Science.gov

Sample records for biotechnology consultation note

  1. Benefits of an Electronic Consultation-Liaison Note System: Better Notes Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sola, Christopher L.; Bostwick, J. Michael; Sampson, Shirlene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determined the efficiency of electronic documentation in consultation-liaison psychiatry. METHOD: An electronic note system was customized for a psychiatric consultation note. Specific attention given to common diagnoses permitted rapid documentation. Results: Residents learned the system quickly. The standardized nature of…

  2. Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vranken, Nancy S., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The field of biotechnology, and specifically recombinant DNA technology, is transforming the way that many feel about the nature and purposes of biology. This newsletter annual supplement contains several articles addressing the topic of biotechnology and the importance that the topic should be given in science classes. James D. Watson's article,…

  3. Noted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  4. Managing Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinconico, S. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for managing library consulting engagements effectively cover the decision to use a consultant, definition of the problem area, finding the consultant, interviewing and evaluating the consultant, the psychological contract, the formal contract, and abdication of responsibility for the consulting project by the client. Seventeen sources…

  5. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  6. Faculty Consulting and the Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Alan W.; Blackburn, Robert T.

    A random sample of 8,009 research university professors' paid consulting work was examined from the local-cosmopolitan framework. Analysis of the results, using four levels of consulting (none, mild, moderate, active) showed that: (1) 54 percent devote some portion of their normal work week to consulting; (2) the most active consultants (about 5…

  7. Critical consulting

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C.

    1993-02-01

    With increasing complexity in the power industry, consultants have become an indispensible element of any project development team. Top engineers and consultants today bring added value to their clients' projects.

  8. Consultants' Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Lester E., Jr., Ed.; Hooker, Dennis A., Ed.

    Two conferences held in Florida in 1968 to prepare consultants to work with in-service professional and para-professional personnel serving migrant children in Florida, led to this analysis of consultant, consultee, and professional staff reactions. Characteristics of a consultant and when and how to use his services are outlined. It is shown how…

  9. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods.

  10. Biotechnology Works!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby G.; Spenciner, Loraine

    There have been few initiatives addressing the improvement of science education for students with disabilities. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Biotechnology Works is a summer institute in immunology and genetics for students with disabilities, high school science teachers, and high school counselors. During the 1998 summer session,…

  11. Biotechnology: Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airozo, Diana; Warmbrodt, Robert D.

    Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized the fields of agriculture and the health sciences; however, there are concerns with this technology. This document is designed to help foster dialogue with emphasis on education and the development of a public understanding of the principals involved in…

  12. Ecological Consultancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Scott McG.; Tattersfield, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of a new regular feature on careers, designed to provide those who teach biology with some inspiration when advising their students. In this issue, two consultant ecologists explain how their career paths developed. It is a misconception that there are few jobs in ecology. Over the past 20 or 30 years ecological consultancy has…

  13. Environmental biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers an up-to-date overview of the major activities in the field and appraises the principles involved in applying biotechnological techniques to environmental problems. coverage includes pollution of agricultural land, techniques of treating effluents, environmental problems caused by solid waste disposal in landfill sites, and the potential for biogas generation at such sites. It also examines the potential uses and dangers of future technologies in environmental management, such as manipulating aromatic-degrading microorganisms, use of recalcitrant xenobiotics, biological pest control, and controlling biological nitrogen fixation.

  14. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy.

  15. [Bioclimatic consultation].

    PubMed

    Cordes, H; Reinke, R

    1975-01-23

    The climatological environment may effect the human state of health, disadvantageously or favourably. This knowledge, confirmed by empiric as well as scientific research can be used by e.g. changing the place of residence towards a healthy and benefical climate. For a professional climatological planning of such a project the "Deutscher Wetterdienst" renders bioclimatic consultations within the Federal Republic of Germany. For this purpose individual reactions as well as state health of the person in question have to be considered. A method will be shown how to combine medical diagnostic facts and bioclimatic consultation.

  16. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed. PMID:26964332

  17. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  18. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  19. Practical guidance for charting ethics consultations.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Smith, Martin L; Tawose, Olubukunola Mary; Sharp, Richard R

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that appropriate documentation of activities and recommendations of ethics consultants in patients' medical records is critical. Despite this acceptance, the bioethics literature is largely devoid of guidance on key elements of an ethics chart note, the degree of specificity that it should contain, and its stylistic tenor. We aim to provide guidance for a variety of persons engaged in clinical ethics consultation: new and seasoned ethics committee members who are new to ethics consultation, students and trainees in clinical ethics, and those who have significant experience with ethics consultation so that they can reflect on their practice. Toward the goal of promoting quality charting practices in ethics consultations, we propose recommendations on a broad array of questions concerning clinical ethics consultation chart notes, including whether and when to write a chart note, and practical considerations for the tenor, purpose, and content of a chart note. Our broader aim is to promote discussion about good charting practices in clinical ethics, with the hope of contributing to clear standards of excellence in clinical ethics consultation.

  20. Handbook for Behavioral Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    This handbook provides an overview of the consultation role for the school psychologist and distinguishes between consultation and other forms of school psychological services. Three major consultation models in school psychology are reviewed: (1) mental health consultation; (2) organization-development consultation; and (3) behavioral…

  1. Environmentally compatible applications of biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, R.J.; Egan, M.

    1994-09-01

    Using living organisms to minimize harmful human impact on the environment is relatively recent thrust of biotechnology. Biotechnology developments are being employed as green technologies in a variety of applications that fall into the category of environmental biotechnology. The following aspects of biotechnology are discussed in this article: biosensors; bioremediation; bioleaching; natural plastics; clean fuels; pesticides; regulation of biotechnology products and processes. 58 refs.

  2. Biotechnology Laboratory Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert H.; Kompala, Dhinakar S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course entitled "Biotechnology Laboratory" which introduces a variety of laboratory methods associated with biotechnology. Describes the history, content, and seven experiments of the course. The seven experiments are selected from microbiology and molecular biology, kinetics and fermentation, and downstream processing-bioseparations.…

  3. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  4. Biotechnology and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Biological Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes a Royal Society report on the educational implications of the growth of biotechnology (application of biological organisms, systems, or processes to manufacturing and service industries). Eighteen recommendations are made including the inclusion of biotechnological content into science curricula. (Author/JN)

  5. Ohio Biotechnology Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lavonna; Bowermeister, Bob; Boudreau, Joyce

    This document, which lists the biotechnology competencies identified by representatives from biotechnology businesses and industries as well as secondary and post-secondary educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through…

  6. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  7. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)

  8. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  9. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  10. Bioethics and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is at the intersection of science and ethics. Technological developments are shaped by an ethical vision, which in turn is shaped by available technology. Much in biotechnology can be celebrated for how it benefits humanity. But technology can have a darker side. Biotechnology can produce unanticipated consequences that cause harm or dehumanise people. The ethical implications of proposed developments must be carefully examined. The ethical assessment of new technologies, including biotechnology, requires a different approach to ethics. Changes are necessary because new technology can have a more profound impact on the world; because of limitations with a rights-based approach to ethics; because of the importance and difficulty of predicting consequences; and because biotechnology now manipulates humans themselves. The ethical questions raised by biotechnology are of a very different nature. Given the potential to profoundly change the future course of humanity, such questions require careful consideration. Rather than focussing on rights and freedoms, wisdom is needed to articulate our responsibilities towards nature and others, including future generations. The power and potential of biotechnology demands caution to ensure ethical progress. PMID:19003197

  11. PBT-1 Prana Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Richard

    2005-01-01

    PBT-1 (clioquinol), is undergoing phase II clinical trials by Prana Biotechnology Ltd for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. By October 2004, the company had planned phase III trials for the first half of 2005. PMID:15675609

  12. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  13. Analytical Challenges in Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glajch, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Highlights five major analytical areas (electrophoresis, immunoassay, chromatographic separations, protein and DNA sequencing, and molecular structures determination) and discusses how analytical chemistry could further improve these techniques and thereby have a major impact on biotechnology. (JN)

  14. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  15. Consultants as Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, school boards are using consultants to help them hire the right superintendents for their school systems. Proposes extending the consultants' contracts to coaching both board and superintendents on developing an effective working relationship. (MLF)

  16. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology.

  17. Commercialization of animal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Faber, D C; Molina, J A; Ohlrichs, C L; Vander Zwaag, D F; Ferré, L B

    2003-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnology is a wide-ranging topic for discussion. In this paper, we will attempt to review embryo transfer (ET) and related technologies that relate to food-producing mammals. A brief review of the history of advances in biotechnology will provide a glimpse to present and future applications. Commercialization of animal biotechnology is presently taking two pathways. The first application involves the use of animals for biomedical purposes. Very few companies have developed all of the core competencies and intellectual properties to complete the bridge from lab bench to product. The second pathway of application is for the production of animals used for food. Artificial insemination (AI), embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, transgenics, and genomics all are components of the toolbox for present and future applications. Individually, these are powerful tools capable of providing significant improvements in productivity. Combinations of these technologies coupled with information systems and data analysis, will provide even more significant change in the next decade. Any strategies for the commercial application of animal biotechnology must include a careful review of regulatory and social concerns. Careful review of industry infrastructure is also important. Our colleagues in plant biotechnology have helped highlight some of these pitfalls and provide us with a retrospective review. In summary, today we have core competencies that provide a wealth of opportunities for the members of this society, commercial companies, producers, and the general population. Successful commercialization will benefit all of the above stakeholders. PMID:12499024

  18. Consulting on Academic Library Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ellsworth

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the following aspects of consulting on library buildings: new trends, the need for a consultant, selecting a consultant, timeliness in hiring, expectations, following through, and the cost of consulting. (FM)

  19. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    PubMed

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology. PMID:22222837

  20. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  1. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, K K; Kavya, K M; Jerome, A; Sharma, R K

    2016-04-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.

  2. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology. PMID:25058832

  3. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  4. Opportunities for innovation: Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    The basic purpose of this project is to help small businesses get on the fast track in biotechnology research and development leading to the spin off of viable commercial businesses, probably with the help of larger companies having the resources for commercialization that are lacking in a small enterprise. Such resources could include financing, and positions in marketing, manufacturing, regulatory affairs, and raw material supply, to name a few. In general, biotechnology can be expected to have a major impact on fundamental human needs engendered in the market segments of: health care, agriculture, forestry, food ingredients, industrial chemicals, plastics, energy, mining, pollution control, and bioelectronics.

  5. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  6. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  7. Projector Center. What Is Biotechnology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Case, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a menu designed to illustrate some classical examples of fermentation. This may be used to discuss biotechnology from a technological perspective. Other examples of biotechnology used in the foods industry are described. (CW)

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We hav processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture gas shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal ...

  10. Opportunities for Biotechnology and Policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  11. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental sa...

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with EPA's mission to minimize risks to human health and to safeguard ecological integrity, the EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) is committed to assessing and mitigating any risk posed by biotechnology-derived crops. Consequently, ...

  13. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  14. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  15. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  16. Biotechnology in weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  17. Biotechnology and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofsy, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Biotechnology is changing the values of the university's bioscience community. Priorities are distorted by entrepreneurial incentives and government pressures that increase the scientist's dependence on industry and the military. The university is seen as inattentive to the social, ethical, and educational challenges. (Author/MLW)

  18. Biotechnology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program quide presents the biotechnology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and lists of…

  19. The Ohio Science Workbook: Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Spencer E., Comp.

    Because of the daily impact of biotechnology, it is important that students have some knowledge and experience with biotechnology in order to enable them to deal with the issues that arise as a result of its implementation. The purpose of this workbook is to assist in the efforts to expose students to the concepts of biotechnology through hands-on…

  20. The Challenge in Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, F.; Aubusson, P.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, industry and medicine are being altered by new biotechnologies. Biotechnology education is important because today's students and citizens will make decisions about the development and application of these new molecular biologies. This article reports an investigation of the teaching of biotechnology in an Australian state, New South…

  1. [Biotechnology and animal health].

    PubMed

    Desmettre, P

    1993-06-01

    The development of the first vaccines for use in animals, by Louis Pasteur at the end of the 19th Century, was an initial step in applying biotechnology to animal health. However, it is only much more recently that decisive progress has been made in finding applications for biotechnology, in both detecting and preventing infectious and parasitic diseases. This progress has shown the way to developing a range of procedures, the application of which will benefit the health of domestic and wild animals, enhance the well-being of companion animals, develop the performance of sporting animals and improve the productivity of farm animals, while also serving to protect human health. Such progress results from the increasingly rapid application of knowledge gained in the material and life sciences, all of which contribute to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Similarly, reagents and diagnostic techniques have been made more specific, sensitive, reproducible, rapid and robust by updating them through recent discoveries in immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology (monoclonal antibodies, nucleic probes, deoxyribonucleic acid amplification and many more). The development of new vaccines which combine efficacy, duration of protection, innocuity, stability, multivalence and ease of use (subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, synthetic vaccines and anti-idiotype vaccines) has resulted from recent progress in immunology, immunochemistry, molecular biology and biochemistry. Finally, the availability of new anti-infective, anti-parasitic agents and immunomodulatory therapeutic agents (capable of stimulating the specific and non-specific defence mechanisms of the body) demonstrates that biotechnology is continuing to find new applications in the field of animal health. New diagnostic techniques, vaccines and therapeutic substances are the most immediate applications of knowledge which may, in the future, extend to the development of transgenic animals of revised

  2. The Counsellor as Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hett, Geoffrey G.; Davies, Alan

    A survey (Jevne, 1981) conducted to determine Canadian counselor competencies revealed that, of the nine areas considered important for counselor training, the 304 respondents in the field of counseling ranked training in consulting as sixth in importance. Prompted by these results, a literature review was conducted to determine if consulting was…

  3. The Search Consultant's Obligations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The superintendent search consultant is employed by the board of education and must always act in the board's best interest. Boards want consultants to be friendly and courteous, provide information, and foster an aura of good feeling with candidates and the board. Candidates should receive accurate information, selection criteria briefings,…

  4. The Parent Consultation Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Larry; Cook, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    The Parent Consultation Center (PCC) is a win-win project that offers free consultation to families about childhood behavior problems and a supervised practice experience for counselors in training. The PCC can be replicated in any school district where there is a nearby university with a counselor education program. This is a guide to starting…

  5. Directory of Environmental Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cate, Bill, Ed.

    Over 400 inter-field professionals are named as environmental consultants in this 1972 annual directory. Primarily, they are faculty members at colleges and universities in Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States who will provide free environmental consulting services to interested government, industry, and citizen organizations, but are not…

  6. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Richard; Ivanov, Dimitri

    2004-01-01

    Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarray assay hybridisation times. The linking of microfluidics to protein analysis techologies, e.g. mass spectrometry, enables picomole amounts of peptide to be analysed within a controlled micro-environment. The flexibility of microfluidics will facilitate its exploitation in assay development across multiple biotechnological disciplines. PMID:15056390

  7. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  8. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  9. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  10. Biotechnology regulation: is policy transfer an appropriate answer?

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Gómez, Olga Carolina; Létourneau, Lyne

    2010-01-01

    In the world of biotechnology regulation, one often encounters the suggestion that the legislation of other countries should be consulted. Known as "policy transfer" in the field of public policy analysis, the purpose of such a recommendation is for policymakers to use the experiences of other States as a basis for developing appropriate regulatory frameworks in a timely manner. This paper examines whether policy transfer is relevant as an instrument for biotechnology regulation, and if it is, to what extent. Our analysis uses the example of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), and unfolds according to the following argumentative steps. We will begin by discussing policy transfer as a recognized feature of policymaking in the literature pertaining to public policy analysis. We will then introduce a distinction between the technical dimension of policymaking and its political component. We will refer to "morality policy" as an illustration of policymaking directed toward its political component. We will show that, in the case of morality policy, States have moved away from a policy transfer approach. We will then establish that ART qualifies as morality policy, suggesting that policy transfer is most likely not the optimal policymaking tool for dealing with biotechnology regulation. Moving beyond the issue of ART in order to expand our reasoning to biotechnology regulation as a whole, we will conclude that, although the experiences of other States may be useful, policy transfer does not suffice in terms of informing policymaking in the case of biotechnology advances.

  11. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  12. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  13. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  15. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 21 articles ranging from instructional experiments to topical information. Deals with investigation of plant rust diseases, using computers to teach biology, plant roots, a biotechnology curriculum, the corrosion of oxides, electrochemical simulations, the Reimer-Tiemann reaction, the oxidation of aldehydes, and the extraction of iodine…

  16. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents four notes that report new equipment and techniques of interest to physics teachers. These notes deal with collosions of atoms in solids, determining the viscosity of a liquid, measuring the speed of sound and demonstrating Doppler effect. (HM)

  17. Physics Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents nine physics notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) speed of sound in a steel rod; (2) physics extracts-part four (1978); and (3) a graphical approach to acceleration. (HM)

  18. Suicide notes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention. PMID:8353698

  19. Contribution of consultants to care of compromised pregnancies.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, J. S.; Taslimi, M. M.; Gonzales, A. R.; Duggan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Obstetricians often seek consultative services of other specialists in the management of compromised pregnancies. However, the extent of such consultations and the contribution of these consultants have not been addressed in the literature. This study is addresses the contribution of consultants to the care of complicated pregnancies at a tertiary care center. During the 2 1/2 years of this retrospective study, 2263 antepartum admissions were made for pregnancy complications. One hundred sixty-six of those patients were hospitalized 176 times and were treated by one or more consulting physicians for a consultation rate of 7.8%. Eighteen specialties were consulted, including 54 (32%) consultations from maternal fetal medicine, 44 (24%) from internal medicine, 28 (16%) from general surgery, and 22 (12%) from endocrinology. Of the initial admission diagnoses, 87.9% were confirmed and 46 new diagnoses were made by the consultants. A significant positive correlation was noted between the number of consultants, maternal length of hospital stay, and maternal hospitalization cost. PMID:8776065

  20. Integrating ecology into biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Katherine D; Martin, Hector Garcia; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-06-01

    New high-throughput culture-independent molecular tools are allowing the scientific community to characterize and understand the microbial communities underpinning environmental biotechnology processes in unprecedented ways. By creatively leveraging these new data sources, microbial ecology has the potential to transition from a purely descriptive to a predictive framework, in which ecological principles are integrated and exploited to engineer systems that are biologically optimized for the desired goal. But to achieve this goal, ecology, engineering and microbiology curricula need to be changed from the very root to better promote interdisciplinarity.

  1. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.; Hamilton, K.

    1997-01-01

    Studies at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have led to the development of a technically and economically feasible, as well as environmentally acceptable, biochemical process for detoxification of geothermal residues. For this process, selected microorganisms that live in extreme environments have served as models for the new biotechnology. Assuming a 2,500-kg/h sludge production rate, the new technology is capable of a better than 80% removal rate of toxic metals, usually in less than a 25-hour period. The process itself depends on a number of flexible parameters, allowing this technology to be tailored to specific needs of different geothermal producing regimes, such as those found in the Salton Sea and the Geysers area of California. Thus geothermal residual sludges and brines can be processed to remove only a few metals, such as arsenic and mercury, or many metals, ranging from valuable metals such as chromium, gold, and silver to radionuclides, such as radium. In some cases, combined metal removal and metal recovery processes may be cost efficient and therefore advantageous. The emerging biotechnology for the treatment of geothermal energy production wastes is versatile and offers a number of application options, which are discussed in the paper.

  2. Biotechnology touches the forest

    SciTech Connect

    Powledge, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Both the United States and New Zealand are doing research in forest biotechnology and much of the interest is in speedy propagation from seed to mature tree. A number of propagation techniques are discussed, such as tissue culture, the culture of tissue from mature trees and somatic embryo genesis. Much of the tissue culture work has been done on radiata pine. Field testing results are considered. The aims and the advantages of forest biotechnology are discussed under the following headings. 1) Disease resistance: research is being carried out on a loblolly pine which would be resistant to fusiform rust. 2) Animal feed: some trees have been discovered to have lower lignin content and similar cellulose and hemicellulose to alfalfa. 3) Specialty chemicals: terpenes, in the tree resin, could be turned into hormones, drugs and other chemicals: the genetic system for the overall biosynthesis of terpenes has been studied. 4) Herbicide resistance. The resistance to glyphosate in poplars is being studied. In conclusion, further research into forest species, using molecular biology is considered essential.

  3. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops. PMID:26798073

  4. From Biotechnology to Nanotechnology: What Can We Learn from Earlier Technologies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Using Canada as a case study, this article argues that regulating biotechnology and nanotechnology is made unnecessarily complex and inherently unstable because of a failure to consult the public early and often enough. Furthermore, it is argued that future regulators (and promoters) of nanotechnology may learn valuable lessons from the mistakes…

  5. How to Use Consultants Successfully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Judith

    Advice is given to course teams from the Social Sciences faculty at the Open University in England on the proper use of educational consultants. Practical suggestions on the selection of appropriate tasks for consultants and of consultants for tasks are followed by suggestions on briefing, contracting, and maintaining liaison with consultants.…

  6. Biotechnology: from university to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the birth of the biotechnology industry in the US. It is argued that biotechnology may have important implications for the future of American capitalism. The study is contextualized theoretically through the use of the idea of the capitalism experiences waves of innovations at certain historical periods. Finally, the idea of a new regime of accumulation based on information technologies is explored and biotechnology's potential position in the information society is explored. The first section of the study examines the role of the university in biotechnology. The various objectives of administrators and professors are explored as is the role of corporate gift giving in transforming the university into an institution more useful for capitalist accumulation. The second section examines the corporate role in biotechnology: both from the viewpoint of the small venture capital-financed biotechnology firms and the large multinational oil, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies that have made a number of important investments in biotechnology. The last chapter describes the unique effects that biotechnology will have upon the US agricultural sector.

  7. A Sourcebook of Biotechnology Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Alison M., Ed.; Matheson, Robert H., III, Ed.

    This book contains 22 lessons using hands-on activities designed to present some aspect of biotechnology in a usable form that teachers can adapt for their classrooms. The introductory section serves as a resource that introduces the teacher and student to the history of biotechnology. The activities are divided into five units that group lessons…

  8. On Teaching Biotechnology in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dan C.; Kemp, Michael C.; Hall, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    One study surveyed 187 Kentucky teachers (36% agriculture, 32% science, 32% technology education); they rated importance of content organizers, topics, transferable skills, and delivery methods for biotechnology. A second study received responses from 70 of 150 teachers; 45 thought science teachers or an integrated team should teach biotechnology;…

  9. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  10. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  11. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  12. Ethics consultation and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Varelius, Jukka

    2008-03-01

    Services of ethics consultants are nowadays commonly used in such various spheres of life as engineering, public administration, business, law, health care, journalism, and scientific research. It has however been maintained that use of ethics consultants is incompatible with personal autonomy; in moral matters individuals should be allowed to make their own decisions. The problem this criticism refers to can be conceived of as a conflict between the professional autonomy of ethics experts and the autonomy of the persons they serve. This paper addresses this conflict and maintains that when the nature of both ethics consultation and individual autonomy is properly understood, the professional autonomy of ethics experts is compatible with the autonomy of the persons they assist.

  13. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  14. Biotechnological Applications of Transglutaminases

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Natalie M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2013-01-01

    In nature, transglutaminases catalyze the formation of amide bonds between proteins to form insoluble protein aggregates. This specific function has long been exploited in the food and textile industries as a protein cross-linking agent to alter the texture of meat, wool, and leather. In recent years, biotechnological applications of transglutaminases have come to light in areas ranging from material sciences to medicine. There has also been a substantial effort to further investigate the fundamentals of transglutaminases, as many of their characteristics that remain poorly understood. Those studies also work towards the goal of developing transglutaminases as more efficient catalysts. Progress in this area includes structural information and novel chemical and biological assays. Here, we review recent achievements in this area in order to illustrate the versatility of transglutaminases. PMID:24970194

  15. Deep ocean environmental biotechnology

    PubMed

    Deming

    1998-06-01

    Major recent advances in deep-sea biotechnology have come in the form of continuing discoveries of novel microorganisms, unexpected genetic diversity, and new natural products of potential relevance to human health or environmental bioremediation. Continuing explorations of submarine hydrothermal vent environments have yielded new hyperthermophiles (maximal growth at 90 degreesC or greater) and more evidence that elevated hydrostatic pressure stabilizes cells and enzymes at high temperature. Vent samples have also yielded new mesophiles (optimal growth near 30 degreesC) that produce heparin-like exopolysaccharides or express extraordinary tolerance (removal by precipitation) of heavy metals. From the cold deep sea have come new findings of unexpected microbial diversity and the promise of industrially useful enzymes or secondary metabolites. New classes of predictive models are emerging to guide future exploration of microbial diversity in the deep ocean.

  16. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  17. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures.

  18. Biotechnology in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Illmensee, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In this review I am summarizing the past and current progress in the field of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning in mammals. Several human gene products can be pharmaceutically explored in transgenic farm animals and employed for medical applications. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is utilizing modern molecular cloning techniques to detect genetic and chromosomal aberrations in early embryos originating from patients with inborn errors at risk for hereditary diseases or age-related risk for abnormal karyotype. Stem cell engineering from early human embryos is creating new and promising but also controversial applications for therapeutic and regenerative medicine. Potential risk factors for reproductive cloning are presented and discussed in the context of possible developmental malformations, frequently observed after embryo culture and cloning in farm animals. Future extension of biotechnology to human reproductive cloning is currently under worldwide dispute.

  19. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures. PMID:24816618

  20. Tilting the Balance: A Management Consultant's Prescription for Changing the Equilibrium between Central Office and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouchi, William G.

    2004-01-01

    During the past 30 years, the author has served as a management consultant to companies that wanted to achieve revolutionary change to become more successful. He has worked with companies as small as 100 employees and as large as General Motors, IBM and Amgen, the world's largest biotechnology company. More recently he has worked (as a pro bono…

  1. The Student Consultant Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarema, Christina

    The Student Consultant Project (SCP) of the University of Pittsburgh is a university-based operation which has been channeling university resources into the community. Part I of this study, covering the history of SCP, emphasizes the organization, the board of directors, scope of activities, funding, and future plans. Part II discusses the…

  2. Sharing Expertise: Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    2011-01-01

    A special breed of superintendents who have developed expertise in a particular area find ways of sharing it in other venues as outside consultants. They pull extra duty to put their special skills into practice, to give back to their communities, to stay current and grounded in the field, or to enhance their professional reputations. They teach…

  3. A Consultant on Bargaining?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmet, Thomas A.; Howe, Ray A.

    1981-01-01

    The consultant can assist the administration in setting up an educational program on collective bargaining, can advise about the creation of data systems, can help select and coordinate task forces, and can help implement a comprehensive audit of board policies and practices as well as administrative procedures. (MLW)

  4. The AV Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Raymond H.

    1976-01-01

    An audiovisual communications consultant involved in planning a new facility is able to translate the needs of educators into integrated systems, and relate these to the architects and engineers in terms of working drawings, specifications, system descriptions, functional schematics, and block diagrams. (Author/MLF)

  5. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  6. Community Consultation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulder Area Growth Study Commission, CO.

    This kit, designed for leaders and participants, provides a model for organizing and taking part in Community Consultation Groups. The kit was designed to be used in connection with community concerns about growth in Boulder, Colorado. These groups build upon a previous survey to assist the Commission in determining specific growth concerns in the…

  7. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of chemistry to be used in chemistry courses of secondary schools. Three experiments concerning differential thermal analysis are among these notes presented. (HM)

  8. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  9. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  10. Biotechnology of oil seed crops

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.T.

    1985-02-01

    A general summary of possibilities and limitation application of biotechnology processes to processing and/or production of fats and oils is presented. Enzymatic processes, cloning of premium perennial oil crops and genetic manipulation of oil seed compositions are discussed.

  11. Biotechnology: Economic and Behavioral Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhan, William F.; Beardsley, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews factors related to effects of biotechnology on the discipline of pharmacy administration including needs assessment, diffusion of technology, cost benefit analysis, marketing, cost containment, patient education and compliance, ethics, and health professions training. (DB)

  12. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  13. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  14. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  15. Biotechnology of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Schwechheimer, Susanne Katharina; Park, Enoch Y; Revuelta, José Luis; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) production has shifted from chemical synthesis to exclusive biotechnological synthesis in less than 15 years. The underlying extraordinary achievement in metabolic engineering and bioprocess engineering is reviewed in this article with regard to the two most important industrial producers Bacillus subtilis and Ashbya gossypii. The respective biosynthetic routes and modifications are discussed, and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis. As the terminal biosynthesis of riboflavin starts from the two precursors, ribulose 5-phosphate and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), both strains have been optimized for an improved flux through the pentose phosphate pathway as well as the purine biosynthetic pathway. Specific targets for improvement of A. gossypii were the increase of the glycine pool and the increase of carbon flow through the glyoxylic shunt. In B. subtilis, research interest, amongst others, has focused on gluconeogenesis and overexpression of the rib operon. In addition, insight into large-scale production of vitamin B2 is given, as well as future prospects and possible developments. PMID:26758294

  16. New Directions in Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  17. Mentoring for new consultants.

    PubMed

    Ackroyd, R; Adamson, K A

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the benefits of having a mentor during the early years as a consultant. Mentoring encourages and provides support to an individual in their professional development. Although there are different forms of mentoring there is recognition that developing a formal mentoring scheme can provide a consistent approach and support within a framework. The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh has introduced a mentoring scheme for new consultants that provides a forum for supporting them in their ongoing professional wellbeing. There is potential that the process of mentoring can improve an individual's development, and motivate and encourage them to develop the skills needed to achieve their goals, thus having an impact on ultimately improving their ability to deliver an effective patient-centred service.

  18. The Courteous Consult: A CONSULT Card and Training to Improve Resident Consults

    PubMed Central

    Podolsky, Anna; Stern, David T.; Peccoralo, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication and courtesy are important elements of consultations, but there is limited published data about the quality of trainee consults. Objectives This study assessed residents' views on consult interactions, evaluated the impact of the consult interactions on patient care, and developed and implemented a pocket card and training on trainee consults. Methods We surveyed resident and fellow physicians at Mount Sinai Hospital to assess perceptions, created a CONSULT card that uses a mnemonic for key elements, and developed a training session for how to call consults. We also conducted a consult training session using the CONSULT card as part of orientation in 2011 for all interns. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability of this intervention. Results Of 1001 trainees, 403 (40%) responded. Respondents reported that the most important components of calling consults included giving patient name, medical record number, and location (91%), and giving a clear question/reason (89%). Respondents also reported that these behaviors are done consistently for only 64%, and 10% of consults, respectively. Trainees reported that consult interactions affect the timeliness of treatment (62%), timeliness of tests performed (57%), appropriateness of diagnosis (56%), and discharge planning (49%). Approximately 300 interns attended the consult training session, and their feedback demonstrated acceptability and utility of the session. Conclusions Trainees believe that consult interactions impact patient care, but important components of the consult call are often missing. Our training and CONSULT card is an acceptable, feasible, and novel training intervention. Once developed, the training session and CONSULT card require minimal faculty time to deliver. PMID:26217436

  19. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  20. Management Consulting: Planning, Entry, Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosier, Richard A.; Dalton, Dan R.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that counseling has much in common with organizational consulting. Provides overview of consulting practices that counselors might find useful should they decide to investigate organizational consulting. Includes aspects of market research, gauging competition, and target markets. Considers promotion, networking, and elements of…

  1. The Consultant from Oz Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garnett J.

    1998-01-01

    School leaders should realize that consultants cannot substitute for developing collective actions within the organization. The "Consultant from Oz Syndrome" stems from placing undue confidence in external sources, confusing consultants with magicians, and denying their limitations. While journeying down the yellow brick road of educational…

  2. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 2: Meeting the information needs of biotechnologists.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, D; Grefsheim, S; Simon, M; Lansing, P S

    1991-01-01

    The second part of the biotechnology awareness study focused on health sciences libraries and how well they are meeting the needs of biotechnologists working in the study's nine medical centers. A survey was conducted over a three-month period to assess the demand for biotechnology-related reference services at nine libraries and the sources the librarians used to answer the questions. Data on monographic and current serial holdings were also collected. At the end of the survey period, librarians were asked for their perceptions about biotechnology research at their institutions and in their geographic areas. Their responses were compared to the responses the scientists at the nine schools gave to the same or similar questions. Results showed few biotechnology-related reference questions were asked of the librarians. The recorded questions dealt with a range of biotechnology subjects. MEDLINE was used to answer 77% of the questions received during the survey period. More detailed notes in MeSH and a guide to online searching for biotechnology topics were suggested by the librarians as ways to improve reference service to this group of researchers. Journal collections were generally strong, with libraries owning from 50% to 87% of the titles on a core list of biotechnology journals compiled for this study. All libraries subscribed to the five titles most often cited by the scientists surveyed. Generally, librarians were unaware of the biotechnology-related research being done on their campuses or in their geographic areas. PMID:1998819

  3. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  4. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  5. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  6. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents brief notes on new ideas, equipment, techniques, or materials of interest to teachers of physics. An apparatus that demonstrates the uniform acceleration of gravity, and a simple way to demonstrate nuclear blocking patterns of crystal lattices are among new ideas presented. (HM)

  7. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  8. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  9. Development of a teledermatopathology consultation system using virtual slides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An online consultation system using virtual slides (whole slide images; WSI) has been developed for pathological diagnosis, and could help compensate for the shortage of pathologists, especially in the field of dermatopathology and in other fields dealing with difficult cases. This study focused on the performance and future potential of the system. Method In our system, histological specimens on slide glasses are digitalized by a virtual slide instrument, converted into web data, and up-loaded to an open server. Using our own purpose-built online system, we then input patient details such as age, gender, affected region, clinical data, past history and other related items. We next select up to ten consultants. Finally we send an e-mail to all consultants simultaneously through a single command. The consultant receives an e-mail containing an ID and password which is used to access the open server and inspect the images and other data associated with the case. The consultant makes a diagnosis, which is sent to us along with comments. Because this was a pilot study, we also conducted several questionnaires with consultants concerning the quality of images, operability, usability, and other issues. Results We solicited consultations for 36 cases, including cases of tumor, and involving one to eight consultants in the field of dermatopathology. No problems were noted concerning the images or the functioning of the system on the sender or receiver sides. The quickest diagnosis was received only 18 minutes after sending our data. This is much faster than in conventional consultation using glass slides. There were no major problems relating to the diagnosis, although there were some minor differences of opinion between consultants. The results of questionnaires answered by many consultants confirmed the usability of this system for pathological consultation. (16 out of 23 consultants.) Conclusion We have developed a novel teledermatopathological consultation

  10. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  11. Academic Perspectives in Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Academic perspectives are reviewed for consultation in substance abuse within four general issues: consultation paradigms, research consultation and psychology, sources for consultation, and academic issues. The mental health/crisis intervention model is the most common consultation paradigm. Most consultation research in the substance abuse area…

  12. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology. PMID:19831210

  13. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  14. Inter-country consultation.

    PubMed

    Reid, E

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the UN Development Program (UNDP) organized the African Informal Consultation on Behavior Change as it relates to the HIV pandemic. Community-based organization and government representatives attended from Australia, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Malaysia, Norway, Senegal, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Participants strongly endorsed the possibility for individuals and communities to change their attitudes and behaviors in response to HIV and AIDS, and stressed the importance of evaluating and documenting these changes and sharing lessons learned. The group concluded that research in the field of HIV should be action-oriented and participatory; new research methods and ways of presenting data are called for. Participants in the 2nd consultation held in the Asia/Pacific region in November 1992 also stressed the importance of developing community-based monitoring, evaluation, and program development methodologies. The UNDP responded by launching a number of initiatives in Africa, Asia and Central America to explore ways in which communities may be helped to document ongoing changes, assess their impact and efficacy, and share them with others. New approaches to evaluation are also being explored based upon processes of assessment and redesign already occurring in the communities.

  15. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  16. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  17. Teaching Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    If you would like to contribute a teaching note for any of these sections please contact ped@iop.org. Contents: LET'S INVESTIGATE: Standing waves on strings MY WAY: Physics slips, trips and falls PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING The McOhm: using fast food to explain resistance Eggs and a sheet STARTING OUT: After a nervous start, I'm flying ON THE MAP: Christ's Hospital CURIOSITY: The Levitron TECHNICAL TRIMMINGS: Brownian motion smoke cell LET'S INVESTIGATE

  18. Teaching Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    If you would like to contribute a teaching note for any of these sections please contact ped@iop.org. Contents: PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING: Demonstrating resolution Magnetic tea patterns LET'S INVESTIGATE: Conducting foam TECHNICAL TRIMMINGS: Polarimeter Old experiments on air-tracks gain new fans MY WAY: Newton's laws ON THE MAP: The International School of Lusaka CURIOSITY: Inflation theory PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING

  19. Application note :

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  20. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  1. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  2. Biotechnology Gains Brighten Resource Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1979-01-01

    This report details recent advances in fermentation biotechnology as presented by speakers at the 27th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Congress. Discussion centered around the use of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi as future sources of essential materials as food, fuel, and medicine. (BT)

  3. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  4. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  5. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  6. Western Australian School Students' Understanding of Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Surveys (n=1116) 15-year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools to determine their understanding of and attitude towards recent advances in modern biotechnology. Discusses reasons for students' over-estimation of the use of biotechnology in society. Provides a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the…

  7. Teaching Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    If you would like to contribute a teaching note for any of these sections please contact ped@iop.org Contents: LET'S INVESTIGATE: Bows and arrows STARTING OUT: A late start ON THE MAP: A South African school making a world of difference TECHNICAL TRIMMINGS: May the force be with you an easily constructed force sensor Modelling Ultrasound A-scanning with the Pico Technology ADC-200 Virtual Instrument PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING: Sugar cube radioactivity models CURIOSITY: Euler's disk MY WAY: Why heavy things don't fall faster

  8. Responsive Systems Consultation: A Model for Conjoint Consultation Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad-Gaur, Archna; And Others

    Responsive Systems Consultation (RSC) is an approach for enhancing children's developmental outcomes and involves a psychological or educational consultant working jointly with a child's parents and teachers. The impact of the RSC on parent and teacher consultees' attitudes toward home-school collaboration and their evaluation of the consultation…

  9. 78 FR 48342 - Consultation Agreements: Proposed Changes to Consultation Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... On-site Consultation Program in the Federal Register (75 FR 54064-54069). The proposed rule included... (77 FR 3912), January 25, 2012; No. 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), No. 5-2007 (72 FR 31159). Signed at... Changes to Consultation Procedures AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),...

  10. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    PubMed

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  11. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  12. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  13. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  14. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology.

  15. The Experiential Consultation Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Lenz, A. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Experiential Consultation Training Model (ECTM) provides students an opportunity to develop and practice consultation skills through real-life experiences in actual professional settings. The authors present the structure, process, and evaluation methods of the ECTM and discuss practical applications for counselor education. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Space and biotechnology: An industry profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Richard S.; Norton, David J.; Tom, Baldwin H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Center for Space and Advanced Technology (CSAT) for NASA-JSC are presented. The objectives were to determine the interests and attitudes of the U.S. biotechnology industry toward space biotechnology and to prepare a concise review of the current activities of the biotechnology industry. In order to accomplish these objectives, two primary actions were taken. First, a questionnaire was designed, reviewed, and distributed to U.S. biotechnology companies. Second, reviews of the various biotechnology fields were prepared in several aspects of the industry. For each review, leading figures in the field were asked to prepare a brief review pointing out key trends and current industry technical problems. The result is a readable narrative of the biotechnology industry which will provide space scientists and engineers valuable clues as to where the space environment can be explored to advance the U.S. biotechnology industry.

  17. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology.

  18. Ethical Issues in Academic Substance Abuse Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark

    Several important ethical issues need to be addressed both by the consultant and the organization in the field of academic substance abuse consultation. Various problems face the university-based academician who consults with agencies and organizations, such as consultant abuse, i.e., when a consultant is hired on the basis of title and academic…

  19. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage. PMID:27062304

  20. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO(4)(2-) and SeO(3)(2-)) and insoluble (Se(0)) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment. PMID:25908504

  1. Selenium biomineralization for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-06-01

    Selenium (Se) is not only a strategic element in high-tech electronics and an essential trace element in living organisms, but also a potential toxin with low threshold concentrations. Environmental biotechnological applications using bacterial biomineralization have the potential not only to remove selenium from contaminated waters, but also to sequester it in a reusable form. Selenium biomineralization has been observed in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms isolated from pristine and contaminated environments, yet it is one of the most poorly understood biogeochemical processes. Microbial respiration of selenium is unique because the microbial cells are presented with both soluble (SeO(4)(2-) and SeO(3)(2-)) and insoluble (Se(0)) forms of selenium as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we highlight selenium biomineralization and the potential biotechnological uses for it in bioremediation and wastewater treatment.

  2. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.

  3. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  4. Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Rita R

    2002-11-01

    Genetic engineering has produced pharmaceuticals, disease-resistant plants, cloned animals and research and industrial products. While the comparably mature field of medical biotechnology now reveals its true potential, marine biotechnology is still in the realm of the future. As we explore the earth for new sources of natural chemicals, we now search the waters. Myriad organisms, most unknown to us, live there. Many produce compounds that can be commercialized, or the organisms themselves may be commercialized, through genetic engineering methods. For decades, scientists studied the ocean depths searching for unique molecules and organisms. But not until the early 1980s was there a synthesis uniting marine natural products, ecology, aquaculture and bioremediation research under the heading of marine biotechnology. As harvesting enough products from marine sources to produce sufficient amounts, even for study, is nearly impossible, we need to use genomics techniques to identify biologically active compounds. As we damage our oceanic ecosystems through pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing methods, opportunities to learn more about marine organisms and their commercial potential may be limited. Although governments and intergovernmental agencies are committed to funding and expanding oceanic research, more funding is needed to discover and study the ocean's vast, unplumbed resources.

  5. Editorial Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  6. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  7. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli.

  8. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-12-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology sector by providing a pipeline of university graduates entering into the profession, it has been proposed that formal science communication training be introduced at this early stage of career development. The aim of the present study was to examine the views of biotechnology students towards science communication and science communication training. Using an Australian biotechnology degree programme as a case study, 69 undergraduates from all three years of the programme were administered a questionnaire that asked them to rank the importance of 12 components of a biotechnology curriculum, including two science communication items. The results were compared to the responses of 274 students enrolled in other science programmes. Additional questions were provided to the second year biotechnology undergraduates and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 13 of these students to further examine their views of this area. The results of this study suggest that the biotechnology students surveyed do not value communication with non-scientists nor science communication training. The implications of these findings for the reform of undergraduate biotechnology courses yet to integrate science communication training into their science curriculum are discussed.

  9. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies.

  10. Building access to specialist care through e-consultation

    PubMed Central

    Liddy, Clare; Rowan, Margo S; Afkham, Amir; Maranger, Julie; Keely, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited access to specialist care remains a major barrier to health care in Canada, affecting patients and primary care providers alike, in terms of both long wait times and inequitable availability. We developed an electronic consultation system, based on a secure web-based tool, as an alternative to face-to-face consultations, and ran a pilot study to evaluate its effectiveness and acceptability to practitioners. Methods In a pilot program conducted over 15 months starting in January 2010, the e-consultation system was tested with primary care providers and specialists in a large health region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. We collected utilization data from the electronic system itself (including quantitative data from satisfaction surveys) and qualitative information from focus groups and interviews with providers. Results Of 18 primary care providers in the pilot program, 13 participated in focus groups and 9 were interviewed; in addition, 10 of the 11 specialists in the program were interviewed. Results of our evaluation showed good uptake, high levels of satisfaction, improvement in the integration of referrals and consultations, and avoidance of unnecessary specialist visits. A total of 77 e-consultation requests were processed from 1 Jan. 2010 to 1 Apr. 2011. Less than 10% of the referrals required face-to-face follow-up. The most frequently noted benefits for patients (as perceived by providers) included improved access to specialist care and reduced wait times. Primary care providers valued the ability to assist with patient assessment and management by having access to a rapid response to clinical questions, clarifying the need for diagnostic tests or treatments, and confirming the need for a formal consultation. Specialists enjoyed the improved interaction with primary care providers, as well as having some control in the decision on which patients should be referred. Interpretation This low-cost referral system has potential for broader

  11. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  12. Molecular tools for chemical biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Galanie, Stephanie; Siddiqui, Michael S.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological production of high value chemical products increasingly involves engineering in vivo multi-enzyme pathways and host metabolism. Recent approaches to these engineering objectives have made use of molecular tools to advance de novo pathway identification, tunable enzyme expression, and rapid pathway construction. Molecular tools also enable optimization of single enzymes and entire genomes through diversity generation and screening, whole cell analytics, and synthetic metabolic control networks. In this review, we focus on advanced molecular tools and their applications to engineered pathways in host organisms, highlighting the degree to which each tool is generalizable. PMID:23528237

  13. Certain problems of space biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyarov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments in the field of biotechnology conducted by the USA Apollo and Skylab space probes are described, as well as the joint Soviet-American Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). Experiments in electrophoretic separation in space of biological compounds in a liquid medium are detailed. Space processing of vaccines and separation of human and animal cells are described. Methyl-cellulose, a coating for use in electrophoresis was developed. Erythropoietin, which stimulates the formation of red blood corpuscles in bone marrow, was obtained in pure form.

  14. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  15. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  16. Consults for conflict: the history of ethics consultation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The very existence of ethics consultation reflects both the increasing complexity of modern medicine's ethical questions and our discomfort with the prospect of answering them alone. Two developments in the past century were instrumental in driving the development of ethics consultation—organ replacement therapy and intensive care. With the proliferation of extreme life-prolonging measures came the thorny difficulties in the withdrawal of such services or rationing when resources were poor. Insofar as “someone must,” lamented Dr. Karen Teel (a pioneer of ethics consultation), the physician “is charged with the responsibility of making ethical judgments which we are sometimes ill-equipped to make.” More than anything, ethics consultation has come to best satisfy a central desire of American health care—sharing the responsibility for tough decisions. PMID:24082425

  17. Development of biotechnology control systems.

    PubMed

    Romeu, F J

    1995-03-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have generated great interest in biotechnology systems. Modern fermentation processes have a more scientific basis and can be optimized more quickly by utilizing instrumentation and control technology that permits increasing yield and product quality. The automation technology, to a large extent, can determine the degree of success of growing microorganisms. The automation system in modern biotechnology facilities includes a number of leading technologies such as sensors, indicators, data acquisition, distributed control, programmable control, communications, data base management, on-line data analysis techniques and application software. Modern computer systems have made fermentation processes easier and more accurate by performing tasks such as on-line analysis, statistical process control and supervisory control, while microprocessor-based distributed process controllers perform direct digital control, batch and sequencing control. This paper addresses technical issues related to the development of instrumentation and control systems that integrate these technologies through methodologies that permit the timely generation of the documentation and drawings that specify the control system for procurement, installation, commissioning, validation and operation.

  18. Immunological and Hematopoietic Biotechnology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the work carried under this interchanges was to support the development of space flight biotechnology experiments in the areas of immunology and hematopoiesis to facilitate the commercial development of space. The studies involved the interaction and development of experiments with biotechnology companies for necessary ground-based studies to allow the development of flight studies. The thrust of the work was to develop experiments with the Chiron Corporation and Bioserve involving the use of interleukin-2 to modulate the effects of spaceflight on immune responses. Spaceflight has been shown to have multiple effects on immune responses (1). lnterleukin-2 is an immuno-regulator that could have potential to counter some of the alterations induced in immune responses by spaceflight (1). To test this possibility before flight, rats were suspended antiorthostatically (2) and treated with interleukin-2. Antiorthostatic suspension is a model for some of the effects of spaceflight on immune responses (2). The interleukin-2 was given to see if it could alter some of the effects of suspension. This was achieved. As a result of these studies, two flight experiments were developed and flown with the Chiron Corp. And Bioserve to determine if use of interleukin-2 could prevent or attenuate the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  19. Biotechnology products and European consumers.

    PubMed

    Moses, V

    1999-12-30

    More than 100 interviews conducted during 1997 with European food manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, government departments, consumer groups, environmental organizations and some individual academic scientists revealed how differences in the perceived attitudes of consumers gave rise to varying approaches by suppliers to the possible introduction of transgenic foods. European consumers generally are not against the pharmaceutical products of biotechnology but are much less willing to accept food and food ingredients, especially when derived from genetically modified plants. Objections are mainly based on fears for the health and safety of the consumer, worries about the possibility of deleterious effects on the environment, and a range of moral and ethical concerns often deriving from a distaste, however expressed, at the concept of interfering with nature. Consumer understanding of the science underlying biotechnology is patchy; in no country does more than a small proportion of the population claim a good grasp. Partly no doubt as a consequence of these attitudes, the introduction of genetically modified foods into Europe has occurred slowly and, during the period of this study, perhaps only in the Netherlands and the UK.

  20. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  1. Students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards biotechnology revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in agriculture biotechnology but not in medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-09-10

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology for nearly two decades. Not surprisingly, knowledge of biotechnology of current students has increased significantly (p < 0.001) and most students have learned some definitions and examples of biotechnology. There was a positive correlation between biotechnology knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology for current students who study Advanced Biology (AB). However, for current students who did not study AB, there was a negative correlation.The attitude results showed that students today expressed less favorable opinions toward agricultural biotechnology (p < 0.001) despite studying AB or not. However, there is no significant difference between students today and 18 years ago in opinions towards medical biotechnology. In addition, current students showed a greater concern involving environmental risks than former students. Interestingly, the high school curriculum did affect students' attitudes toward genetically engineered (GE) plants but not GE animals. Our current study also found that the students' attitude towards GE animals was influenced more by their limited knowledge than by their moral belief. On the basis of findings from this study, we suggest that more materials of emerging animal biotechnology should be included in high school curriculum and recommend that high school teachers and university faculty establish a collaborative framework in the near future. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):475-491, 2016.

  2. Measuring Quality in Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Sally E; Oppenlander, Jane; Dahlke, Jacob M; Meyer, Gordon J; Williford, Eva M; Macauley, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    For all of the emphasis on quality improvement-as well as the acknowledged overlap between assessment of the quality of healthcare services and clinical ethics-the quality of clinical ethics consultation has received scant attention, especially in terms of empirical measurement. Recognizing this need, the second edition of Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation1 identified four domains of ethics quality: (1) ethicality, (2) stakeholders' satisfaction, (3) resolution of the presenting conflict/dilemma, and (4) education that translates into knowledge. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to directly measure all of these domains. Here we describe the quality improvement process undertaken at a tertiary care academic medical center, as well as the tools developed to measure the quality of ethics consultation, which include post-consultation satisfaction surveys and weekly case conferences. The information gained through these tools helps to improve not only the process of ethics consultation, but also the measurement and assurance of quality. PMID:27333066

  3. Cell biotechnology of rhodophytes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su-Juan; Kuang, Mei; Ma, Ling-Bo

    1998-03-01

    Cell biotechnology of rhodophytes is important not only in theoretical research but also in cultural practice and for exploitation of genetic resources. In this paper, cell biotechnology of Porphyra is reviewed. Tissue culture and protoplast studies on other rhodophytes in China are discussed.

  4. Biotechnology in the Middle School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, De Ann

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is a fairly new concept for middle school students as well as teachers. If the latest craze of TV shows focused on crime scene investigation events were not so popular, the term and concept might be even obscure to the public. There is an increased presence of biotechnology in our daily surroundings that makes it practical and…

  5. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  6. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the...

  7. Matching Society Values: Students' Views of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez, Maria J.; Nino, Angela Gomez; Carretero, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The rapid growth of biotechnology knowledge during the past decades has made it necessary to rethink the contents of the school curriculum and has provoked a consideration of the ethical and social issues related to the use of biotechnological applications. With the financial assistance of the European Union, the European Initiative for…

  8. Broader Indications for Psychiatric Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A liaison approach to psychiatric consultation increases the patient population who can benefit from psychiatric assessment during hospitalization for medical or surgical conditions. It also broadens the scope of the psychiatric investigation of the individual patient. The meaning of the illness to the patient, and the patient's present methods of adapting to his or her illness are important considerations. Unconscious concerns, which interfere with the patient's compliance to medical treatment, may be sufficiently clarified and resolved so that medical progress is expedited. Psychiatric consultation can be used to prevent an untoward psychological reaction to illness, if this is foreseen. This preventive consultation, which is often possible only because of the family physician's awareness of the psychological vulnerability of some of her or his patients, can result in reduced medical and psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21263836

  9. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit. PMID:25341102

  10. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  11. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation's fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  12. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  13. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. PMID:23797042

  14. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come.

  15. Special Education Consultation: Interactive Video Simulation: Adults, Teachers & Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert J.

    A microcomputer controlled interactive videotape program is described as one way to supply special education teachers with inservice and/or consultation services. The approach allows inservice teachers to strengthen classroom teaching skills outside of the classroom. Programing directions are offered written in the SuperPILOT Authoring Language on…

  16. [Patent rights and biotechnological inventions].

    PubMed

    Lobato García-Miján, M

    1998-01-01

    In spite of all the controversy surrounding it and the problems encountered in the process leading to its adoption, the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnology inventions does not feature anything substantially new compared to the criteria used by patent offices in determining whether inventions of this type can be patented. The Directive's originality stems not so much from the interpretation given of patenting requirements but rather from the legal importance attached to issues of public policy or morality. It sets out and interprets for the member states of the European Union what is meant by the term. However, in our opinion this regulation of morality reflects above all else an attempt to satisfy the views of sectors opposed to the Directive. Clearly, there is some doubt as to whether in practice patents for genetic material can be turned down because they run counter to morality, except in blatant cases of immorality (applications for patents for human embryos, etc).

  17. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  18. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. PMID:26747205

  19. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases.

  20. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  1. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  2. Archaeal DNA polymerases in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Likui; Kang, Manyu; Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Yanchao

    2015-08-01

    DNA polymerase (pol) is a ubiquitous enzyme that synthesizes DNA strands in all living cells. In vitro, DNA pol is used for DNA manipulation, including cloning, PCR, site-directed mutagenesis, sequencing, and several other applications. Family B archaeal DNA pols have been widely used for molecular biological methods. Biochemical and structural studies reveal that each archaeal DNA pol has different characteristics with respect to fidelity, processivity and thermostability. Due to their high fidelity and strong thermostability, family B archaeal DNA pols have the extensive application on high-fidelity PCR, DNA sequencing, and site-directed mutagenesis while family Y archaeal DNA pols have the potential for error-prone PCR and random mutagenesis because of their low fidelity and strong thermostability. This information combined with mutational analysis has been used to construct novel DNA pols with altered properties that enhance their use as biotechnological reagents. In this review, we focus on the development and use of family B archaeal DNA pols.

  3. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases. PMID:19523108

  4. Non-consulters and high consulters in general practice: cardio-respiratory health and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Morris, J K; Cook, D G; Walker, M; Shaper, A G

    1992-06-01

    The 1990 General Practitioner contract requires that health promotion and illness prevention services should be provided to all patients aged 16-74 years. Consultation rates over a period of three years were examined in 7010 middle-aged men in Great Britain to compare the cardio-respiratory health and risk factor status of non-consulters (men who did not consult in three years) with those of average consulters (men who consulted 3-5 times in three years) and high consulters (men who consulted 24 or more times in three years) to assess their relative need for health promotion and illness prevention services. The non-consulters (n = 1025) were remarkably similar to the average consulters (n = 1585) in health and lifestyle characteristics. The high consulters (n = 306) had a greater burden of ill-health and a less healthy lifestyle. Chest pain on exertion, chronic bronchitis, breathlessness or wheeze were present in 23 per cent of non-consulters, 27 per cent of average consulters and over 50 per cent of high consulters. Similarly, 48 per cent of the non-consulters smoked, drank heavily or were obese compared with 47 per cent of the average consulters and 61 per cent of the high consulters. The prevalence of recall of high blood pressure which had been diagnosed by a doctor rose from 6 per cent in non-consulters and 10 per cent in average consulters to 29 per cent in high consulters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1515196

  5. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  6. Educational Consulting: Justification to Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklarow, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Steven R. Antonoff's article, "Educational Consulting: A Focus for the Profession." More than 20 years ago, when this article first appeared in "The Journal of College Admission," "for profit counselors" (as they were then called by NACAC) were not welcome partners. It was acceptable practice to publicly denigrate the…

  7. Employer Child Care Consultant Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Lists 16 firms that offer child care consulting services to employers and communities. Each entry includes a brief description of the firm and its services, contact person, address, and phone and fax numbers. Some include e-mail and Web site addresses. (TJQ)

  8. Making Human Resource Consulting Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Ken; Weaver, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need for human resources consulting to be seen and understood in order to help achieve business objectives. Presents a model that uses core competencies to tie human resources programs to business strategies, thus positioning human resources as a strategic partner in an enterprise. (LRW)

  9. School Psychologist as Superintendent's Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Matthew

    This paper addresses the role of the school psychologist and how this role can be broadened to encompass areas other than just test administration, and takes a look at what additional knowledge is needed in order to fill more consultative and administrative roles. Through better training programs, the school psychologist is beginning to perform…

  10. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  11. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  12. Narrative and Structure in Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consultation to professional networks, teams, groups and individuals concerned with the mental health of children and young people in the care system, and those adopted. Frequently there are significant elements of early trauma suffered by the young people and disruption in the professional organisation. The…

  13. Pharmacy Program Review. Consultant's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Robert D.; And Others

    Site visits were made by a team of consultants to Florida A&M University (FAMU) and the University of Florida (UF), the two institutions providing pharmacy education in Florida, to review programs and assess issues relating to entry-level degrees, manpower needs, and delivery systems. After a brief history of academic programs in pharmacy, the…

  14. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Kubicek, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. 234 refs.

  15. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing. PMID:24404581

  16. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  17. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  18. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  19. Developments in biotechnological research in Austria.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Austria is a small European country with a small number of universities and biotechnological industries, but with great efforts in the implementation of environmental consciousness and corresponding legal standards. This review attempts to describe the biotechnological landscape of Austria, thereby focusing on the highlights in research by industry, universities, and research laboratories, as published during 1990 to early 1995. These will include microbial metabolite (organic acids, antibiotics) and biopolymer (polyhydroxibutyrate, S-layers) production; enzyme (cellulases, hemicellulases, ligninases) technology and biocatalysis; environmental biotechnology; plant breeding and plant protection; mammalian cell products; fermenter design; and bioprocess engineering. PMID:8856962

  20. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Tuxhorn, Jennifer; Hurlbert, Katy

    2004-03-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput.

  1. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  2. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  3. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  4. Nurse Education Consultancy: A New Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A nurse education consultant can help a college enhance the educational process and market effectively and ethically. Nurses considering consultancy should examine their personal qualities, skill and knowledge base, and personal values and beliefs about education and nursing. (SK)

  5. Toward an Ethical Framework for Communication Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Teresa M.

    1982-01-01

    Contends that organizational development theorists have been unable to produce a satisfying ethical framework for guiding consulting behavior. Advances guidelines for an alternative ethical framework based upon a rhetorical view of communication consulting. (PD)

  6. An interview with Charles Cantor: achievements and advice from 50 years of biotechnology expertise.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Interview with Professor Charles Cantor PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Charles Cantor was awarded his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley (CA, USA), in 1966, and via professorships at Columbia University (New York, NY, USA), UC Berkeley and Boston University (Boston, MA, USA), went on to be Chief Scientific Officer of Sequenom (San Diego, CA, USA) and now retired, continues to act as consultant for more than 16 biotechnology companies. His research focused on inventing new techniques for solving biological problems, including faster DNA sequencing, better DNA amplification and advanced methods: for nucleic acid separation.

  7. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Pharmacy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speedie, Marilyn K.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…

  8. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  9. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    PubMed

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  10. Biotechnology for the 21st century, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report outlines the Federal role in biotechnology research and describes the foundation for a coordinated national initiative that will, over the coming years, maximize the effectiveness of the Federal investment in biotechnology research. Specifically, this report: (1) Defines the baseline of programmatic activity and Federal funding in biotechnology research, (2) Highlights ongoing agency programs and new initiatives, (3) Outlines national strategic objectives for biotechnology research, (4) Presents the first interagency Federal biotechnology research budget, and (5) Suggests directions for future efforts. Biotechnology Research Areas include: Agriculture, Energy, Environment, Health, Manufacturing/Bioprocessing, General Foundations, Genome Projects, Marine Biotechnology, Structural Biology, Social Impact Research, and Infrastructure.

  11. Biostatistical consultation for dental research.

    PubMed

    Clive, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Dental science researchers do not really need a detailed, ready-at-hand knowledge of statistics to design and perform high quality scientific research. Although the acquisition and utilization of such knowledge by dental researchers is not discouraged, it is proposed that it is more important for dental researchers to be committed to developing and maintaining a long term, ongoing, interactive consulting relationship with a biostatistician. The nature of this relationship will depend in large part on the complexity of the dental research being conducted. While the statistical consultant will assist in interpreting analytic results for the dental researcher, the latter will need to provide extensive input in assisting in the estimation of sample size and power, and for expressing scientific hypotheses in statistical terms so that the appropriate data analytic methodology can be specified.

  12. Progress in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S. ); Kang, Sun Ki . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    Studies directed at the development of an environmentally acceptable technology for the treatment and disposal of geothermal sludges have shown that a biotechnology based on microbial biochemical processes is technically and economically feasible. Process designs for the emerging biotechnology have to take several variables into consideration. In the present paper some of these variables will be discussed in terms of their effect on the cost and efficiency of potential processes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Biotechnology for the extractive metals industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Biotechnology is an alternative process for the extraction of metals, the beneficiation of ores, and the recovery of metals from aqueous systems. Currently, microbial-based processes are used for leaching copper and uranium, enhancing the recovery of gold from refractory ores, and treating industrial wastewater to recover metal values. Future developments, emanating from fundamental and applied research and advances through genetic engineering, are expected to increase the use and efficiency of these biotechnological processes.

  14. Food, agricultural and marine biotechnology in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, J M; Agosin, E; San Martín, R

    1993-10-01

    Economic segments with highest growth rates in Chile are those based on renewable resources like agriculture (fruits and vegetables), marine and forest products. Opportunities for biotechnology are based on a sound scientific base at universities, adequate funding and incipient industry-academia relationships. However, there is an urgent need to develop the engineering capabilities required to scale-up processes and to design, build and operate industrial biotechnology plants.

  15. Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive laboratory studies have indicated that the application of biochemical processes in the development of biotechnology suitable for conversion of geothermal wastes from hazardous to nonhazardous materials is technically and economically feasible. These studies have also shown that such biotechnology may require bioreactors capable of handling different amounts and types of residual sludges. Particular attention has to be paid to the duration of treatment, efficiency of cycling, and maintenance of biomass. Laboratory studies addressing these parameters are described. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, André

    2010-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications. PMID:20461510

  17. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  18. Biotechnological advances in goat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Amoah, E A; Gelaye, S

    1997-02-01

    Goat selection and reproduction have resulted from using conventional methods of natural mating and artificial insemination. Genetic improvements resulting from these are usually slow. Innovative developments in biotechnology rapidly propagate superior genes, offering hope for modeling and designing animals to fit market and environmental requirements. Use of Tris, citric acid, fructose, egg yolk, and glycerol extender has enabled goat sperm to be stored successfully for several years before being used in cervical or laparoscopic insemination. Laparoscopic recovery of goat embryos to reduce adhesions from repeat surgeries has great potential in improving embryo production for direct transfer or for future transfer after cryopreservation. Goat kids have been produced, as a result of experiments to refine techniques of in vitro maturation and fertilization of recovered oocytes, with successful culture and transfer of embryos. In vitro fertilization technology is also essential for cloning goat embryos and for gene transfer. Transgenic goats have already been produced due to new genes being expressed from biologically active molecules altering the phenotype of the transferred goat. The introduced gene is capable of transmission between generations. The goat's diversified commercial value and convenient size make it a benefactor to new technology for rapid genetic improvement as a supplement to conventional selection methods. PMID:9051483

  19. Biology and biotechnology of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Viola, Manuela; Vigetti, Davide; Karousou, Evgenia; D'Angelo, Maria Luisa; Caon, Ilaria; Moretto, Paola; De Luca, Giancarlo; Passi, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The hyaluronan (HA) polymer is a critical component of extracellular matrix with a remarkable structure: is a linear and unbranched polymer without sulphate or phosphate groups. It is ubiquitous in mammals showing several biological functions, ranging from cell proliferation and migration to angiogenesis and inflammation. For its critical biological functions the amount of HA in tissues is carefully controlled by different mechanisms including covalent modification of the synthetic enzymes and epigenetic control of their gene expression. The concentration of HA is also critical in several pathologies including cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Beside these biological roles, the structural properties of HA allow it to take advantage of its capacity to form gels even at concentration of 1 % producing scaffolds with very promising applications in regenerative medicine as biocompatible material for advanced therapeutic uses. In this review we highlight the biological aspects of HA addressing the mechanisms controlling the HA content in tissues as well as its role in important human pathologies. In the second part of the review we highlight the different use of HA polymers in the modern biotechnology.

  20. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jameel, S

    2011-01-01

    Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  1. Immunoassays in monitoring biotechnological drugs.

    PubMed

    Gygax, D; Botta, L; Ehrat, M; Graf, P; Lefèvre, G; Oroszlan, P; Pfister, C

    1996-08-01

    For the evaluation and interpretation of pharmacokinetic data reliable quantitative determinations are a requirement that can only be met by well-characterized and fully validated analytical methods. To cope with these requirements a method is being established that is based on an integrated and automated fiber-optic biospecific interaction analysis system (FOBIA) for immunoassays. Performance characteristics of this system used in monitoring of recombinant hirudin (CGP 39 393) are presented. Recombinant hirudin is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human thrombin. Owing to its size and charge, recombinant hirudin is mainly eliminated by glomerular filtration. But only a fraction of the hirudin dose seems to be reabsorbed at the proximal tubule by luminal endocytosis and hydrolyzed by lysosomal enzymes, leaving approximately 50% of the dose to be extracted in the urine. Thus, renal clearance of recombinant hirudin in the absence of renal insufficiency appears to depend primarily on the glomerular filtration rate. During a 3-month i.v. tolerability study in dogs, some of the dogs developed antibodies against recombinant hirudin. The hirudin-antibody complex accumulated in plasma and apparent hirudin plasma concentrations were therefore much higher than expected from single-dose kinetics. Hirudin captured by antibodies showed an extended half-life and the hirudin-antibody complex is still pharmacologically active, as demonstrated by the observed increase in thrombin time. In conclusion, only appropriate analytical methods allow adequate monitoring and pharmacokinetic characterization of biotechnology drugs in biological materials. PMID:8857560

  2. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Schuster, André; Schmoll, Monika

    2010-07-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications.

  3. Ultrasound for the Pulmonary Consultant

    PubMed Central

    Chichra, Astha; Makaryus, Mina; Chaudhri, Parag; Narasimhan, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Bedside ultrasonographic assessment of the lung and pleura provides rapid, noninvasive, and essential information in diagnosis and management of various pulmonary conditions. Ultrasonography helps in diagnosing common conditions, including consolidation, interstitial syndrome, pleural effusions and masses, pneumothorax, and diaphragmatic dysfunction. It provides procedural guidance for various pulmonary procedures, including thoracentesis, chest tube insertion, transthoracic aspiration, and biopsies. This article describes major applications of ultrasonography for the pulmonary consultant along with illustrative figures and videos. PMID:27398039

  4. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  5. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  6. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  7. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  8. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  9. 50 CFR 402.11 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.11 Early consultation. (a) Purpose. Early consultation is designed to reduce the likelihood of conflicts between listed species or...

  10. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  11. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation costs. 75.191 Section 75.191 Education... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  12. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consultation costs. 75.191 Section 75.191 Education... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula...

  13. 22 CFR 401.21 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Consultation. 401.21 Section 401.21 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.21 Consultation. The Commission may meet or consult with the applicant, the Governments and other persons or...

  14. Contribution of Adlerian Psychology to School Consulting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The failure to consult effectively with teachers is often due to a lack of understanding the purpose of behavior. Specific propositions basic to understanding behavior are presented. A transcript which clearly illustrates and critiques Adlerian consultation is included. Specific steps in the consultant process are included. (Author)

  15. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultation; states. 91.110 Section 91.110 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Citizen Participation and Consultation § 91.110 Consultation;...

  16. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  17. Medical biotechnology trends and achievements in iran.

    PubMed

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-10-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers' role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology.

  18. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  19. Silaffins of Diatoms: From Applied Biotechnology to Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Pamirsky, Igor E.; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2013-01-01

    Silaffins are involved in the formation of the cell walls of diatoms. It is known that silaffins can precipitate silica in vitro, forming nano- and micro-particles in the shape of spheres and plates containing many pores. It is important to note that the deposition of silica and the particle morphology in the presence of silaffins affects chemical and physical agents (e.g., peptides, polyamines, phosphate, nitrogen, and the mechanical changes of the reaction mixture). It is believed that silaffins act as an organic matrix for silica-genesis and that silica pore size should reflect the pattern of a matrix. Here, biotechnology related to silaffins is discussed in the context of “a hypothesis of silaffin matrix” and “the LCPA-phosphate model”. We discuss the most promising area of silaffin biotechnology—the development of production methods for silicon structures with desired shapes and nanostructural properties that can be used to create biocompatible materials. PMID:24065158

  20. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    PubMed

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. PMID:27165254

  1. Biotechnology patents and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Terragni, F

    1993-01-01

    Should we set any limits on patenting? More specifically, must we set any limits on patenting in the field of biotechnology? There should be general agreement on the exclusion of humans from patentability. The European Parliament voted unanimously on an amendment to the Community Directive regarding patenting stating that the human body and its parts are not patentable as such. Patenting of humans indeed would be against fundamental human rights; against the shared principles of freedom, autonomy, and dignity of each single human being. The same reasons apply to requests to reject the "commercialization of the human body." However, much more difficult is reaching a consensus on what are the parts of humans that should not be marketed--organs, tissues, cells, genes, smaller DNA fragments? Probably there is no consensus on where to draw the line when we deal with parts of the human body. Nevertheless, an ethical component is very strong in raising opposition to patenting human DNA. Whatever our personal view on the issue, we cannot deny that ethical aspects must be considered in granting patents on human DNA. With reference to animals, the fears raised are that the patenting of transgenic animals could amplify the instrumental use (reification) and the neglect of their sentient nonobjectual nature: patenting could motivate, instead, the tendency to consider animals as the standard of things invented and as new consumer products. Moreover, animal patenting increases production and thus brings about the great suffering of animals. In regard to plants, the ethical implications of patenting have more to do with their socioeconomic effects, in particular on Third World countries, than for the organisms involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  3. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  4. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  5. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  6. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  7. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  8. Life sciences, biotechnology, and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Lanhan, J. W.; Morrison, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) studies on rats flown aboard Spacelab 3 are discussed, and evidence for the direct effect of microgravity on cell function is reviewed. SL-3 rat GH cells were found to experience a secretory lesion (they contained more hormone per cell, but released less per cell relative to controls). Pituitary cell culture experiments on the STS-8 mission showed that GH cells did not subsequently release as much hormone as did control cells, indicating a secretory lesion. Changes in bone and muscle noted in SL-3 rats are related to GH cell findings.

  9. Tips for telephone and electronic medical consultation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sailesh G

    2013-11-01

    The world is gradually shrinking in terms of time, and communications, while expanding in terms of population and distances. Patients demand and expect telephone and e-mail consultations and medical professionals are only too happy to oblige. However, a telephone consult is never so satisfying for the patients and well as the doctor as a face consult. Besides much essential information, cues and clues to diagnosis may be missed only with an audio input from patients. A telephone consult should be offered only to know the patient, and only after a prior face consult. It should be ensured that the patient can definitely understand, and follow the directions, and manage the disorder at home. While a telephone consultation may be considered convenient and short, there may be several disadvantages of such consultation, a wrong diagnosis and an inappropriate prescription being just two of them. Telephone etiquette should be followed by the staff and the physician. A triage system may be set up to filter calls that need to be necessarily answered by the physician himself. Telephone consults should be charged, and should be followed by a face consult as soon as possible. E-mail consultations are governed essentially by the same principles that govern telephone consultations. There is a slight advantage of e-mail consultation in that reports can be submitted online, including radiological reports. However, confidentiality is an important and uncertain issue in cyber space. A memorandum of understanding maybe signed between the patient and the physician. The information provided on e-mail should be of a general nature and a face consult should precede e-mail consultation. Patients may be referred to web resources for information. Telemedicine is a useful tool to obtain a medical diagnosis and to provide medical advice, and is likely to be used vastly in the near future.

  10. An ethics consultation service in a teaching hospital. Utilization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J; Stocking, C B; Silverstein, M D; DiMartini, A; Siegler, M

    1988-08-12

    A newly established formal ethics consultation service in a university teaching hospital was prospectively evaluated. A physician-ethicist interviewed and examined patients, interviewed family and others as needed, and entered a formal consultation note in the medical record. The requesting physician and the consultant independently completed structured questionnaires. Fifty-one consultation requests were received from 45 physicians from seven departments between July 1, 1986, and June 30, 1987. Seventeen (33%) of 51 patients were in the intensive care unit, and 19 patients (37%) were fully oriented at the time of consultation. Overall, 61% of the patients survived to leave the hospital. The requesting physician sought assistance with withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in 49% of cases, with resuscitation issues in 37%, and with legal issues in 31%. Assistance with more than one issue was sought in 39 cases (76%). In 36 cases (71%), the requesting physician stated that the consultation was "very important" in patient management, in clarifying ethical issues, or in learning about medical ethics. We conclude that ethics consultation performed by physician-ethicists provides useful, clinically acceptable assistance in a teaching hospital.

  11. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  12. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  13. Biotechnology Facility: An ISS Microgravity Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Tsao, Yow-Min

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology experiments will be performed, (2) the capability for human-tended, repetitive, long-duration biotechnology experiments, and (3) opportunities to perform repetitive experiments in a short period by allowing continuous access to microgravity. The MSAD has identified cell culture and tissue engineering, protein crystal growth, and fundamentals of biotechnology as areas that contain promising opportunities for significant advancements through low-gravity experiments. The focus of this coordinated ground- and space-based research program is the use of the low-gravity environment of space to conduct fundamental investigations leading to major advances in the understanding of basic and applied biotechnology. Results from planned investigations can be used in applications ranging from rational drug design and testing, cancer diagnosis and treatments and tissue engineering leading to replacement tissues.

  14. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  15. The role of education in biostatistical consulting.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Reena; Hurwitz, Shelley; Janosky, Janine; Oster, Robert

    2007-02-20

    Medical students, residents, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty commonly consult with biostatistical experts about study design and data analysis when conducting clinical research. The role of biostatistical training during these consultations is examined, and characterizations of the connections between biostatistical consultation and education are reviewed. The presence and kinds of teaching efforts during biostatistical consults at four academic research institutions over various periods of time between 1999 and 2005 (237 consultations in total) were recorded and are described. By site, 67, 70, 78, and 100 per cent of the consulting sessions included biostatistical training, with an overall 78 per cent (95 per cent CI: 73-83 per cent) of consultations including an educational component when all consultations were combined. Training covered a wide range of biostatistical topics. Seventy-five per cent of the consultations with faculty (120/161), 79 per cent with fellows and residents (31/39), and 100 per cent with medical students (10/10) included some degree of instruction in study design or statistical analysis topics. Results show that both the need and the opportunity exist for specialized biostatistical instruction during one-on-one sessions between a consulting biostatistician and physicians, medical students, and research staff. Academic researchers are ideally positioned to absorb this kind of training when they initiate a request for assistance with their own research project.

  16. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea

    PubMed Central

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Giuliano, Mariateresa; De Rosa, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest. PMID:15803645

  17. Biotechnology: the view from the FDA.

    PubMed

    Young, F E

    1986-01-01

    What is biotechnology? This is not a naive question. The Office of Technology Assessment has found differing definitions of biotechnology emanating from eight foreign countries and three international organizations. FDA's working definition of biotechnology is the application of biological systems and organisms to technical and industrial processes. This definition is necessarily broad. It takes in both the "old" and "new" science: the age-old techniques for making beer or yogurt as well as the most advanced uses of recombinant DNA technology. It takes in many applications, from production of enzymes for laundry detergents, to selective breeding of plants and animals, to genetic engineering of bacteria to clean up oil spills. As with any new technology, ethical issues are raised. But in the case of genetic engineering and cloning, many of the primordial fears of man concerning the power of science are awakened.

  18. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    PubMed

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  19. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  20. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  1. Biotechnological uses of enzymes from psychrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Cavicchioli, R.; Charlton, T.; Ertan, H.; Omar, S. Mohd; Siddiqui, K. S.; Williams, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The bulk of the Earth's biosphere is cold (e.g. 90% of the ocean's waters are ≤ 5°C), sustaining a broad diversity of microbial life. The permanently cold environments vary from the deep ocean to alpine reaches and to polar regions. Commensurate with the extent and diversity of the ecosystems that harbour psychrophilic life, the functional capacity of the microorganisms that inhabitat the cold biosphere are equally diverse. As a result, indigenous psychrophilic microorganisms provide an enormous natural resource of enzymes that function effectively in the cold, and these cold‐adapted enzymes have been targeted for their biotechnological potential. In this review we describe the main properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and describe some of their known biotechnological applications and ways to potentially improve their value for biotechnology. The review also covers the use of metagenomics for enzyme screening, the development of psychrophilic gene expression systems and the use of enzymes for cleaning. PMID:21733127

  2. Considerations for conducting research in agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-06-01

    Science has shown its increased vulnerability because of two recent high-profile articles published in major journals on corn produced through biotechnology: a laboratory report suggesting profound consequences to monarch butterfly populations due to Bt corn pollen and a report suggesting transgenic introgression into Mexican maize. While both studies have been widely regarded as having flawed methodology, publishing these studies has created great consternation in the scientific community, regulatory agencies and the general public. There are roles and responsibilities of scientists, scientific journals, the public media, public agencies, and those who oppose or advocate a specific technology, and serious consequences when those roles and responsibilities go awry. Modern communication may exacerbate the flow of misinformation and easily lead to a decline in public confidence about biotechnology and science. However, common sense tells us that scientific inquiry and the publication and reporting of results should be performed with high standards of ethical behavior, regardless of one's personal perspective on agricultural biotechnology.

  3. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  4. Biotechnology takes root in the third world

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1990-05-25

    Biotechnology offers the hope of increasing crop yields in the highland of communist Viet Nam. Thirty Vietnamese families have been culturing potato seedlings for planting. Their potato progeny earn the families $100 to $120 a month, a considerable sum in rural Viet Nam. Some of the farmers are starting to use the same techniques to propagate other vegetables in vitro. This is proof that biotechnology can be beneficial in developing nations. Now agriculture in countries from Indonesia to Ecuador is gaining from biotechnology, thereby helping them compete in the international marketplace. Third World leaders want their own biotech centers and to set their own research agendas, rather than relying on the First World to decide what genetically engineered crops would be most useful for them.

  5. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes.

    PubMed

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  6. Extremophiles and biotechnology: current uses and prospects.

    PubMed

    Coker, James A

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology has almost unlimited potential to change our lives in very exciting ways. Many of the chemical reactions that produce these products can be fully optimized by performing them at extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH for efficient and cost-effective outcomes. Fortunately, there are many organisms (extremophiles) that thrive in extreme environments found in nature and offer an excellent source of replacement enzymes in lieu of mesophilic ones currently used in these processes. In this review, I discuss the current uses and some potential new applications of extremophiles and their products, including enzymes, in biotechnology.

  7. Extremophiles and biotechnology: current uses and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Coker, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology has almost unlimited potential to change our lives in very exciting ways. Many of the chemical reactions that produce these products can be fully optimized by performing them at extremes of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH for efficient and cost-effective outcomes. Fortunately, there are many organisms (extremophiles) that thrive in extreme environments found in nature and offer an excellent source of replacement enzymes in lieu of mesophilic ones currently used in these processes. In this review, I discuss the current uses and some potential new applications of extremophiles and their products, including enzymes, in biotechnology. PMID:27019700

  8. The emerging field of nanotube biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles R; Kohli, Punit

    2003-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being developed for a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications, including drug delivery, enzyme immobilization and DNA transfection. Spherical nanoparticles are typically used for such applications, which reflects the fact that spheres are easier to make than other shapes. Micro- and nanotubes--structures that resemble tiny drinking straws--are alternatives that might offer advantages over spherical nanoparticles for some applications. This article discusses four approaches for making micro- and nanotubes, and reviews the current status of efforts to develop biomedical and biotechnological applications of these tubular structures.

  9. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes.

    PubMed

    Raddadi, Noura; Cherif, Ameur; Daffonchio, Daniele; Neifar, Mohamed; Fava, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology. PMID:26272092

  10. Aptamers and riboswitches: perspectives in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Weigand, Julia E; Suess, Beatrix

    2009-11-01

    Aptamers are short, single stranded nucleic acids which bind a wide range of different ligands with extraordinary high binding affinity and specificity. The steadily increasing number of aptamers is accompanied by an expanding range of applications in biotechnology. We will describe new developments in the field including the use of aptamers for conditional gene regulation and as biosensors. In addition, we will discuss the potential of aptamers as tags to visualize RNA and protein distribution in living cells and as therapeutics. Furthermore, we will consider biotechnological applications of riboswitches for gene regulation and as drug target. PMID:19756582

  11. Needed: models of biotechnology intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Gold, E Richard; Castle, David; Cloutier, L Martin; Daar, Abdallah S; Smith, Pamela J

    2002-08-01

    Although never uncontroversial, intellectual property rights in biotechnological innovation are once more the focus of intense debate. The debate has yet to reach any result, largely because of several important errors in the way that various disciplines approach it. These errors include making assumptions without empirical basis and conflating various intellectual property regimes. What is needed is a transdisciplinary integrated method to correct these errors. Such a method can be implemented through the construction of alternative models of intellectual property protection designed to balance the various social, ethical and economic constraints that affect biotechnology.

  12. 76 FR 18583 - Draft Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ..., with explicit instructions for submitting comments and adequate time for responses from directly... understanding and comprehension. Consultation is integral to a deliberative process, which results in...

  13. Building a Central Repository for Research Ethics Consultation Data: A Proposal for a Standard Data Collection Tool.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mildred K; Taylor, Holly; McCormick, Jennifer B; Anderson, Nick; Barnard, David; Boyle, Mary B; Capron, Alexander M; Dorfman, Elizabeth; Havard, Kathryn; Reider, Carson; Sadler, John; Schwartz, Peter; Sharp, Richard R; Danis, Marion; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Clinical research ethics consultation services have been established across academic health centers over the past decade. This paper presents the results of collaboration within the CTSA consortium to develop a standard approach to the collection of research ethics consultation information to serve as a foundation for quality improvement, education, and research efforts. This approach includes categorizing and documenting descriptive information about the requestor, research project, the ethical question, the consult process, and describing the basic structure for a consult note. This paper also explores challenges in determining how to share some of this information between collaborating institutions related to concerns about confidentially, data quality, and informatics. While there is much still to be learned to improve the process of clinical research ethics consultation, these tools can advance these efforts, which, in turn, can facilitate the ethical conduct of research.

  14. Relocation consequences on an ophthalmology consultation service from an inpatient to outpatient facility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jorawer S; Imbrogno, Vincent M; Howard, Mary K; Cheema, Amandip S; Selvadurai, Ausra D; Bansal, Surbhi

    2015-01-01

    Importance This study shows that relocation of an academic ophthalmology residency program from an inpatient to an outpatient setting in western New York does not affect the consult volume but affects management patterns and follow-up rates. Objective To investigate the effects on the ophthalmology consultation service of an academic program with relocation from a Regional Level-1 Trauma center to an outpatient facility. Design Consultation notes from 3 years before and 3 years after the University at Buffalo’s (UB) Department of Ophthalmology relocation from a Regional Level-1 Trauma center (Erie County Medical Center) to an outpatient facility (Ross Eye Institute) were obtained from hospital electronic medical records and analyzed. Setting Hospitalized care and institutional practice. Participants All inpatient or Emergency Room Ophthalmology consultation patients from the Department of Ophthalmology at UB from 2004 to 2010 (1,379 patients). Exposures None, this was a retrospective chart review. Main outcome measures Patient demographics, reason for consult, diagnoses, and ophthalmic procedures performed by the UB Department of Ophthalmology before and after its relocation. Results Relocation to the outpatient facility did not affect consult volume (P=0.15). The number of consults focusing on ophthalmic conditions, as a percentage of the yearly total, rose 460% (P=0.0001), while systemic condition consults with ocular manifestations fell 83% (P=0.0001). Consults for ocular trauma decreased 65% (P=0.0034). Consults ending with a diagnosis of “normal exam” fell, as a percentage of the yearly total (56%, P=0.0023), while diagnoses of new ocular conditions rose 17% (P=0.00065). The percentage of consults for Medicaid patients fell 12% (P=0.0001), while those for privately insured patients rose 15% (P=0.0001). The number of ophthalmic procedures did not change, but postconsult patient follow-up fell from 23% at the Erie County Medical Center clinic to 2% after

  15. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  16. Some aspects of geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, Mow

    1988-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that biotechnological processes for detoxification of geothermal residual brine sludges are feasible. Preliminary studies have also shown that such processes are controlled by several factors which include the concentration of the residual sludge in the bioreactor, the type of bioreactor and the strain of acidophilic microorganisms used. A brief discussion of these factors follows. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  18. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  19. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay

    2016-07-12

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  20. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  1. Biotechnology in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Maryam

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that introduces students to the field of biotechnology and provides them with an understanding of the basic principles and techniques as well as an opportunity to participate in experimental methodology. Presents specific science projects that deal with polymorphism in the lipase gene and the genetic engineering of a lipase…

  2. Disease resistance: Molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue “Disease resistance: molecular mechanisms and biotechnological applications” contains 11 review articles and four original research papers. Research in the area of engineering for disease resistance continues to progress although only 10% of the transgenic plants registered for ...

  3. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  4. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Continuous Biotechnological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencheva, T.; Hristozov, I.; Shannon, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) are characterized by a complicated structure of organization and interdependent characteristics. Partial differential equations or systems of partial differential equations are used for their behavioural description as objects with distributed parameters. Modelling of substrate without regard to dispersion…

  6. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  7. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  8. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  9. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    PubMed

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  10. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  11. Final report, International Symposium on Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Donald L.

    2000-03-20

    This meeting included technical presentations of state-of-the-art research which were integrated with tutorials and workshops by practicing technologies in the broad field of environmental biotechnology. This meeting was designed to be, in every respect, truly global. Over 150 excellent abstracts from around the world were accepted. For example, presentations were heard from technical workers in Southeast Asia, Russia, China, Europe, North Africa, India, and the US. By having these selected presenters, as well as identified experienced tutors with focused workshops, all participants benefited from this interactive symposium. A number of social events further promoted informal exchange of ideas, discussions of technical problems, and exploration of new applications. This international symposium on environmental biotechnology was on the campus of Northeastern University but all Boston area universities were included and participated using designed conference Co-Chairs. This symposium, with an attendance of several hundred people, was considered a major success. Workers with experience in one area of environmental biotechnology learned from the wealth of established backgrounds of those in other areas of environmental biotechnology. To formally disseminate conference results, it was pre-arranged that all technical presentations were reviewed for formal publications.

  12. Are white-rot fungi a real biotechnological option for the improvement of environmental health?

    PubMed

    Tortella, G; Durán, N; Rubilar, O; Parada, M; Diez, M C

    2015-06-01

    The use of white-rot fungi as a biotechnological tool for cleaning the environment of recalcitrant pollutants has been under evaluation for several years. However, it is still not possible to find sufficiently detailed investigations of this subject to conclude that these fungi can decontaminate the environment. In the present review, we have summarized and discussed evidence about the potential of white-rot fungi to degrade such pollutants as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes or antibiotics as an example of the complex structures that these microorganisms can attack. This review also discusses field experiment results and limitations of white-rot fungi trials from contaminated sites. Moreover, the use of catabolic potential of white-rot fungi in biopurification systems (biobeds) is also discussed. The current status and future perspectives of white-rot fungi, as a viable biotechnological alternative for improvement of environmental health are noted.

  13. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  14. Safety assessment of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2003-06-01

    Often the main criticism of foods derived from biotechnology is concerns about food safety. Whereas most present-day biotechnology-derived foods are approximately 99% similar to their non-biotechnology counterparts, the scientific community must ensure the safety of the novel aspects of these foods. The three phases of safety assessment are discussed and the concept of substantial equivalence is explained.

  15. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  16. The Consulting Role in a Response-to-Intervention Context: An Exploratory Study of Instructional Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.; Salmon, Diane; Cavanaugh, Kate; Schneider, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) is an influential system of service delivery in contemporary schools, but the specific role of school consultation in RtI implementation is not clearly defined. Instructional consultation provides a potential meeting point between consultation and RtI practices. Through a mixed-methods approach, this study explored…

  17. [Health risks in the biotechnological industry].

    PubMed

    Colombi, A; Maroni, M; Foà, V

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnology has been defined as the application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries. In considering health aspects of biotechnological development it must be underlined that the use of microorganisms in traditional industries, such as the production of food, bread, beer and dairy products, has not added significantly to the more usual industrial hazards. The risk factors encountered in the biotechnology industry can be defined as general, i.e., common to other industrial activities, and specific, i.e., depending on the presence of microorganisms and/or their metabolic products. The specific health risks vary according to the type of process, but can be grouped into three main categories: immunological diseases, toxic effects; pathological effects of microorganisms. Allergic immunological diseases such as bronchial asthma, contact dermatitis, oculo-rhinitis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis are by far the most frequent and well known diseases occurring among workers employed on biotechnological production. Toxic effects were observed among workers employed on the production of antibiotics and hormones or single cell proteins, where absorption of endotoxins has been described. Infectious diseases may arise from uncontrolled dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms through aerosols, dusts, aqueous and semisolid sludge effluents from biotechnological plants. The greatest risks occur in the production of antiviral vaccines, in research laboratories and in waste-water treatment plants. Risk of pathogenic effects has also been speculated from exposure to engineered microorganisms in laboratory and environmental or agricultural applications. Safety precautions consisting of protective measures, and effective barriers of containment (both physical and biological) have to be advised according to the hazardous characteristics of the organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358 Section 92.358 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities....

  19. 24 CFR 92.358 - Consultant activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultant activities. 92.358 Section 92.358 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.358 Consultant activities....

  20. ETP and Its Subcontractors and Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Blake, Daniel R.; Anacker, Christopher; Cohen, Michael D.

    This study examined the role of subcontractors and consultants in California's Employment Training Panel (ETP) program. Methods included interviews, focus groups, a phone survey, and a survey of projects without subcontractors. Results indicated that the market in which administrative and training consultants sell their services to employers is…

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  2. Tribal Consultation Booklet: January 1991-March 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. Office of Indian Education Programs.

    "Tribal Consultation Booklets" are the records and background materials of the meetings between Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) staff and tribal representatives, parents, school boards, and other interested parties in ten states, concerning potential changes or issues relating to Indian Education Programs. Such consultation meetings are held 2-3…

  3. Where Is the Research on Consultation Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; And Others

    This paper describes the empirical literature on consultation effectiveness from 1961-1989, based on a review of journals and a computer search of online databases that identified 119 journal articles, book chapters, and monographs and 59 dissertation abstracts. The median number of data-based publications exploring consultation effectiveness was…

  4. Handbook for Writing Consultants. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Roy A.

    Written for both new and experienced tutors at the Washburn University Writing Center, this handbook describes procedures, presents guidelines, and discusses writing center resources for the student writing consultants. After describing the writing center and its mission, the handbook offers a job description for writing consultants. The handbook…

  5. Using Technology in Consultation: Enhancing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pease, Terrie; Copa, Annette; Proulx, Gregory A.; Boss, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Jennifer Boss, Senior Program Associate at ZERO TO THREE, spoke with three infant mental health consultants who worked with three different Early Head Start programs as part of the Pathways to Prevention (PTP) initiative. The interviews particularly focused on how to infuse technology into consultation arrangements that center around building and…

  6. 30 CFR 35.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation. 35.3 Section 35.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FIRE-RESISTANT HYDRAULIC FLUIDS General Provisions § 35.3 Consultation. By...

  7. Capturing the Competence of Management Consulting Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visscher, Klaasjan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess whether the effort of consulting firms and branch organizations to establish a shared and standardized methodology as a means to professionalize consulting and as a standard for training is possible and sensible. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted among Dutch management…

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation. 960.3-3 Section 960.3-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-3 Consultation. The DOE shall provide to designated officials of the...

  12. Consulting Careers: A Profile of Three Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, John

    2011-01-01

    Choosing an industry in which to work is often as important as choosing an occupation. And over the next several years, the best advice for some workers may be to choose an industry that sells advice: consulting. The management, scientific, and technical consulting services industry comprises businesses that offer specialized advice to other…

  13. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  14. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  15. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  16. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  17. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  18. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  19. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  20. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  1. 50 CFR 402.13 - Informal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.13 Informal consultation. (a..., that the action is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitat, the...

  2. 50 CFR 402.14 - Formal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A INTERAGENCY COOPERATION-ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973, AS AMENDED Consultation Procedures § 402.14 Formal consultation. (a... time to determine whether any action may affect listed species or critical habitat. If such...

  3. 31 CFR 561.803 - Consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultations. 561.803 Section 561.803 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Procedures § 561.803 Consultations. In implementing sections...

  4. The Educational Day Care Consultation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Melinda; Valenstein, Thelma

    A research and training program for family day care mothers at the University of Michigan involves both group meetings and individual home consultations by educational consultants, trained community para-professionals. The program is directed toward low income and working class licensed day care mothers and is conducted by the School of Education.…

  5. Consultant Training in Counselor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Johnnie H.; Hummel, Dean L.

    1979-01-01

    This study involved a survey of 31 percent of the existing counselor training programs. Findings indicated that 44 percent of the programs offered formal courses in consultation. Consultant training was reported as focusing toward work with individual consultees and small groups. (Author)

  6. Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernzweig, Jane; Ramler, Malia; Alkon, Abbey

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood mental health consultation is a relationship-based intervention that promotes children's social and emotional development. Benefits include improved childhood behaviors, improved staff self-efficacy, and lowered parental stress. Child care center directors are more likely to be satisfied with consultation when they are involved in…

  7. Consulting Foresters' View of Professional Forestry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, Thomas J.; Childers, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Consulting forestry is an attractive professional specialization and expanding employment opportunities have made it a popular option for forestry students. Association of Consulting Foresters members were asked to rank the importance of the traditional forestry and other courses in the standard accredited forestry curriculum, where additional…

  8. The Consulting Challenge: A Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.; Naas, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Consulting Challenge is a yearly case competition in which teams of graduate students respond to a request for proposals (RFP) for consulting services. The case and RFP are based on a problem that a host organization has experienced. Over 3 days, students meet with representatives of the host organization, analyze data, prepare a proposal for…

  9. Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay

    The Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory is used to assess both existing and needed levels of knowledge and skills for consulting with school staff. The inventory is self-administered, and requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete. For each item, knowledge and skill are rated low, medium, or high; and need for improvement is rated none,…

  10. Consulting/Linkage Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaway, Carl; Erwin, Cliff

    This inventory is designed to help educational consultants assess their levels of knowledge and skills in ten broad areas of consulting: communication, entry/intervention, diagnosis, group facilitation, problem-solving, influence/power, resource utilization, conflict management/utilization, and evaluation. The instrument is designed to help…

  11. 76 FR 55678 - Tribal Consultation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... published a Federal Register (FR) notice formally announcing the 2010 ACF Tribal Consultation Session. 75 FR..., 2010, the revised ACF Tribal Consultation Policy was published in the FR seeking comments for 45 days. 75 FR 78709 (Dec. 16, 2010). The comment period closed on January 31, 2011. March 7-8, 2011, the...

  12. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  13. Talking with the alien: interaction with computers in the GP consultation.

    PubMed

    Dowell, Anthony; Stubbe, Maria; Scott-Dowell, Kathy; Macdonald, Lindsay; Dew, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study examines New Zealand GPs' interaction with computers in routine consultations. Twenty-eight video-recorded consultations from 10 GPs were analysed in micro-detail to explore: (i) how doctors divide their time and attention between computer and patient; (ii) the different roles ascribed to the computer; and (iii) how computer use influences the interactional flow of the consultation. All GPs engaged with the computer in some way for at least 20% of each consultation, and on average spent 12% of time totally focussed on the computer. Patterns of use varied; most GPs inputted all or most notes during the consultation, but a few set aside dedicated time afterwards. The computer acted as an additional participant enacting roles like information repository and legitimiser of decisions. Computer use also altered some of the normal 'rules of engagement' between doctor and patient. Long silences and turning away interrupted the smooth flow of conversation, but various 'multitasking' strategies allowed GPs to remain engaged with patients during episodes of computer use (e.g. signposting, online commentary, verbalising while typing, social chat). Conclusions were that use of computers has many benefits but also significantly influences the fine detail of the GP consultation. Doctors must consciously develop strategies to manage this impact.

  14. Sticky-Note Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  15. On that Note...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  16. Infection prevention in NOTES.

    PubMed

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V

    2008-04-01

    Prevention of infection during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) was identified as one of the most important challenges for translumenal surgery. Does infection prevention during NOTES warrant such attention? This article summarizes the accumulated data about septic complications during translumenal surgery.

  17. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  18. Consulting by Business College Academics: Lessons for Business Communication Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Business communication (BC) is a crucial aspect of management consulting. BC scholars have widely studied the relationship between BC and management consulting, including consulting by BC academics. A limited review of the studies of management consulting, including consulting done by business college academics, hereafter referred to simply as…

  19. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  20. LUVOIR Tech Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart; Roberge, Aki; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Werner, Michael; Rauscher, Bernard; Mandell, Avi; France, Kevin; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    We present nine "tech notes" prepared by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), Study Office, and Technology Working Group. These tech notes are intended to highlight technical challenges that represent boundaries in the trade space for developing the LUVOIR architecture that may impact the science objectives being developed by the STDT. These tech notes are intended to be high-level discussions of the technical challenges and will serve as starting points for more in-depth analysis as the LUVOIR study progresses.

  1. NOTES: the future.

    PubMed

    Giday, Samuel A; Magno, Priscilla; Kalloo, Anthony N

    2008-04-01

    The concept of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has grown in acceptance since the time of its introduction in 2000. Developments in techniques of peritoneal access and closure, surgical techniques, and equipment modification have already been published and intensive research is ongoing. Current and future endoscopists will reap the benefit of this research because many techniques and devices that are developed for NOTES will enhance the ability to perform luminal intervention, including polypectomy, endoluminal hemostasis, and submucosal resection. The authors attempt to predict the future of NOTES by describing potential applications for certain clinical scenarios and conditions.

  2. Biotechnological potential of pectinolytic complexes of fungi.

    PubMed

    Lara-Márquez, Alicia; Zavala-Páramo, María G; López-Romero, Everardo; Camacho, Horacio Cano

    2011-05-01

    Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and pectinases, have been extensively studied because of their well documented biotechnological potential, mainly in the food industry. In particular, lytic enzymes from filamentous fungi have been the subject of a vast number of studies due both to their advantages as models for enzyme production and their characteristics. The demand for such enzymes is rapidly increasing, as are the efforts to improve their production and to implement their use in several industrial processes, with the goal of making them more efficient and environment-friendly. The present review focuses mainly on pectinolytic enzymes of filamentous fungi, which are responsible for degradation of pectin, one of the major components of the plant cell wall. Also discussed are the past and current strategies for the production of cell wall-degrading enzymes and their present applications in a number of biotechnological areas. PMID:21246254

  3. Biotechnology/materials: The growing interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Raymond F.

    1986-01-01

    The biotechnology/materials interaction dates back 3.5 billion years, yet today offers novel challenges for human creativity. The materials cycle practiced by microorganisms is compared to that recently practiced by humans. The processes of the biotechnology materials cycle are biogenesis, bioleaching, biofouling, biocorrosion, biodeterioration, and bioaccumulation. Each process is examined for mechanisms, scale of effect, and opportunity for creative human intervention or utilization. More than 50 of our metallic elements are bio-processed in nature. A like number of biogenic materials have been identified, with some at production rates of trillions of kg per annum (p.a.). Microorganisms can substitute for energy, capital, and labor. Over the eons, microorganisms have gained special attributes that now offer creative humans a new era of partnership in materials processing.

  4. Biotechnology and poplars: A US perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, P.; Ostry, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    An increasing number of researchers are investigating Populus spp. using biotechnical research techniques. Its commercial importance, genome size, and relative ease of propagation from cell and tissue culture are contributing to the increase. Significant progress has been made in refining cell and tissue culture methods and identifying the associated genetic variability. Researchers have identified somaclones with acceptable tolerance levels to several herbicides and diseases. Genetic transformation of poplars has progressed with the development of several gene transfer methods (Agrobacterium, electroporation, and microprojectiles) and the incorporation of commercially important genes (aroA and potato inhibitor II). Research on gene promoters has progressed, and two putative wound inducible promoters have been identified in hybrid poplar. Although federal research dollars in FY 1989 are low for forest biotechnology, research is continuing. Federal research dollars may rise again in 1990 to aid the exploitation of biotechnology to enhance poplar growth and production, especially for use as energy feedstocks. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Space bio-technology in housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry data obtained from monitoring atmospheric pollutants in Skylab spurred studies of indoor pollutants in terrestrial buildings. Subsequent studies of techniques for removing the pollutants from space habitats have led to building concepts which achieve the same purpose on earth. The Skylab data indicated that the synthesized organic materials used in many modern buildings, furnishings, personal clothing and aerosols add significant amounts of chemicals to the indoor atmosphere. Lowered circulation and ventilation rates to conserve energy have caused trapping of these substances in buildings. Studies of methods for space modules which will use plants and microbes to absorb airborne and wastewater pollutants have defined biotechnology designs which can be applied to remove pollutants from air and wastewater organically. Plant roots trap pollutants from wastewater and leaves readily absorb air pollutants, as well as improve the overall energy efficiency of buildings. Several designs which incorporate biotechnology to enhance both the aesthetics and efficiency of homes and office buildings are illustrated.

  6. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  7. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma Lorelie U; Palacpac, Merle B; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  8. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, M Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma Lorelie U; Palacpac, Merle B; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  9. Experiences in Engaging the Public on Biotechnology Advances and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, M. Megan; Smith, Joe; Layton, Raymond; Keese, Paul; Agbagala, Ma. Lorelie U.; Palacpac, Merle B.; Ball, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and

  10. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  11. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods.

  12. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  13. MIPs as Tools in Environmental Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imprints are potentially fantastic constructions. They are selective, robust, and nonbiodegradable if produced from stable polymers. A range of different applications has been presented, everything from separation of enantiomers, via adsorbents for sample preparation before analysis to applications in wastewater treatment. This chapter deals with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as tools in environmental biotechnology, a field that has the potential to become very important in the future.

  14. [Modern biotechnology: a new box for Pandora?].

    PubMed

    Tramper, J

    2002-02-15

    In a bird's-eye view attention has been paid to a number of items of biotechnology. Amongst others to the beginning of the recombinant DNA technology or genetic modification. Mentioned are the bull Herman, the American tomato 'Flavr Savr' and the sheep Dolly. And further something about the supporters and the opponents of genetic modification and the safety of it. The why of transgenic plants and animals. The legislation and the Netherlands as possible transgene-production country. PMID:11885330

  15. Electronic Medical Consultation: A New Zealand Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brebner, Campbell; Jones, Raymond; Marshall, Wendy; Parry, Graham

    2001-01-01

    Electronic medical consultation is available worldwide through access to the World Wide Web (WWW). This article outlines a research study on the adoption of electronic medical consultation as a means of health delivery. It focuses on the delivery of healthcare specifically for New Zealanders, by New Zealanders. It is acknowledged that the WWW is a global marketplace and that it is therefore difficult to identify New Zealanders' use of such a global market; nevertheless, we attempt to provide a New Zealand perspective on electronic medical consultation. PMID:11720955

  16. Consulting services could save firm $1M

    SciTech Connect

    Deans, B.

    1982-04-05

    The energy-management consulting firm of RBC, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ, has already lowered energy consumption at Gould Inc.'s battery division by 25% in three plants by stressing proper building operation. The company will expand its use of the consultants in an effort to reduce the $4.4 million energy cost at its 12 manufacturing plants and central headquarters. The consultant identifies opportunities to fine-tune building systems, delamp, and turn off equipment. Part of the success has been due to management acceptance of the recommendations. RBC works closely with plant personnel to locate potential savings and to train employees in more-effective procedures. (DCK)

  17. Digital and Analog Gene Circuits for Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells. PMID:24677719

  18. Human rights in the biotechnology era 1

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R

    2002-01-01

    Backgound The concept of Human Rights has become the modern civilising standard to which all should aspire and indeed attain. Discussion In an era characterised by widening disparities in health and human rights across the world and spectacular advances in biotechnology it is necessary to reflect on the extent to which human rights considerations are selectively applied for the benefit of the most privileged people. Attention is drawn particularly to sub-Saharan Africa as a marginalised region at risk of further marginalisation if the power associated with the new biotechnology is not used more wisely than power has been used in the past. To rectify such deficiencies it is proposed that the moral agenda should be broadened and at the very least the concept of rights should be more closely integrated with duties Summary New forms of power being unleashed by biotechnology will have to be harnessed and used with greater wisdom than power has been used in the past. Widening disparities in the world are unlikely to be diminished merely by appealing to human rights. We recommend that a deeper understanding is required of the underlying causes of such disparities and that the moral discourse should be extended beyond human rights language. PMID:11960562

  19. Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Disposal of toxic solid waste in an environmentally and economically acceptable way may be in some cases a major impediment to large geothermal development. The major thrust of the R&D effort in this laboratory is to develop low-cost processes for the concentration and removal of toxic materials and metals from geothermal residues. In order to accomplish this, biochemical processes elaborated by certain microorganisms which live in extreme environments have served as models for a biotechnology. It has been shown that 80% or better removal of toxic metals can be achieved at fast rates (e.g., 25 hours or less) at acidic pH and temperatures of about 60{degrees}C. There are several process variables which have to be taken into consideration in the development of such biotechnology. These include reactor size and type, strain of microorganisms, biomass growth, temperature, loading concentrations of residual geothermal sludge, and chemical nature of metal salts present. Recent data generated by the research and development effort associated with the emerging biotechnology will be presented and discussed.

  20. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

  1. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  2. [Current estate of biotechnology in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Valdez, Marta; López, Rebeca; Jiménez, Luis

    2004-09-01

    A study was carried out on the construction of indicators in biotechnology in Costa Rica as part of the project "SYMBIOSIS, Cooperative Program for the Construction of Indicators in Biotechnology adapted to Latin American and Caribbean countries, to motivate the application and transference of industrial technologies". The study focused on two units: researchers and research projects developed in Costa Rica, between 1998 and 2002. For researchers, information was collected about indicators related to sex, age, teaching activities, number of projects, academic degree, area of speciality and number of publications. For research projects we obtained information about: speciality, sector of application, duration of projects and number of researchers per project. Very interesting results include the high participation of the women in this area of investigation (54%); the low participation of young researchers (13% younger than 30), and a high proportion of the investigators that are responsible for 4 or more projects (42%). With relation to the specialities of the projects, the majority are in the category Bio-Agro (39%) whereas in Acuaculture only 1% was found. The sectors of application with the most number of projects are: Agriculture and Livestock (37%) and Human Health (35%). The main strengthts and limitatations for the development of biotechnology in Costa Rica are discussed.

  3. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  4. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  5. Euglenoid flagellates: a multifaceted biotechnology platform.

    PubMed

    Krajčovič, Juraj; Matej Vesteg; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2015-05-20

    Euglenoid flagellates are mainly fresh water protists growing in highly diverse environments making them well-suited for a multiplicity of biotechnology applications. Phototrophic euglenids possesses complex chloroplasts of green algal origin bounded by three membranes. Euglena nuclear and plastid genome organization, gene structure and gene expression are distinctly different from other organisms. Our observations on the model organism Euglena gracilis indicate that transcription of both the plastid and nuclear genome is insensitive to environmental changes and that gene expression is regulated mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Euglena plastids have been proposed as a site for the production of proteins and value added metabolites of biotechnological interest. Euglena has been shown to be a suitable protist species to be used for production of several compounds that are used in the production of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals, such as α-tocopherol, wax esters, polyunsaturated fatty acids, biotin and tyrosine. The storage polysaccharide, paramylon, has immunostimulatory properties and has shown a promise for biomaterials production. Euglena biomass can be used as a nutritional supplement in aquaculture and in animal feed. Diverse applications of Euglena in environmental biotechnology include ecotoxicological risk assessment, heavy metal bioremediation, bioremediation of industrial wastewater and contaminated water.

  6. The emerging international regulatory framework for biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Komen, John

    2012-01-01

    Debate about the potential risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to the environment or human health spurred attention to biosafety. Biosafety is associated with the safe use of GMOs and, more generally, with the introduction of non-indigenous species into natural or managed ecosystems. Biosafety regulation--the policies and procedures adopted to ensure the environmentally safe application of modern biotechnology--has been extensively discussed at various national and international forums. Much of the discussion has focused on developing guidelines, appropriate legal frameworks and, at the international level, a legally binding international biosafety protocol--the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The Protocol is one among various international instruments and treaties that regulate specific aspects relevant to agricultural biotechnology. The present article presents the main international instruments relevant to biosafety regulation, and their key provisions. While international agreements and standards provide important guidance, they leave significant room for interpretation, and flexibility for countries implementing them. Implementation of biosafety at the national level has proven to be a major challenge, particularly in developing countries, and consequently the actual functioning of the international regulatory framework for biotechnology is still in a state of flux.

  7. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    PubMed

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  8. New technologies in medicine: biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zajtchuk, R

    1999-11-01

    In February 1997, researchers created Dolly, a lamb cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep. This was supposed to be impossible (or at least generations away), but suddenly it was here--a clone of a higher mammal. Whatever Dolly's ultimate significance, she conclusively demonstrated the growing power of biotechnology. Many have come to the conclusion that advances in biotechnology will fundamentally transform medicine during the coming decade. Society is in the midst of a technical revolution that will have the same relevance as the development of the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and the microprocessor. Computers have become the key tools in the accelerating progress that is occurring in the field of biotechnology. At the same time, genetic, evolutionary, and other biologic processes are providing new models for the development of computer hardware and software. Today represents the early stages of what has been called the "bionic convergence": the convergence of the biologic revolution with the information revolution, the joining of biology with electronics. Virtually everything that is important to health care practitioners and patients--diagnostic techniques, means of understanding disease causes, methods of treatment, approaches to prevention, health care facility design, medical education, and legal and ethical issues--will be changed by the revolutions currently underway in the fields of biotechnology and genetic medicine. The following monograph includes several forecasts about a range of possible opportunities that may have enormous effects on health care during the next century. These forecasts address the potential impacts of biotechnology on disease detection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nanotechnology, and other areas of medical significance. Every area of beneficiary care will be affected as the changes implied by these forecasts begin to develop. Beneficiary care will continue to see the emergence of a "forecast, prevent, and

  9. Retired Executives: The New Educational Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherman, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Retired business executives are providing colleges and universities with expertise by consulting in such areas as image strengthening, board revitalization, reviewing program directions, forging business partnerships, improving multicampus institutions' communication and cooperation, systematizing computers, and examining the scope and direction…

  10. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  11. Ethics consultation: a dangerous, antidemocratic charlatanry?

    PubMed

    Lilje, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Giles Scofield's argument indicates ethics consultants may need to better clarify what in fact they are and what they are not doing, claiming, and striving for. But we must not step back too far. We must neither engage in putting in envious professional claims for exclusive rights in the area of difficult and momentous decisions in healthcare nor get stuck in discussing normative ethics at the level of metaphysics, ontology, and dogmatics (as has happened in Germany for decades). We must not do so especially in view of the achievements of ethics consultation and the growing demand for it by all parties involved, conceded even by sceptics. Ethics consultation, according to Scofield, appears to be dangerous....Let us look more closely at the logic of the argument by discussing the presumed "antidemocratic" nature. The "new tyranny" of thoughts, and the "proper" role of bioethics consultation. Some considerations about the possibility of ethics expertise shall be left for the end.

  12. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  13. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  14. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of homelessness, the State must consult with: (1) Each Continuum of Care within the state; (2) Public... systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care facilities,...

  15. 30 CFR 27.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.3 Consultation. By appointment... qualified MSHA personnel proposed methane-monitoring systems to be submitted in accordance with...

  16. 30 CFR 27.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.3 Consultation. By appointment... qualified MSHA personnel proposed methane-monitoring systems to be submitted in accordance with...

  17. 30 CFR 27.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.3 Consultation. By appointment... qualified MSHA personnel proposed methane-monitoring systems to be submitted in accordance with...

  18. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  19. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Endangered Species Act....

  20. 31 CFR 561.803 - Consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consultations. In implementing sections 104 and 104A of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-195) (22 U.S.C. 8501-8551), as amended by the Iran Threat Reduction...

  1. [A nurse consultation in victimology for minors].

    PubMed

    Soudan, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    The nurse consultation is an integral part of the treatment of children and adolescents experiencing psychological distress following traumatic events. Specific support is therefore offered to young patients, in particular through the intervention of a clinical nurse specialist.

  2. 34 CFR 75.190 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.190 Consultation. Each applicant that intends to develop curricula or instructional materials under a grant is encouraged to assure that the curricula or materials...

  3. 34 CFR 75.190 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.190 Consultation. Each applicant that intends to develop curricula or instructional materials under a grant is encouraged to assure that the curricula or materials...

  4. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  5. Environmental biotechnology: biotechnology solutions for a global environmental problem, hazardous chemical wastes.

    PubMed

    Omenn, G S

    Biotechnology has a growing place in the remediation of hazardous waste sites throughout the world, and especially in Asia where population density is high and land and fresh water are scarce. In-situ bioremediation has been demonstrated already to be highly effective for petroleum hydrocarbons (alkanes, aromatics, polychlorophenols) and organophosphate pesticides in soils and for gasoline by-products (benzene, toluene, xylene) and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene) in groundwater. Heavy metals and PCBs are not suitable for bioremediation. Environmental biotechnology includes solid-phase and slurry-phase bioremediation for contaminated soils and site-specific bioreactors for contaminated groundwater. Specific examples are presented. From a policy point of view, accumulated wastes must be detoxified, preferably at sites where they already exist. We cannot continue to rely on their removal and disposal "elsewhere". For current waste streams, we must minimize the volumes and toxicity. Environmental biotechnology will play a key role.

  6. The Carolina conference on marine biotechnology: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes proceedings of a Carolina Conference on Marine Biotechnology held March 24-26, 1985, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This report consists of the responders' summary of each topic discussed. The topics presented were General Prospects for Marine Biotechnology, Bioactive Substances from Marine Organisms, Fundamental Processes in Marine Organisms as Guides for Biotechnology Development, Genetic Manipulation of Potential Use to Mariculture, Organisms Interactions with Marine Surfaces: Marine Glues, and Biomolecular Engineering Materials Applications.

  7. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization. PMID:24448474

  8. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    PubMed

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  9. Regulation of animal biotechnology: research needs.

    PubMed

    Rexroad, C E; Green, R D; Wall, R J

    2007-09-01

    Livestock that result from biotechnology have been a part of agricultural science for over 30 years but have not entered the market place as food or fiber. Two biotechnologies are at the forefront as challenges to the world's systems for regulating the market place: animal clones and transgenic animals. Both technologies have come before the Food and Drug Administration in the United States and it appears that action is imminent for clones. The FDA has asserted principles for evaluation of clones and asserts that "... remaining hazard(s) from cloning are likely to be subtle in nature." The science-based principles recognize that in some areas related to developmental biology and gene expression in clones, additional scientific information would be useful. The role of science then is to use the genomic tools that we have available to answer questions about epigenetic regulation of development and reprogramming of genes to the state found in germ cells. Transgenics pose additional challenges to regulators. If the transgenics are produced using cloning from modified cells then the additional scientific information needed will be related to the effects of insertion and expression of the transgenes. Other approaches such as retrovirally vectored transgenesis will elicit additional questions. These questions will be challenging because the science will have to be related to the expression and function of each gene or class of genes. For the promises of animal biotechnology to be fulfilled, scientists will have to resolve many questions for regulators and the public but tools to answer those questions are rapidly becoming available.

  10. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H.; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although

  11. [The use of biotechnology in animal breeding].

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, E; Brade, W

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnological techniques are extensively used in dairy breeding programs. Thus, artificial insemination and embryo transfer (and associated techniques) constitute an integral part of modern breeding programs. In pig breeding, embryo transfer is mostly restricted to special problem areas because of its high costs. Currently this technique is used for the exchange of genetic material on an international level, for the creation of specific pathogene free herds, and in connection with cryoconservation for the setup of embryobanks in the context of the preservation of genetic resources. PMID:9011495

  12. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  13. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  14. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  15. Participants' Evaluation of Consultation: Implications for Training in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klose, Laurie McGarry; Plotts, Cynthia; Lasser, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of graduate students' consultation skills is essential to competent practice in school settings. Congruence of evaluation of the consultation experience has been shown as an important factor in the development of competent consultants in other, related disciplines. The current study analysed student consultant and teacher consultee…

  16. Educational Consultation: A Summary of Four Alberta Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Edward A.; Millikan, Ross H.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of the consultative process, as determined by four reviewed studies. Discusses consultative needs and practices of teachers in schools of different grade levels, and stresses the importance of peer consultation. Suggests recommendations for improving the practice of educational consultation. (JD)

  17. An Exploration of Consultation Approaches and Implementation in Heterogeneous Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Crockett, Jean B.

    1999-01-01

    This review of the literature on consultation in heterogeneous classrooms provides first, an overview of consultation; second, a description of school-based consultation; third, a research synthesis of exemplary studies of school-based consultation; and, finally, suggestions for future research and implications for practice. (Author/DB)

  18. 48 CFR 1552.211-78 - Management consulting services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management consulting... 1552.211-78 Management consulting services. As prescribed in 1511.011-78, insert the following contract clause in all contracts for management consulting services. Management Consulting Services (APR 1985)...

  19. An Exploratory Study in School Counselor Consultation Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Moe, Jeffry L.; Mason, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Consultation, an indirect school counselor service, is provided by 79% (n = 998) school counselor currently. Most frequently consultation occurs with teachers, parents, and principals. MANOVA and post hoc analysis indicate differences in consultation practices across academic levels. Choosing a consultation model based on the type of service…

  20. Integrative Learning at Work: Theory into Practice at Andersen Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    Andersen Consulting is a global training firm with more than 20,000 consultants serving clients from 151 officers in 46 countries. In 1995, Andersen Consulting introduced a career development model (CDM) as a new organizing structure for its consultants in North and South America. The CDM, which translates the findings of research on integrative…

  1. Improving consultations in oncology: the development of a novel consultation aid

    PubMed Central

    Furber, L; Murtagh, G M; Bonas, S A; Bankart, J G; Thomas, A L

    2014-01-01

    Background: The way in which patients receive bad news in a consultation can have a profound effect in terms of anxiety, depression and subsequent adjustment. Despite investment in well-researched communication skills training and availability of decision-making aids, communication problems in oncology continue to be encountered. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in a large UK Cancer Centre to develop a novel consultation aid that could be used jointly by patients and doctors. Consultations were audio-recorded and both the doctors and the patients were interviewed. We used conversation analysis to analyse the consultation encounter and interpretative phenomenological analysis to analyse the interviews. Key themes were generated to inform the design of the aid. Results: A total of 16 doctors were recruited into the study along with 77 patients. Detailed analysis from 36 consultations identified key themes (including preparation, information exchange, question-asking and decision making), which were subsequently addressed in the design of the paper-based aid. Conclusions: Using detailed analysis and observation of oncology consultations, we have designed a novel consultation aid that can be used jointly by doctors and patients. It is not tumour-site specific and can potentially be utilised by new and follow-up consultations. PMID:24548856

  2. The Relationship between Gender of Consultant and Social Power Perceptions within School Consultation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchul, William P.; Raven, Bertram H.; Wilson, Kristen E.

    2004-01-01

    This study's focus was on school psychologists' perceived effectiveness of 11 social power bases (Raven, 1993) that may be drawn upon when consulting with initially resistant teachers. Specifically, the relationship between consultant gender and perceptions of power base effectiveness was examined. The Interpersonal Power Inventory-Form CT…

  3. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  4. Notes on Linguistics, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Notes on Linguistics" published during 1990. Articles in the four issues include: "The Indians Do Say Ugh-Ugh" (Howard W. Law); "Constraints of Relevance, A Key to Particle Typology" (Regina Blass); "Whatever Happened to Me? (An Objective Case Study)" (Aretta Loving); "Stop Me and Buy One (For $5...)"…

  5. Notes and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Physics, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Includes eleven short notes, comments and responses to comments on a variety of topics such as uncertainty in a least-squares fit, display of diffraction patterns, the dark night sky paradox, error in the dynamics of deformable bodies and relative velocities and the runner. (GA)

  6. NCTM Student Math Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan, Ed.; Yunker, Lee E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Five sets of activities for students are included in this document. Each is designed for use in junior high and secondary school mathematics instruction. The first Note concerns mathematics on postage stamps. Historical procedures and mathematicians, metric conversion, geometric ideas, and formulas are among the topics considered. Successful…

  7. Notes on Linguistics, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 issues of "Notes on Linguistics," published quarterly, include the following articles, review articles, reviews, book notices, and reports: "A New Program for Doing Morphology: Hermit Crab"; "Lingualinks CD-ROM: Field Guide to Recording Language Data"; "'Unruly' Phonology: An Introduction to Optimality Theory"; "Borrowing vs. Code…

  8. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  9. Sawtooth Functions. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Using MAPLE enables students to consider many examples which would be very tedious to work out by hand. This applies to graph plotting as well as to algebraic manipulation. The challenge is to use these observations to develop the students' understanding of mathematical concepts. In this note an interesting relationship arising from inverse…

  10. Student Math Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Five sets of activities for students are included in this document. Each is designed for use in junior high and secondary school mathematics instruction. The first "Note" concerns magic squares in which the numbers in every row, column, and diagonal add up to the same sum. An etching by Albrecht Durer is presented, with four questions followed by…

  11. 5 CFR 2421.3 - National consultation rights; consultation rights on Government-wide rules or regulations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; consultation rights on Government-wide rules or regulations; exclusive recognition; unfair labor practices... SUBCHAPTER § 2421.3 National consultation rights; consultation rights on Government-wide rules or regulations... in 5 U.S.C. 7113; (b) Consultation rights on Government-wide rules or regulations has the meaning...

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGIES AND BIOMATERIALS IN SPINE SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vadala', G; Russo, F; Ambrosio, L; Di Martino, A; Papalia, R; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, spine disorders have become a major health concern and the number of spinal surgical procedures has been rising significantly. Several biotechnologies and biomaterials are often used in spine surgery to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. In the degenerative spine, when conservative treatment is ineffective the most recommended surgical procedure is decompression followed by spinal fusion. Success rates of spine fusion extensively rely on bone grafts peculiar properties. Autograft has been considered the gold standard to achieve a solid fusion but current research is focused on the development of new biomaterials. Osteoporosis is the main cause of vertebral compression fractures that are significantly associated with pain and disability, especially in the aging population. Vertebral augmentation is a minimally invasive approach in which cement is injected into the vertebral body to stabilize the fracture. New cements are being developed in the clinical scenario with reabsorbable properties and biomechanical features more similar to the native bone. The development of disc regeneration strategies such as nucleus pulposus restoration and annulus fibrosus repair may represent a minimally invasive procedure towards regeneration rather than fusion. Therefore, biomaterials and tissue engineering are fields of growing interest among both surgeons and manufacturing companies, with a major involvement in spine surgery. This review discusses current and novel biotechnologies and biomaterial used in spine surgery employing fusion, augmentation and regeneration.

  13. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation.

  14. Risk assessment methodologies for biotechnology impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, James W.

    1986-07-01

    By combining hazard assessment of effects of a potential biotechnology product with exposure assessments based on study of the genetically engineered organism's fate, conclusions may be reached about the risk involved in release of the product to the environment. In order to make this risk assessment, criteria (including regulatory endpoints) must be established and then developed further against a data base from well-accepted tests. Other aspects requiring research and development include test evaluation, quality assurance, statistical procedures, and methods of identifying and monitoring not only the nominal organism(s) in the products, but also any contaminating material or organisms to which the genetically engineered components may be transferred in the environment. Application of microcosm technology to testing of genetically engineered organisms is expected to be important, since these systems may be used safely to understand fate and effects prior to (or in place of) testing the product in the environment. Limitations in the use of microcosms may be offset by the cost-effectiveness and incisiveness of results, as has been shown for other pollutants. Risk management for biotechnology products currently lacks an adequate background, but components of the process exist or can be developed. New resources, in terms of personnel, training, facilities, and funding, will be needed in order to apply the risk assessment paradigm used for toxic chemicals and pesticides. We will need to know:

  15. Comparative genomics of biotechnologically important yeasts.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Lopes, Mariana R; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Göker, Markus; Salamov, Asaf A; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Long, Tanya M; Calvey, Christopher H; Aerts, Andrea L; Barry, Kerrie W; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; Coughlan, Aisling Y; Deshpande, Shweta; Douglass, Alexander P; Hanson, Sara J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; LaButti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lipzen, Anna M; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Ohm, Robin A; Otillar, Robert P; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Peng, Yi; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos A; Scheuner, Carmen; Sibirny, Andriy A; Slot, Jason C; Stielow, J Benjamin; Sun, Hui; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor V; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2016-08-30

    Ascomycete yeasts are metabolically diverse, with great potential for biotechnology. Here, we report the comparative genome analysis of 29 taxonomically and biotechnologically important yeasts, including 16 newly sequenced. We identify a genetic code change, CUG-Ala, in Pachysolen tannophilus in the clade sister to the known CUG-Ser clade. Our well-resolved yeast phylogeny shows that some traits, such as methylotrophy, are restricted to single clades, whereas others, such as l-rhamnose utilization, have patchy phylogenetic distributions. Gene clusters, with variable organization and distribution, encode many pathways of interest. Genomics can predict some biochemical traits precisely, but the genomic basis of others, such as xylose utilization, remains unresolved. Our data also provide insight into early evolution of ascomycetes. We document the loss of H3K9me2/3 heterochromatin, the origin of ascomycete mating-type switching, and panascomycete synteny at the MAT locus. These data and analyses will facilitate the engineering of efficient biosynthetic and degradative pathways and gateways for genomic manipulation. PMID:27535936

  16. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. PMID:25447783

  17. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    PubMed

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  18. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production.

  19. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  20. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  1. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  2. 75 FR 69091 - Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities.... Agenda: The Office of Biotechnology Activities (OBA), NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee and the... George, Program Assistant, Office of Science Policy, Office of Biotechnology Activities,...

  3. Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills. PMID:24331892

  4. Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills.

  5. Role of biotechnology in sustainable development of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prospect of biotechnology to provide cost-efficient sustainable cotton production under a safe environment for the 21st century is enormous. The role of plant biotechnology in the improvement of cotton is a rapidly evolving area and very broad. The specific objective of this paper is to provide...

  6. Of Apples and Animals: An Introduction to Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourad, Teresa M.; And Others

    This guide is designed to foster an understanding of the basic concepts underlying biotechnology through simple activities that are fun and creative for students in grades 3-5. It contains four units that will lead young students to an appreciation of how biotechnology is possible and some of its applications. The process of learning is intended…

  7. Students, Teachers and the Impact of Biotechnology on the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews some ways in which developments in biotechnology can be used to explore both biology and the social impact of this science on the wider community. Includes specific examples to help students explore the ramifications of biotechnology. Reviews approaches that can help teachers help students address social, ethical, and political issues…

  8. The Impact of Biotechnology upon Chemistry in Pharmacy Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, James G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Applications of biotechnology to the pharmaceutical industry are examined, and its impact on the research and practical domains of medicinal and natural products chemistry is discussed. Specific curricular implications for undergraduate and graduate study in pharmacy are outlined, and suggestions for faculty development in biotechnology are made.…

  9. Biotechnology Teaching Models: What Is Their Role in Technology Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the opportunity to teach biotechnology from a technological perspective with the introduction of technology education in New Zealand. Presents information on the professional development research project that introduces teachers to the practice of biotechnology identified in "Technology in New Zealand Curriculum". (Contains 24…

  10. Dwarfing the Social? Nanotechnology Lessons from the Biotechnology Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedel, Edna F.; Goldenberg, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology and nanotechnology are both strategic technologies, and the former provides several lessons that could contribute to more successful embedding and integration processes for the latter. This article identifies some of the key questions emerging from the biotechnology experience and summarizes several lessons learned in the context of…

  11. New opportunities revealed by biotechnological explorations of extremophiles.

    PubMed

    Podar, Mircea; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades the extremes at which life thrives has continued to challenge our understanding of biochemistry, biology and evolution. As more new extremophiles are brought into laboratory culture, they have provided a multitude of potential applications for biotechnology. More recently, innovative culturing approaches, environmental genome sequencing and whole genome sequencing have provided new opportunities for the biotechnological exploration of extremophiles.

  12. The Language of Biotechnology: A Dictionary of Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John M.; Cox, Michael

    This dictionary attempts to define routinely used specialized language in the various areas of biotechnology, and remain suitable for use by scientists involved in unrelated disciplines. Viewing biotechnology as the practical application of biological systems to the manufacturing and service industries, and to the management of the environment,…

  13. One Approach to Computer Modeling of Microkinetics for Biotechnological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiljanov, A. S.; Fozilova, M. M.; Kuchkarov, F. S.

    Intelligence — algorithmic method of modeling of microkinetics for biotechnological processes (BTP) is considered. The generalized mathematical model of microkinetics of biotechnological processes received on the basis of the system approach is given. The question of regularization of a task of parametrical identification is considered.

  14. Teaching Biotechnology to Medical Students: Is There an Easy Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steggles, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)

  15. Western Australian High School Students' Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on the attitudes towards biotechnology of 905, 15-16 year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools. Students were asked to read 15 statements about biotechnology processes and to draw a line to separate what they considered "acceptable" statements from those they considered "unacceptable". Overall, the students hold a…

  16. Biotechnology in a global economy. Volume 2. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Volume 2, Part 1 of Biotechnology in a Global Economy is comprised of various papers relating to the biotechnology industry and its level of development in various countries. Major topics discussed include current status of the industry in these countries, financing sources, future strategies, special projects being pursued, and technology transfer.

  17. Too New for Textbooks: The Biotechnology Discoveries & Applications Guidebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Madelene; Lamb, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Biotechnology Discoveries and Applications" guidebook aims to provide teachers with an overview of the recent advances in genetics and biotechnology, allowing them to share these findings with their students. The annual guidebook introduces a wealth of modern genomic discoveries and provides teachers with tools to integrate exciting…

  18. Current and Future Leaders' Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Miller, Rene P.

    2009-01-01

    Were elected state FFA officers' attitudes toward agricultural biotechnology significantly different from elected Texas legislators' attitudes about the same topic? The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed in agricultural biotechnology perceptions or information source preferences when compared by leadership status:…

  19. State FFA Officers' Confidence and Trustworthiness of Biotechnology Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.

    2007-01-01

    Are state FFA officers' awareness levels of agricultural topics reported in mass media superior to those who do not serve in leadership roles? The purpose of this study was to determine elected state FFA officers' awareness of biotechnology, and their confidence and trust of biotechnology information sources. Descriptive survey methods were used…

  20. Using the Mystery of the Cyclopic Lamb to Teach Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie L.

    2010-01-01

    I present a learning cycle that explores different biotechnologies using the process of in situ hybridization as a platform. Students are presented with a cyclopic lamb and must use biotechnology to discover the mechanism behind the deformity. Through this activity, students learn about signal transduction and discover the processes of polymerase…

  1. Multidimensional Analysis of High-School Students' Perceptions about Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…

  2. Teaching a Biotechnology Unit in High School General Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Lana

    1994-01-01

    Describes a unit in biotechnology for average and below average high school students. Students developed productive team membership, used math and communication skills to solve problems, and used the scientific method to learn about biotechnology. Students separated DNA, transformed bacterial cells, interpreted DNA fingerprints, completed creative…

  3. Agricultural Communications Students' Awareness and Perceptions of Biotechnology Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Rutherford, Tracy A.; Dunsford, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural communications students (n=330) from 11 universities were most aware of biotechnology effects on food, less aware of effects on health and the environment. They were somewhat accepting of genetic modifications for plants, not humans. Sources of biotechnology knowledge were science classes, labs, and university professors' beliefs.…

  4. Telehematopathology in a clinical consultative practice.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S I; Nandedkar, M A; Williams, B H; Abbondanzo, S L

    2001-12-01

    We studied a series of 60 telepathology cases sent in consultation to the Department of Hematopathology from January 1, 1995, through July 31, 2000. Cases from the United States and the world representing academic, private, military, and federal sectors were reviewed. Ninety percent of patients were adults (54 of 60), and male patients outnumbered female patients 2 to 1. Ages were from 1 to 79 years (mean, 42 years). Forty-three cases were lymph nodes (72%), 14 were bone marrow or peripheral blood (23%), and 3 were from other sites (5%). Twenty-seven of the consultant diagnoses were benign (27 of 60). Twenty-nine were malignant (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and "other malignancy" groups), and 4 were nondiagnostic. Glass slide/paraffin tissue blocks were available in only 35 (58%) of 60 cases. The concordance rate for diagnostic telehematopathology cases with subsequent glass slide/paraffin block follow-up was 91% (29 of 32 cases). The discordance rate was 9% (3 of 32). This finding shows a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for consultative telehematopathology. Of 118 images analyzed, 58 were considered very good/good (49%), 32 were poor/very poor (27%), and 28 were fair (24%). Poor images had suboptimal resolution, color, or technical quality of transmission, and most poor images were low-power images. Additional case problems included insufficient immunoperoxidase stain availability, selection, and labeling; transmitted field selection; specimen preparation and staining; presence or absence of accompanying clinical data; and availability of ancillary studies such as flow cytometric, cytogenetic, and molecular data. From this analysis, the following recommendations are offered. To optimize telehematopathology consultation, include any additional information that have a significant influence on the final consultant diagnosis. Include any pertinent clinical information, laboratory data, special stains, immunoperoxidase stains, and molecular data. Select

  5. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  6. New master program in management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We develop new graduate educational highly interdisciplinary program that will be useful for addressing problems in worldwide biotechnologies and related biomedical industries. This Master program called Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies provides students with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern business in modern biotechnologies. Administered jointly by Cranfield University (UK) and Saratov State University, Russia) graduates possess a blend of engineering, biotechnologies, business and interpersonal skills necessary for success in industry. The Master courses combine a regular year program in biophotonics & biotechnologies disciplines with the core requirements of a Master degree. A major advantage of the program is that it will provide skills not currently available to graduates in any other program, and it will give the graduates an extra competitive edge for getting a job then.

  7. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... the expanding dimensions and importance of agricultural biotechnology. The AC21 has been established... issues related to the expanding dimensions and importance of agricultural biotechnology. Dated:...

  8. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ...; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Closed...: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive,...

  9. Family Consulting: A New Role for Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Molly Lependorf; Healey, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a new model for psychological practice called Family Consulting, which is based on a developmental and non-pathological perspective. Provides background information on the building blocks of this perspective, namely the life span theory of development, family life-cycle literature, and object relations family therapy. Discusses the role…

  10. The Research Consultant in Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Elaine

    1991-01-01

    A consultant can help enhance the quality of dental faculty and student research by offering statistics courses, helping with project conceptualization, obtaining funding, collaborating during an investigation, providing data analysis, and preparing grant reports and manuscripts. An American Association of Dental Schools publications mentoring…

  11. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  12. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... environmental analyses or documentation, if any, need to be prepared. NEPA documents will incorporate, to...

  13. Psychoanalytic School Consultation: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzner, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a psychoanalytic consultation model to an independent grade 7-12 school that offers a practical and efficient approach to improve school climate. This model may stand alone or complement other approaches, and it can be implemented in both independent and public school settings. It focuses not only on "at risk" students,…

  14. 7 CFR 372.7 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation. 372.7 Section 372.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES § 372.7...

  15. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  16. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  17. 30 CFR 33.3 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consultation. 33.3 Section 33.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES General...

  18. Consulting the Public through Deliberative Polling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishkin, James S.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Deliberative Polling as the most credible and practical method of public consultation. As compared with self-selected forums or samples of convenience, it employs scientific random samples. As compared with the snapshots of an inattentive public often offered by conventional polls, it assesses informed public…

  19. 34 CFR 200.63 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... private school children. (b) At a minimum, the LEA must consult on the following: (1) How the LEA will identify the needs of eligible private school children. (2) What services the LEA will offer to eligible private school children. (3) How and when the LEA will make decisions about the delivery of services....

  20. Improving Counselor Effectiveness: Consulting with Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelsma, Dennis M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the personal styles model of Moore and Richter, which attempts to identify an individual's particular pattern and response in an educational environment. Suggests ways the model can help counselors to encourage teacher effectiveness and improve their overall effectiveness in consultation with teachers and parents. (Author/ABB)

  1. 34 CFR 200.63 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... private school children. (b) At a minimum, the LEA must consult on the following: (1) How the LEA will identify the needs of eligible private school children. (2) What services the LEA will offer to eligible private school children. (3) How and when the LEA will make decisions about the delivery of services....

  2. 34 CFR 300.134 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., must consult with private school representatives and representatives of parents of parentally-placed private school children with disabilities during the design and development of special education and..., including— (1) How parentally-placed private school children suspected of having a disability...

  3. 45 CFR 155.130 - Stakeholder consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mental health or substance abuse disorders; (d) Small businesses and self-employed individuals; (e) State... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS... regularly consult on an ongoing basis with the following stakeholders: (a) Educated health care...

  4. Consultation in the Inner-City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Alice Foster

    1976-01-01

    The urban ghetto experience can play havoc with the educational process unless teachers understand the effect this experience has on their students. The author presents a framework by which the social work consultant can help teachers recognize their students' problems and create an environment that supports learning and growth. (Author)

  5. 20 CFR 410.472 - Consultative examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultative examinations. 410.472 Section 410.472 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  6. 20 CFR 410.472 - Consultative examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultative examinations. 410.472 Section 410.472 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis §...

  7. A Database Model for Medical Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Morteza

    1991-01-01

    Describes a relational data model that can be used for knowledge representation and manipulation in rule-based medical consultation systems. Fuzzy queries or attribute values and fuzzy set theory are discussed, functional dependencies are described, and an example is presented of a system for diagnosing causes of eye inflammation. (15 references)…

  8. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  9. 24 CFR 330.40 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consultation. 330.40 Section 330.40 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF......

  10. 24 CFR 330.40 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consultation. 330.40 Section 330.40 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) GOVERNMENT NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GUARANTY OF......

  11. 44 CFR 206.348 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designated representative of the Department of the Interior (DOI) at the regional level before approving any.... (a) The consultation shall be by written memorandum to the DOI representative and shall contain the... understanding with DOI, the DOI representative will provide technical information and an opinion whether or...

  12. Integrating Corpus Consultation in Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence…

  13. 18 CFR 5.7 - Tribal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tribal consultation. 5.7 Section 5.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... of intent required by § 5.5 between each Indian tribe likely to be affected by the potential...

  14. 18 CFR 5.7 - Tribal consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tribal consultation. 5.7 Section 5.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... of intent required by § 5.5 between each Indian tribe likely to be affected by the potential...

  15. 18 CFR 16.8 - Consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management agencies, the certifying agency under section 401(a)(1) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation requirements. 16.8 Section 16.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  16. 18 CFR 4.38 - Consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(a)(1) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act), 33 U.S.C. § 1341(c)(1), and any... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation requirements. 4.38 Section 4.38 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  17. 24 CFR 91.110 - Consultation; states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administering public housing), health services, and social and fair housing services (including those focusing... and private agencies that provide assisted housing, health services, and social services to determine... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consultation; states....

  18. Service Learning In Physics: The Consultant Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, David

    2005-04-01

    Each year thousands of students across the country and across the academic disciplines participate in service learning. Unfortunately, with no clear model for integrating community service into the physics curriculum, there are very few physics students engaged in service learning. To overcome this shortfall, a consultant based service-learning program has been developed and successfully implemented at Saint Anselm College (SAC). As consultants, students in upper level physics courses apply their problem solving skills in the service of others. Most recently, SAC students provided technical and managerial support to a group from Girl's Inc., a national empowerment program for girls in high-risk, underserved areas, who were participating in the national FIRST Lego League Robotics competition. In their role as consultants the SAC students provided technical information through brainstorming sessions and helped the girls stay on task with project management techniques, like milestone charting. This consultant model of service-learning, provides technical support to groups that may not have a great deal of resources and gives physics students a way to improve their interpersonal skills, test their technical expertise, and better define the marketable skill set they are developing through the physics curriculum.

  19. 21 CFR 312.82 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., plans for studying the drug product in pediatric populations, and the best approach for presentation and... USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs Intended to Treat Life-threatening and Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.82 Early consultation. For products intended to treat life-threatening or...

  20. 45 CFR 155.130 - Stakeholder consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS EXCHANGE ESTABLISHMENT STANDARDS AND OTHER RELATED STANDARDS UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT General... regularly consult on an ongoing basis with the following stakeholders: (a) Educated health care...