gaseous N emissions to the atmosphere owing to denitrifying bacteria in the soil. Parameterizing a simple model with global N isotope data, we estimate that soil denitrification (including N(2)) accounts for approximately 1/3 of the total N lost from the unmanaged terrestrial biosphere. Applying this fraction to estimates of N inputs, N(2)O and NO(x) fluxes, we calculate that approximately 28 Tg of N are lost annually via N(2) efflux from the natural soil. These results place isotopic constraints on the widely held belief that denitrifying bacteria account for a significant fraction of the missing N in the global N cycle.

  2. The deep, hot biosphere: Twenty-five years of retrospection.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Poudel, Saroj; Stamps, Blake W; Boyd, Eric S; Spear, John R

    2017-07-03

    Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings. Furthermore, it has become apparent that much of this life is dependent on lithogenically sourced high-energy compounds to sustain productivity. A vast diversity of uncultivated microorganisms has been detected in subsurface environments, and we show that H2, CH4, and CO feature prominently in many of their predicted metabolisms. Despite 25 years of intense study, key questions remain on life in the deep subsurface, including whether it is endemic and the extent of its involvement in the anaerobic formation and degradation of hydrocarbons. Emergent data from cultivation and next-generation sequencing approaches continue to provide promising new hints to answer these questions. As Gold suggested, and as has become increasingly evident, to better understand the subsurface is critical to further understanding the Earth, life, the evolution of life, and the potential for life elsewhere. To this end, we suggest the need to develop a robust network of interdisciplinary scientists and accessible field sites for long-term monitoring of the Earth's subsurface in the form of a deep subsurface microbiome initiative.

  3. Imprint of denitrifying bacteria on the global terrestrial biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Bai, Edith

    2009-01-01

    Loss of nitrogen (N) from land limits the uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2 by the biosphere, influencing Earth's climate system and myriads of the global ecological functions and services on which humans rely. Nitrogen can be lost in both dissolved and gaseous phases; however, the partitioning of these vectors remains controversial. Particularly uncertain is whether the bacterial conversion of plant available N to gaseous forms (denitrification) plays a major role in structuring global N supplies in the nonagrarian centers of Earth. Here, we use the isotope composition of N (15N/14N) to constrain the transfer of this nutrient from the land to the water and atmosphere. We report that the integrated 15N/14N of the natural terrestrial biosphere is elevated with respect to that of atmospheric N inputs. This cannot be explained by preferential loss of 14N to waterways; rather, it reflects a history of low 15N/14N gaseous N emissions to the atmosphere owing to denitrifying bacteria in the soil. Parameterizing a simple model with global N isotope data, we estimate that soil denitrification (including N2) accounts for ≈1/3 of the total N lost from the unmanaged terrestrial biosphere. Applying this fraction to estimates of N inputs, N2O and NOx fluxes, we calculate that ≈28 Tg of N are lost annually via N2 efflux from the natural soil. These results place isotopic constraints on the widely held belief that denitrifying bacteria account for a significant fraction of the missing N in the global N cycle. PMID:19995974

  4. Lipids biomarkers of the deep terrestrial subsurface biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Momper, L.; Schubotz, F.; Summons, R. E.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are key tools for the interpretation of past and present environments, and specifically, intact polar lipids (IPLs) reflect contributions from the living biosphere. While several studies have documented intact polar lipid (IPL) distributions in the marine subsurface, the organic geochemistry of terrestrial subsurface communities remains poorly characterized. Here we present IPL distributions from a portal into deep terrestrial biosphere, the former Homestake Mine, SD USA. Interpretation of IPL distributions can be hampered by a lack of comparative pure culture information or comparative molecular and geochemical data, thus we performed IPL analysis in conjunction with detailed geochemistry and DNA sequencing. A large diversity of lipid structures is observed including phospholipids, aminolipids, glycolipids, GDGTs, and a number of unidentified compounds. Variability in lipid distributions is not random with individual samples clustering based on physical and geochemical parameters. For instance, biofilm samples contain abundant aminolipids relative to filtered subsurface fluid samples. Does this difference reflect phosphorus scarcity in the biofilms, or production of aminolipids by specific microbial phyla? Using comparative analysis between the IPL, molecular, and geochemical datasets we address this, and similar questions, as well as identify potential microbial sources of unknown biomarkers. In the case of the aminolipids, we observe strong covariation between the lipid distribution and that of the bacteroidetes, epsilonproteobacteria, and spirochaetes, but no correlation with P concentration. We can also extend this comparison globally; asking how similar IPL distributions of the deep terrestrial subsurface are previously studied sites. A surprising finding from this work is the total lack of similarity between deep marine and terrestrial subsurface sites. This contribution will help to define the phylogenetic and geochemical mechanisms driving

  5. Effects of Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts on Planetary Biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, Rolando; Martín, Osmel; Peñate, Liuba; Horvath, Jorge

    We examine the short-term effects that a galactic Gamma Ray Burst would cause on a planetary biosphere. The immediate environmental perturbation would arise due to the emission of an aurora like spectrum in the middle and low atmosphere, delivering at planet's surface a brief but intense ultraviolet flash. We calculated potential damages to both the photosynthetic and DNA apparatuses of unicellular organisms. We conclude that if the progenitor is 1-2 kiloparsec distant in the Milky Way, its main short-term bio-effect will be radiation damage in the photosynthetic machinery rather than in the genome.

  6. User's manual for biosphere and dose simulation program (Biodose)

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.J.; Bogar, G.P.

    1980-01-04

    This user's manual describes the BIOsphere Transport and DOSE program (BIODOSE) prepared for, and delivered to, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) by the Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC). BIODOSE simulates the transport of radionuclides in surface water systems and the resulting concentration of nuclides in the food chain. It includes the prediction of human dosage risks for individuals and for populations resulting from release of radionuclides into surface water or well water. The BIODOSE program was designed for easy use, including standard defaults and a flexible input scheme.

  7. Preliminary pathway analysis for YMP preclosure biosphere dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Liu, N.; Tappen, J.J.; Tung, C.H.

    1998-05-13

    The preliminary preclosure biosphere dose assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) involves the calculation of a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer living near the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Eight radionuclides, H-3, Co-60, Kr-85, Sr-90, Ru-106, I-129, Cs-134, and Cs-137, are considered in this study. Radiation doses resulting from unit release rates of these radionuclides are analyzed. Total dose has been broken down into components that result from various exposure pathways. By using this approach, the most important pathways that deliver a radiation dose to a subsistence farmer can be clearly identified.

  8. Tracing the microbial biosphere into the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalicchio, Marcello; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Birgel, Daniel; Lozar, Francesca; Peckmann, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), one of the largest environmental crises in Earth history, occurred in the Mediterranean Basin about 6 Ma ago. The isolation of the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean caused the transformation of the Mediterranean sea into a giant salina. The establishment of harsh conditions (hypersalinity and anoxia) in the water mass had a strong impact on the aquatic biosphere, resulting in the apparent disappearance of many marine biota. This aspect is however controversial, mostly because of the finding of fossils of biota that actually survived the onset of the MSC. To trace the response of life to this catastrophic event, we studied the microbial biosphere (both body fossils and molecular fossils) archived in the sediments straddling the MSC onset (shales, carbonates and sulphates) from marginal subbasins (Piedmont Basin, northern Italy, and Nijar Basin, southern Spain). Despite the significant reduction of calcareous plankton, the progressive rise of other microorganisms (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) is documented in the studied sediments at the MSC onset. These microorganisms include remains of euryhaline and stenohaline diatoms and filamentous microfossils interpreted as vacuolated sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. This fossil assemblage, which typifies both marginal (gypsum) and more distal (carbonates and shale) deposits, indicates conditions of high primary productivity in the surface waters, favoured by increased nutrient influx in the course of high riverine runoff. Molecular fossils allow tracing of the microbial biosphere into the geological past. The rise of algal compounds (e.g. dinosterol) in the basal MSC deposits (gypsum, carbonate and shales), accompanied by the simultaneous increase of terrigenous organic material (n-alkanes), agree with the eutrophication of the basin. In addition, the MSC deposits show an instant and significant increase of archaeal biomarkers, including the archaeal membrane lipids archaeol and extended

  9. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-22

    9 Julieta Palma and Raúl Urzúa, Anti-Poverty Policies and Citizenry: The " Chile Solidario" Experience, United Nations Educational , Scientific and... Chile , May 21, 2010, available at http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/discursos/2010/05/21/mensaje-presidencial-del-21-de-mayo.htm; “ Chile : Education ... Chile is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in persons for commercial sexual and labor exploitation. While Chile has made

  10. Evaluating the Response of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Significant Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiach, I.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.

    2011-12-01

    The response of terrestrial fluxes of energy, water, and carbon to drought is evaluated. Major droughts should be clearly evident in reanalyzed precipitation data, although this is not always the case. With reduced precipitation we can expect a suppression in Gross Primary Photosynthesis (GPP) if physiological stress is sufficient, with atttendant changes in energy partitioning due to stomatal closure. There may also be a response in respiratory release of CO2 with temperature increase. This study aimed to investigate the behavior of the terrestrial biosphere using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB3) during and following times of drought and to identify any model responses inconsistent with observational relationships. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was evaluated from 1983 to 2006 in order to evaluate historical drought maps, and to facilitate a qualitative analysis of modeled drought behavior. Standardized and raw anomaly maps were produced for modeled physiological variables (GPP, transpiration, respiration, heat fluxes, carbon flux, and stress factors) in order to determine general response patterns for comparison with observations. The SiB model was determined to be generally accurate in its representation of significant drought, with regard to perturbations in Bowen ratio, GPP, and CO2 respiration. However, model response was heterogeneous, and did not always respond in a manner consistent with published descriptions of drought.

  11. Groundwater activity on Mars and implications for a deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, Joseph R.; Cuadros, Javier; Niles, Paul B.; Parnell, John; Deanne Rogers, A.; Wright, Shawn P.

    2013-02-01

    By the time eukaryotic life or photosynthesis evolved on Earth, the martian surface had become extremely inhospitable, but the subsurface of Mars could potentially have contained a vast microbial biosphere. Crustal fluids may have welled up from the subsurface to alter and cement surface sediments, potentially preserving clues to subsurface habitability. Here we present a conceptual model of subsurface habitability of Mars and evaluate evidence for groundwater upwelling in deep basins. Many ancient, deep basins lack evidence for groundwater activity. However, McLaughlin Crater, one of the deepest craters on Mars, contains evidence for Mg-Fe-bearing clays and carbonates that probably formed in an alkaline, groundwater-fed lacustrine setting. This environment strongly contrasts with the acidic, water-limited environments implied by the presence of sulphate deposits that have previously been suggested to form owing to groundwater upwelling. Deposits formed as a result of groundwater upwelling on Mars, such as those in McLaughlin Crater, could preserve critical evidence of a deep biosphere on Mars. We suggest that groundwater upwelling on Mars may have occurred sporadically on local scales, rather than at regional or global scales.

  12. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Voytek, Mary A; Gronstal, Aaron L; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S; Sanford, Ward E; Horton, J Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S

    2012-03-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ∼35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ∼35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  13. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists—all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these “extreme” environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) “theme team” on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:23874326

  14. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaron L.; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, J. Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the ~35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact ~35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars.

  15. Biosphere 2 Center as a unique tool for environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Walter, Achim; Lambrecht, Susanne Carmen

    2004-04-01

    The Biosphere 2 Laboratory of Biosphere 2 Center, Arizona, is a unique, self-contained glasshouse fostering several mesocosms of tropical and subtropical regions on an area of 12,700 m2. It was constructed around 1990 to test whether human life is possible in this completely sealed, self-sustaining artificial ecosystem. Mainly due to overly rich organic soils, the initial mission failed in a spectacular manner that raised enormous disbelief in the scientific seriousness of the project. From 1995 to 2003, the facility had been operated by Columbia University under a completely new scientific management. The aim of the project had then been to conduct research in the field of 'experimental climate change science'. Climatic conditions within the mesocosms can be precisely controlled. In studies with elevated CO2, altered temperature and irrigation regimes performed in the rainforest, coral reef and agriforestry mesocosm, the facility had proven to be a valuable tool for global climate change research. Upon submission of this manuscript, Columbia University is relinquishing the management of this facility now although there was a contract to operate the facility until 2010, leaving it with an unclear destiny that might bring about anything from complete abandonment to a new flowering phase with a new destination.

  16. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  17. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  18. Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Orcutt, Beth N; Larowe, Douglas E; Biddle, Jennifer F; Colwell, Frederick S; Glazer, Brian T; Reese, Brandi Kiel; Kirkpatrick, John B; Lapham, Laura L; Mills, Heath J; Sylvan, Jason B; Wankel, Scott D; Wheat, C Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists-all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these "extreme" environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) "theme team" on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  19. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions.

  20. A computational framework for a database of terrestrial biosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Holger; Müller, Markus; Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Sierra, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    Most terrestrial biosphere models consist of a set of coupled ordinary first order differential equations. Each equation represents a pool containing carbon with a certain turnover rate. Although such models share some basic mathematical structures, they can have very different properties such as number of pools, cycling rates, and internal fluxes. We present a computational framework that helps analyze the structure and behavior of terrestrial biosphere models using as an example the process of soil organic matter decomposition. The same framework can also be used for other sub-processes such as carbon fixation or allocation. First, the models have to be fed into a database consisting of simple text files with a common structure. Then they are read in using Python and transformed into an internal 'Model Class' that can be used to automatically create an overview stating the model's structure, state variables, internal and external fluxes. SymPy, a Python library for symbolic mathematics, helps to also calculate the Jacobian matrix at possibly given steady states and the eigenvalues of this matrix. If complete parameter sets are available, the model can also be run using R to simulate its behavior under certain conditions and to support a deeper stability analysis. In this case, the framework is also able to provide phase-plane plots if appropriate. Furthermore, an overview of all the models in the database can be given to help identify their similarities and differences.

  1. Phosphorus cycling in the deep subseafloor biosphere at North Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defforey, D.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient involved both in functional and structural components of all living cells. This makes it an essential nutrient for life, including microbial life in the deep subseafloor habitat. Phosphorus availability in this environment is limited since it is thought to be mainly present in refractory mineral phases. However, recent estimates suggest that the deep biosphere may contain up to 1% of Earth's total biomass, which implies that microorganisms may possess mechanisms to harvest recalcitrant phosphorus compounds in this environment. This study sheds light on those mechanisms by investigating phosphorus cycling in deep open-ocean sediments using stable oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate. Furthermore, this study provides insight into changes in phosphorus bioavailability and mobility under a range of natural environmental conditions within the deep biosphere. Sediment samples were collected from four boreholes drilled during the IODP Expedition 336 to North Pond, an isolated sediment pond on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Sedimentary phosphorus compounds are characterized using sequential extractions (SEDEX), which separate them into five distinct pools. Phosphate from the various extracts are then concentrated, purified through a series of steps, then converted to silver phosphate, which is pyrolyzed and analyzed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). The isotopic signatures and/or fractionations associated with many of the potential reactions and transformations operating in the P cycle have been determined, and provide the basis for interpreting isotopic data that are obtained from the phosphate extracts.

  2. 1999 KUIPER PRIZE LECTURE. Cometary Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsemme, Armand H.

    2000-08-01

    Most of the biosphere was brought on the primitive Earth by an intense bombardment of comets. This included the atmosphere, the seawater and those volatile carbon compounds needed for the emergence of life. Comets were thrown into the inner Solar System by the strong perturbation induced by the growth of the giant planets' cores. The bulk of the Earth's bombardment came from those comets that accreted in Jupiter's zone, where the original deuterium enrichment had been diminished by steam coming from the hot, inner parts of the Solar System. This steam had condensed into icy chunks before their accretion into larger cometary nuclei. In contrast, comets that accreted in the zones of the outer giant planets kept their interstellar isotopic enrichments. Those comets contributed to the Earth's bombardment for a small amount only; they were mostly ejected into the Oort cloud and are the major source of the long-period comets observed today. The short-period comets, which come from the Kuiper Belt, should also have the same interstellar enrichment. The deuterium enrichment of seawater, accurately predicted by the previous scenario, has become one of the best telltales for the cometary origin of our biosphere. This cometary origin may have far-reaching cosmological consequences, in particular for the origin of life in other planetary systems.

  3. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  4. [Greenhouse effect and probable prospects: global catastrophe or optimization of the biosphere?].

    PubMed

    Puchkovskiĭ, S V

    1996-01-01

    Author pay attention to polyvariantness of expectative consequences of hotbed effect, to evolution-biological aspect of problem, and to evolution prognosis difficulties. The perspective of biosphere and mankind survival is mutual adaptation in coevolution process. Creation of complete biological evolution theory is becoming more and more urgent. Evolution prognosis and biosphere management will be realized on evolution theory base.

  5. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  6. Chile: perspectives in school health.

    PubMed

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L

    1990-09-01

    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  7. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  8. Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Results Dermis and subcutaneous fat showed a necrotizing leukocytoclastic vasculitis , perivascular infi ltrates with lymphocytes and macrophages...eschar on the left leg of patient admitted for treatment of scrub typhus–like symptoms, Chile. A) Leukocytoclastic vasculitis . Hematoxylin and

  9. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  10. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The biosphere comprises the Earth s crust, atmosphere, oceans, and ice caps and the living organisms that survive within this habitat. The discoveries of barophilic chemolithoautotrophic thermophiles living deep within the crust and in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and psychrophiles in permafrost and deep within the Antarctic Ice Sheet indicate the Earth s biosphere is far more extensive than previously recognized. Molecular biomarkers and Bacterial Paleontology provide evidence that life appeared very early on the primitive Earth and the origin of the biosphere is closely linked with the emergence of life. The role of comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust in the delivery of water, organics and prebiotic chemicals has long been recognized. Deuterium enrichment of seawater and comets indicates that comets delivered oceans to the early Earth. Furthermore, the similarity of the D/H ratios and the chemical compositions of CI carbonaceous meteorites and comets indicate that the CI meteorites may be remnants of cometary nuclei with most volatiles removed. Comets, meteorites, and interstellar dust also contain complex organic chemicals, amino acids, macromolecules, and kerogen-like biopolymers and may have played a crucial role in the delivery of complex organics and prebiotic chemicals during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Gyr) period of heavy bombardment. The existence of indigenous microfossils of morphotypes of cyanobacteria in the CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm that life originated endogenously in the primitive oceans of early Earth may require re-consideration. Recent data on the hot (300-400 K) black crust on comet P/Halley and Stardust images of P/Wild 2 showing depressions, tall cliffs, and pinnacles, indicate the presence of thick, durable, dark crusts on comets. If cavities within the ice and crust sustain vapor pressures in excess of 10 millibar, then localized pools of liquid water and brines could exist within the comet. Since life

  11. Deep Biosphere Secrets of the Mediterranean Salt Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Lugli, Stefano; McGenity, Terry; Kuroda, Junichiro; Takai, Ken; Treude, Tina; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    One component of the IODP multi-platform drilling proposal called DREAM (Deep-Sea Record of Mediterranean Messisnian Events), plans to investigate the deep biosphere associated to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) Salt Giant. We propose that the MSC Salt Giant, because of the variety of chemical environments it produces, has the potential to harbour an unprecedented diversity of microbial life with exceptional metabolic activity. Gypsum and anhydrite deposits provide a virtually unlimited source of sulphate at depths where oxidants are a rarity in other sedimentary environments. When reduced organic carbon comes into contact with these minerals there is the potential for a dynamic deep biosphere community of sulphate reducers to develop, with implications for sedimentary biogeochemical cycles and the souring of cruide oil. But the thickness of the Messinian evaporites and the range of chemical environments it harbours poses fundamental questions: will the interaction of several extreme conditions of temperature, salinity, pressure and chemical composition limit the ability of microbes to take advantage of such favourable thermodynamic conditions? And has such a diverse set of physical and chemical environments fostered microbal diversity, rather than phylogenetic specialization, as recent research into deep Mediterranean brine systems seems to indicate ? Over three kilometres in thickness, approaching the known temperature limits of life and with fluids precipitating carbonate, sulphate, halite and potash salts, microbes living within and around the MSC Salt Giant will be subject to the most exotic combinations of extremes, and have likely evolved yet unknown adaptations. Gypsum and Halite crystals contain fluid inclusions that are a micro-habitat in which microbes survive for tens of thousands, to possibly millions, of years, posing the fundamental question of cells devoting nearly all of their energy flow to somatic maintenance needs, rather than growth and

  12. Human domination of the biosphere: Rapid discharge of the earth-space battery foretells the future of humankind.

    PubMed

    Schramski, John R; Gattie, David K; Brown, James H

    2015-08-04

    Earth is a chemical battery where, over evolutionary time with a trickle-charge of photosynthesis using solar energy, billions of tons of living biomass were stored in forests and other ecosystems and in vast reserves of fossil fuels. In just the last few hundred years, humans extracted exploitable energy from these living and fossilized biomass fuels to build the modern industrial-technological-informational economy, to grow our population to more than 7 billion, and to transform the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity of the earth. This rapid discharge of the earth's store of organic energy fuels the human domination of the biosphere, including conversion of natural habitats to agricultural fields and the resulting loss of native species, emission of carbon dioxide and the resulting climate and sea level change, and use of supplemental nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics governing the trickle-charge and rapid discharge of the earth's battery are universal and absolute; the earth is only temporarily poised a quantifiable distance from the thermodynamic equilibrium of outer space. Although this distance from equilibrium is comprised of all energy types, most critical for humans is the store of living biomass. With the rapid depletion of this chemical energy, the earth is shifting back toward the inhospitable equilibrium of outer space with fundamental ramifications for the biosphere and humanity. Because there is no substitute or replacement energy for living biomass, the remaining distance from equilibrium that will be required to support human life is unknown.

  13. Chile Confronts its Environmental Health Future After 25 Years of Accelerated Growth.

    PubMed

    Pino, Paulina; Iglesias, Verónica; Garreaud, René; Cortés, Sandra; Canals, Mauricio; Folch, Walter; Burgos, Soledad; Levy, Karen; Naeher, Luke P; Steenland, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Chile has recently been reclassified by the World Bank from an upper-middle-income country to a high-income country. There has been great progress in the last 20 to 30 years in relation to air and water pollution in Chile. Yet after 25 years of unrestrained growth, there remain clear challenges posed by air and water pollution, as well as climate change. The aim of this study was to review environmental health in Chile. In late 2013, a 3-day workshop on environmental health was held in Santiago, Chile, bringing together researchers and government policymakers. As a follow-up to that workshop, here we review the progress made in environmental health in the past 20 to 30 years and discuss the challenges of the future. We focus on air and water pollution and climate change, which we believe are among the most important areas of environmental health in Chile. Air pollution in some cities remains among the highest in the continent. Potable water is generally available, but weak state supervision has led to serious outbreaks of infectious disease and ongoing issues with arsenic exposure in some regions. Climate change modeling in Chile is quite sophisticated, and a number of the impacts of climate change can be reasonably predicted in terms of which areas of the country are most likely to be affected by increased temperature and decreased availability of water, as well as expansion of vector territory. Some health effects, including changes in vector-borne diseases and excess heat mortality, can be predicted. However, there has yet to be an integration of such research with government planning. Although great progress has been made, currently there are a number of problems. We suspect that the Chilean experience in environmental health may be of some use for other Latin American countries with rapid economic development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Michael J; Daly, Rebecca A; Mouser, Paula J; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R; Wrighton, Kelly C; Biddle, Jennifer F; Denis, Elizabeth H; Fredrickson, Jim K; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M; Phelps, Tommy J; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on "Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface" was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  15. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  16. Variability of Wetland Extent in the Simple Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, P. M.; Denning, S.

    2012-12-01

    A model of wetland extent suitable for use in the land-surface components of global climate models is presented. Developed around the TOPMODEL framework and incorporated into the Simple Biosphere Model, estimates of inundated extent have previously been calibrated around the WLEF tower in Wisconsin and evaluated in portions of Florida and Louisiana. The model is now applied over North America and informed by satellite estimates of inundated area. Modeled wetlands impact estimates of surface heat and CO2 fluxes and permits estimates of methane exchange with the atmosphere by methanogenesis and methanotrophy. Challenges of representing wetlands at high latitudes are touched on, as are challenges in the representation of seasonal flooding in the tropics.

  17. Contributions of Planetary Science to Studies of Early Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The history of impact cratering on the Moon, and extrapolations of crater chronologies to the inner planets, suggests that the late accretionary history of the Earth overlapped with other crucial events in the its history, including the origin of terrestrial life. This evidence, acquired from studies of other planetary bodies in the inner solar system, has profoundly affected how we view the early history of the Earth and evolution of the biosphere. Pre-biotic chemical evolution and the origin of life would have been delayed by the probable existence of a global magma ocean until -4.2 Ga. The early crust was largely destroyed by recycling, thus accounting for the sparse Archean record on Earth. Once life had developed, large impacts may have extinguished it several times before it finally gained a foothold. Potentially sterilizing impacts could have occurred as late as 3.7 Ga. At the very least, large impacts would have forced the biosphere through major environmental "bottlenecks" thereby canalizing its subsequent evolution. One legacy of these early events may be the structure of the present RNA-tree which indicates that extreme thermophiles are primitive within the Archaea, and may be the last common ancestors of life. By 3.5 Ga, marine sedimentary sequences contain unequivocal microbial fossils that attest to the presence of a terrestrial biosphere. The diversity of microbial forms present in these earliest fossil assemblages implies a preceding interval of evolution during which major evolutionary advances (e.g. photosynthesis) could have taken place. Evidence cited above places the origin of life within the interval 3.5 and 4.2 Ga, a period of 700 Ma. Thus, it appears that terrestrial life not only evolved rapidly, but perhaps more than once. This expands the possibilities that life may have also developed elsewhere. Of the other planets in our solar system, Mars holds the greatest chance of having developed life. But, the present surface of Mars is hostile

  18. The Modern Era of Research in Biosphere Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Sellers, P. J.; Randall, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.; Field, C. B.; Berry, J. A.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Diane Wickland, the Program Scientist for NASA's EOS InterDisciplinary Science (IDS), encouraged and nurtured the growth of the field of global ecology and eco-climatology. This talk reviews the developments in, and integration of, theory, satellite and field observations that enabled the global modeling of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Emphasis will be placed on the advances made during the EOS era in global datasets and global coupled carbon-climate models. The advances include functional classifications of the land surface using the NDVI, a global terrestrial carbon-energy-water model, and the greening of the CSU GCM. An equally important achievement of the EOS-IDS program is a new generation of multi-disciplinary scientists who are now leaders in the field.

  19. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  20. Exploring the dark energy biosphere, 15 seconds at a time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, C.; Tossey, L.; Biddle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Science communication often suffers from numerous pitfalls including jargon, complexity, ageneral lack of (science) education of the audience, and short attention spans. With the Center for Dark EnergyBiosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), Delaware Sea Grant is expanding its collection of 15 Second Science videos, whichdeliver complex science topics, with visually stimulating footage and succinct audio. Featuring a diverse cast of scientistsand educators in front of the camera, we are expanded our reach into the public and classrooms. We're alsoexperimenting with smartphone-based virtual reality, for a more immersive experience into the deep! We will show youthe process for planning, producing, and posting our #15secondscience videos and VR segments, and how we areevaluating effectiveness.

  1. Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere (449th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Alistair

    2009-04-22

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the increased use of fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Most scientists agree that increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have raised Earth's temperature and, without a reduction in emissions, will continue to do so. Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers will describe the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explain why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.

  2. Abiotic sulfide oxidation via manganese reduction fuels the deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrell, S.; Böttcher, M. E.; Schippers, A.; Parkes, R.; Raiswell, R.

    2009-12-01

    The deep biosphere in marine sediments consists of large populations of metabolically active Bacteria and Archaea [1, 2]. Buried organic carbon is the main energy source for the deep biosphere and is anaerobically oxidized via nitrate-, Mn(IV)-, Fe(III)-, sulfate or carbonate-reduction. Sulfate reduction has been identified as the most important of these processes [3, 4] yet sulfate is typically quantitatively removed from pore waters in the upper few meters of marine sediments. A key question remains: “How is continued metabolic activity maintained in the deep biosphere?”. Buried organic carbon remains as an electron donor but the source of electron acceptors is less clear. Stable isotope compositions of sulfur and oxygen in sulfate are particularly useful in the study of biogeochemical processes and sediment-pore fluid interactions e.g. [5, 6]. Here we use stable sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions to show that the oxidant sulfate is generated by anoxic sulfide oxidation in deeply buried sediments of the Cascadia margin and Blake Ridge and controlled anoxic experiments to constrain the mechanisms involved on this reaction. Pore fluid sulfate in deep Cascadia margin and Blake Ridge sediments contained sulfur with similar isotopic composition to diagenetic sulfide in the sediment and oxygen that was depleted in 18O (in some cases depleted in 18O relative to pore water). Experiments with Mn(IV)-containing oxides confirmed that these can abiotically oxidize iron sulfides and also produce sulfate depleted in 18O relative to water. In another set of anoxic experiments, pyrite was mixed with different Fe(III) minerals. Crucially, experiments with synthesized pure Fe(III) minerals produced no sulfate but identical experiments with natural Fe(III) minerals containing trace Mn did. Sulfate concentrations in solution were stoichiometrically balanced by Mn concentrations, showing trace Mn(IV) in the natural minerals to be the oxidizing agent generating sulfate

  3. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Michalak, Anna M.; Bowman, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert; El-Masri, Bassil; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul; King, Anthony W.; Lei, Huimin; Liu, Junjie; Lu, Chaoqun; Mao, Jiafu; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Tian, Hanqin; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially change MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.

  4. Prokaryotic biodiversity and activity in the deep subseafloor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Fry, John C; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; Weightman, Andrew J; Webster, Gordon

    2008-11-01

    The deep subseafloor biosphere supports a diverse population of prokaryotes belonging to the Bacteria and Archaea. Most of the taxonomic groups identified by molecular methods contain mainly uncultured phylotypes. Despite this several cultured strains have been isolated from this habitat, but they probably do not represent the majority of the population. Evidence is starting to suggest that some of the activities measured, such as sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, reflected in geochemical profiles, are carried out by a small subset of the community detected by molecular methods. It is further possible that heterotrophy may be the most important mode of metabolism in subsurface sediments and heterotrophic microorganisms could dominate the uncultured prokaryotic population. Although, heterotrophy is limited by the increasing recalcitrance of organic matter with depth, this may be counteracted by thermal activation of buried organic matter providing additional substrates at depth.

  5. Contributions of Planetary Science to Studies of Early Biosphere Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The history of impact cratering on the Moon, and extrapolations of crater chronologies to the inner planets, suggests that the late accretionary history of the Earth overlapped with other crucial events in the its history, including the origin of terrestrial life. This evidence, acquired from studies of other planetary bodies in the inner solar system, has profoundly affected how we view the early history of the Earth and evolution of the biosphere. Pre-biotic chemical evolution and the origin of life would have been delayed by the probable existence of a global magma ocean until -4.2 Ga. The early crust was largely destroyed by recycling, thus accounting for the sparse Archean record on Earth. Once life had developed, large impacts may have extinguished it several times before it finally gained a foothold. Potentially sterilizing impacts could have occurred as late as 3.7 Ga. At the very least, large impacts would have forced the biosphere through major environmental "bottlenecks" thereby canalizing its subsequent evolution. One legacy of these early events may be the structure of the present RNA-tree which indicates that extreme thermophiles are primitive within the Archaea, and may be the last common ancestors of life. By 3.5 Ga, marine sedimentary sequences contain unequivocal microbial fossils that attest to the presence of a terrestrial biosphere. The diversity of microbial forms present in these earliest fossil assemblages implies a preceding interval of evolution during which major evolutionary advances (e.g. photosynthesis) could have taken place. Evidence cited above places the origin of life within the interval 3.5 and 4.2 Ga, a period of 700 Ma. Thus, it appears that terrestrial life not only evolved rapidly, but perhaps more than once. This expands the possibilities that life may have also developed elsewhere. Of the other planets in our solar system, Mars holds the greatest chance of having developed life. But, the present surface of Mars is hostile

  6. Potential Biospheres of the icy world in our solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Baqué, Mickael

    2016-04-01

    The challenge in astrobiology and planetary research in the near future is to realize space missions to study the habitability of Mars and the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. Mars is an interesting object to search for habitable environments and for fossilized (and potentially present) life because of its past water driven wet history. On the other hand the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturnian moon Enceladus are promising candidates, where liquid water oceans beneath the surface are expected. These oceans can be habitable environments and the next challenge is to search there for present life. Some examples on potential biospheres and their biosignatures in Mars-like environments and in environmental conditions with reference to the icy moons will be given, which might exist in such kind of icy environments.

  7. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca A.; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop. PMID:25309520

  8. Biosphere-atmosphere interactions and rising CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    We will discuss the role of rising CO2 on land-atmosphere interactions and the the impact of land-atmosphere interactions on climate in the context of rising CO2 concertations. We will show that increased leaf level CO2 (physiological effect) concentrations can compete with the effect of rising CO2 concentration on temperature (radiative effect). We will first show that an implications of those feedbacks is a modification of the hydrological cycle, its seasonality and response to extremes. Then we will discuss implications for future droughts. We will then show that the coupling between the carbon and water cycle offers opportunity for observations of those feedbacks. Finally we will question the use of offline simulations to assess the future of ecosystems and further carbon uptake, as land-atmosphere interactions in the future will have such a profound effect on atmospheric aridity that the biosphere cannot be considered in isolation.

  9. Biogeography of Metabolically Active Microbial Populations within the Subseafloor Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, B. K.; Shepard, A.; St. Peter, C.; Mills, H. J.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial life in deep marine sediments is widespread, metabolically active and diverse. Evidence of prokaryotic communities in sediments as deep as 800 m below the seafloor (mbsf) have been found. By recycling carbon and nutrients through biological and geochemical processes, the deep subsurface has the potential to remain metabolically active over geologic time scales. While a vast majority of the subsurface biosphere remains under studied, recent advances in molecular techniques and an increased focus on microbiological sampling during IODP expeditions have provided the initial steps toward better characterizations of the microbial communities. Coupling of geochemistry and RNA-based molecular analysis is essential to the description of the active microbial populations within the subsurface biosphere. Studies based on DNA may describe the taxa and metabolic pathways from the total microbial community within the sediment, whether the cells sampled were metabolically active, quiescent or dead. Due to a short lifespan within a cell, only an RNA-based analysis can be used to identify linkages between active populations and observed geochemistry. This study will coalesce and compare RNA sequence and geochemical data from Expeditions 316 (Nankai Trough), 320 (Pacific Equatorial Age Transect), 325 (Great Barrier Reef) and 329 (South Pacific Gyre) to evaluate the biogeography of microbial lineages actively altering the deep subsurface. The grouping of sediments allows for a wide range of geochemical environments to be compared, including two environments limited in organic carbon. Significant to this study is the use of similar extraction, amplification and simultaneous 454 pyrosequencing on all sediment populations allowing for robust comparisons with similar protocol strengths and biases. Initial trends support previously described reduction of diversity with increasing depth. The co-localization of active reductive and oxidative lineages suggests a potential cryptic

  10. Comets, Carbonaceous Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites suggests that the paradigm of the endogenous origin of life on Earth should be reconsidered. It is now widely accepted that comets and carbonaceous meteorites played an important role in the delivery of water, organics and life critical biogenic elements to the early Earth and facilitated the origin and evolution of the Earth's Biosphere. However; the detection of embedded microfossils and mats in carbonaceous meteorites implies that comets and meteorites may have played a direct role in the delivery of intact microorganisms and that the Biosphere may extend far into the Cosmos. Recent space observations have found the nuclei of comets to have very low albedos (approx.0.03) and. these jet-black surfaces become very hot (T approx. 400 K) near perihelion. This paper reviews recent observational data-on comets and suggests that liquid water pools could exist in cavities and fissures between the internal ices and rocks and the exterior carbonaceous crust. The presence of light and liquid water near the surface of the nucleus enhances the possibility that comets could harbor prokaryotic extremophiles (e.g., cyanobacteria) capable of growth over a wide range of temperatures. The hypothesis that comets are the parent bodies of the CI1 and the CM2 carbonaceous meteorites is advanced. Electron microscopy images will be presented showing forms interpreted as indigenous-microfossils embedded' in freshly. fractured interior surfaces of the Orgueil (CI1) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites. These forms are consistent in size and morphologies with known morphotypes of all five orders of Cyanobacteriaceae: Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) elemental data shows that the meteoritic forms have anomalous C/O; C/N; and C/S as compared with modern extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These images and spectral data indicate that the clearly biogenic and embedded remains cannot be interpreted as recent biological

  11. Alkaliphilic Clostridia and the Serpentinite-Hosted Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrenk, M. O.; George, C.; Twing, K. I.; Brazelton, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinization is a process whereby ultramafic rocks characteristic of Earth's upper mantle are exposed to fluid flow and undergo aqueous alteration. Serpentinizing ultramafic rocks can serve as important conduits for the flux of carbon and energy from Earth's deep interior into the biosphere. Highly reducing, high pH conditions associated with serpentinization produce copious hydrogen and can lead to the production of methane and abiogenic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have found low diversity microbial communities consisting primarily of Betaproteobacteria and Firmicutes in samples of high pH wells, springs, and drill cores from serpentinite terrains. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and pyrotag sequencing have indicated that several taxa within the Clostridia, including sequences related to the genera Dethiobacter and Desulfitibacter and the families Thermoanaerobacterales and Clostridiaceae are abundant in the sampled environments. In parallel, iron- and sulfur-containing, pH 11 microcosm experiments from these environments have resulted in the enrichment of populations of spore-forming bacteria related to the Clostridiales. Previously characterized relatives of these taxa can carry out metabolisms ranging from the fermentation of complex organic molecules, to autotrophy using hydrogen as an electron donor and sulfur compounds as electron acceptors. Metabolic and physiological studies of the microcosms combined with data on the distribution of these taxa in natural environments are being used to better understand their role in the in the functioning of serpentinite-hosted subsurface ecosystems. Areas of investigation include the supply of organic acids and fermentation products to other species in the ecosystems, the fixation of inorganic carbon into biomass, or the possibility that the Clostridia exists as spores simply surviving the harsh conditions. Spore-forming Clostridia species may play important roles in the extraction of energy and

  12. On COBACC (COntinental Biosphere-Aerosol-Cloud-Climate) feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulmala, Markku

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of GHGs have increased substantially during the past century. Elevated concentrations of CO2 and methane are the most important forcing agents causing global warming. However, it is not straightforward to attribute or predict the climate change in detail, as the internal variability of climate is only partially understood, aerosol forcings are still highly uncertain, and there are many feedback mechanisms that are difficult to quantify. It has been recognized for decades that the biosphere plays an important role in climate. For example, Kulmala et al. (2004) suggested a negative climate feedback mechanism whereby higher temperatures and CO2-levels boost continental biomass production, leading to increased biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, tending to cause cooling. This COBACC (COntinental Biosphere-Aerosol-Cloud-Climate) feedback is similar to the so-called CLAW-hypothesis by Charlson et al. (1987) which connects the ocean biochemistry and climate via a negative feedback loop involving CCN production due to sulphur emissions from plankton. The first quantification of the COBACC feedback loop (Kulmala et al. 2014) was based on continuous comprehensive observations at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) station in Hyytiälä, Finland, and showed that a 10 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to a significant (several percent) increase in both carbon sink and aerosol source. These effects operate through changes in gross primary production, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and secondary aerosol formation associated with atmospheric oxidation of VOCs. Here we will describe the present knowledge from processes level understanding to whole COBACC feedback including some hints on biogenic and anthropogenic contributions to global aerosol number load. References: Charlson, R. J. et al. Nature 326, 655 1987 Kulmala, M. et al. Atmos

  13. Studying the deep subsurface biosphere: Emerging technologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig Cary, S.; Campbell, Barbara J.; DeLong, Edward F.

    Discoveries from seafloor hydrothermal vent environments continue to challenge accepted notions about microbial metabolism and survivability, geochemical and biochemical interactions, and the limits to and origins of life itself. Recent evidence suggests that a significant and extensive subsurface biosphere exists associated with these vent systems that may support bacteria of unique and unknown lineages using as yet uncharacterized metabolic pathways. With restricted access to the subsurface environment and availability of an extremely limited biomass, microbiologists have resorted to powerful molecular approaches to survey, characterize, and even assist in the later cultivation of these novel subsurface bacteria. Advances in molecular phylogenetic techniques (molecular microbial systematics) based on the small subunit rRNA (16S rRNA) and a knowledge of certain diagnostic metabolic genes have provided an alternative and more comprehensive framework to study microbial populations and communities without the necessity of cultivation. These approaches have been used by a number of investigators in deep-sea hydrothermal vents and terrestrial hot springs with astonishing results. In this paper we introduce some of these current and emerging molecular techniques and demonstrate their efficacy in the context of the subsurface biosphere. Simple gene amplification methods coupled with more sophisticated genomic approaches and fine resolution in situ geochemical tools (see Luther et al., this volume) provides a new-found capability to more fully characterize the diversity of metabolic strategies used by these complex subsurface microbial communities. Understanding these unique microbial communities is not only important from the basic biological perspective but has ramifications for possible industrial applications.

  14. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  15. Factors responsible for a stable biosphere of silicon utilizing organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon utilizing microorganisms are defined as micro-organisms with high silicon content (≥ 1% dry weight) and the capability to metabolize silicon with or without demonstrable silicon transporter genes (SIT). Important characteristics found in these microorganisms, on account of having high silicon concentration in their body, include increased autotrophic activity, ability to encounter metal toxicities (including iron toxicity), increased mechanical strength, ability to prevent infections, capacity to survive in nutritionally compromised states and in high and low pressure zones, higher light transmission and reduced salinity stress. They can also grow in the dark for at least three months even in the absence of any organic substrate. In living cells, silicon helps in cell wall formation, regulates citric acid cycle (acting on an isoenzyme of isocitrate dehydrogenase), synthesizes special proteins for chromosomes and chloroplasts, and regulates chlorophyll synthesis. Silicon metabolism also requires 30% less energy than carbon and that might be one of the reasons why it was not abandoned in over 100 million years of evolution; even in the presence of a well advanced and dominating carbon world. Additionally, silicon utilizing organisms have undergone resistance and capacity adaptations during their long existence on the Earth. Their inherent ability to tolerate a wide variety of stress was manifested by their exceptional survival during periods of extinction on Earth. The phenomenon of 'selective survival' of the biosphere shaped by these organisms across major extinction boundaries in the geologic past is very prominent. Approximately 46% of diatom species, the most important silicon utilizing organisms, survived the transition from the Cretaceous to the Upper Paleocene period, suggesting their significant turnover across the K-Pg boundary. Another important silicon utilizing organism, radiolarian, also showed no evidence of mass extinction across the K

  16. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  17. A quantitative assessment of a terrestrial biosphere model's data needs across North American biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael C.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Davidson, Carl; Desai, Ankur R.; Feng, Xiaohui; Kelly, Ryan; Kooper, Rob; LeBauer, David; Mantooth, Joshua; McHenry, Kenton; Wang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are designed to synthesize our current understanding of how ecosystems function, test competing hypotheses of ecosystem function against observations, and predict responses to novel conditions such as those expected under climate change. Reducing uncertainties in such models can improve both basic scientific understanding and our predictive capacity, but rarely are ecosystem models employed in the design of field campaigns. We provide a synthesis of carbon cycle uncertainty analyses conducted using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer ecoinformatics workflow with the Ecosystem Demography model v2. This work is a synthesis of multiple projects, using Bayesian data assimilation techniques to incorporate field data and trait databases across temperate forests, grasslands, agriculture, short rotation forestry, boreal forests, and tundra. We report on a number of data needs that span a wide array of diverse biomes, such as the need for better constraint on growth respiration, mortality, stomatal conductance, and water uptake. We also identify data needs that are biome specific, such as photosynthetic quantum efficiency at high latitudes. We recommend that future data collection efforts balance the bias of past measurements toward aboveground processes in temperate biomes with the sensitivities of different processes as represented by ecosystem models. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Spatial phylogenetics of the vascular flora of Chile.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Thornhill, Andrew H; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael; Freyman, William A; Pliscoff, Patricio A; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-07-01

    Current geographic patterns of biodiversity are a consequence of the evolutionary history of the lineages that comprise them. This study was aimed at exploring how evolutionary features of the vascular flora of Chile are distributed across the landscape. Using a phylogeny at the genus level for 87% of the Chilean vascular flora, and a geographic database of sample localities, we calculated phylogenetic diversity (PD), phylogenetic endemism (PE), relative PD (RPD), and relative PE (RPE). Categorical Analyses of Neo- and Paleo-Endemism (CANAPE) were also performed, using a spatial randomization to assess statistical significance. A cluster analysis using range-weighted phylogenetic turnover was used to compare among grid cells, and with known Chilean bioclimates. PD patterns were concordant with known centers of high taxon richness and the Chilean biodiversity hotspot. In addition, several other interesting areas of concentration of evolutionary history were revealed as potential conservation targets. The south of the country shows areas of significantly high RPD and a concentration of paleo-endemism, and the north shows areas of significantly low PD and RPD, and a concentration of neo-endemism. Range-weighted phylogenetic turnover shows high congruence with the main macrobioclimates of Chile. Even though the study was done at the genus level, the outcome provides an accurate outline of phylogenetic patterns that can be filled in as more fine-scaled information becomes available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a generic biosphere model for dose assessments to five European sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Kowe, R; Mobbs, S F; Pröhl, G; Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Kanyar, B; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Jones, J A; Oatway, W B; Watson, S J

    2006-06-01

    The BIOMOSA (BIOsphere MOdels for Safety Assessment of radioactive waste disposal) project was part of the EC fifth framework research programme. The main goal of this project was to improve the scientific basis for the application of biosphere models in the framework of long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal facilities and to enhance the confidence in using biosphere models for performance assessments. The study focused on the development and application of a generic biosphere tool BIOGEM (BIOsphere GEneric Model) using the IAEA BIOMASS reference biosphere methodology, and the comparison between BIOGEM and five site-specific biosphere models. The site-specific models and the generic model were applied to five typical locations in Europe, resulting in estimates of the annual effective individual doses to the critical groups and the ranking of the importance of the exposure pathways for each of the sites. Uncertainty in the results was also estimated by means of stochastic calculations based on variation of the site-specific parameter values. This paper describes the generic model and the deterministic and stochastic results obtained when it was applied to the five sites. Details of the site-specific models and the corresponding results are described in two companion papers. This paper also presents a comparison of the results between the generic model and site-specific models. In general, there was an acceptable agreement of the BIOGEM for both the deterministic and stochastic results with the results from the site-specific models.

  20. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  1. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  2. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  3. A Partnership for a Community College in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Carmen L.; Whitford, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the results of case study research on a partnership between a community college in the United States and a university in Chile that attempted to develop the first community college system in Chile.

  4. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  5. Comparing standard medical care for nonepileptic seizures in Chile and the United States.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, W Curt; de Marinis, Alejandro J; Webb, Anne Frank; Machan, Jason T; Rusch, Mark D; Kanner, Andres M

    2012-10-01

    We sought to compare the diagnostic and treatment practices for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in the United States (US) to Chile. A survey on the diagnostic and treatment practices for PNES was administered to practicing clinicians in Chile. Results from 96 Chilean respondents were compared to results from 307 US clinicians. Type I error (alpha) was set to 0.005 for multiple comparisons. The diagnosis of PNES is made by inpatient video-EEG/LTM in 89% of the US respondents compared to 25% of the Chilean respondents (p<0.0001). The diagnosis of PNES is made by history and exam alone at twice the rate in Chile (38%) than in the US (16%; p<0.0001). A higher proportion of the Chilean respondents (65%) endorsed psychopharmacotherapy as potentially beneficial compared to the US respondents (31%; p<0.0001). This cross-cultural multi-site survey reveals some differences in PNES evaluation and management between neurologists and other clinicians in the US and in Chile. Access to video EEG may improve PNES diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  7. Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R

    1996-06-01

    Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

  8. History of Chile from the Conquest to Arturo Alessandri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, William F.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of materials on the history of Chile from the 1500s to the twentieth century. The bibliography includes works from the United States, England, and Chile on a variety of topics, including the colonial period, Pre-Columbian Chile, Indian life, culture, political structure, the impact of Spanish Imperialism, land…

  9. Active Serpentinization and the Potential for a Diverse Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canovas, P. A.; Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    the system and create a thermodynamic drive sufficient to convert all of the dissolved inorganic carbon into methane. This indicates that the system is poised to create the reducing conditions necessary to support a subsurface biosphere very early in the serpentinizing process, and that the subsurface biosphere could extend upwards to very near the surface. The mixing model simulates the percolation of surface water into the active serpentinization zone. During the mixing process, methane is calculated to be more stable than carbonate species until approximately 100g of surface water have been added to 1 kg of the serpentinizing fluid. These results suggest that unreacted surface water flowing directly into the serpentinizing zone can create the disequilibria necessary for methanogenesis, and possibly other metabolisms, to proceed while still maintaining the low redox state of the system. As long as the recharge to the hyperalkaline reservoir does not exceed ten percent of the reservoir, methanogenesis and other serpentinization metabolisms can thrive off the disequilibria generated through mixing.

  10. Dissolved hydrogen and methane in the oceanic basaltic biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Cowen, James P.; Olson, Eric J.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Jungbluth, Sean P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Rappé, Michael S.

    2014-11-01

    The oceanic basaltic crust is the largest aquifer on Earth and has the potential to harbor substantial subsurface microbial ecosystems, which hitherto remains largely uncharacterized and is analogous to extraterrestrial subsurface habitats. Within the sediment-buried 3.5 Myr old basaltic crust of the eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge flank, the circulating basement fluids have moderate temperature (∼65 °C) and low to undetectable dissolved oxygen and nitrate concentrations. Sulfate, present in high concentrations, is therefore expected to serve as the major electron acceptor in this subsurface environment. This study focused on the availability and potential sources of two important electron donors, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2), for the subseafloor biosphere. High integrity basement fluids were collected via fluid delivery lines associated with Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) that extend from basement depths to outlet ports at the seafloor. Two new CORKs installed during IODP 327 in 2010, 1362A and 1362B, were sampled in 2011 and 2013. The two CORKs are superior than earlier style CORKs in that they are equipped with coated casing and polytetrafluoroethylene fluid delivery lines, reducing the interaction between casing materials with the environment. Additional samples were collected from an earlier style CORK at Borehole 1301A. The basement fluids are enriched in H2 (0.05-1.8 μmol/kg), suggesting that the ocean basaltic aquifer can support H2-driven metabolism. The basement fluids also contain significant amount of CH4 (5-32 μmol/kg), revealing CH4 as an available substrate for subseafloor basaltic habitats. The δ13C values of CH4 from the three boreholes ranged from -22.5 to - 58 ‰, while the δ2H values ranged from -316 to 57‰. The isotopic compositions of CH4 and the molecular compositions of hydrocarbons suggest that CH4 in the basement fluids is of both biogenic and abiotic origins, varying among

  11. Insights into the Deep Biosphere from Petroleum Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larter, S.; Adams, J. J.; Huang, H.; Bennett, B.

    2008-12-01

    Petroleum reservoirs provide a unique and direct portal into the deep biosphere enabling microbiological and geochemical studies of microorganisms, carbon cycling processes, microbial reaction kinetics and the spatial distribution of the organisms. Detailed mapping of oil fluid property and chemical composition shows that microbially and geologically induced oil compositional gradients are ubiquitous at regional to sub-reservoir scales (1 m to 105 m) in heavy and super heavy oil deposits of the Alberta basin. Some oil columns shows a cascading series of gradients in one through three ring alkylaromatic hydrocarbons with increasingly deeper locations of complete compound removal related to increasing resistance of degrading hydrocarbon component to biodegradation and decreasing component diffusivity. Similar compositional profiles have been seen in other heavy oilfields around the globe. Vertical 1D compositional diffusion models coupling oil charge, diffusive mixing and the effects of geological barriers can match observed gradients when the active biodegradation zone extends across the oil-water transition zone and well into the oil column. We observe steepening compositional gradients at the base of the oil column coincident with up to 10-15 m thick, downward increasing water saturation zones, thicker than a capillary pressure controlled oil-water transition zone. These "burnout zones" possess the hallmarks of a vertically extensive bio-reactor with increased concentrations of biogeochemical parameters of microbial processes and commonly an immobile and probably discontinuous oil phase. In this zone and across an oilfield, the relative biodegradation susceptibility of different hydrocarbon components varies greatly, indicating a suite of biodegradation reaction pathways dependent in part on local mass transport controls. 1D models show that the top of the degradation zone is coincident with complete depletion of reactive components, when oil charge is active

  12. Europa's crustal biosphere: Implications for exploration and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, R.; Tufts, B. R.; Hoppa, G. V.; Geissler, P. E.

    2000-10-01

    Physical characterization of Europa's crust shows it to be rich in potentially habitable niches, with several timescales for change that would allow stability for organisms to prosper and still require and drive evolution and adaptation. Studies of tectonics on Europa indicate that tidal stress causes much of the surface cracking, that cracks penetrate through to liquid water (so the ice must be thin), and that cracks continue to be worked by tidal stress. Thus a global ocean is (or was until recently) well linked to the surface. Daily tidal flow (period 10-2 yr) transports substances up and down through the active cracks, mixing surface oxidants and fuels (cometary material) with the oceanic reservoir of endogenic and exogenic substances. Organisms moving with the flow or anchored to the walls could exploit the disequilibrium chemistry, and those within a few meters of the surface could photosynthesize. Cracks remain active for at least 104 yr, but deactivate as nonsynchronous rotation moves them to different stress regimes in <106 yr. Thus, to survive, organisms squeezed into the ocean must migrate to new cracks, and those frozen in place must hibernate. Most sites will remelt and release captive critters within 106 yr based on the prevalence of chaotic terrain, which covers nearly half of Europa. Linkage of the ocean to the surface also could help sustain life in the ocean by delivering oxidants and fuels. Suboceanic volcanism (if any) could provide additional sites and support for life, but is not necessary. Thus Europa's biosphere (habitable if not inhabited) likely extends from within the ocean up to the surface, with important implications for exploration strategies: The problem becomes not how to drill down to the ocean, but rather how to choose an active (or recently active) landing site where the ocean comes to the surface. Exploration resources need to go into high resolution reconnaissance. Also, with its biosphere reaching the surface, Europa may be

  13. Atmosphere-Biosphere Exchange of Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Song-Miao

    1991-02-01

    The atmosphere-biosphere exchange was measured for CO_2 and O_3 in a tropical rain forest in the wet season of 1987, and for CO_2, CH_4 , and O_3 in a subarctic tundra in summer 1988. Photosynthesis and respiration were found to be in approximate balance in the rain forest. Net ecosystem uptake of CO_2 in the forest increased with intensity of light in the range of measurements. It is suggested that photosynthesis of a well-watered forest is primarily controlled by photosynthetically active radiation. Changes in the distribution of cloud cover, associated for example with El Nino, might induce globally significant changes in primary productivity and carbon storage. Soil moisture controls in tundra the distribution and association of vegetation types and the atmosphere -biosphere exchange of CO_2, although light intensity also influences the daily and seasonal net exchange of CO_2. Methane fluxes from the subarctic tundra averaged 25 +/- 1 (SE) mgCH_4/m ^2/d, representing 6 percent the net uptake of carbon for the 30 days of measurement. Wet meadow tundra emitted CH_4 at rates substantially higher than upland tundra. Lakes and lake margins are important sources of methane; lake emissions were dependent on surface wind speed. A global methane emission from tundra ecosystems is estimated to be ~ 11 megatons CH_4 per year based on this measurement, a small fraction (~ 3%) of the global source. Ozone deposition fluxes averaged ~ 1.0 times 10^ {11} molecules cm^{ -2}s^{-1} in the tropical forest and in the arctic tundra, similar in magnitude to the estimated mean stratospheric input. Ozone deposition fluxes were proportional to O_3 concentrations in the surface layer and regulated by turbulent transport and stomatal activity. Day-time ozone concentrations and deposition velocities measured at ~10 m above canopy averaged ~5 ppb and 1.8 cm s^ {-1} over the tropical forest and ~25 ppb and 0.25 cm s^{ -1} over the subarctic tundra, respectively. These results imply that

  14. Interaction between Hydrosphere and Biosphere: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sivapalan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated terrestrial ecosystems and the overlying atmosphere are dynamically linked though the continuous transfer of mass, energy and momentum. The hydrologic variability interacts with the vegetation at time scales ranging from hours to days to inter-annual and decadal. The existing distribution of ecosystems is a result of evolutionary selections in response to environmental constraints which are themselves modified as terrestrial systems evolve until reaching a dynamic equilibrium. However this balance is changing, often rapidly, in response to anthropogenic influences such as climate change, land use/land cover change, and urban and agricultural expansions. Evidence suggests that vegetation response is adaptive in that they alter their survival strategies in response to environmental change, for example, through development of deep rooting and using hydraulic redistribution to better utilize the available moisture in the deeper soil layers. Yet little is known on how this impacts the hydrologic cycle and its variability. Active and adaptive control of vegetation and atmospheric flow moves soil-moisture that is no longer constrained by watershed boundaries. How do the atmospheric and terrestrial moisture, and vegetation interact to produce the observed variability in the water cycle and how does/will this variability change in response to the anthropogenic influences? What are the ecological consequences of this change? These broad questions lie at the heart of understanding the interaction between the hydrosphere and biosphere. Some specific questions to address are: · How does biosphere mediate the interaction between long time scale sub-surface hydrology and short time scale atmospheric hydrologic cycle? · How has this interaction given rise to the observed self-organized patterns of ecosystems and how do these ecosystems sustain the hydrologic regime needed for their own sustenance? · How are the dynamic regimes of ecohydrologic interactions affected by

  15. Non university sources of science in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.

  16. Evaluating the Carbon Cycle of a Coupled Atmosphere-Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Delire, C; Foley, J A; Thompson, S

    2002-08-21

    We investigate how well a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model, CCM3-IBIS, can simulate the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere and the carbon cycling through it. The simulated climate is compared to observations, while the vegetation cover and the carbon cycle are compared to an offline version of the biosphere model IBIS forced with observed climatic variables. The simulated climate presents some local biases that strongly affect the vegetation (e.g., a misrepresentation of the African monsoon). Compared to the offline model, the coupled model simulates well the globally averaged carbon fluxes and vegetation pools. The zonal mean carbon fluxes and the zonal mean seasonal cycle are also well represented except between 0{sup o} and 20{sup o}N due to the misrepresentation of the African monsoon. These results suggest that, despite regional biases in climate and ecosystem simulations, this coupled atmosphere-biosphere model can be used to explore geographic and temporal variations in the global carbon cycle.

  17. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lansey, Kevin; Hortsman, Chris

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  18. Theoretical foundation, goals, and methodology of a new science--biospherics

    PubMed

    Shaffer, J A

    1994-01-01

    Scientific endeavor is motivated by mankind's needs, desires, and inherent nature to explore. The history of scientific revolutions involves paradigmatic breakthroughs that uncover previously unknown perspectives by which a phenomenon can be viewed. In this issue a noted scientist, Nickolai Pechurkin, gives a seminal brief on the theoretical foundation, goals, and methodology leading to a new science--biospherics. While biospherics has so far eluded a simple definition, it is not something taken from "whole cloth." Biospherics has many antecedents, but most noticeably arises from the global scale research and theory associated with the technological advances of the Space-Age. The Space-Age also created the need for totally closed life-support systems which involve experimentation with artificial biospheres.

  19. Pilot Institute on Global Change on Trace Gases and the Biosphere, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, J. A.; Moore, B.

    1998-01-01

    Table of Contents: Summary; Background; General Framework for a Series of Institutes on Global Change; The 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Changes: Trace Gases and the Biosphere; Budget; List of Acronyms; and Attachments.

  20. Biosphere-atmosphere gross carbon exchange flux and the δ13CO2 and Δ14CO2 disequilibria constrained by the biospheric excess radiocarbon inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegler, Tobias; Levin, Ingeborg

    2009-09-01

    Estimates of the global biospheric excess 14C inventory IB14,E from Naegler and Levin (2009) were used to constrain the age distribution a(τ) in heterotrophically respired CO2 with a simple (radio)carbon model of the global biosphere. Subsequently, a(τ) could be used to estimate the global gross carbon exchange FeqC (net primary productivity, NPP, and heterotrophic respiration) between atmosphere and biosphere as well as both the δ13C and Δ14C signatures in heterotrophically respired CO2 (δ13CRH and Δ14CRH, respectively). Our estimates of FeqC range from 41 to 64 petagrams carbon per year (Pg C a-1), with a best estimate of 55 Pg C a-1. The uncertainty of this value is dominated by the uncertainties of IB14,E and of the net biospheric uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Limitations intrinsic to our approach as well as uncertainties in effective global average atmospheric Δ14CO2 add an uncertainty of ±3 Pg C a-1. The δ13CRH of heterotrophically respired CO2 lags the δ13C of assimilated CO2 by ˜10-17 years. This leads to a somewhat smaller estimate of the biospheric 13CO2 disequilibrium flux than previously assumed. Δ14CRH increased from ˜-20‰ in the early 1950s to maximum values of 300-325‰ in the late 1960s/early 1970s. In the 1980s, when the maximum IB14,E occurred, Δ14CRH was in a transient equilibrium with the atmosphere. The Δ14C disequilibrium between atmosphere and biosphere increased to Δ14CDIS = 20-50‰ in the mid-1990s, before it dropped to 15-40‰ in 2005.

  1. [Geographic distribution of Kawasaki disease throughout Chile].

    PubMed

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; García, Álvaro; Morales, Pamela S; Cerda, Jaime; Talesnik, Eduardo; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2016-02-01

    Incidence of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Chile is rising, however the distribution of cases throughout Chile is unknown. To describe the epidemiology of KD in Chile between years 2001 and 2011, and study the geographic distribution of KD cases throughout the country. We reviewed national hospital discharge databases for KD cases (ICD10 code M30.3) in children < 18 years. KD admission rates per 100,000 children < 5 years were calculated for every commune, health district and region, as a proxy of KD incidence. 1,404 KD cases were registered with a national KD incidence rate of 8.7. KD incidence rate increased significantly from 5.9 in 2001-2003 to 10.4 in 2009-2011 (p < 0.001). Regions IX (Araucanía), Metropolitan and VI (O'Higgins) had the highest KD incidence (12.4, 11.1 and 10.5 respectively), and regions III (Atacama), II (Antofagasta) and XII (Magallanes), had the lowest incidence (0.8, 3.9 and 4, respectively). The Eastern Metropolitan Health District, the population with the highest socioeconomic status in Chile, had the highest KD incidence rate (19.8) and concentrated 23.9% of the country's hospital discharges for KD. KD incidence in Chile is heterogeneous, with concentration of caseloads in the central regions and especially in the Eastern Metropolitan Health District. Geographic variations of KD in Chile could be associated with real differences in incidence or with disparities in diagnostic opportunity, and access to specialists and tertiary healthcare centers.

  2. Chile mental health country profile.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Carmen López

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes main facts about Chile starting with key socio-demographic, socio-economic, political, environmental, epidemiological, social support and social pathology aspects that characterize the context in which current mental and neurological policy and programmes have been put in place since 2000, as part of the National Health Plan and Health Sector Strategy Plan. The 'National Plan for Mental Health and Psychiatry', using a community psychiatry approach, has been partially implemented for people covered by the Public Health Insurance, which comprises 62% of the Chilean population (people with lower income). This paper also describes: the management, population needs and demands, financial resources, human resources in primary care, mental health specialist care and community-based care, physical capital, social capital, provision and processes, and outcomes of the plan. Strengths are analyzed, like the health reform, including its values and principles, the active participation of consumer and family groups as well as mental health NGOs, access to mental health services through primary care, quality assurance of the mental health services delivered to the population and progressive development of a culture of respect for human rights, including those of people with mental illnesses. Finally, difficulties for the advance of mental health care are also enumerated: the low priority still given to mental health compared with physical health by the country's leaders, the insufficient emphasis on mental health in both undergraduate and postgraduate professional training, the strong stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in the general population and the advocacy by some mental health professionals of the traditional model of care (role of the psychiatric hospital).

  3. Post-closure biosphere assessment modelling: comparison of complex and more stylised approaches.

    PubMed

    Walke, Russell C; Kirchner, Gerald; Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Björn

    2015-10-01

    Geological disposal facilities are the preferred option for high-level radioactive waste, due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment (biosphere) on very long timescales. Assessments need to strike a balance between stylised models and more complex approaches that draw more extensively on site-specific information. This paper explores the relative merits of complex versus more stylised biosphere models in the context of a site-specific assessment. The more complex biosphere modelling approach was developed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) for the Formark candidate site for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden. SKB's approach is built on a landscape development model, whereby radionuclide releases to distinct hydrological basins/sub-catchments (termed 'objects') are represented as they evolve through land rise and climate change. Each of seventeen of these objects is represented with more than 80 site specific parameters, with about 22 that are time-dependent and result in over 5000 input values per object. The more stylised biosphere models developed for this study represent releases to individual ecosystems without environmental change and include the most plausible transport processes. In the context of regulatory review of the landscape modelling approach adopted in the SR-Site assessment in Sweden, the more stylised representation has helped to build understanding in the more complex modelling approaches by providing bounding results, checking the reasonableness of the more complex modelling, highlighting uncertainties introduced through conceptual assumptions and helping to quantify the conservatisms involved. The more stylised biosphere models are also shown capable of reproducing the results of more complex approaches. A major recommendation is that biosphere assessments need to justify the degree of complexity in modelling approaches as well as simplifying and conservative assumptions. In light of

  4. Biosphere as a complex life-support system (LSS) for human civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, Nickolay

    As a continuously growing link of the Biosphere, we should keep in mind that biotic cycles induced by flows of a solar energy are the source of Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. Our pressure on the Biosphere which is connected with biotic cycle’s alterations and damages is menacingly growing. There are innumerable examples of atmosphere, water and soil pollution. We have contaminated even Earth-Space orbits with different uncontrolled debris. Ecological Footprint (EF) is a proper quantitative measure of anthropogenic impact on the Biosphere and ecosystems functioning. The comparative dynamics of the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) and Ecological Footprint (EF) is discussed in the paper. The main call of sustainable development of mankind: all humans can have opportunity to fulfill their lives without degrading the Biosphere. To support sustainability, we should make an effort to develop each nation and the mankind as a whole with a high HDI and with a low ecological footprint. It means: to have high level of HDI at low level of EF. But current tendency of economical and social development shows: the higher HDI, the bigger EF. EF of mankind is rising threateningly. Now actual pressure of the human civilization of our planet (2014) upon 60 % exceeds its potential possibilities (biological capacity, measured as the area of "global" green hectares). It means that now we require more than 1.5 planets of the Earth’s type for sustainable development. It leads to ecological incident in the scale of Biosphere. Our Biosphere is the large, multilevel, hierarchically organized system, and our civilization is only a part of it. This part is not central; it can disappear for ever, if we do not cope to be included in the Biosphere as a great complex system. An example of Krasnoyarsk region as a representative region with high level of industry and technological energy production is considered in the paper. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation

  5. Biosphere of the earth as a life-support system (LSS) for mankind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechurkin, Nickolay

    As a component of biosphere the mankind became the most powerful and active link recently. Exponential growth of human population number and of some technological indicators of its development becomes menacing for steady (stationary or close-to-stationary) functioning of biosphere as single whole. Anyway, we should be able to estimate quantitatively limits of pos-sible anthropogenic impact on functional parameters of biosphere. Considering biosphere as a natural LSS, we can receive the helpful information for working out and creation of artificial LSS of various types. Big biotic cycle induced with flows of a solar energy, is a basis of func-tioning of biosphere and its basic cells -ecosystems. In comparison with the majority natural ecosystems, the biosphere has very high factor of closure of substance circulation, especially limiting biogenic elements: nitrogen and phosphorus. Voluntarily or not, the mankind interferes in big biotic cycle and modifies it. For example, extracting mineral fertilizers for cultivation of agricultural crops, we return in circulation lost before substances, type nitric, potassic, phos-phoric salts. Burning fossils of organic carbon (oil, gas, coal), we raise concentration of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. The melting of a permafrost connected with activity of mankind, is capable to lead to excretion of other greenhouse gases, in particular, methane. It's possible to summarize briefly the main functional properties of the biosphere: Integrity, Closure, Substance cycling, Steady state, Energy dependence. These properties of the biosphere, as a LSS, ensure potentially everlasting life under the conditions of a limited quantity of substrate suitable for the life on the planet. But the selfish mankind is able to destroy harmonic adjustment of this unique natural mechanism

  6. A coupled regional climate-biosphere model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, J.; Winterkamp, J.; Barnes, F.; Roads, J.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop and test a regional climate modeling system that couples a limited-area atmospheric code to a biosphere scheme that properly represents surface processes. The development phase has included investigations of the impact of variations in surface forcing parameters, meteorological input data resolution, and model grid resolution. The testing phase has included a multi-year simulation of the summer climate over the Southwest United States at higher resolution than previous studies. Averaged results from a nine summer month simulation demonstrate the capability of the regional climate model to produce a representative climatology of the Southwest. The results also show the importance of strong summertime thermal forcing of the surface in defining this climatology. These simulations allow us to observe the climate at much higher temporal and spatial resolutions than existing observational networks. The model also allows us to see the full three-dimensional state of the climate and thereby deduce the dominant physical processes at any particular time.

  7. [Mathematical model of the global carbon cycle in the biosphere].

    PubMed

    Tarko, A M

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, temperatures of the atmosphere, and parameters of land biota as a result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, forest clearance, and soil erosion are calculated in a spatial mathematical model of the global carbon cycle in the biosphere. Restrictions on the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are deduced from the requirements of Kyoto Protocol to The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and other scenarios. An ability is revealed for the atmospheric CO2 concentration to grow fast, which arises from a number of emerging and developing countries with large population and high CO2 emission rates and which surpasses greatly the effect of growth retardation due to Kyoto Protocol. Those countries' role will become mostly apparent to the year of 2060 and later. Russia has shown to be in an exclusive position relative to other countries: ecosystems of its territory absorb more of the atmospheric carbon dioxide than does any other country, and the inductrial emissions from its territory are practically equal to the absorption by ecosystems.

  8. Terrestrial biosphere changes over the last 120 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogakker, B. A. A.; Smith, R. S.; Singarayer, J. S.; Marchant, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Allen, J. R. M.; Anderson, R. S.; Bhagwat, S. A.; Behling, H.; Borisova, O.; Bush, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; de Vernal, A.; Finch, J. M.; Fréchette, B.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Gosling, W. D.; Granoszewski, W.; Grimm, E. C.; Grüger, E.; Hanselman, J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hill, T. R.; Huntley, B.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Kershaw, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Magri, D.; McKenzie, M.; Müller, U.; Nakagawa, T.; Novenko, E.; Penny, D.; Sadori, L.; Scott, L.; Stevenson, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Vandergoes, M.; Velichko, A.; Whitlock, C.; Tzedakis, C.

    2016-01-01

    A new global synthesis and biomization of long (> 40 kyr) pollen-data records is presented and used with simulations from the HadCM3 and FAMOUS climate models and the BIOME4 vegetation model to analyse the dynamics of the global terrestrial biosphere and carbon storage over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Simulated biome distributions using BIOME4 driven by HadCM3 and FAMOUS at the global scale over time generally agree well with those inferred from pollen data. Global average areas of grassland and dry shrubland, desert, and tundra biomes show large-scale increases during the Last Glacial Maximum, between ca. 64 and 74 ka BP and cool substages of Marine Isotope Stage 5, at the expense of the tropical forest, warm-temperate forest, and temperate forest biomes. These changes are reflected in BIOME4 simulations of global net primary productivity, showing good agreement between the two models. Such changes are likely to affect terrestrial carbon storage, which in turn influences the stable carbon isotopic composition of seawater as terrestrial carbon is depleted in 13C.

  9. A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere.

    PubMed

    Houlton, Benjamin Z; Wang, Ying-Ping; Vitousek, Peter M; Field, Christopher B

    2008-07-17

    Dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is widely recognized as an important process in controlling ecosystem responses to global environmental change, both today and in the past; however, significant discrepancies exist between theory and observations of patterns of N(2) fixation across major sectors of the land biosphere. A question remains as to why symbiotic N(2)-fixing plants are more abundant in vast areas of the tropics than in many of the mature forests that seem to be nitrogen-limited in the temperate and boreal zones. Here we present a unifying framework for terrestrial N(2) fixation that can explain the geographic occurrence of N(2) fixers across diverse biomes and at the global scale. By examining trade-offs inherent in plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus capture, we find a clear advantage to symbiotic N(2) fixers in phosphorus-limited tropical savannas and lowland tropical forests. The ability of N(2) fixers to invest nitrogen into phosphorus acquisition seems vital to sustained N(2) fixation in phosphorus-limited tropical ecosystems. In contrast, modern-day temperatures seem to constrain N(2) fixation rates and N(2)-fixing species from mature forests in the high latitudes. We propose that an analysis that couples biogeochemical cycling and biophysical mechanisms is sufficient to explain the principal geographical patterns of symbiotic N(2) fixation on land, thus providing a basis for predicting the response of nutrient-limited ecosystems to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO(2).

  10. Toward “optimal” integration of terrestrial biosphere models

    DOE PAGES

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Fisher, Joshua B.; ...

    2015-06-10

    Multimodel ensembles (MME) are commonplace in Earth system modeling. Here we perform MME integration using a 10-member ensemble of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) from the Multiscale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP). We contrast optimal (skill based for present-day carbon cycling) versus naive (one model-one vote) integration. MsTMIP optimal and naive mean land sink strength estimates (-1.16 versus -1.15 Pg C per annum respectively) are statistically indistinguishable. This holds also for grid cell values and extends to gross uptake, biomass, and net ecosystem productivity. TBM skill is similarly indistinguishable. The added complexity of skill-based integration does not materially changemore » MME values. This suggests that carbon metabolism has predictability limits and/or that all models and references are misspecified. Finally, resolving this issue requires addressing specific uncertainty types (initial conditions, structure, and references) and a change in model development paradigms currently dominant in the TBM community.« less