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Sample records for biphasic positive effect

  1. Aqueous biphasic hydroformylation in the presence of cyclodextrins mixtures: evidence of a positive synergistic effect.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Michel; Legrand, François-Xavier; Machut, Cécile; Bricout, Hervé; Tilloy, Sébastien; Monflier, Eric

    2012-07-28

    Mixtures of randomly methylated cyclodextrins of various sizes have been evaluated in the rhodium-catalysed hydroformylation of higher olefins in an aqueous biphasic medium. A marked positive non-linear effect on 1-tetradecene conversion is observed when the CD molar ratio in the mixture is modified. The formation of 2:1 ternary inclusion complexes between RAME-CDs and the olefin is supposed to be responsible for the extra conversion observed. PMID:22684118

  2. Effect of early application of biphasic positive airway pressure on the outcome of extubation in ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J S; Kao, S J; Wang, S N

    1999-06-01

    Extubation failure is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. In respiratory distress after extubation, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been suggested to avoid the complications of invasive mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of early application of NIPPV on extubation outcome. We conducted a prospective study in 93 extubated patients with a mean age of 72.7 +/- 14.7 years (range, 24-93). Elective extubation was performed in 56 patients and unplanned extubation occurred in 37 patients. After extubation, patients randomly received either biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) therapy (n = 47) or unassisted oxygen therapy (n = 46). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation was delivered via face mask in BIPAP group. Of the 93 extubated patients, 73 (78.5%) were successfully extubated, and 20 (21.5%) had to be re-intubated. There were no significant differences in age, sex, pre-extubation blood gas data between re-intubated patients and those who were not re-intubated. While seven of the 46 patients in the unassisted oxygen therapy group required re-intubation, 13 of the 47 BIPAP-treated patients also required re-intubation. This difference was not statistically significant. The postextubation respiratory management, BIPAP or unassisted oxygen therapy, did not correlate with the extubation outcome, but the elective extubation had significantly better outcome than unplanned extubation. Patients with excessive bronchial secretions and intolerance to the equipment are poor candidates for NIPPV. We conclude that early application of BIPAP support did not predict a favourable extubation outcome. Our experience did not support the indiscriminate use of NIPPV to facilitate ventilator weaning.

  3. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  4. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

    PubMed Central

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A.; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8–13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30–50 and 50–100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca’s chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  5. Use of Biphasic Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Premature Infant with Cleft Lip–Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    George, Lovya; Jain, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants (PIs) often require respiratory support due to surfactant deficiency. Early weaning from mechanical ventilation to noninvasive respiratory support decreases ventilation-associated irreversible lung damage. This wean is particularly challenging in PIs with cleft lip and cleft palate due to anatomical difficulties encountered in maintaining an adequate seal for positive pressure ventilation. PI with a cleft lip and palate often fail noninvasive respiratory support and require continued intubation and mechanical ventilation. We are presenting the first case report of a PI with cleft lip and palate who was managed by biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26495158

  6. Biphasic Effect of Rifampicin on Bilirubin- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Mandalam Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Drug induced hepatitis is a major problem which a physician encounters in his clinical practice. In view of increasing incidence of tuberculosis in our country a large number of infected individuals are started on Antituberculous (ATT) drugs and rifampicin is invariably part of the regimen. One of the major adverse effects of ATT drugs is drug- induced hepatitis which is characterized by elevation of liver enzymes and bilirubin. Hepatotoxicity is usually idiosyncratic or dose-dependent. Rifampicin causes transient elevation of transaminases in 10-20 percent of individuals and this does not warrant dose adjustments of the drug. Rarely rifampicin can lead to severe hepatitis with hyperbilirubinaemia and marked elevations of SGOT and SGPT and in some patients this can be fatal. The exact mechanism of Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity is not known but it is postulated to be due to idiosyncratic reaction to rifampicin metabolites which may be directly toxic or induce an immunologically mediated liver injury. Rarely rifampicin may cause hyperbilirubinaemia without enzyme elevation. Here we report a patient with bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis who developed transient severe indirect hyperbilirubinaemia on rifampicin. On review of relevant literature we find that rifampicin can have a biphasic effect on bilirubin, an initial increase in indirect bilirubin and later normalization of bilirubin. We have reported this case because of its rarity in clinical practice. PMID:27190870

  7. Clinical review: Biphasic positive airway pressure and airway pressure release ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Putensen, Christian; Wrigge, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on mechanical ventilation strategies that allow unsupported spontaneous breathing activity in any phase of the ventilatory cycle. By allowing patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome to breathe spontaneously, one can expect improvements in gas exchange and systemic blood flow, based on findings from both experimental and clinical trials. In addition, by increasing end-expiratory lung volume, as occurs when using biphasic positive airway pressure or airway pressure release ventilation, recruitment of collapsed or consolidated lung is likely to occur, especially in juxtadiaphragmatic lung legions. Traditional approaches to mechanical ventilatory support of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome require adaptation of the patient to the mechanical ventilator using heavy sedation and even muscle relaxation. Recent investigations have questioned the utility of sedation, muscle paralysis and mechanical control of ventilation. Furthermore, evidence exists that lowering sedation levels will decrease the duration of mechanical ventilatory support, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and overall costs of hospitalization. Based on currently available data, we suggest considering the use of techniques of mechanical ventilatory support that maintain, rather than suppress, spontaneous ventilatory effort, especially in patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:15566621

  8. Rigorous kinetic model considering positional specificity of lipase for enzymatic stepwise hydrolysis of triolein in biphasic oil-water system.

    PubMed

    Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous kinetic model describing the stepwise triglyceride hydrolysis at the oil-water interface, based on the Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism using suspended lipase having positional specificity, was constructed. The preference of the enzyme to cleave to the ester bonds at the edge and the center of the glycerol backbone of the substrates (tri-, di- or monoglyceride) was incorporated in the model. This model was applied to the experimental results for triolein hydrolysis using suspended Porcine pancreatic lipase (an sn-1,3 specific lipase) and Candida rugosa lipase (a non-specific lipase) in a biphasic oil-water system under various operating conditions. In order to discuss the model's advantages, other models that do not consider the positional specificity of the lipase were also applied to our experimental results. The model considering the positional specificity of the lipase gave results which fit better with the experimental data and described the effect of the initial enzyme concentration, the interfacial area, and the initial concentrations of triolein on the entire process of the stepwise triolein hydrolysis. This model also gives a good representation of the rate for cleaving the respective ester bonds of each substrate by each type of lipase.

  9. An effective biphase system accelerates hesperidinase-catalyzed conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Gong, An; Yang, Cai-Feng; Bao, Qi; Shi, Xin-Yi; Han, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Isoquercitrin is a rare, natural ingredient with several biological activities that is a key precursor for the synthesis of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ). The enzymatic production of isoquercitrin from rutin catalyzed by hesperidinase is feasible; however, the bioprocess is hindered by low substrate concentration and a long reaction time. Thus, a novel biphase system consisting of [Bmim][BF4]:glycine-sodium hydroxide (pH 9) (10:90, v/v) and glyceryl triacetate (1:1, v/v) was initially established for isoquercitrin production. The biotransformation product was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the bonding mechanism of the enzyme and substrate was inferred using circular dichroism spectra and kinetic parameters. The highest rutin conversion of 99.5% and isoquercitrin yield of 93.9% were obtained after 3 h. The reaction route is environmentally benign and mild, and the biphase system could be reused. The substrate concentration was increased 2.6-fold, the reaction time was reduced to three tenths the original time. The three-dimensional structure of hesperidinase was changed in the biphase system, which α-helix and random content were reduced and β-sheet content was increased. Thus, the developed biphase system can effectively strengthen the hesperidinase-catalyzed synthesis of isoquercitrin with high yield. PMID:25731802

  10. Biphasic Effects of Cannabinoids in Anxiety Responses: CB1 and GABAB Receptors in the Balance of GABAergic and Glutamatergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Alejandro Aparisi; Purrio, Martin; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Lutz, Beat

    2012-01-01

    Biphasic effects of cannabinoids have been shown in processes such as feeding behavior, motor activity, motivational processes and anxiety responses. Using two different tests for the characterization of anxiety-related behavior (elevated plus-maze and holeboard), we first identified in wild-type C57BL/6N mice, two doses of the synthetic CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist CP-55,940 with anxiolytic (1 μg/kg) and anxiogenic properties (50 μg/kg), respectively. To clarify the role of CB1 receptors in this biphasic effect, both doses were applied to two different conditional CB1 receptor knockout (KO) mouse lines, GABA-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in forebrain GABAergic neurons) and Glu-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in cortical glutamatergic neurons). We found that the anxiolytic-like effects of the low dose of cannabinoids are mediated via the CB1 receptor on cortical glutamatergic terminals, because this anxiolytic-like response was abrogated only in Glu-CB1-KO mice. On the contrary, the CB1 receptor on the GABAergic terminals is required to induce an anxiogenic-like effect under a high-dose treatment because of the fact that this effect was abolished specifically in GABA-CB1-KO mice. These experiments were carried out in both sexes, and no differences occurred with the doses tested in the mutant mice. Interestingly, the positive allosteric modulation of GABAB receptor with GS-39783 was found to largely abrogate the anxiogenic-like effect of the high dose of CP-55,940. Our results shed new light in further understanding the biphasic effects of cannabinoids at the molecular level and, importantly, pave the way for the development of novel anxiolytic cannabinoid drugs, which may have favorable effect profiles targeting the CB1 receptor on glutamatergic terminals. PMID:22850737

  11. Positive feedback may cause the biphasic response observed in the chemoattractant-induced response of Dictyostelium cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Iglesias, Pablo A.

    2006-01-01

    After stimulation by chemoattractant, Dictyostelium cells exhibit a rapid response. The concentrations of several intracellular proteins rise rapidly reaching their maximum levels approximately 5–10 seconds, after which they return to prestimulus levels. This response, which is found in many other chemotaxing cells, is an example of a step disturbance rejection, a process known to biologists as perfect adaptation. Unlike other cells, however, the initial first peak observed in the chemoattractant-induced response of Dictyostelium cells is then followed by a slower, smaller phase peaking approximately one to two minutes after the stimulus. Until recently, the nature of this biphasic response has been poorly understood. Moreover, the origin for the second phase is unknown. In this paper we conjecture the existence of a feedback path between the response and stimulus. Using a mathematical model of the chemoattractant-induced response in cells, and standard tools from control engineering, we show that positive feedback may elicit this second peak. PMID:17401451

  12. Xanthine Oxidase-Derived ROS Display a Biphasic Effect on Endothelial Cells Adhesion and FAK Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ben-Mahdi, Meriem H; Dang, Pham My-Chan; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; O'Dowd, Yvonne; El-Benna, Jamel; Pasquier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by different systems which are involved in endothelial cells injury, ultimately leading to severe organ dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of ROS produced by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (Hx-XO) on the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on the signaling pathways involved. Results show that Hx-XO-derived ROS induced an increase in HUVEC adhesion in the early stages of the process (less than 30 min), followed by a decrease in adhesion in the later stages of the process. Interestingly, Hx-XO-derived ROS induced the same biphasic effect on the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase critical for cell adhesion, but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The biphasic effect was not seen with ERK1/2 where a decrease in phosphorylation only was observed. Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited ROS-induced cell adhesion and FAK phosphorylation. Orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and Resveratrol (Resv), an antioxidant agent, protected FAK and ERK1/2 from dephosphorylation and HUVEC from ROS-induced loss of adhesion. This study shows that ROS could have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on HUVEC adhesion and FAK phosphorylation and suggests that PI3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase control these effects. PMID:27528888

  13. Xanthine Oxidase-Derived ROS Display a Biphasic Effect on Endothelial Cells Adhesion and FAK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Pham My-Chan; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Pasquier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by different systems which are involved in endothelial cells injury, ultimately leading to severe organ dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of ROS produced by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (Hx-XO) on the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on the signaling pathways involved. Results show that Hx-XO-derived ROS induced an increase in HUVEC adhesion in the early stages of the process (less than 30 min), followed by a decrease in adhesion in the later stages of the process. Interestingly, Hx-XO-derived ROS induced the same biphasic effect on the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase critical for cell adhesion, but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The biphasic effect was not seen with ERK1/2 where a decrease in phosphorylation only was observed. Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited ROS-induced cell adhesion and FAK phosphorylation. Orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and Resveratrol (Resv), an antioxidant agent, protected FAK and ERK1/2 from dephosphorylation and HUVEC from ROS-induced loss of adhesion. This study shows that ROS could have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on HUVEC adhesion and FAK phosphorylation and suggests that PI3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase control these effects. PMID:27528888

  14. Biphasic effects of ethanol and sodium oleate on synaptic transport of aspartic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, T.; Rhoads, D.E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have examined the effects of ethanol and sodium oleate on the transport of aspartic acid (ASP) by nerve-ending preparations from rat cerebral cortex. Physiologically relevant ethanol concentrations of up to 100mM stimulated ASP uptake while concentrations greater than 200mM caused inhibition. A similar biphasic effect was observed with oleate stimulating ASP uptake at 0.1 to 1..mu..M and inhibiting ASP uptake at concentrations greater than 1..mu..M. Maximum stimulation was observed at 0.1..mu..M oleate and at 50mM ethanol. In contrast, when synaptosomes were prepared from rats that had been exposed for 2-3 weeks to 10% ethanol in their drinking water, higher concentrations of ethanol and oleate were required to obtain comparable stimulation of ASP uptake. These biphasic effects on ASP transport can be interpreted in terms of physicochemical alterations in the synaptic membranes, with from alcohol-exposed rats showing tolerance to these fluidizing effects.

  15. Chronic alcohol consumption has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid loss

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic retinoid stores correlates with the progression of liver injury; however, the mechanisms underlying alcohol’s effects have not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to gain a mechanistic understanding of alcohol-induced hepatic retinoid depletion. Wild-type and mutant mice were continuously fed alcohol through Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets, with matched control animals pair fed an isocaloric alcohol-free diet to ensure equal nutrient and calorie intake between groups. A systematic analysis of tissue retinol and retinyl ester levels was performed with HPLC, complemented by gene and protein expression analyses. Our results delineated 2 phases of alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic retinoid. Initially, ∼15% of hepatic retinoid content was mobilized from the liver, causing extrahepatic tissue retinoid levels to increase. Subsequently, there was a precipitous drop in hepatic retinoid content (>60%), without further retinoid accumulation in the periphery. Follow-up studies in mutant mice revealed roles for RBP, CRBP1, and CD36 in retinoid mobilization and extrahepatic retinoid uptake, as well as a role for CYP2E1 in the catabolism of hepatic retinoid. In summary, alcohol has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid stores, characterized by an initial phase of rapid mobilization to extrahepatic tissues followed by extensive catabolism within the liver.—Clugston, R. D., Huang, L.-S., Blaner, W. S. Chronic alcohol consumption has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid loss. PMID:25985802

  16. Homodimerization of adenosine A₁ receptors in brain cortex explains the biphasic effects of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Moreno, Estefania; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; McCormick, Peter J; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent

    2013-08-01

    Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and proximity ligation assays, we obtained the first direct evidence that adenosine A₁ receptors (A₁Rs) form homomers not only in cell cultures but also in brain cortex. By radioligand binding experiments in the absence or in the presence of the A₁Rs allosteric modulator, adenosine deaminase, and by using the two-state dimer receptor model to fit binding data, we demonstrated that the protomer-protomer interactions in the A₁R homomers account for some of the pharmacological characteristics of agonist and antagonist binding to A₁Rs. These pharmacological properties include the appearance of cooperativity in agonist binding, the change from a biphasic saturation curve to a monophasic curve in self-competition experiments and the molecular cross-talk detected when two different specific molecules bind to the receptor. In this last case, we discovered that caffeine binding to one protomer increases the agonist affinity for the other protomer in the A₁R homomer, a pharmacological characteristic that correlates with the low caffeine concentrations-induced activation of agonist-promoted A₁R signaling. This pharmacological property can explain the biphasic effects reported at low and high concentration of caffeine on locomotor activity.

  17. Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of concentration-dependent hysteresis and biphasic electroencephalogram effects of alphaxalone in rats.

    PubMed

    Visser, S A G; Smulders, C J G M; Reijers, B P R; Van der Graaf, P H; Peletier, L A; Danhof, M

    2002-09-01

    The neuroactive steroid alphaxalone reveals a complex biphasic concentration-effect relationship using the 11.5 to 30 Hz frequency band of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as biomarker. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model to describe this observation. The proposed model is based on receptor theory and aims to separate the drug-receptor interaction from the transduction of the initial stimulus into the observed biphasic response. Individual concentration-time courses of alphaxalone were obtained in combination with continuous recording of the EEG parameter. Alphaxalone was administered intravenously in various dosages. The pharmacokinetics were described by a two-compartment model, and parameter estimates for clearance, intercompartmental clearance, volume of distribution 1 and 2 were 158 +/- 29 ml. min(-1). kg(-1), 143 +/- 31 ml. min(-1). kg(-1), 122 +/- 20 ml. kg(-1) and 606 +/- 48 ml. kg(-1), respectively. Concentration-effect relationships exhibited a biphasic pattern and delay in onset of effect. The hysteresis was described on the basis of an effect-compartment model with C(max) as covariate. The pharmacodynamic model consisted of a receptor model, featuring a monophasic saturable receptor activation model in combination with a biphasic stimulus-response model. The in vivo affinity (K(PD)) was estimated at 432 +/- 26 ng. ml(-1). Unique parameter estimates were obtained that were independent of the dose and the duration of the infusion. In conclusion, we have shown that this mechanism-based approach, which separates drug- and system-related properties in vivo, was successfully applied for the characterization of the biphasic effect versus time patterns of alphaxalone. The model should be of use in the characterization of other biphasic responses.

  18. Biphasic effects of minoxidil on the proliferation and differentiation of normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Boyera, N; Galey, I; Bernard, B A

    1997-01-01

    Minoxidil is the most used drug with proved effects in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), but little is known about its pharmacological activity and target cells in hair follicles. As AGA is characterized by follicle atrophy, accelerated hair cycles and hair fiber thinning, we postulated that keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation is affected and we tested Minoxidil's effects on those parameters. Normal human keratinocytes (NHK) of follicular or epidermal origin were cultured in the presence of Minoxidil (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1,000 microM) during 5-8 days in various media (high-/low-calcium content, with or without serum). Proliferation was assessed by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (XTT), BrdU incorporation, lysosome numeration (neutral red incorporation) and total protein dosage. Drug-induced cytotoxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in culture supernatant, and pro-differentiating effects were evaluated by relative involucrin expression (ELISA dosage). On this basis, we showed that Minoxidil had biphasic effects on the proliferation and differentiation of NHK: Minoxidil stimulated NHK proliferation at micromolar doses, while antiproliferative, pro-differentiative and partially cytotoxic effects were observed with millimolar concentrations. We can hypothesize that Minoxidil hypertrichotic activity in vivo is possibly mediated by the maintenance of proliferative potential in follicular keratinocytes precociously committed to differentiation. PMID:9413895

  19. Biphasic effects of cannabinoids in anxiety responses: CB1 and GABA(B) receptors in the balance of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Rey, Alejandro Aparisi; Purrio, Martin; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Lutz, Beat

    2012-11-01

    Biphasic effects of cannabinoids have been shown in processes such as feeding behavior, motor activity, motivational processes and anxiety responses. Using two different tests for the characterization of anxiety-related behavior (elevated plus-maze and holeboard), we first identified in wild-type C57BL/6N mice, two doses of the synthetic CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist CP-55,940 with anxiolytic (1 μg/kg) and anxiogenic properties (50 μg/kg), respectively. To clarify the role of CB1 receptors in this biphasic effect, both doses were applied to two different conditional CB1 receptor knockout (KO) mouse lines, GABA-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in forebrain GABAergic neurons) and Glu-CB1-KO (CB1 receptor inactivation in cortical glutamatergic neurons). We found that the anxiolytic-like effects of the low dose of cannabinoids are mediated via the CB1 receptor on cortical glutamatergic terminals, because this anxiolytic-like response was abrogated only in Glu-CB1-KO mice. On the contrary, the CB1 receptor on the GABAergic terminals is required to induce an anxiogenic-like effect under a high-dose treatment because of the fact that this effect was abolished specifically in GABA-CB1-KO mice. These experiments were carried out in both sexes, and no differences occurred with the doses tested in the mutant mice. Interestingly, the positive allosteric modulation of GABA(B) receptor with GS-39783 was found to largely abrogate the anxiogenic-like effect of the high dose of CP-55,940. Our results shed new light in further understanding the biphasic effects of cannabinoids at the molecular level and, importantly, pave the way for the development of novel anxiolytic cannabinoid drugs, which may have favorable effect profiles targeting the CB1 receptor on glutamatergic terminals.

  20. Biphasic Effects of Copper on Rat Learning and Memory in the Morris Water Maze.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Wulin; Han, Ming; Li, Hui; Luo, Hongjun; Li, Weiqiu; Luo, Wenhong; Lin, Zhexuan

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation of copper (Cu) metabolism interrupts neuron function, and subsequently results in neuron degeneration, necrosis, and gliocyte hyperplasia. To further explore the effects of hippocampal Cu concentration on learning and memory, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given once-daily intraperitoneal injections of Copper(II) acetate (Cu(OAc)2) at doses of 0.2, 2, or 20mg/Kg over 5 days. Ultrasonic oscillation dialysis was used to determine the free Cu by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Cu administration induced a dose-dependent increase in total hippocampal Cu. However, free hippocampal Cu was found to increase only at the lower concentration of Cu(OAc)2 (0.2 mg/Kg) but decrease at higher concentrations of Cu(OAc)2 (2 and 20 mg/Kg). Higher doses of Cu(OAc)2 (2-20mg/Kg) decreased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) activity, increased both malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the glutamate/γ-aminobutyric acid (Glu/GABA) ratio, and impaired spatial cognition. However, the lower dose of Cu(OAc)2 (0.2 mg/Kg) showed the opposite effects. This biphasic effect might be attributed to free hippocampal Cu levels and corresponding alterations of Glu/GABA ratio and SOD1 activity. PMID:27466292

  1. Comb polymer architecture and particle size effects on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks for direct-write assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Jun

    Biphasic nanoparticle mixtures composed of attractive and repulsive colloidal species enable the direct-write assembly of 3D structures with much finer features than those produced by pure colloidal gels. These mixtures rely on the use of comb polymer dispersants to render one particle population stable, while the other population is attractive. In this thesis, we systematically investigate the effects of comb polymer architecture and particle size ratio on the behavior of biphasic nanoparticle inks with the overarching aim of further advancing the direct-write assembly of 3D colloidal structures. We first investigated the effects of both pure polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and comb polymer dispersants composed of a PMAA backbone with methoxy-poly(ethylene oxide) (mPEO) teeth of varying molecular weights on the stability of barium titanate (BaTiO 3) suspensions. While each dispersant imparts stability to BaTiO 3 nanoparticles at low ionic strength (< 0.01 M), only the PMAA-mPEO comb polymer with the longest teeth (MWteeth = 2000) provides stability at higher ionic strengths over a broad range of particle sizes and counterion valencies. These results provide guidelines for tailoring the molecular architecture and functionality of comb polymer dispersants for optimal stabilization of the repulsive particle population within the biphasic inks. Next, particle size effects on the rheological properties of biphasic nanoparticle suspensions are studied. Shear elastic modulus, shear yield stress, and compressive yield stress are measured for mixtures of varying total volume fraction, attractive-to-repulsive volume fraction, and particle size ratio between attractive and repulsive species. Our observations indicate that the repulsive particles hinder the formation of the attractive gel network. The time required for shear elastic modulus to approach a steady-state value increases with the fraction of repulsive species

  2. Biphasic Effects of Vitamin D and FGF23 on Human Osteoclast Biology.

    PubMed

    Allard, Lise; Demoncheaux, Nathalie; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Georgess, Dan; Coury-Lucas, Fabienne; Jurdic, Pierre; Bacchetta, Justine

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin D and FGF23 play a major role in calcium/phosphate balance. Vitamin D may control bone resorption but the potential role of FGF23 has never been evaluated. The objective of this study was therefore to compare the effects of vitamin D and FGF23 on osteoclast differentiation and activity in human monocyte-derived osteoclasts. Human monocytes, purified from blood of healthy donors, were incubated with M-CSF and RANKL to obtain mature multinucleated osteoclasts (MNC). Experiments were carried out to assess the effects of FGF23 as compared to native vitamin D (25-D) and active vitamin D (1,25-D) on osteoclast differentiation and on bone-resorbing osteoclast activity. Additional experiments with the pan fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor (FGFR-i) were performed. Phosphorylation Akt and Erk pathways were analyzed by Western blot analyses. Both 1,25-D and FGF23, to a lesser extent, significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at early stages; when adding FGFR-i, osteoclast formation was restored. Biochemical experiments showed an activation of the Akt and Erk pathways under FGF23 treatment. In contrast, in terms of activity, 1,25-D had no effect on resorption, whereas FGF23 slightly but significantly increased bone resorption; 25-D had no effects on either differentiation or on activity. These data show that 1,25-D inhibits osteoclastogenesis without regulating osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity; FGF23 has biphasic effects on osteoclast physiology, inhibiting osteoclast formation while stimulating slightly osteoclast activity. These results may be of importance and taken into account in chronic kidney disease when therapies modulating FGF23 are available.

  3. Biphasic GABA-A receptor-mediated effect on the spontaneous activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Radomirov, R

    1993-07-01

    1. The GABA and GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol changed the spontaneous mechanical activity of a circular layer isolated from cat terminal ileum, while the selective GABA-B receptor agonist (+/-)baclofen had no effect. 2. GABA at doses ranging from 1 microM to 2 mM elicited concentration-dependent biphasic responses which consisted of a relaxation followed by contraction, with a tonic and a phasic component. The EC50 values, calculated at 95% confidence limits (CL), were 94.9 microM (83.5-109.8 microM) and 66.0 microM (51.2-75.5 microM) for the relaxation and contractile phases, respectively. 3. The GABA-induced biphasic responses were sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxinin and were entirely mimicked by muscimol. Bicuculline competitively antagonized the effects of GABA and gave closely similar pA2 values for both phases of these responses--inhibitory and stimulatory. Cross-desensitization occurred only between GABA and muscimol and not between (+/-)baclofen and GABA, or (+/-)baclofen and muscimol. 4. Both bicuculline-sensitive phases evoked by GABA and muscimol were abolished by tetrodotoxin or atropine, but were unaffected by guanethidine or naloxone. 5. The present results suggested that the biphasic GABA effect on the mechanical activity of the circular layer in cat terminal ileum was mediated by prejunctional GABA-A receptors, most probably through an action on the cholinergic pathway.

  4. Mechanisms of the biphasic effects of peroxides on the retinal vasculature of newborn and adult pigs.

    PubMed

    Abran, D; Hardy, P; Varma, D R; Chemtob, S

    1995-09-01

    We tested whether the ontogenic differences in the constrictor effects of peroxides on the retinal vasculature were modulated by dilator cyclo-oxygenase products. Retinal arteriole (100-200 microns) vasomotor response to H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide were studied in isolated eyecup preparations using video camera monitoring of vessel diameter. A time- and dose-dependent biphasic retinal vasomotor response to all peroxides was observed on tissues of newborn and adult pigs. A rapid vasoconstriction (first 2 min) was followed by a relaxation which was greater in the adult than in the newborn tissues. The constrictor as well as the dilator response to peroxides and the observed increase in prostanoids were blocked by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The peroxide-induced relaxation was inhibited or markedly attenuated by the prostaglandin I2 synthase blockers, trans-2-phenyl cyclopropylamine and minoxidil on tissues of newborn and adult animals. These agents also prevented the increase of the prostaglandin I2 receptor-coupled second messenger, cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate. Our data indicate that prostaglandin I2 plays a major role in counteracting the initial constrictor effects of peroxides in the retinal vasculature, and that the reversal of this constriction is greater in the adult than the newborn. These findings suggest that reduced reversal of vasoconstriction by the dilator prostaglandin I2 during an oxidative stress in the newborn may facilitate vasoconstriction by the dilator prostaglandin I2 during an oxidative stress in the newborn may facilitate neovascularization in retinopathy of prematurity.

  5. Multiple silk coatings on biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds: Effect on physical and mechanical properties, and in vitro osteogenic response of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao Jiao; Gil, Eun Seok; Hayden, Rebecca S.; Li, Chunmei; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Kaplan, David L.; Zreiqat, Hala

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic scaffolds such as biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) have been widely studied and used for bone regeneration, but their brittleness and low mechanical strength are major drawbacks. We report the first systematic study on the effect of silk coating in improving the mechanical and biological properties of BCP scaffolds, including 1) optimisation of the silk coating process by investigating multiple coatings, and 2) in vitro evaluation of the osteogenic response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the coated scaffolds. Our results show that multiple silk coatings on BCP ceramic scaffolds can achieve a significant coating effect to approach the mechanical properties of native bone tissue and positively influence osteogenesis by hMSCs over an extended period. The silk coating method developed in this study represents a simple yet effective means of reinforcement that can be applied to other types of ceramic scaffolds with similar microstructure to improve osteogenic outcomes. PMID:23745709

  6. Biphasic effects of the anterior cingulate cortex stimulation on glabrous skin blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Wei; Herath, Pushpani M; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2010-10-14

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is associated with sensory, cognition and emotion processing. We have shown that electrical stimulation of rat ACC depressed the spinal cord dorsal horn neuron activity in response to noxious stimuli, possibly through a release of GABA. GABA may elicit dorsal root reflexes (DRRs) to induce peripheral vasodilatation. On the other hand, the ACC may also regulate autonomic flow via the lateral hypothalamus (LH). The goal of this work was to investigate the role of ACC in regulating autonomic activity. A laser Doppler imager was used to continuously monitor rat glabrous skin blood perfusion in both hind paws, while a simultaneous heart rate (HR) and DRRs were recorded to assess contributions of sympathetic flow and sensory afferent to the ACC-induced vascular change. Twenty-three rats were divided into three groups: a unilateral electrolytic LH lesion group (n = 6), a sham lesion group (n = 9), and a control group (neither lesion nor stimulation, n = 8). ACC stimulation induced a biphasic systemic vascular response, with an initial transient cutaneous vasoconstriction followed by a prolonged vasodilatation. Unilateral LH lesion did not alter this biphasic response. A short-term tachycardia occurred in response to the ACC stimulation, but did not correlate with the prolonged vasodilatation. No significant change in DRRs was found (in 35 fibers). ACC stimulation induced a biphasic vascular response in the skin. Data are consistent with sympathetic contribution. However, other mechanisms should also be involved.

  7. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite coating on the osteoinductivity of porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics exhibit good biocompatibility and bone conduction but are not inherently osteoinductive. To overcome this disadvantage, we coated conventional porous BCP ceramics with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). nHA was chosen as a coating material due to its high osteoinductive potential. Methods We used a hydrothermal deposition method to coat conventional porous BCP ceramics with nHA and assessed the effects of the coating on the physical and mechanical properties of the underlying BCP. Next, its effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) attachment, proliferation, viability, and osteogenic differentiation were investigated. Results nHA formed a deposited layer on the BCP surface, and synthesized nHA had a rod-like shape with lengths ranging from ~50–200 nm and diameters from ~15–30 mm. The nHA coating did not significantly affect the density, porosity, flexural strength, or compressive strength of the underlying BCP (P > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy showed MSC attachment to the scaffolds, with a healthy morphology and anchorage to nHA crystals via cytoplasmic processes. The densities of MSCs attached on BCP and nHA-coated BCP scaffolds were 62 ± 26 cells/mm2 and 63 ± 27 cells/mm2 (P > 0.1), respectively, after 1 day and 415 ± 62 cells/mm2 and 541 ± 35 cells/mm2 (P < 0.05) respectively, after 14 days. According to an MTT assay, MSC viability was higher on nHA-coated BCP scaffolds than on BCP scaffolds (P < 0.05). In addition, MSCs on nHA-coated BCP scaffolds produced more alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, and osteocalcin than MSCs on BCP scaffolds (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that BCP scaffolds coated with nHA were more conducive for MSC adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation than conventional, uncoated BCP scaffolds, indicating that nHA coating can enhance the osteoinductive potential of BCP ceramics, making this material more

  8. Velocity dependence of biphasic flow structuration: steady-state and oscillating flow effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tore Tallakstad, Ken; Jankov, Mihailo; Løvoll, Grunde; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Mâløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Schäfer, Gerhard; Méheust, Yves; Arendt Knudsen, Henning

    2010-05-01

    We study various types of biphasic flows in quasi-two-dimensional transparent porous models. These flows imply a viscous wetting fluid, and a lowly viscous one. The models are transparent, allowing the displacement process and structure to be monitored in space and time. Three different aspects will be presented: 1. In stationary biphasic flows, we study the relationship between the macroscopic pressure drop (related to relative permeability) and the average flow rate, and how this arises from the cluster size distribution of the lowly viscous fluid [1]. 2. In drainage situations, we study how the geometry of the invader can be explained, and how it gives rise to apparent dynamic capillary effects. We show how these can be explained by viscous effects on evolving geometries of invading fluid [2]. 3. We study the impact of oscillating pressure fields superimposed to a background flow over the flow regimes patterns [3]. Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Statistics and Transport Properties. First, in stationary flow with a control of the flux of both fluids, we show how the pressure drop depends on the flow rate. We will show that the dynamics is dominated by the interplay between a viscous pressure field from the wetting fluid and bubble transport of a less viscous, nonwetting phase. In contrast with more studied displacement front systems, steady-state flow is in equilibrium, statistically speaking. The corresponding theoretical simplicity allows us to explain a data collapse in the cluster size distribution of lowly viscous fluid in the system, as well as the relation |?P|∞√Ca--. This allows to explain so called relative permeability effects by the morphological changes of the cluster size distribution. Influence of viscous fingering on dynamic saturation-pressure curves in porous media. Next, we study drainage in such models, and investigate the relationship between the pressure field and the morphology of the invading fluid. This allows to model

  9. A new steroidal saponin from AGAVE brittoniana and its biphasic effect on the Na+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Graziela M; De Souza, Aloa M; Lara, Luciene S; Mendes, Tatiana P; da Silva, Bernadete P; Lopes, Anibal G

    2005-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin, 3-{(O-6-deoxy-a-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxy-(3beta,5alpha,6alpha,25R)-spirostan-12-one, was isolated from Agave brittoniana Trel. The structure was determined by extensive NMR spectroscopy studies and chemical conversions. Its effects on the Na+-ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activities of the proximal tubule from pig kidney were evaluated. It was observed that this steroidal saponin exerts a biphasic effect on the Na+-ATPase activity. It is concluded that the effect of the aqueous extract as a diuretic is due, at least in part, to the action of saponin on the ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase.

  10. Effect of biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite on healing of surgically created alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanlei; Guan, Aizhong; Shi, Han; Chen, Yangxi; Liao, Yunmao

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate nanocomposite (nanoBCP) scaffolds bioceramic. Alveolar bone defects were surgically created bilaterally at the buccal aspects of the upper second premolar in fourteen beagle dogs. After root conditioning with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nanoBCP was randomly filled in the defects and nothing was put into the contralaterals as controls. Dogs were killed at the 12th weeks. Histological observations were processed through a light microscopy. The results revealed that a great amount of functional periodontal fissures formed in the defects in the nanoBCP groups while minimal bone took shape in the controls. In this study, nanoBCP has proved to work well as a biocompatible and osteoconductive scaffold material to promote periodontal regeneration effectively.

  11. Lithium chloride has a biphasic effect on prostate cancer stem cells and a proportional effect on midkine levels

    PubMed Central

    Erguven, Mine; Oktem, Gulperi; Kara, Ali Nail; Bilir, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequent type of cancer in men worldwide and the levels of differentiation growth factor midkine (MK) are increased in PCa. Cancer and/or the treatment process itself may lead to psychiatric disorders. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has anti-manic properties and has been used in cancer therapy; however, it has a queried safety profile. In addition, cancer stem cells are responsible for the heterogeneous phenotype of tumor cells; they are involved in progression, metastasis, recurrence and therapy resistance in various cancer types. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of different concentrations of LiCl on PCa stem cells (whether a shift from tumorigenic to non-tumorigenic cells occurs) and to determine if these results can be explained through changes in MK levels. Monolayer and spheroid cultures of human prostate stem cells and non-stem cells were incubated with low (1, 10 µM) and high (100, 500 µM) concentrations of LiCl for 72 h. Cell proliferation, apoptotic indices, MK levels and ultrastructure were evaluated. Cells stimulated with low concentrations showed high proliferation, low apoptotic indices, high MK levels and more healthy ultrastructure. Opposite results were obtained at high concentrations. Furthermore, stem cells were more sensitive to stimulation and more resistant to inhibition than non-stem cells. LiCl exhibited concentration-dependent effects on stem cell and non-stem cell groups. MK levels were not involved in the biphasic effect of LiCl; however, they were proportionally affected. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to show the effect of LiCl on PCa stem cells through MK. PMID:27703531

  12. Evaluation of friction properties of hydrogels based on a biphasic cartilage model.

    PubMed

    Baykal, D; Underwood, R J; Mansmann, K; Marcolongo, M; Kurtz, S M

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing hydrogels using a biphasic cartilage model, which can predict their behavior based on structural properties, such as permeability and aggregate modulus, may be useful for comparing active lubrication modes of cartilage and hydrogels for the design of articular cartilage implants. The effects of interstitial fluid pressurization, inherent matrix viscoelasticity and tension-compression nonlinearity on mechanical properties of the biphasic material were evaluated by linear biphasic (KLM), biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) and linear biphasic with anisotropy cartilage models, respectively. The BPVE model yielded the lowest root mean square error and highest coefficient of determination when predicting confined and unconfined compression stress-relaxation response of hydrogels (n=15): 0.220±0.316MPa and 0.93±0.08; and 0.017±0.008MPa and 0.98±0.01 respectively. Since the differences in error between models were not statistically significant, the simplest model we considered, KLM model, was sufficient to predict the mechanical response of this family of hydrogels. The coefficient of friction (COF) of a hydrogel-ceramic articulation was measured at varying loads and pressures to explore the full range of lubrication behavior of hydrogel. Material parameters obtained by biphasic models correlated with COF. Based on the linear biphasic model, COF correlated positively with aggregate modulus (spearman's rho=0.5; p<0.001) and velocity (rho=0.3; p<0.001), and negatively with permeability (rho=-0.3; p<0.001) and load (rho=-0.6; p<0.001). Negative correlation of COF with load and positive correlation with velocity indicated that hydrogel-ceramic articulation was separated by a fluid film. These results together suggested that interstitial fluid pressurization was dominant in the viscoelasticity and lubrication properties of this biphasic material.

  13. Effect of non-symmetric waveform on conduction block induced by high-frequency (kHz) biphasic stimulation in unmyelinated axon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shouguo; Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a non-symmetric waveform on nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic stimulation is investigated using a lumped circuit model of the unmyelinated axon based on Hodgkin-Huxley equations. The simulation results reveal that the block threshold monotonically increases with the stimulation frequency for the symmetric stimulation waveform. However, a non-monotonic relationship between block threshold and stimulation frequency is observed when the stimulation waveform is non-symmetric. Constant activation of potassium channels by the high-frequency stimulation results in the increase of block threshold with increasing frequency. The non-symmetric waveform with a positive pulse 0.4-0.8 μs longer than the negative pulse blocks axonal conduction by hyperpolarizing the membrane and causes a decrease in block threshold as the frequency increases above 12-16 kHz. On the other hand, the non-symmetric waveform with a negative pulse 0.4-0.8 μs longer than the positive pulse blocks axonal conduction by depolarizing the membrane and causes a decrease in block threshold as the frequency increases above 40-53 kHz. This simulation study is important for understanding the potential mechanisms underlying the nerve block observed in animal studies, and may also help to design new animal experiments to further improve the nerve block method for clinical applications.

  14. Biphasic effects of hyposmotic challenge on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Brette, F; Calaghan, S C; Lappin, S; White, E; Colyer, J; Le Guennec, J Y

    2000-10-01

    The effects of short (1 min) and long (7-10 min) exposure to hyposmotic solution on excitation-contraction coupling in rat ventricular myocytes were studied. After short exposure, the action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90)), the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitude, and contraction increased, whereas the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca, L)) amplitude decreased. Fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release increased but SR Ca(2+) load did not. After a long exposure, I(Ca,L), APD(90), [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude, and contraction decreased. The abbreviation of APD(90) was partially reversed by 50 microM DIDS, which is consistent with the participation of Cl(-) current activated by swelling. After 10-min exposure to hyposmotic solution in cells labeled with di-8-aminonaphthylethenylpyridinium, t-tubule patterning remained intact, suggesting the loss of de-t-tubulation was not responsible for the fall in I(Ca,L). After long exposure, Ca(2+) load of the SR was not increased, and swelling had no effect on the site-specific phosphorylation of phospholamban, but fractional SR Ca(2+) release was depressed. The initial positive inotropic response to hyposmotic challenge may be accounted for by enhanced coupling between Ca(2+) entry and release. The negative inotropic effect of prolonged exposure can be accounted for by shortening of the action potential duration and a fall in the I(Ca,L) amplitude. PMID:11009486

  15. Effect of Local Sustainable Release of BMP2-VEGF from Nano-Cellulose Loaded in Sponge Biphasic Calcium Phosphate on Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sukul, Mousumi; Nguyen, Thuy Ba Linh; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration is a coordinated process mainly regulated by multiple growth factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates angiogenesis and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteogenesis during bone healing process. The aim of this study was to investigate how these growth factors released locally and sustainably from nano-cellulose (NC) simultaneously effect bone formation. A biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)-NC-BMP2-VEGF (BNBV) scaffold was fabricated for this purpose. The sponge BCP scaffold was prepared by replica method and then loaded with 0.5% NC containing BMP2-VEGF. Growth factors were released from NC in a sustainable manner from 1 to 30 days. BNBV scaffolds showed higher cell attachment and proliferation behavior than the other scaffolds loaded with single growth factors. Bare BCP scaffolds and BNBV scaffolds seeded with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were implanted ectopically and orthotopically in nude mice for 4 weeks. No typical bone formation was exhibited in BNBV scaffolds in ectopic sites. BMP2 and VEGF showed positive effects on new bone formation in BNBV scaffolds, with and without seeded stem cells, in the orthotopic defects. This study demonstrated that the BNBV scaffold could be beneficial for improved bone regeneration. Stem cell incorporation into this scaffold could further enhance the bone healing process. PMID:25808925

  16. The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Won; Yun, Young-Pil; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alendronate (Aln) released from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. We evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of Aln/BCP scaffolds using MG-63 cells and the in vivo bone regenerative capability of Aln/BCP scaffolds using a rat tibial defect model with radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT), and histological examination. In vitro studies included the surface morphology of BCP and Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds visualized using field-emission scanning electron microscope, release kinetics of Aln from BCP scaffolds, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The in vitro studies showed that sustained release of Aln from the BCP scaffolds consisted of porous microstructures, and revealed that MG-63 cells cultured on Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds showed significantly increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression compared to cells cultured on BCP scaffolds. The in vivo studies using radiograph and histology examination revealed abundant callus formation and bone maturation at the site in the Aln/BCP groups compared to the control group. However, solid bony bridge formation was not observed at plain radiographs until 8 weeks. Micro-CT analysis revealed that bone mineral density and bone formation volume were increased over time in an Aln concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that Aln/BCP scaffolds have the potential for controlling the release of Aln and enhance bone formation and mineralization. PMID:26561810

  17. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Eun-Joo; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Sungtae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay (14 days of incubation) and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation) revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P < 0.05). Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose. PMID:26436096

  18. Biphasic Dose Response in Low Level Light Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Aaron C.-H.; Carroll, James D.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing cell death and tissue damage has been known for over forty years since the invention of lasers. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial in mainstream medicine. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. A biphasic dose response has been frequently observed where low levels of light have a much better effect on stimulating and repairing tissues than higher levels of light. The so-called Arndt-Schulz curve is frequently used to describe this biphasic dose response. This review will cover the molecular and cellular mechanisms in LLLT, and describe some of our recent results in vitro and in vivo that provide scientific explanations for this biphasic dose response. PMID:20011653

  19. Effects of Biphasic Current Pulse Frequency, Amplitude, Duration and Interphase Gap on Eye Movement Responses to Prosthetic Electrical Stimulation of the Vestibular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Davidovics, Natan S.; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    An implantable prosthesis that stimulates vestibular nerve branches to restore sensation of head rotation and vision-stabilizing reflexes could benefit individuals disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear balance) function. We developed a prosthesis that partly restores normal function in animals by delivering pulse frequency modulated (PFM) biphasic current pulses via electrodes implanted in semicircular canals. Because the optimal stimulus encoding strategy is not yet known, we investigated effects of varying biphasic current pulse frequency, amplitude, duration and interphase gap on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) eye movements in chinchillas. Increasing pulse frequency increased response amplitude while maintaining a relatively constant axis of rotation. Increasing pulse amplitude (range 0–325 μA) also increased response amplitude but spuriously shifted eye movement axis, probably due to current spread beyond the target nerve. Shorter pulse durations (range 28–340 μs) required less charge to elicit a given response amplitude and caused less axis shift than longer durations. Varying interphase gap (range 25–175 μs) had no significant effect. While specific values reported herein depend on microanatomy and electrode location in each case, we conclude that PFM with short duration biphasic pulses should form the foundation for further optimization of stimulus encoding strategies for vestibular prostheses intended to restore sensation of head rotation. PMID:20813652

  20. Post stimulus effects of high frequency biphasic electrical current on a fibre's conductibility in isolated frog nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hailong; Zhu, Linlin; Sheng, Shulei; Sun, Lifei; Zhou, Hongmin; Tang, Hong; Qiu, Tianshuang

    2013-06-01

    Objective. High frequency biphasic (HFB) electrical currents are widely used in nerve blocking studies. Their safety margins largely remain unknown and need to be investigated. Approach. This study, exploring the post stimulus effects of HFB electrical currents on a nerve's conductibility, was performed on bullfrog sciatic nerves. Both compound action potentials (CAPs) and differential CAPs (DCAPs, i.e. control CAPs subtracted by CAPs following HFB currents) were obtained, and N1 and N2 components, which were the first and second upward components of DCAPs, were used for analyses of the effects introduced by HFB electrical stimulation. Main results. First, HFB currents of 10 kHz at a completely blocking threshold were applied for 5 s. The maximum amplitudes and conducting velocities of the CAPs were significantly (P < 0.02) decreased within the observed period (60 s) following HFB currents. The DCAPs displayed clear N1 and N2 components, demonstrating respectively the losses of the fibres' normal conductibility and the appearances of new delayed conductions. Decreases of N1 amplitudes along time, regarded as the recovery of the nerve's conductibility, exhibited two distinct phases: a fast one lasting several seconds and a slow one lasting longer than 5 min. Further tests showed a linear relationship between the HFB stimulation durations and recovering periods of N1 amplitudes. Supra-threshold blocking did not cause higher N1 amplitudes. Significance. This study indicates that HFB electrical currents lead to long lasting post stimulus reduction of a nerve's conductibility, which might relate to potential nerve injuries. A possible mechanism, focusing on changes in intracellular and periaxonal ionic concentrations, was proposed to underlie the reduction of the nerve's conductibility and potential nerve injuries. Greater caution and stimulation protocols with greater safety margins should be explored when utilizing HFB electrical current to block nerve conductions.

  1. Biphasic effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on brain stimulation reward and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Katsidoni, Vicky; Kastellakis, Andreas; Panagis, George

    2013-11-01

    Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, has led to equivocal results when tested with the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure or the open-field test for motor activity, two behavioural models for evaluating the reward-facilitating and locomotor stimulating effects of drugs of abuse, respectively. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of high and low doses of Δ(9)-THC were compared in the ICSS procedure and the open-field test. Moreover, the involvement of CB(1) receptors in tentative Δ(9)-THC-induced effects was investigated by pre-treating the animals with the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (rimonabant). The results obtained show that low doses of Δ(9)-THC induce opposite effects from high doses of Δ(9)-THC. Specifically, 0.1 mg/kg Δ(9)-THC decreased ICSS thresholds and produced hyperactivity, whereas 1 mg/kg increased ICSS thresholds and produced hypoactivity. Both effects were reversed by pre-treatment with SR141716A, indicating the involvement of CB(1) receptors on these actions. Altogether, our results indicate that Δ(9)-THC can produce acute activating effects in locomotion that coincide with its reward-facilitating effects in the ICSS paradigm. The present findings provide further support that Δ(9)-THC induces behaviours typical of abuse and substantiate the notion that marijuana resembles other drugs of abuse.

  2. Biphasic effects of Morus alba leaves green tea extract on mice in chronic forced swimming model.

    PubMed

    Sattayasai, Jintana; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Puapairoj, Prapawadee

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Morus alba leaves green tea (ME) on mouse behaviors (depression, anxiety, climbing activity and thermal response), muscle coordination and muscle strength were studied. Male IRC mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the ME, desipramine or diazepam. Thirty minutes after injection, the mice were tested in all experimental models. A significant antidepressant-like effect could be detected in the animals receiving either 100 or 200 mg/kg ME. The effect of 200 mg/kg ME in decreasing the immobility time was comparable to 10 mg/kg desipramine. With higher dose (1000 mg/kg), a significant increase in immobility time could be observed. In the elevated plus maze, no increase in time in the open arm could be observed in mice treated with ME at either 100 or 200 mg/kg. However, high doses of ME (500 or 1000 mg/kg) decreased both time in the open arm and the number of entries in the maze. No change in thermal response could be seen in mice treated with ME at doses up to 500 mg/kg, however, at 1000 mg/kg, the response time to heat was increased significantly. The ME at either 500 or 1000 mg/kg also decreased muscle coordination, strength and climbing activity significantly when compared with the control. This study suggests that ME possesses an antidepressant- without an anxiolytic-like effect, however, at high doses, the extract might show the sedative effect and alter other functions such as muscle strength, animal activity in the maze and pain response.

  3. Biphasic Effect of Melanocortin Agonists on Metabolic Rate and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M.; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Miller, Nicole R.; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons; these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress. PMID:24981835

  4. Biphasic effect of melanocortin agonists on metabolic rate and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Lute, Beth; Jou, William; Lateef, Dalya M; Goldgof, Margalit; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Miller, Nicole R; Huang, Yuning George; Girardet, Clemence; Butler, Andrew A; Gavrilova, Oksana; Reitman, Marc L

    2014-08-01

    The melanocortin system regulates metabolic homeostasis and inflammation. Melanocortin agonists have contradictorily been reported to both increase and decrease metabolic rate and body temperature. We find two distinct physiologic responses occurring at similar doses. Intraperitoneal administration of the nonselective melanocortin agonist MTII causes a melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-mediated hypermetabolism/hyperthermia. This is preceded by a profound, transient hypometabolism/hypothermia that is preserved in mice lacking any one of Mc1r, Mc3r, Mc4r, or Mc5r. Three other melanocortin agonists also caused hypothermia, which is actively achieved via seeking a cool environment, vasodilation, and inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These results suggest that the hypometabolic/hypothermic effect of MTII is not due to a failure of thermoregulation. The hypometabolism/hypothermia was prevented by dopamine antagonists, and MTII selectively activated arcuate nucleus dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that these neurons may contribute to the hypometabolism/hypothermia. We propose that the hypometabolism/hypothermia is a regulated response, potentially beneficial during extreme physiologic stress.

  5. Osteoblastic cell response on biphasic fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Feng, Fang Fang; Lei, Ting; Zhong, Xiao Huan; Jian, Xin Chun

    2014-03-01

    Fluorhydroxyapatite/strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (FHA/SrHA) biphasic coatings with F and Sr elements incorporated simultaneously into one coating layer were prepared on titanium substrate via colloidal sol-gel method. The bioactivity of the as-prepared FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings was evaluated in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). All the biphasic coatings exhibited great ability to induce apatite precipitation on their surfaces. In vitro cell responses were evaluated using osteoblast-like MG63 cells in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin level). The biphasic coatings show significantly positive effects on the viability and functional activity of osteoblastic cells with clear evidence that an optimum SrHA amount dose exists, indicating that the coexistence of FHA and SrHA had a synergistic stimulatory effect. This finding suggests the potential use of this colloidal sol-gel derived FHA/SrHA biphasic coatings for hard tissue applications. PMID:23533202

  6. Biphasic Effect of Diabetes on Neuronal Nitric Oxide Release in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Esther; Caracuel, Laura; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Callejo, María; Xavier, Fabiano E.; Balfagón, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We analysed possible time-dependent changes in nitrergic perivascular innervation function from diabetic rats and mechanisms implicated. Materials and Methods In endothelium-denuded mesenteric arteries from control and four- (4W) and eight-week (8W) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats the vasoconstriction to EFS (electrical field stimulation) was analysed before and after preincubation with L-NAME. Neuronal NO release was analysed in the absence and presence of L-arginine, tetrahydrobiopterine (BH4) and L-arginine plus BH4. Superoxide anion (O2-), peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Expressions of Cu-Zn SOD, nNOS, p-nNOS Ser1417, p-nNOS Ser847, and Arginase (Arg) I and II were analysed. Results EFS response was enhanced at 4W, and to a lesser extent at 8W. L-NAME increased EFS response in control rats and at 8W, but not at 4W. NO release was decreased at 4W and restored at 8W. L-arginine or BH4 increased NO release at 4W, but not 8W. SOD activity and O2- generation were increased at both 4W and 8W. ONOO- decreased at 4W while increased at 8W. Cu-Zn SOD, nNOS and p-NOS Ser1417 expressions remained unmodified at 4W and 8W, whereas p-nNOS Ser847 was increased at 4W. ArgI was overexpressed at 4W, remaining unmodified at 8W. ArgII expression was similar in all groups. Conclusions Our results show a time-dependent effect of diabetes on neuronal NO release. At 4W, diabetes induced increased O2- generation, nNOS uncoupling and overexpression of ArgI and p-nNOS Ser847, resulting in decreased NO release. At 8W, NO release was restored, involving normalisation of ArgI and p-nNOS Ser847 expressions. PMID:27272874

  7. Teacher Effectiveness: A Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle

    1969-01-01

    This document summarizes the highlights of research on teacher effectiveness and concludes with recommendations based on a synthesis of this past work. The various methodologies that have been used are discussed, from rating scales to objective observation techniques, such as OScAR and the ecological studies. The major problems in teacher…

  8. The effects of melatonin on electrical field stimulation-evoked biphasic twitch responses in the ipsilateral and contralateral rat vasa deferentia after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion.

    PubMed

    Barun, Süreyya; Ekingen, Gülşen; Mert Vural, Ismail; Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Başaklar, Can; Kale, Nuri; Sevim Ercan, Zeynep; Sarioğlu, Yusuf

    2005-05-01

    It is not known whether there is an impairment in vas deferens motility after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked biphasic contractions are altered in ipsilateral and contralateral rat vasa deferentia obtained from animals exposed to the unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion procedure. We also evaluated the effects of melatonin (MLT), which is a strong antioxidant, on these contractile responses. Rats were subjected to torsion of the left testis for 2 h and then detorsion was performed. Contractility studies were carried out 2 h or 24 h after detorsion. Vas deferens strips were prepared from both the ipsilateral and the contralateral site 2 h or 24 h after the detorsion procedure to record EFS-evoked biphasic twitch responses. The same experimental protocol was repeated for the MLT-treated rats. Both phases of EFS-evoked contractions were decreased after torsion/detorsion in the ipsilateral vas deferens. MLT treatment increased torsion/detorsion-induced reduction of both phases of contractions after 2 h and 24 h. In the contralateral vas deferens, the first phase of EFS-evoked contractions was not changed, while the second phase of contractions was diminished 2 h and 24 h after detorsion. Although MLT decreased the second phase of contractions 2 h and 24 h after detorsion, it reduced the first phase of contractions only 2 h after detorsion. These results suggest that MLT produces an inhibition on EFS-evoked biphasic twitch responses in the ipsilateral and contralateral rat vasa deferentia following unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion in the rat.

  9. Biphasic effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate on synergistic stimulation of DNA synthesis by diacylglycerol, and the ionophore A23187 in guinea pig lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Otani, S.; Matsui-Yuasa, I.; Morisawa, S.

    1987-06-22

    When guinea pig lymphocytes were cultured with 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) and the ionophore A23187 for 8 h, (TH-thymidine incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction of the cells was stimulated synergistically. Further addition of dibutyryl cAMP caused a biphasic effect on the synergistic stimulation. Dibutyryl cAMP augmented the synergistic stimulation when A23187 was at the concentration of 0.075 g/ml, but inhibited it when the ionophore was at 0.25 g/ml. At the higher concentration A23187, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated the (TH)thymidine incorporation when culture was for 4 h, but inhibited it when culture was for 8 h. The results were the same when 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was used instead of OAG. Butyrate could replace dibutyryl cAMP for stimulation of (TH)thymidine incorporation in combination with TPA and A23187, but not with OAG and A23187 at the lower ionophore concentration. Dibutyryl cAMP but not butyrate stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction caused by TPA and A23187. These results suggest that the effect of dibutyryl cAMP on DNA synthesis induced by OAG and A23187 was biphasic and depended on the concentration of A23187 and on the time of culture, and that the stimulation mechanism of butyrate is different from that of dibutyryl cAMP.

  10. Supersaturation, nucleation, and crystal growth during single- and biphasic dissolution of amorphous solid dispersions: polymer effects and implications for oral bioavailability enhancement of poorly water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Ashish L; Wang, Peng; Obara, Sakae; Worthen, David R

    2014-04-01

    The influence of polymers on the dissolution, supersaturation, crystallization, and partitioning of poorly water soluble compounds in biphasic media was evaluated. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) containing felodipine (FLD) and itraconazole (ITZ) were prepared by hot melt mixing (HMM) using various polymers. The ASDs were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and HPLC. Amorphous drug conversion was confirmed using DSC and PXRD, and drug stability by HPLC. Single- and biphasic dissolution studies of the ASDs with concurrent dynamic light scattering (DLS) and polarized light microscopic (PLM) analysis of precipitated drugs were performed. HPLC revealed no HMM-induced drug degradation. Maximum partitioning into the organic phase was dependent upon the degree of supersaturation. Although the highest supersaturation of FLD was attained using Eudragit® EPO and AQOAT® AS-LF with better nucleation and crystal growth inhibition using the latter, higher partitioning of the drug into the organic phase was achieved using Pharmacoat® 603 and Kollidon® VA-64 by maintaining supersaturation below critical nucleation. Critical supersaturation for ITZ was surpassed using all of the polymers, and partitioning was dependent upon nucleation and crystal growth inhibition in the order of Pharmacoat® 603>Eudragit® L-100-55>AQOAT® AS-LF. HMM drug-polymer systems that prevent drug nucleation by staying below critical supersaturation are more effective for partitioning than those that achieve the highest supersaturation.

  11. Effect of filler content on mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of particulate biphasic calcium phosphate--polylactide composites.

    PubMed

    Bleach, N C; Nazhat, S N; Tanner, K E; Kellomäki, M; Törmälä, P

    2002-04-01

    A bioabsorbable self-reinforced polylactide/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composite is being developed for fracture fixation plates. One manufacturing route is to produce preimpregnated sheets by pulling polylactide (PLA) fibres through a suspension of BCP filler in a PLA solution and compression moulding the prepreg to the desired shape. To aid understanding of the process, interactions between the matrix and filler were investigated. Composite films containing 0-0.25 volume fraction filler, produced by solvent casting, were analysed using SEM, tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Homogeneous films could be made, although some particle agglomeration was seen at higher filler volume fractions. As the filler content increased, the failure strain decreased due to a reduction in the amount of ductile polymer present and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased because of agglomeration and void formation at higher filler content. The matrix glass transition temperature increased due to polymer chain adsorption and immobilization onto the BCP particles. Complex damping mechanisms, such as particle-particle agglomeration, may exist at the higher BCP volume fractions. PMID:11922463

  12. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  13. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  14. A multifunctional biphasic suspension of mesoporous silica encapsulated with YVO4:Eu3+ and Fe3O4 nanoparticles: synergistic effect towards cancer therapy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanta Singh, N.; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh; Pradhan, Lina; Bahadur, D.

    2013-02-01

    Polyol mediated synthesized luminescent YVO4:Eu3+ nanoparticles (NPs) have been encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) using the sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with transmission electron microscopy confirm the encapsulation of the YVO4:Eu3+ NPs in the SiO2 matrix. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis confirms the mesoporous nature of the MSNs and YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs. No significant quenching of the YVO4:Eu3+ luminescence is observed for YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs. This nanocomposite has been tested as a potential drug carrier. Efficient loading of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a typical anticancer drug, is observed which reaches up to 93% in 8 mg ml-1 of YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs. pH sensitive release of DOX is observed, with 54% release for pH 4.3 and 31% in a physiological environment (pH 7.4). Both MSNs and YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs nanocomposites do not show accountable toxicity to two cell lines, i.e. HeLa and MCF-7. However, as desired, toxicity is observed when cells are incubated with DOX loaded YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images confirm the uptake of the nanocomposite in both cell lines. The morphology of the cells (MCF-7) changes after incubation with DOX loaded YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs, indicating an interaction of DOX with the cells. More cytotoxicity to both cell lines with ˜90% killing is observed due to the synergistic effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia and chemotherapy using a biphasic suspension of superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and DOX loaded YVO4:Eu3+-MSNs. In addition, an AC magnetic field triggers an enhanced drug release.

  15. A multifunctional biphasic suspension of mesoporous silica encapsulated with YVO4:Eu3+ and Fe3O4 nanoparticles: synergistic effect towards cancer therapy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Shanta Singh, N; Kulkarni, Hrishikesh; Pradhan, Lina; Bahadur, D

    2013-02-15

    Polyol mediated synthesized luminescent YVO(4):Eu(3+) nanoparticles (NPs) have been encapsulated in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) using the sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with transmission electron microscopy confirm the encapsulation of the YVO(4):Eu(3+) NPs in the SiO(2) matrix. N(2) adsorption/desorption analysis confirms the mesoporous nature of the MSNs and YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs. No significant quenching of the YVO(4):Eu(3+) luminescence is observed for YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs. This nanocomposite has been tested as a potential drug carrier. Efficient loading of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), a typical anticancer drug, is observed which reaches up to 93% in 8 mg ml(-1) of YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs. pH sensitive release of DOX is observed, with 54% release for pH 4.3 and 31% in a physiological environment (pH 7.4). Both MSNs and YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs nanocomposites do not show accountable toxicity to two cell lines, i.e. HeLa and MCF-7. However, as desired, toxicity is observed when cells are incubated with DOX loaded YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs. Laser scanning confocal microscopy images confirm the uptake of the nanocomposite in both cell lines. The morphology of the cells (MCF-7) changes after incubation with DOX loaded YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs, indicating an interaction of DOX with the cells. More cytotoxicity to both cell lines with ∼90% killing is observed due to the synergistic effect of magnetic fluid hyperthermia and chemotherapy using a biphasic suspension of superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and DOX loaded YVO(4):Eu(3+)-MSNs. In addition, an AC magnetic field triggers an enhanced drug release. PMID:23324398

  16. Vertical bone regeneration with deproteinised bovine bone mineral or biphasic calcium phosphate in the rabbit calvarium: effect of autologous platelet lysate.

    PubMed

    Chakar, C; Soffer, E; Cohen, N; Petite, H; Naaman, N; Anagnostou, F

    2015-01-01

    Although bone substitutes associated with platelet concentrates are widely used to vertically reconstruct alveolar ridges, their respective and specific contribution remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of using either biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) or demineralised bovine bone mineral (DBBM) alone or with autologous platelet lysate (APL) in vertical bone regeneration. The study involved fourteen New Zealand rabbits. Autologous APL was prepared by freeze-thawing from a platelet suspension (10(9) platelets/ml). Four CP titanium (cpTi) cylinders were fixed to each calvarium; one cylinder was empty, one was filled with APL alone and the others were filled either with BCP or BCP + APL or DBBM or DBBM + APL. New bone formation and biomaterial resorption were evaluated using non-demineralised histology and histomorphometry. After 6 weeks, new bone formation was observed in all cylinders. The newly formed bone in the cylinders filled with APL alone, DBBM and BCP was significantly increased by (0.6-, 2.5- and 3.3-fold, respectively) (P < 0.0001) compared to results obtained with the empty cylinders. Vertical bone height in the cylinders filled with BCP was greater to that observed with DBBM. The residual material in the cylinders filled with BCP was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower (0.35-fold) than that with DBBM. Both newly formed bone and residual material in the cylinders filled with BCP + APL or DBBM + APL were similar to those filled with either BCP or DBBM, respectively. This study provided evidence that APL alone, as well as DBBM and BCP, have a beneficial effect on vertical bone formation and remodelling. APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not provide additional benefits. PMID:25578693

  17. Biphasic effects of l-ascorbate on the tumoricidal activity of non-thermal plasma against malignant mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Yue; Ito, Fumiya; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Hori, Masaru; Richardson, Des R; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a recently developed technology that elicits a variety of biological effects. This includes cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity, which is mainly attributed to the regional generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We studied the effects of NTP on malignant mesothelioma (MM) and its modulation by l-ascorbate. l-ascorbate is a major water-soluble anti-oxidant in vivo, but its pro-oxidant activity in vitro has been well recognized. Thus, the effects of ascorbate on the efficacy of NTP is important to examine. NTP exposure dose-dependently killed MM cells, whereas MM cells tolerated 1 mM l-ascorbate. However, brief pre-treatment with a pharmacological dose (250-750 μM) of l-ascorbate immediately prior to NTP exposure significantly increased its cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the iron chelator, deferoxamine. However, paradoxically, this potentiating effect of l-ascorbate was completely abolished by a prolonged 4 h pre-incubation with l-ascorbate (500 μM). MM cytotoxicity induced by NTP was associated with immediate oxidative stress evaluated by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorecein diacetate, which was followed by an increase in the expression of the autophagosome marker, LC3B-II. In conclusion, MM can be a target for NTP treatment and l-ascorbate can increase or decrease its efficacy depending on the length of the pre-incubation period.

  18. Biphasic effects of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, BRL 37344, on glucose utilization in rat isolated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. L.; Cawthorne, M. A.; Stock, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist, BRL 37344 (BRL) on glucose uptake and phosphorylation (i.e. glucose utilization; GU) and glycogen synthesis in rat isolated soleus and extensor digitorium longus (EDL) muscle preparations in vitro were investigated by use of 2-deoxy-[3H]-glucose (GU) and [U-14C]-glucose (glycogen synthesis). 2. Low concentrations of BRL (10(-11)-10(-9) M) significantly increased GU, with maximal increases of 30% in soleus and 24% in EDL at 10(-11) M. Neither the selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol (10(-8)-10(-6) M), nor the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) had any effect on the stimulation of GU induced by 10(-11) M BRL. 3. High concentrations of BRL (10(-6)-10(-5) M) caused significant inhibition (up to 30%) of GU in both soleus and EDL muscles. The inhibition of 10(-6) M BRL was blocked completely by 10(-6) and 10(-7) M ICI 118551 in soleus, and by 10(-6)-10(-8) M ICI 118551 in EDL; atenolol (10(-8)-10(6) M) had no effect. 4. Another selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist, CL 316,243, also caused a significant stimulation of muscle GU, with maximal increases of 43% at 10(-9) M in soleus and 45% at 10(-10) M in EDL. The stimulation of GU declined with further increases in the concentration of CL 316,243, but no inhibition of GU was seen, even at the highest concentration (10(-5) M) tested. 5. BRL at 10(-5) M inhibited completely insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in both soleus and EDL, but this inhibitory effect of BRL was abolished by 10(-6) M ICI 118551. BRL at 10(-11) M (with or without 10(-6) M ICI 118551) had no effect on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. 6. It is concluded that: (i) low (< nM) concentrations of BRL stimulate GU via an atypical beta-adrenoceptor that is resistant to conventional beta 1-adrenoceptor and beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists; (ii) the stimulation of GU is negated by the activation of beta 2-adrenoceptors that occurs at higher (> n

  19. Insulin has a biphasic effect on the ability of human chorionic gonadotropin to induce ovarian cysts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bogovich, K; Clemons, J; Poretsky, L

    1999-08-01

    Hyperinsulinemia enhances the ability of subovulatory doses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovarian follicular cysts in the rat. To determine the relative contribution of these hormones to the development of ovarian cysts, adult female rats were treated with either (1) vehicle alone (controls), (2) a high-fat diet (HFD) to control for the effects of weight gain, (3) 1.5 to 6 IU hCG twice daily plus 6 U insulin (Ins)/d, or (4) 1.5 to 9 U Ins/d plus 3 IU hCG twice daily. On day 23 of the in vivo treatments, all groups that received at least 6 U Ins/d displayed increased body weight compared with control and HFD rats (P < or = .05). No control rats and only one HFD rat displayed ovarian cysts on this day. Plasma estrone (E1) and androstenedione (A4) were elevated in HFD rats with noncystic follicles compared with control rats (P < or = .05). Between 64% and 80% of rats on 6 U Ins/d plus twice-daily injections of 1.5 to 6 IU hCG displayed ovarian cysts on day 23. Plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations for these treatment groups were similar to those of control rats. Of the hormonally treated animals, only those that had ovarian cysts in response to twice-daily injections of 4.5 or 6 IU hCG plus 6 U Ins/d displayed elevated plasma A4 and/or testosterone compared with controls. In contrast, plasma E1 concentrations were elevated on day 23 for animals bearing ovarian cysts in response to increasing doses of hCG plus the fixed dose of 6 U Ins/d. Between 70% and 80% of rats treated twice daily with 3 IU hCG plus a daily dose of 1.5 to 6 U Ins displayed ovarian cysts on day 23. In marked contrast, only 25% of rats treated with this dose of hCG plus 9 U Ins/d developed cystic follicles. Of the plasma steroids tested, only E1 and A4 were elevated in these treatment groups compared with controls. However, these increases in plasma steroid concentrations did not correlate with the dose of insulin. We conclude from these data that, although the mechanisms remain to

  20. The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Huiqiao; Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-15

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ► Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ► Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ► Different regulation of HIF1α or HIF 2α by arsenite.

  1. Internal cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation using rectilinear biphasic waveform.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Georges H; Raepers, Monique; Legrand, Isabelle; Baroud, Imad; Deheneffe, Yvon; Emonts, Michel; Paquay, Jean-Louis; Mitri, Kamal

    2003-12-01

    Internal electrical cardioversion is currently used in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation resistant to external electrical cardioversion. In external cardioversion, biphasic waveforms have shown a greater efficacy than monomorphic waveforms. The present study aimed to test the safety and efficacy of rectilinear biphasic waveform in converting patients with persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm using internal electrical cardioversion, and to compare it with that of classical monophasic waveform. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with persistent AF received 31 internal cardioversions, using monophasic waveform in 11 (group I), and rectilinear biphasic waveform in 20 cases (group II). Baseline patients characteristics were similar in both groups. Multipolar catheters were positioned in the distal coronary sinus and in the high right atrium. Synchronised shocks were delivered using an escalating protocol of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 Joules. In group I, 1 patient was resistant to maximal energy (success rate 91%). The mean energy of the maximal shock was 18 +/- 13 J. In group II, all patients were converted to sinus rhythm. The mean energy of the maximal shock was 9 +/- 5 J (p < 0.01 vs. group I). No significant complications occurred. At 3 months follow-up, 45% of group I and 60% of group II patients remained in sinus rhythm (p = NS). We conclude that internal cardioversion using rectilinear biphasic waveform is feasible and safe, and requires less energy than classical monophasic waveforms. PMID:14618059

  2. Analyzing biphasic surface plasmon resonance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam; Wang, Xuewen; He, Jin; Darici, Yesim

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a widely used label-free biophysical technique to quantitatively study biochemical processes. Analysis of monophasic SPR profiles by fitting using a single exponential function is straightforward. However, there is no simple procedure for SPR data fitting with double exponential functions. An existing approach is to fit the biphasic SPR profiles with numerical solutions of the rate equations. This procedure requires some prior knowledge of the underlying interaction mechanism, and the extracted rate constants often have large uncertainties. We propose a new method of analyzing the biphasic SPR data using the three commonly employed biphasic models. Our method is based on a general analytical solution of the biphasic rate equations. Our method can be used to determine the underlying biphasic interaction mechanism from the analysis of the SPR data, and to extract the rate constants with high confidence levels.

  3. Biphasic survival analysis of trypanotolerance QTL in mice.

    PubMed

    Koudandé, O D; Thomson, P C; Bovenhuis, H; Iraqi, F; Gibson, J P; van Arendonk, J A M

    2008-04-01

    A marker-assisted introgression (MAI) experiment was conducted to transfer trypanotolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a donor mouse strain, C57BL/6, into a recipient mouse strain, A/J. The objective was to assess the effect of three previously identified chromosomal regions on mouse chromosomes 1 (MMU1), 5 (MMU5) and 17 (MMU17) in different genetic backgrounds on the survival pattern following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. An exploratory data analysis revealed a biphasic pattern of time to death, with highly distinct early and late mortality phases. In this paper, we present survival analysis methods that account for the biphasic mortality pattern and results of reanalyzing the data from the MAI experiment. The analysis with a Weibull mixture model confirmed the biphasic pattern of time to death. Mortality phase, an unobserved variable, appears to be an important factor influencing survival time and is modeled as a binary outcome variable using logistic regression analysis. Accounting for this biphasic pattern in the analysis reveals that a previously observed sex effect on average survival is rather an effect on proportion of mice in the two mortality phases. The C57BL/6 (donor) QTL alleles on MMU1 and MMU17 act dominantly in the late mortality phase while the A/J (recipient) QTL allele on MMU17 acts dominantly in the early mortality phase. From this study, we found clear evidence for a biphasic survival pattern and provided models for its analysis. These models can also be used when studying defense mechanisms against other pathogens. Finally, these approaches provide further information on the nature of gene actions. PMID:18253157

  4. Biphasic surface amorphous layer lubrication of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Simon; Ferrandez, Wendy; Jin, Zhongmin; Ingham, Eileen; Grant, Colin; Twigg, Peter; Fisher, John

    2005-12-01

    The biphasic nature of articular cartilage has been acknowledged for some time and is known to play an important role in many of the biomechanical functions performed by this unique tissue. From the lubrication point of view however, a simple biphasic model is unable to account for the extremely low friction coefficients that have been recorded experimentally, particularly during start-up. In addition, research over the last decade has indicated the presence of a surface amorphous layer on top of articular cartilage. Here, we present results from a finite element model of articular cartilage that includes a thin, soft, biphasic surface amorphous layer (BSAL). The results of this study show that a thin BSAL, with lower elastic modulus, dramatically altered the load sharing between the solid and liquid phases of articular cartilage, particularly in the near-surface regions of the underlying bulk cartilage and within the surface amorphous layer itself where the fluid load support exceeded 85%. By transferring the load from the solid phase to the fluid phase, the biphasic surface layer improves lubrication and reduces friction, whilst also protecting the underlying cartilage surface by 'shielding' the solid phase from elevated stresses. The increase in lubrication effectiveness is shown to be greatest during short duration loading scenarios, such as shock loads.

  5. Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieberer-Nagler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article offers practical information for primary teachers to become more knowledgable, skilled and effective in their work. Aspects of positive teaching and learning are explored. Innovative methods for transforming common classroom management struggles into opportunities for positive change and for changing negative behaviors into positive…

  6. Electron transport in zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic gallium nitride nanowires and GaNFETs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Stallcup, Richard E.; Hartman, Alan; Tupta, Mary Ann; Baczewski, Andrew David; Crimp, Martin A.; Halpern, Joshua B.; He, Maoqi; Shaw, Harry C.

    2007-10-19

    Two-point and four-point probe electrical measurements of a biphasic gallium nitride nanowire and current–voltage characteristics of a gallium nitride nanowire based field effect transistor are reported. The biphasic gallium nitride nanowires have a crystalline homostructure consisting of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases that grow simultaneously in the longitudinal direction. There is a sharp transition of one to a few atomic layers between each phase. Here, all measurements showed high current densities. Evidence of single-phase current transport in the biphasic nanowire structure is discussed.

  7. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  8. Host-Guest Inclusion Complexes between Amlodipine Enantiomers in the Biphasic Recognition Chiral Extraction System using Tartaric Acid and β-Cyclodextrin Derivatives as Positive Confirmation by using their Enantioselective Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Abdallah, Hassan H.; Halim, Hairul N. Abdul; Ahmad, Maizatul Akmam; Shaibah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The current work reports an extended theoretical study from our previous experimental work for the enantioselective extraction of amlodipine enantiomers in a biphasic recognition chiral extraction system (BRCES) consisting of hydrophobic D-diisopropyl tartrate dissolved in organic phase (n-decanol) and hydrophilic hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in aqueous phase (acetate buffer) which preferentially recognize the R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer, respectively. The calculations were simulated using a semi-empirical PM3 method as a part of the Gaussian09 software package and were used to optimize the structures of the hosts, guests, and host-guest complexes in the gas phase without any restrictions. It was found that HP-β-CD has the strongest recognition ability among the three β-CD derivatives studied, namely HP-β-CD, hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HE-β-CD), and methylated-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD), due to the large interaction energies (Ecomp = −14.3025 kcal/ mol), while D-diisopropyl tartrate has the strongest ability among the four tartaric acid derivatives studied namely; L-diisopropyl tartrate, D-diisopropyl tartrate, L-diethyl tartrate, and D-diethyl tartrate (Ecomp = −5.9964 kcal/ mol). The computational calculations for the enantioselective partitioning of amlodipine enantiomers rationalized the reasons for the different behaviors for this extraction. The present theoretical results may be informative to scientists who are devoting themselves to developing models for their experimental parts or for enhancing the hydrophobic drug solubility in drug delivery systems. PMID:26839848

  9. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  10. Electroporation adopting trains of biphasic pulses enhances in vitro and in vivo the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin on multidrug resistant colon adenocarcinoma cells (LoVo).

    PubMed

    Meschini, Stefania; Condello, Maria; Lista, Pasquale; Vincenzi, Bruno; Baldi, Alfonso; Citro, Gennaro; Arancia, Giuseppe; Spugnini, Enrico P

    2012-09-01

    Few articles in the literature have focused on electroporation as a strategy to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour cells and they are mostly limited to the improved efficacy of bleomycin. We tested the application of trains of biphasic pulses to cell suspensions and to murine xenografts as a strategy to increase the uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and to enhance its cytotoxicity against chemoresistant cells. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LoVo DX, expressing MDR phenotype with high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been used. The in vitro and in vivo studies gave the following results: (i) the application of the electric pulses to the cell suspension, immediately before DOX administration, induced a significant increase of drug retention; (ii) confocal microscopy observations showed a remarkable increase of intranuclear accumulation of DOX induced by electroporation; (iii) cell survival assay revealed a decrease of cell viability in the cultures treated with the combination of electroporation and doxorubicin; (iv) scanning electron microscopy observations revealed consistent morphological changes after the combined exposure to electroporation and doxorubicin; (v) in implanted mice the combined treatment induced an evident slowdown on the tumour growth when compared to treatment with DOX alone; (vi) histopathological analysis evidenced tumour destruction and its replacement by scar tissue in the tumours treated with the combination of doxorubicin and electroporation.

  11. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  12. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, Michael; Lucas, Matthew; Silveira, Joseph P.; Groves, Scott E.

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  13. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  14. A biphasic theory for the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria in stress relaxation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Czerwonka, Lukasz; Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a biphasic theory is applied to investigate the viscoelastic behaviors of vocal fold lamina propria during stress relaxation. The vocal fold lamina propria tissue is described as a biphasic material composed of a solid phase and an interstitial fluid phase. The biphasic theory reveals the interaction between the solid and the fluid. For the one-dimensional case, the analytical solutions of solid displacement, fluid velocity, and stress are derived. The biphasic theory predicts the stress relaxation of the vocal fold lamina propria. The quasilinear viscoelastic model as well as its higher-order elastic parameters can be derived from this biphasic theory. Furthermore, the fluid is found to support the majority of the stress at the early stage of stress relaxation; however, when the time becomes sufficiently large, the solid eventually bears all the stress. The early fluid stress support is much higher than the eventual solid support and may be important for understanding the effects of dehydration on tissue damage. By considering the solid-fluid structure of the vocal fold lamina propria, the biphasic theory allows for a more physical theory of tissue viscoelasticity than a single phase solid description and may provide a valuable physical mechanism for the observed vocal fold rheologic behaviors.

  15. Biphasic Effects of α-Asarone on Immobility in the Tail Suspension Test: Evidence for the Involvement of the Noradrenergic and Serotonergic Systems in Its Antidepressant-Like Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chellian, Ranjithkumar; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha (α)-asarone is one of the main psychoactive compounds, present in Acorus species. Evidence suggests that the α-asarone possess an antidepressant-like activity in mice. However, the exact dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity are not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effect of α-asarone and the underlining mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like activity of α-asarone in the mouse model of tail suspension test (TST). In this study, the acute effect of α-asarone per se at different doses (10–100 mg/kg, i.p.) on immobility in the TST was studied. Additionally, the possible mechanism(s) involved in the antidepressant-like effect of α-asarone was studied using its interaction with noradrenergic and serotonergic neuromodulators in the TST. The present results reveal that the acute treatment of α-asarone elicited biphasic responses on immobility such that the duration of the immobility time is significantly reduced at lower doses (15 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) but increased at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) in the TST. Besides, α-asarone at higher doses (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the spontaneous locomotor activity. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with noradrenergic neuromodulators such as AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p., a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and with serotonergic neuromodulators such as PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for four consecutive days, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor,) and WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist) significantly reversed the anti-immobility effect of α-asarone (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, our results suggest that the acute treatment with α-asarone elicited biphasic actions in the TST in which antidepressant-like effect was seen at relatively lower doses (15

  16. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  17. Some indirect effects of positive practice overcorrection.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lindsay C; Thompson, Rachel H

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of positive practice overcorrection (PP OC) on levels of motor stereotypy and appropriate engagement in the activity practiced during treatment with 3 young men with autism. We also measured preference for the practiced activities during preference probes to determine if these activities might acquire aversive properties as a result of the frequent pairing with PP OC. Treatment reduced motor stereotypy for all 3 participants, and engagement increased for 2 of the 3 participants. Relative preference for the activities was not disrupted by the implementation of PP OC, although overall contact with the activities decreased for 1 participant. Results from 1 participant suggest that PP OC may be less effective when stereotypy results in access to a more highly preferred activity.

  18. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  19. Positioning Urban Teachers as Effective: Their Discourse on Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa; Gomez, Kimberley

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the accounts by teachers who are positioned and who position themselves as "effective." It draws on the relational aspects of positioning theory with respect to a determination of how the "effective teacher" position necessarily positions students. Findings suggest that students are positioned as (a) individuals within a…

  20. [New drugs with positive effects on bones].

    PubMed

    Zofková, I; Kanceva, R L

    1997-07-30

    The paper concerns the nontraditional treatment of osteoporosis using endogenous substances regulating bone metabolism, and also new drugs. NO in high concentrations decreases the activity of osteoclasts, scavenges superoxides which destroy connective tissue, and activates 1 alpha-hydroxylase in kidneys. Bone metabolism is effectively influenced by donors of NO or by modulators of NO synthase. Osteoclastic function is also inhibited by vitamin K. The administration of the vitamin is indicated in osteoporotic patients with proven vitamin K deficiency. Antiestrogens (tamoxifen), ipriflavon and analogues of wortmannin have antiresorptive activity. Under certain conditions parathyroid hormone (PTH) is anabolic for bone. The positive effect on bone was confirmed with the subcutaneous administration of small doses of PTH simulating physiologic pulsatile secretion, as well as the intact somatotropin-IGF-I (insulin like growth factor-I) axis. PTH is extremely useful, especially in osteoporosis induced by hypoestrinism. Somatotropin (GH) also has an anabolic effect on bone. The hormone stimulates bone metabolism with a prevalence of formation due to direct action on bone, as well as by means of IGF-I. Further growth factors with positive osteoprotic effect are TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta), FGF (fibroblast growth factor) and calcium conserving dihomogammalinoleic acid. Magnesium influences bone in different ways. It activates osteoblasts, increases bone mineralization, and enhances the sensitivity of target tissues (incl. bone) to PTH and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, Under certain conditions however, magnesium can stimulate bone resorption. A more potent factor than magnesium is stroncium, which not only activates osteoblats but decreases the number of osteoclasts, thus abolishing bone resorption and enhancing formation. Bicarbonates are also favourable for bone. NaHCO3 together with potassium citrate stimulates osteoblasts and enhances bone mineralisation. In the

  1. Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS. PMID:18232360

  2. Percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianggang; Xu, Xiaomei; Gong, Yongsheng; Fan, Xiaofang; Wang, Liangxing; Zhang, Jianhua; Zeng, Yanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of stimulation of the genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses on patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The experiment was conducted in 22 patients clinically diagnosed with OSAS. The patients were monitored with polysomnography (PSG) in the trial. When the sleep apnea was detected, the genioglossus was stimulated with percutaneous biphasic electrical pulses that were automatically regulated by a microcontroller to achieve the optimal effect. The percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation caused contraction of the genioglossus, forward movement of the tongue, and relieving of the glossopharyngeal airway obstruction. The SaO2, apnea time, hypoxemia time, and change of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) were compared in patients with treatment and without treatment. With percutaneous biphasic electrical stimulation of the genioglossus, the OSAS patients showed apnea time decreased (P < 0.01), RDI decreased (P < 0.01), and SaO2 increased (P < 0.01). No tissue injury or major discomfort was noticed during the trial. The stimulation of genioglossus with percutaneous biphasic electrical current pulse is an effective method for treating OSAS.

  3. The positive piezoconductive effect in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Ke; Zhao, Wei; Bao, Wenzhong; Liu, Erfu; Ren, Yafei; Wang, Miao; Fu, Yajun; Zeng, Junwen; Li, Zhaoguo; Zhou, Wei; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Wan, Xiangang; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Wang, Baigeng; Qiao, Zhenhua; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu

    2015-01-01

    As the thinnest conductive and elastic material, graphene is expected to play a crucial role in post-Moore era. Besides applications on electronic devices, graphene has shown great potential for nano-electromechanical systems. While interlayer interactions play a key role in modifying the electronic structures of layered materials, no attention has been given to their impact on electromechanical properties. Here we report the positive piezoconductive effect observed in suspended bi- and multi-layer graphene. The effect is highly layer number dependent and shows the most pronounced response for tri-layer graphene. The effect, and its dependence on the layer number, can be understood as resulting from the strain-induced competition between interlayer coupling and intralayer transport, as confirmed by the numerical calculations based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Our results enrich the understanding of graphene and point to layer number as a powerful tool for tuning the electromechanical properties of graphene for future applications. PMID:26360786

  4. Experimental validation of a new biphasic model of the contact mechanics of the porcine hip

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Jin, Zhongmin; Williams, Sophie; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth K

    2014-01-01

    Hip models that incorporate the biphasic behaviour of articular cartilage can improve understanding of the joint function, pathology of joint degeneration and effect of potential interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a specimen-specific biphasic finite element model of a porcine acetabulum incorporating a biphasic representation of the articular cartilage and to validate the model predictions against direct experimental measurements of the contact area in the same specimen. Additionally, the effect of using a different tension–compression behaviour for the solid phase of the articular cartilage was investigated. The model represented different radial clearances and load magnitudes. The comparison of the finite element predictions and the experimental measurement showed good agreement in the location, size and shape of the contact area, and a similar trend in the relationship between contact area and load was observed. There was, however, a deviation of over 30% in the magnitude of the contact area, which might be due to experimental limitations or to simplifications in the material constitutive relationships used. In comparison with the isotropic solid phase model, the tension–compression solid phase model had better agreement with the experimental observations. The findings provide some confidence that the new biphasic methodology for modelling the cartilage is able to predict the contact mechanics of the hip joint. The validation provides a foundation for future subject-specific studies of the human hip using a biphasic cartilage model. PMID:24878736

  5. Compression behaviour of biphasic calcium phosphate and biphasic calcium phosphate-agarose scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, J A; Vadillo, J L; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Nieto, A; Gómez-Barrena, E; Vallet-Regí, M

    2011-02-01

    There is an acknowledged need for shaping 3-D scaffolds with adequate porosity and mechanical properties for biomedical applications. The mechanical properties under static and cyclic compressive testing of dense and designed porous architecture bioceramic scaffolds based on the biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) systems and BCP-agarose systems have been evaluated. The dense and designed porous architecture scaffolds in BCP systems exhibited a brittle behaviour. Agarose, a biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel, has been used to shape designed architecture ceramic-agarose scaffolds following a low-temperature shaping method. Agarose conferred toughness, ductility and a rubbery consistency for strains of up to 60% of in ceramic BCP-agarose systems. This combination of ceramic and organic matrix helps to avoid the inherent brittleness of the bioceramic and enhances the compression resistance of hydrogel. The presence of mechanical hysteresis, permanent deformation after the first cycle and recovery of the master monotonous curve indicate a Mullins-like effect such as that observed in carbon-filled rubber systems. We report this type of mechanical behaviour, the Mullins effect, for the first time in bioceramics and bioceramic-agarose systems.

  6. Comparison of single-biphasic versus sequential-biphasic shocks on defibrillation threshold in pigs.

    PubMed

    Csanadi, Z; Jones, D L; Wood, G K; Klein, G J

    1997-06-01

    Current generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators use monophasic, biphasic, or sequential pulse shocks, most of which truncate after a given time, dumping the remaining charge on the capacitor through an internal resistor. We hypothesized that having an additional current pathway, and delivering the majority of the remaining charge on a single capacitor to the two pathways using additional shock phases, would improve defibrillation efficacy. This hypothesis was tested by comparing DFTs using a simulated single capacitor, single-biphasic shock (two 5-ms pulses separated by 0.2 ms), delivered to coupled pairs of electrodes, to those using a sequential-biphasic shock (four 5-ms pulses separated by 0.2 ms) delivered to separate opposing electrodes, delivered from the same electrodes for both waveforms. In eight open-chest anesthetized pigs, four mesh electrodes (Medtronic TX-7, 6.5 cm2), were sutured on the epicardium of the anterior and posterior surfaces of each ventricle. Shocks were delivered from a 200-microF capacitor bank. Triplicate DFTs were obtained using each waveform in a randomized crossover design. Initial leading edge voltage (mean +/- SEM: 420 +/- 33 V vs 497 +/- 34 V; P < 0.05), initial peak current (4.8 +/- 0.4 A vs 13 +/- 1.1 A; P < 0.001), and delivered energy (16.9 +/- 2.6 J vs 30.4 +/- 5.3 J; P < 0.05) at the DFT were all significantly lower using sequential-biphasic shocks than those using single-biphasic shocks, respectively. We conclude that for direct heart defibrillation, it is worthwhile to combine sequential capability to biphasic shocks and deliver the remaining charge on the capacitor to the two different pathways. PMID:9227756

  7. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    PubMed Central

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  8. Positive inotropic effect of porcine left ventricular extract on canine ventricular muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnam, S.; Chau, T.; Agbanyo, M.; Bose, D.; Khatter, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    1. We previously isolated an extract from porcine left ventricle that possessed digitalis-like properties such as inhibition of cardiac and kidney Na+, K(+)-ATPase, displacement of [3H]-ouabain from its binding sites and cross reactivity with digoxin antibodies. The extract also had a positive inotropic effect on the guinea-pig heart. 2. In the present study the positive inotropic response of the extract was characterized in canine right ventricular trabeculae. Maximum inotropic response (501 +/- 20%) was produced by 300 microliters and the half maximal increase occurred with 125 microliters of the extract. 3. Ouabagenin produced aftercontractions in rapidly paced trabeculae. Equipotent and even greater amounts of the extract did not produce aftercontractions. 4. The extract increased the amplitude of the delayed component (P2) of biphasic contractions produced by replacing about 92-96% of the external Ca with Sr. A smaller increase in the size of the early component (P1) was also seen. 5. The extract decreased post-rest potentiation after rest for 30s and 2 min. After 8 min of rest, post-rest potentiation was converted to post-rest depression. 6. The extract (20 microliters) produced a decrease in the amplitude of the post-rest rapid cooling contracture (RCC) at all rest intervals. The steady state RCC, although greater than that in the control muscle, was increased to a lesser extent than the size of the steady state electrically driven contractions. 7. It is suggested that the extract from porcine left ventricle produces a positive inotropic response by increasing the trans-sarcolemmal influx of Ca.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2257439

  9. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  10. Effect of handling on positive and negative contrast effects.

    PubMed

    Fagen, J W; Rycek, R F

    1980-01-01

    The effects of early handling on the exhibition of positive and negative contrast effects were investigated. Over two 4-day testing sessions, animals were given alternating 1-min access periods to 2 bottles containing either 32 or 4% sucrose solutions. Measures of lick rate and latency to switch bottles revealed that both handled and nonhandled animals exhibited contrast effects of equal magnitudes. The results did not support an emotional interpretation of contrast effects but were interpreted as support for the perceptual theory of this phenomenon.

  11. Biphasic effect of IL-1beta on the activity of argininosuccinate synthetase in Caco-2 cells. Involvement of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Fairand, Alain; Vavasseur, Karine; Deniel, Nicolas; Husson, Annie

    2006-06-01

    The expression of the argininosuccinate synthetase gene (ASS), the limiting enzyme of arginine synthesis, was previously shown to be rapidly induced by a short-term (4 h) exposure to IL-1beta in Caco-2 cells [Biochimie, 2005, 403-409]. The present report shows that, by contrast, a long-term (24 h) exposure to IL-1beta inhibited the ASS activity despite an increase in both specific mRNA level and protein amount, demonstrating a post-translational effect. Concerning the mechanism involved, we demonstrate that the inhibiting effect is linked to the production of nitric oxide (NO) induced by IL-1beta. Indeed, the inhibiting effect of IL-1beta was totally blocked in the presence of l-NMMA, an inhibitor of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, or by culturing the cells in an arginine-deprived medium. Moreover, a decrease in the ASS activity was induced by culturing the cells in the presence of SNAP, a NO donor. Conversely, blocking the action of NO by antioxidant agents, the stimulatory effect of IL-1beta on ASS activity was restored, as measured at 24 h. Finally, such an inhibiting effect of NO on ASS activity may be related, at least in part, to S-nitrosylation of the protein. The physiological relevance of the antagonistic effects of IL-1beta and NO on ASS is discussed.

  12. Gene Positioning Effects on Expression in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Q; Bosco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The packaging and organization of the genome within the eukaryotic interphase nucleus directly influence how the genes are expressed. An underappreciated aspect of genome structure is that it is highly dynamic and that the physical positioning of a gene can impart control over its transcriptional status. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how gene positioning at different levels of genome organization can directly influence gene expression during interphase. The levels of organization discussed include chromatin looping, topologically associated domains, chromosome territories, and nuclear compartments. We discuss specific studies demonstrating that gene positioning is a dynamic and highly regulated feature of the eukaryotic genome that allows for the essential spatiotemporal regulation of genes.

  13. Dose-dependent dual effect of morphine on electrophysiologic correlates of positive reinforcement (reward contingent positive variation: RCPV) in the cat.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, T J; Hackett, J T

    1976-08-01

    In cats trained to press a lever for milk reward, the postreinforcement EEG synchronization (PRS) and the associated epicortical steady potential shift, known as "Reward Contingent Positive Variation (RCPV) restricted to the occipital cortex, were studied prior to and after administration of morphine sulfate. Contrary to what has ordinarily been described as a typical feline response to morphine, such as restlessness, aggressiveness, rage, and exaggerated startle reaction to environmental stimuli, associated with an increased tonus of the brainstem-hypothalamic arousal system and desynchronized EEG patterns, doses of 0.1-0.4 mg/kg, IM, caused a strong monophasic enhancement of the PRS-RCPV phenomenon. Doses of 0.6-1.0 mg/kg, IM, had clearly a biphasic action: the initial enhancement of the PRS-RCPV responses was followed by their strong suppression. Chlorpromazine (0.1-1.6 mg/kg, i.e.) promptly restored the EEG responses. During the peak effect of the enhancing doses of morphine, the reward-related EEG phenomena also occurred prior to or after the nonrewarded bar press when the animals licked the empty cup. This dissociation of the PRS-RCPV from consumption was much more conspicuous in animals whose control frequency of the PRS oscillations was higher, and after morphine showed more significant slowing. Despite the strong facilitation of the PRS-RCPV in the presence of light, morphine, in contrast to LSD-25, was not able to restore the reward-induced phenomena in the dark.

  14. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (p<0.001) higher removal of nitrate was observed in the biphasic (42-63%) compared to the monophasic rain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (p<0.001), achieving up to 87% removal at a treatment C/N ratio of 2.0. This study demonstrates the importance of retention time, environmental conditions (i.e. saturated/unsaturated conditions), and availability of C substrate for bioremediation of pollutants, especially nitrates, in rain gardens.

  15. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  16. Positive practice overcorrection: the effects of duration of positive practice on acquisition and response reduction.

    PubMed

    Carey, R G; Bucher, B

    1983-01-01

    The effects of long and short durations of positive practice overcorrection were studied, for reduction of off-task behavior after an instruction to perform an object-placement task. Off-task behavior, correct responses, and approximate responses were all observed. Off-task behavior received positive practice. The short and long practice durations (30 seconds and 3 minutes) produced equally rapid reduction of off-task behavior and acquisition of correct object-placement performance. Over sessions, much less time was required for positive practice when the short practice duration was used. Approximate responses, which also avoided positive practice, occurred at low rates relative to correct responding. Negative side effects were observed to occur primarily during sessions with long positive practice. These results indicate that use of short durations of positive practice can reduce the practice time required and negative side effects, with no loss of training effectiveness either for reducing inappropriate behavior or increasing a desired alternative behavior. PMID:6833163

  17. Biphasic Presence of Fibrocytes in a Porcine Hypertrophic Scar Model

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Taryn E.; Mino, Matthew J.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Mauskar, Neil A.; Prindeze, Nicholas J.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Jordan, Marion H.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The duroc pig has been described as a promising animal model for use in the study of human wound healing and scar formation. However little is known about the presence and chronology of the fibrocyte cell population in the healing process of these animals. Methods Wounds known to form scar were created on red duroc swine (3“ × 3”) with a dermatome to a total depth of either 0.06“ or 0.09”. These wounds were allowed to heal completely and were biopsied at scheduled time points during the healing process. Biopsies were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemical analysis. Porcine-reactive antibodies to CD-45 and procollagen-1 and a human-reactive antibody to LSP-1 were used to detect the presence of fibrocytes in immunohistochemistry an immunocytochemistry. Results Initial immunohistochemical studies showed evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes. Pigs with 0.06“ deep wounds showed positive staining for CD-45 and LSP-1 within highly cellular areas at days 2 and 4 after wounding. Additional animals with 0.09” deep wounds showed positive staining within similar areas at days 56, 70, and 113 after wounding. There was no immunohistochemical evidence of fibrocytes in skin biopsies taken at days 14, 28, or 42. Procollagen-1 staining was diffuse in all samples. Cultured cells stained for CD-45, LSP-1, and procollagen-1 by immunocytochemistry. Conclusions These data confirm that fibrocytes are indeed present in this porcine model. We conclude that these cells are present after initial wounding and later during scar formation and remodeling. We believe that this is evidence of a biphasic presence of fibrocytes, first as an acute response to skin wounding followed by later involvement in the remodeling process, prompted by continued inflammation in a deep partial thickness wound. PMID:25051518

  18. Biphasic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit aqueous extract on vascular mesenteric beds in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Asia, Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used to manage, control, and treat diabetes. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the endothelium and nitric oxide roles in Solanum nigrum-induced vasorelaxation in non-diabetic and diabetic rat vessels. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of non-diabetic and diabetic groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNE) at concentrations of 0.00001 to 0.6 mg/ml was added to the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of diabetic group was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. The low concentrations of SNE have vasodilatory effect in the diabetic and non-diabetic, but high concentrations of SNE produce initial significant contractions, followed by secondary relaxations in normal and diabetic rats. We observed vasorelaxation at low and high concentrations of SNE in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups after endothelium denudation. SNE-induced vasorelaxation in diabetic group is mediated by both endothelium and smooth muscle, but the relaxatory effect of SNE in non-diabetic group is not mediated by endothelium, and SNE has direct action on the smooth muscle. Conclusion: Although the part of SNE-induced relaxation in diabetic vessel was mediated by endothelium, nitric oxide didn’t play any role in this action, and maybe we can use SNE in the management of diabetes vessel complications in future. PMID:24761120

  19. Biphasic Effects of Nitric Oxide Radicals on Radiation-Induced Lethality and Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lung Cancer Cells Carrying Different p53 Gene Status

    SciTech Connect

    Su Xiaoming; Takahashi, Akihisa; Guo Guozhen; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Ohnishi, Ken; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on radiation-induced cell killing and chromosome aberrations in two human lung cancer cell lines with a different p53 gene status. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cell lines that were derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53 null. The wtp53 and mp53 cell lines were generated by transfection of the appropriate p53 constructs into the parental cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (an NO donor) and/or 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) (an NO scavenger) and then exposed to X-rays. Cell survival, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored by use of a colony-forming assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP [deoxyuridine triphosphate] nick end labeling) assay, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In wtp53 cells the induction of radioresistance and the inhibition of apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in the presence of ISDN at low 2- to 10-{mu}mol/L concentrations before X-irradiation. The addition of c-PTIO and ISDN into the culture medium 6 h before irradiation almost completely suppressed these effects. However, at high concentrations of ISDN (100-500 {mu}mol/L), clear evidence of radiosensitization, enhancement of apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations was detected. However, these phenomena were not observed in mp53 cells at either concentration range with ISDN. Conclusions: These results indicate that low and high concentrations of NO radicals can choreograph inverse radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations in human lung cancer cells and that NO radicals can affect the fate of wtp53 cells.

  20. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  1. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  2. Biphasic effect of duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine (C), mepirizole (M) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropryridine (MPTP) on gastric emptying in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pihan, G.; Kline, T.J.; Szabo, S.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of acute or chronic administration of duodenal ulcerogens on gastric emptying (GE) of a liquid meal was investigated. In Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200g) 2 ml of /sup 51/Cr in 2% dextrose (5000 CPM) was given intragastrically and the GE half life was established as 7.6 min (controls). In acute experiments, C (30mg/100g), M (40mg/100g) or MPTP (4mg/100g) injected subcutaneously all delayed GE at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hr by 15-77%. Maximal GE delay (p<0.05) by 77, 48 or 71% was found 1, 1 or 2 hr after C, M or MPTP, respectively. In chronic experiments, C (22mg/100g) was given x3 on the first day and once daily (25mg/100g) for 3 or 10 additional days. M (20mg/100g) once daily and MPTP (4mg/100g) x3 daily were given for 4 or 11 days. GE was measured on the 5th and 12th day. Chronically, MPTP accelerated GE by 63 and 31% at 5 and 12 days (p<0.05) and C and M did not change GE. The severity of duodenal ulcers correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of /sup 51/Cr remaining in the stomach: r=-0.68, -0.74 and -0.70 after C, M and MPTP, respectively. Acute administration of duodenal ulcerogens delay GE in rats. Chronic treatment with duodenal ulcerogens either accelerates or does not change GE. The most severe chronic ulcers exhibit the most rapid emptying. The authors data suggest that rapid GE might be a secondary rather than a primary alteration in duodenal ulceration.

  3. Biphasic activity of a jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests during the day. An accompanying examination of the hunger level of the spiders revealed that spiders that remained in nests were more starved than those observed outside nests. If spiders actively forage when they are starved, as has been suggested by previous studies, one would expect to see the opposite trend (i.e., spiders that remained in nests are more satiated). Thus, the pattern observed in the field contradicts the known behavioral pattern of the spiders. An individual-based model was used to investigate the behavioral mechanism of the spider and the discrepancy found in the observations. A basic assumption of the model is that spiders possess distinct inactive and active phases (biphasic activity pattern), and transitions between the two phases are regulated by the hunger level of the spider. Data from a laboratory experiment were used to examine the assumptions of the model partially. The model was able to capture patterns observed in the data, suggesting that the pattern of transitions in biphasic activity is an important trait of the foraging behavior of the jumping spider. PMID:21085925

  4. Biphasic activity of a jumping spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    Individual variation is a ubiquitous and important factor that affects ecological dynamics. This study examined individual variation in the nest-use pattern of the jumping spider Phidippus audax. Although the jumping spider is a diurnal species, field observations in this study revealed that the majority of individuals remained in their nests during the day. An accompanying examination of the hunger level of the spiders revealed that spiders that remained in nests were more starved than those observed outside nests. If spiders actively forage when they are starved, as has been suggested by previous studies, one would expect to see the opposite trend (i.e., spiders that remained in nests are more satiated). Thus, the pattern observed in the field contradicts the known behavioral pattern of the spiders. An individual-based model was used to investigate the behavioral mechanism of the spider and the discrepancy found in the observations. A basic assumption of the model is that spiders possess distinct inactive and active phases (biphasic activity pattern), and transitions between the two phases are regulated by the hunger level of the spider. Data from a laboratory experiment were used to examine the assumptions of the model partially. The model was able to capture patterns observed in the data, suggesting that the pattern of transitions in biphasic activity is an important trait of the foraging behavior of the jumping spider.

  5. A sequential pulse generator for producing true biphasic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Mitz, A R; Reed, D J; Humphrey, D R

    1984-06-01

    The ability to generate biphasic pulses during electrical stimulation of nervous tissue has important advantages over monophasic or capacitively coupled stimulation. A comparatively simple circuit is described which, when used with standard electrophysiological laboratory equipment, can economically implement biphasic stimulation. The resultant system is quite flexible, yet easy to operate.

  6. Intracellular lactate-mediated induction of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zonca, Sara; Cilli, Michele; Rinaldi, Maurizio; Daga, Antonio; Nilsson, Stefan; Moro, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the second most common histotype of MPM. It is histologically characterized by the concomitant presence of epithelioid and sarcomatoid features, the latter associated with worse prognosis. In this report we describe that silencing of AKT1 in spindle-shaped biphasic MPM cells promotes the shift toward an epithelioid phenotype. Furthermore, AKT1 silencing resulted in decreased expression of the lactate/H+ symporter MCT4 and its chaperone CD147/Basigin, and in the induction of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression. We provide evidence that ERβ expression is induced by increased intracellular lactate concentration. Spheroid culturing and tumor growth of ERβ negative biphasic MPM in nude mice resulted in the induction of ERβ expression and response to the selective agonist KB9520. In both models, the treatment with the ERβ agonist results in reduced cell proliferation, decreased expression of MCT4 and CD147/Basigin and increased acetylation and inactivation of AKT1. Collectively, in response to metabolic changes, ERβ expression is induced and exerts an anti-tumor effect through selective agonist activation. The possibility to reverse the more aggressive biphasic mesothelioma histotype by targeting ERβ with a selective agonist could represent a new effective treatment strategy. PMID:26208479

  7. Biphasic Electrical Field Stimulation Aids in Tissue Engineering of Multicell-Type Cardiac Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Loraine L.Y.; Iyer, Rohin K.; King, John-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of current work were (1) to compare the effects of monophasic or biphasic electrical field stimulation on structure and function of engineered cardiac organoids based on enriched cardiomyocytes (CM) and (2) to determine if electrical field stimulation will enhance electrical excitability of cardiac organoids based on multiple cell types. Organoids resembling cardiac myofibers were cultivated in Matrigel-coated microchannels fabricated of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. We found that field stimulation using symmetric biphasic square pulses at 2.5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 1 ms (per pulse phase) was an improved stimulation protocol, as compared to no stimulation and stimulation using monophasic square pulses of identical total amplitude and duration (5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 2 ms). This was supported by the highest success rate for synchronous contractions, low excitation threshold, the highest cell density, and the highest expression of Connexin-43 in the biphasic group. Subsequently, enriched CM were seeded on the networks of (1) cardiac fibroblasts (FB), (2) D4T endothelial cells (EC), or (3) a mixture of FB and EC that were precultured for 2 days prior to the addition of enriched CM. Biphasic field stimulation was also effective at improving electrical excitability of these cardiac organoids by improving the three-dimensional organization of the cells, increasing cellular elongation and enhancing Connexin-43 presence. PMID:18783322

  8. Biphasic electrical field stimulation aids in tissue engineering of multicell-type cardiac organoids.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Loraine L Y; Iyer, Rohin K; King, John-Paul; Radisic, Milica

    2011-06-01

    The main objectives of current work were (1) to compare the effects of monophasic or biphasic electrical field stimulation on structure and function of engineered cardiac organoids based on enriched cardiomyocytes (CM) and (2) to determine if electrical field stimulation will enhance electrical excitability of cardiac organoids based on multiple cell types. Organoids resembling cardiac myofibers were cultivated in Matrigel-coated microchannels fabricated of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. We found that field stimulation using symmetric biphasic square pulses at 2.5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 1 ms (per pulse phase) was an improved stimulation protocol, as compared to no stimulation and stimulation using monophasic square pulses of identical total amplitude and duration (5 V/cm, 1 Hz, 2 ms). This was supported by the highest success rate for synchronous contractions, low excitation threshold, the highest cell density, and the highest expression of Connexin-43 in the biphasic group. Subsequently, enriched CM were seeded on the networks of (1) cardiac fibroblasts (FB), (2) D4T endothelial cells (EC), or (3) a mixture of FB and EC that were precultured for 2 days prior to the addition of enriched CM. Biphasic field stimulation was also effective at improving electrical excitability of these cardiac organoids by improving the three-dimensional organization of the cells, increasing cellular elongation and enhancing Connexin-43 presence.

  9. Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, P.; Lipinski, J.; Abbs, B.; Lin, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of research has emphasized the linkage between performance in immediate serial recall of lists, nonword repetition, and word learning. Recently, it has been reported that primacy and recency effects are obtained in repetition of individual syllables within nonwords (Gupta, in press). Five experiments examined whether such…

  10. Personal Belongings--A Positive Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Peter H.; Smith, Chris S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of personal belongings on perceptions of the elderly in institutions was tested through color slides in two groups of medical students. The elderly person surrounded by personal belongings was perceived in a less negative way than the same person in bare surroundings. (Author)

  11. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  12. Effects of the "Positive Action" Program on Indicators of Positive Youth Development among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Vuchinich, Samuel; Ji, Peter; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Bavarian, Niloofar; Day, Joseph; Silverthorn, Naida; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of "Positive Action," a school-based social-emotional and character development intervention, on indicators of positive youth development (PYD) among a sample of low-income, ethnic minority youth attending 14 urban schools. The study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design at the school…

  13. Biphasic mechanisms of amphetamine action at the dopamine terminal.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Jones, Sara R

    2014-04-16

    In light of recent studies suggesting that amphetamine (AMPH) increases electrically evoked dopamine release ([DA]o), we examined discrepancies between these findings and literature that has demonstrated AMPH-induced decreases in [DA]o. The current study has expanded the inventory of AMPH actions by defining two separate mechanisms of AMPH effects on [DA]o at high and low doses, one dopamine transporter (DAT) independent and one DAT dependent, respectively. AMPH concentrations were measured via microdialysis in rat nucleus accumbens after intraperitoneal injections of 1 and 10 mg/kg and yielded values of ∼10 and 200 nM, respectively. Subsequently, voltammetry in brain slices was used to examine the effects of low (10 nM), moderate (100 nM), and high (10 μM) concentrations of AMPH across a range of frequency stimulations (one pulse; five pulses, 20 Hz; 24 pulses, 60 Hz). We discovered biphasic, concentration-dependent effects in WT mice, in which AMPH increased [DA]o at low concentrations and decreased [DA]o at high concentrations across all stimulation types. However, in slices from DAT-KO mice, [DA]o was decreased by all concentrations of AMPH, demonstrating that AMPH-induced increases in [DA]o are DAT dependent, whereas the decreases at high concentrations are DAT independent. We propose that low AMPH concentrations are insufficient to disrupt vesicular sequestration, and therefore AMPH acts solely as a DAT inhibitor to increase [DA]o. When AMPH concentrations are high, the added mechanism of vesicular depletion leads to reduced [DA]o. The biphasic mechanisms observed here confirm and extend the traditional actions of AMPH, but do not support mechanisms involving increased exocytotic release.

  14. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  15. High-side Digitally Current Controlled Biphasic Bipolar Microstimulator

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Timothy L.; Ómarsson, Björn; O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Peikon, Ian D.; Lebedev, Mikhail; Nicolelis, Miguel AL.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nervous tissue has been extensively used as both a tool in experimental neuroscience research and as a method for restoring of neural functions in patients suffering from sensory and motor disabilities. In the central nervous system, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) has been shown to be an effective method for inducing or biasing perception, including visual and tactile sensation. ICMS also holds promise for enabling brain-machine-brain interfaces (BMBIs) by directly writing information into the brain. Here we detail the design of a high-side, digitally current-controlled biphasic, bipolar microstimulator, and describe the validation of the device in vivo. As many applications of this technique, including BMBIs, require recording as well as stimulation, we pay careful attention to isolation of the stimulus channels and parasitic current injection. With the realized device and standard recording hardware - without active artifact rejection - we are able to observe stimulus artifacts of less than 2 ms in duration. PMID:22328184

  16. Biphasic Role of Calcium in Mouse Sperm Capacitation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alvau, Antonio; Escoffier, Jessica; Krapf, Dario; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Salicioni, Ana M.; Darszon, Alberto; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilizing ability in the female tract in a process known as capacitation. At the molecular level, capacitation is associated with up-regulation of a cAMP-dependent pathway, changes in intracellular pH, intracellular Ca2+ and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. How these signaling systems interact during capacitation is not well understood. Results presented in this study indicate that Ca2+ ions have a biphasic role in the regulation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Media without added Ca2+ salts (nominal zero Ca2+) still contain micromolar concentrations of this ion. Sperm incubated in this medium did not undergo PKA activation or the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting that these phosphorylation pathways require Ca2+. However, chelation of the extracellular Ca2+ traces by EGTA induced both cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. The EGTA effect in nominal zero Ca2+ media was mimicked by two calmodulin antagonists, W7 and calmidazolium, and by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. These results suggest that Ca2+ ions regulate sperm cAMP and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways in a biphasic manner and that some of its effects are mediated by calmodulin. Interestingly, contrary to wild type mouse sperm, sperm from CatSper1 KO mice underwent PKA activation and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation upon incubation in nominal zero Ca2+ media. Therefore, sperm lacking Catsper Ca2+ channels behave as wild-type sperm incubated in the presence of EGTA. This latter result suggests that Catsper transports the Ca2+ involved in the regulation of cAMP-dependent and tyrosine phosphorylation pathways required for sperm capacitation. PMID:25597298

  17. Topical Delivery of Interferon Alpha by Biphasic Vesicles: Evidence for a Novel Nanopathway across the Stratum Corneum

    SciTech Connect

    Foldvari, M.; Badea, B; Wettig, S; Baboolal, D; Kumar, P; Creagh, A; Haynes, C

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive delivery of macromolecules across intact skin is challenging but would allow for needle-free administration of many pharmaceuticals. Biphasic vesicles, a novel lipid-based topical delivery system, have been shown to deliver macromolecules into the skin. Investigation of the delivery mechanism of interferon alpha (IFN {alpha}), as a model protein, by biphasic vesicles could improve understanding of molecular transport through the stratum corneum and allow for the design of more effective delivery systems. The interaction of biphasic vesicles with human skin and isolated stratum corneum membrane was investigated by confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS). Confocal microscopy revealed that biphasic vesicles delivered IFN {alpha} intercellularly, to a depth of 70 {micro}m, well below the stratum corneum and into the viable epidermis. DSC and SAXS/WAXS data suggest that the interaction of biphasic vesicles with SC lipids resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional cubic Pn3m polymorphic phase by the molecular rearrangement of intercellular lipids. This cubic phase could be an intercellular permeation nanopathway that may explain the increased delivery of IFN {alpha} by biphasic vesicles. Liposomes and submicrometer emulsion (the individual building blocks of biphasic vesicles) separately and methylcellulose gel, an alternative topical vehicle, did not induce a cubic phase and delivered low amounts of IFN {alpha} below the stratum corneum. Molecular modeling of the cubic Pn3m phase and lamellar-to-cubic phase transitions provides a plausible mechanism for transport of IFN {alpha}. It is hypothesized that induction of a Pn3m cubic phase in stratum corneum lipids could make dermal and transdermal delivery of other macromolecules also possible.

  18. The better, the bigger: The effect of graded positive performance feedback on the reward positivity.

    PubMed

    Frömer, Romy; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study on skill acquisition in a computerized throwing task, we examined the effect of graded correct-related performance feedback on the reward positivity of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Theories of reinforcement learning predict effects of reward magnitude and expectancy on the reward prediction error. The later is supposed to be reflected in reward positivity, a fronto-central ERP component. A sample of 68 participants learned to throw at a beamer-projected target disk while performance accuracy, displayed as the place of impact of the projectile on the target, served as graded feedback. Effects of performance accuracy in successful trials, hit frequency, and preceding trial performance on reward positivity were analyzed simultaneously on a trial-by-trial basis by means of linear mixed models. In accord with previous findings, reward positivity increased with feedback about more accurate performance. This relationship was not linear, but cubic, with larger impact of feedback towards the end of the accuracy distribution. In line with being a measure of expectancy, the reward positivity decreased with increasing hit frequency and was larger after unsuccessful trials. The effect of hit frequency was more pronounced following successful trials. These results indicate a fast trial-by-trial adaptation of expectation. The results confirm predictions of reinforcement learning theory and extend previous findings on reward magnitude to the area of complex, goal directed skill acquisition. PMID:26756995

  19. The better, the bigger: The effect of graded positive performance feedback on the reward positivity.

    PubMed

    Frömer, Romy; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study on skill acquisition in a computerized throwing task, we examined the effect of graded correct-related performance feedback on the reward positivity of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Theories of reinforcement learning predict effects of reward magnitude and expectancy on the reward prediction error. The later is supposed to be reflected in reward positivity, a fronto-central ERP component. A sample of 68 participants learned to throw at a beamer-projected target disk while performance accuracy, displayed as the place of impact of the projectile on the target, served as graded feedback. Effects of performance accuracy in successful trials, hit frequency, and preceding trial performance on reward positivity were analyzed simultaneously on a trial-by-trial basis by means of linear mixed models. In accord with previous findings, reward positivity increased with feedback about more accurate performance. This relationship was not linear, but cubic, with larger impact of feedback towards the end of the accuracy distribution. In line with being a measure of expectancy, the reward positivity decreased with increasing hit frequency and was larger after unsuccessful trials. The effect of hit frequency was more pronounced following successful trials. These results indicate a fast trial-by-trial adaptation of expectation. The results confirm predictions of reinforcement learning theory and extend previous findings on reward magnitude to the area of complex, goal directed skill acquisition.

  20. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  1. Serial position effects in implicit and explicit tests of memory.

    PubMed

    Gershberg, F B; Shimamura, A P

    1994-11-01

    The effects of serial position at study on implicit and explicit tests of memory were investigated. Both primary and recency effects were observed in implicit tests of word-stem completion. These effects, however, were transient. No serial position effects were found in the second half of testing (Experiments 1 and 3) or when testing followed a 1-min, filled delay (Experiment 2). Serial position effects were also examined in explicit tests of cued recall. When performance on explicit cued recall was below ceiling levels, a primacy effect persisted throughout testing (Experiment 3). Similarly, in explicit tests of free recall, primacy effects were consistently observed, both with immediate testing (Experiments 1 and 3) and when testing followed a filled delay (Experiment 2).

  2. Serial Position and Isolation Effects in a Classroom Lecture Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Oaster, Thomas R.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evidence of the existence of serial position and isolation effects in a classroom lecture simulation involving extended meaningful discourse. Isolating an item facilitated learning of that item. (Author/DEP)

  3. Within-List Serial Position Effects in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorfein, David S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The present article reports six studies that both extend the range of conditions that produce within-list serial position effects and attempt to unravel three possible theoretical explanations for these functions. (Editor)

  4. Biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms in artificial hydrogel cartilage: A review.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Teruo; Yarimitsu, Seido; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Sawae, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Various studies on the application of artificial hydrogel cartilage to cartilage substitutes and artificial joints have been conducted. It is expected in clinical application of artificial hydrogel cartilage that not only soft-elastohydrodynamic lubrication but biphasic, hydration, gel-film and boundary lubrication mechanisms will be effective to sustain extremely low friction and minimal wear in daily activities similar to healthy natural synovial joints with adaptive multimode lubrication. In this review article, the effectiveness of biphasic lubrication and boundary lubrication in hydrogels in thin film condition is focused in relation to the structures and properties of hydrogels. As examples, the tribological behaviors in three kinds of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with high water content are compared, and the importance of lubrication mechanism in biomimetic artificial hydrogel cartilage is discussed to extend the durability of cartilage substitute.

  5. Biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms in artificial hydrogel cartilage: A review.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Teruo; Yarimitsu, Seido; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sakai, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Sawae, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Various studies on the application of artificial hydrogel cartilage to cartilage substitutes and artificial joints have been conducted. It is expected in clinical application of artificial hydrogel cartilage that not only soft-elastohydrodynamic lubrication but biphasic, hydration, gel-film and boundary lubrication mechanisms will be effective to sustain extremely low friction and minimal wear in daily activities similar to healthy natural synovial joints with adaptive multimode lubrication. In this review article, the effectiveness of biphasic lubrication and boundary lubrication in hydrogels in thin film condition is focused in relation to the structures and properties of hydrogels. As examples, the tribological behaviors in three kinds of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with high water content are compared, and the importance of lubrication mechanism in biomimetic artificial hydrogel cartilage is discussed to extend the durability of cartilage substitute. PMID:26614800

  6. A primacy effect in monkeys when list position is relevant.

    PubMed

    Buffalo, B; Gaffan, D; Murray, E A

    1994-11-01

    In Experiment 1 (1a and 1b), Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned lists of two-choice visual discriminations in which list position was relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus A was the rewarded stimulus if it was presented at List Position 1, but was not rewarded if it was presented at any other position in the list; similarly, Stimulus B was rewarded only at List Position 2, and so on. In learning these lists, all animals showed a marked primacy effect. In Experiment 2 (2a and 2b), Rhesus monkeys and Cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) learned lists of visual discriminations in which each visual stimulus occupied a fixed position in a list, but list position was not relevant to discrimination performance. For example, Stimulus E was always rewarded, and was always presented at List Position 1. To increase the salience of list beginning as a distinctive event, successive presentations of the list were separated by 24-hr intervals. In Experiment 2 there was no primacy effect, however. These results show for the first time that a primacy effect can be obtained in visual discrimination learning by monkeys. Furthermore, they suggest that it is obtained only when list position is relevant to the discrimination learning task.

  7. Biphasic influence of dexamethasone exposure on embryonic vertebrate skeleton development

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Jian-long; Ma, Zheng-lai; Zhang, Zhao-long; Lv, Shun; Mai, Dong-mei; Liu, Jia-jia; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wan, Chao; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-11-15

    increased in mesenchymal cell mass treated by low concentration of Dex. Mmp-13 expression was obviously up-regulated by Dex in both mesenchymal cells and primary chondrocyte cultures. And Col10a1 expression was also increased by Dex exposure in chondrocyte. In summary, we have revealed that different concentrations of Dex exposure during early gestation could exert a biphasic effect on vertebrate skeletal development. - Highlights: • Chick embryos occurred shortening of the long bone following Dex exposure. • Dex suppressed chondrocytes proliferation and promoted apoptosis. • Dex exposure decreased ALP production and up-regulated Runx-2 and Mmp-13. • Dex exhibited biphasic effects on chondrogenic proliferation and nodule formation. • The hypertrophy and ossification were accelerated by Dex both in vivo and in vitro.

  8. Serial position effects in social transmission of food preference.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Maldonado, C Edith; Ortega-Saavedra, Guadalupe; Huichan-Olivares, Francisco; Gómez-Romero, José; Cruz-Morales, Sara E; Arriaga-Ramírez, J C Pedro

    2006-11-01

    The serial position effect in Long-Evans rats was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the effect in a group for which an interstimulus interval (ISI) was introduced between items in a list of demonstrators was compared with that in a group without an ISI. With an ISI, a recency effect was produced. In Experiment 2, a serial position effect group was compared with four groups in which either the distinctiveness or the context of the middle item was changed, relative to the items on either side of it. A von Restorff effect was produced when a rat from a different strain was used as a demonstrator in Position 2. The results for Experiment 1 are discussed in relation to interstimulus effects in monkeys and those for Experiment 2 with respect to changes in the physical properties of middle items.

  9. Biphasic changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion in humans after exercise.

    PubMed

    Dohm, G L; Israel, R G; Breedlove, R L; Williams, R T; Askew, E W

    1985-05-01

    We previously reported that 3-methylhistidine excretion was increased in human subjects after a strenuous bout of exercise. Because other investigators have not corroborated this finding, we undertook the present study to investigate the conditions that result in decreased and increased 3-methylhistidine excretion in human subjects after exercise. Four experiments were performed: a cross-sectional study comparing 3-methylhistidine excretion in endurance-trained subjects with untrained controls, a longitudinal study of 3-methylhistidine excretion by female basketball players before the start of the season and again during the competitive season, an experiment to determine changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion as a result of 2 h of exercise each day for 7 consecutive days, and a study to determine changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion during 4-h intervals after a strenuous exercise bout. The 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was approximately 20% higher for trained than nontrained subjects. In three separate experiments a biphasic change of 3-methylhistidine excretion was observed in response to exercise with an immediate decrease in the 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio during exercise followed by a prolonged increase. The magnitudes of the negative and positive responses determine whether one observes an increase, no change, or a decrease in the total daily excretion of 3-methylhistidine.

  10. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    PubMed

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  11. Elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 by controlling its release from a nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Saed; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-01-01

    15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has a dual action of stimulating anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation when exogenously administered at high doses. However, at lower doses, it can be toxic inducing opposite actions, ie, stimulation of both inflammation and cell proliferation. This biphasic phenomenon of 15d-PGJ2 is believed to be due to its multitarget behavior. In this study, we provide a strategy for controlling such biphasic pharmacodynamics by separating its dual actions while retaining the beneficial one by using a nanoemulsion (NE). The 15d-PGJ2 was encapsulated in the NE composed of triolein/distearoyl phosphatidylcholine/Tween 80 at a high encapsulation ratio (>83%). Furthermore, NE enhanced drug retention by slowing down its release rate, which was, unconventionally, inversely dependent on the total surface area of the NE system. Next, focusing on the biphasic effect on cell proliferation, we found that the 15d-PGJ2-loaded slow-release NE showed only a dose-dependent inhibition of the viability of a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, although a fast-release NE as well as free 15d-PGJ2 exerted a biphasic effect. The observed slow-release kinetics are believed to be responsible for elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 mainly for two reasons: 1) a high proportion of 15d-PGJ2 that is retained in the NE was delivered to the cytosol, where proapoptotic targets are located and 2) 15d-PGJ2 was able to bypass cell membrane-associated targets that lead to the induction of cellular proliferation. Collectively, our strategy of eliminating the 15d-PGJ2-induced biphasic pharmacodynamics was based on the delivery of 15d-PGJ2 to its desired site of action, excluding undesired sites, on a subcellular level. PMID:27354798

  12. Stoichiometric implications of a biphasic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Berven, Keith A; Carmack, Douglas J; Capps, Krista A

    2016-03-01

    Animals mediate flows of elements and energy in ecosystems through processes such as nutrient sequestration in body tissues, and mineralization through excretion. For taxa with biphasic life cycles, the dramatic shifts in anatomy and physiology that occur during ontogeny are expected to be accompanied by changes in body and excreta stoichiometry, but remain little-explored, especially in vertebrates. Here we tested stoichiometric hypotheses related to the bodies and excreta of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) across life stages and during larval development. Per-capita rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion varied widely during larval ontogeny, followed unimodal patterns, and peaked midway through development (Taylor-Kollros stages XV and XII, respectively). Larval mass did not increase steadily during development but peaked at stage XVII and declined until the termination of the experiment at stage XXII. Mass-specific N and P excretion rates of the larvae decreased exponentially during development. When coupled with population-biomass estimates, population-level excretion rates were greatest at stages VIII-X. Percent carbon (C), N, and C:N of body tissue showed weak trends across major life stages; body P and C:P, however, increased sixfold during development from egg to adult. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific ontogenic changes in nutrient contents of excretion and body tissues can be significant, and that N and P are not always excreted proportionally throughout life cycles. These results highlight the dynamic roles that species play in ecosystems, and how the morphological and physiological changes that accompany ontogeny can influence ecosystem-level processes.

  13. A biphasic mercury-ion sensor: exploiting microfluidics to make simple anilines competitive ligands.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Martin; Eschenbaum, Carsten; Schwaebel, S Thimon; Broedner, Kerstin; Lemmer, Uli; Hamburger, Manuel; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-10-01

    Combining the molecular wire effect with a biphasic sensing approach (analyte in water, sensor-dye in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran) and a microfluidic flow setup leads to the construction of a mercury-sensitive module. We so instantaneously detect Hg(2+) ions in water at a 500 μM concentration. The sensor, conjugated non-water soluble polymer 1 (XFPF), merely supports dibutylaniline substituents as binding units. Yet, selective and sensitive detection of Hg(2+) -ions is achieved in water. The enhancement in sensory response, when comparing the reference compound 2 to that of 1 in a biphasic system in a microfluidic chip is >10(3) . By manipulation of the structure of 1, further powerful sensor systems should be easily achieved. PMID:26387876

  14. Microstructure Evolution of Biphasic TiNi1+ x Sn Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Nisha; Douglas, Jason E.; Krämer, Stephan; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram; Levi, Carlos G.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of thermal treatment on the microstructure of biphasic materials comprising half-Heusler (hH) and full-Heusler (fH) phases, as well as on their associated thermal conductivity, are discussed. The focus of this study was on a biphasic hH/fH alloy of nominal stoichiometry TiNi1.2Sn, synthesized by containerless (magnetic levitation) induction melting. The alloy samples were exposed to various heat treatments to generate microstructures containing second-phase precipitates ranging in size from ~10 nm to a few micrometers. The materials were characterized with regard to morphology, size, shape, and orientation relationship of the fH and hH phases, both of which were present as precipitates within larger regions of the counterpart phase. The solidification path of the alloy and its implications for the subsequent microstructure evolution during heat treatment were elucidated, and relationships with the ensuing thermal conductivity were characterized.

  15. Aging and emotional memory: cognitive mechanisms underlying the positivity effect.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Julia; Voss, Andreas; Grady, Cheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Younger adults tend to remember negative information better than positive or neutral information (negativity bias). The negativity bias is reduced in aging, with older adults occasionally exhibiting superior memory for positive, as opposed to negative or neutral, information (positivity bias). Two experiments with younger (N=24 in Experiment 1, N=25 in Experiment 2; age range: 18-35 years) and older adults (N=24 in both experiments; age range: 60-85 years) investigated the cognitive mechanisms responsible for age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional information. Results from diffusion model analyses (R. Ratcliff, 1978) indicated that the effects of valence on response bias were similar in both age groups but that Age x Valence interactions emerged in memory retrieval. Specifically, older adults experienced greater overall familiarity for positive items than younger adults. We interpret this finding in terms of an age-related increase in the accessibility of positive information in long-term memory. PMID:19140656

  16. Effective Family Position and Likelihood of Becoming an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Mahbubon N.; Bhatia, Pritam S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses effective family position as a new variable developed to measure the effect of birth order and childhood home environment on the likelihood of becoming an alcoholic. Constructs of fixation and regression may also be helpful in differentiating two types of alcoholism. (JAC)

  17. The Effects of Positive Peer Reporting on Children's Social Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Kristyn B.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of structured peer praise on the social involvement of 3 socially withdrawn children. Each child's teacher implemented Positive Peer Reporting (PPR), which consisted of rewarding classmates for publicly praising the social behavior of the participant during brief, daily sessions. Results indicated that PPR was effective for…

  18. A Phenomenological Model of the Electrically Stimulated Auditory Nerve Fiber: Temporal and Biphasic Response Properties.

    PubMed

    Horne, Colin D F; Sumner, Christian J; Seeber, Bernhard U

    2016-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The model reproduces the probabilistic and temporal properties of the ANF response to both monophasic and biphasic stimuli, in isolation. The main contribution of the model lies in its ability to reproduce statistics of the ANF response (mean latency, jitter, and firing probability) under both monophasic and cathodic-anodic biphasic stimulation, without changing the model's parameters. The response statistics of the model depend on stimulus level and duration of the stimulating pulse, reproducing trends observed in the ANF. In the case of biphasic stimulation, the model reproduces the effects of pseudomonophasic pulse shapes and also the dependence on the interphase gap (IPG) of the stimulus pulse, an effect that is quantitatively reproduced. The model is fitted to ANF data using a procedure that uniquely determines each model parameter. It is thus possible to rapidly parameterize a large population of neurons to reproduce a given set of response statistic distributions. Our work extends the stochastic leaky integrate and fire (SLIF) neuron, a well-studied phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated neuron. We extend the SLIF neuron so as to produce a realistic latency distribution by delaying the moment of spiking. During this delay, spiking may be abolished by anodic current. By this means, the probability of the model neuron responding to a stimulus is reduced when a trailing phase of opposite polarity is introduced. By introducing a minimum wait period that must elapse before a spike may be emitted, the model is able to reproduce the differences in the threshold level observed in the ANF for monophasic and biphasic stimuli. Thus, the ANF response to a large variety of pulse shapes are reproduced correctly by this model.

  19. A Phenomenological Model of the Electrically Stimulated Auditory Nerve Fiber: Temporal and Biphasic Response Properties

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Colin D. F.; Sumner, Christian J.; Seeber, Bernhard U.

    2016-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers (ANFs). The model reproduces the probabilistic and temporal properties of the ANF response to both monophasic and biphasic stimuli, in isolation. The main contribution of the model lies in its ability to reproduce statistics of the ANF response (mean latency, jitter, and firing probability) under both monophasic and cathodic-anodic biphasic stimulation, without changing the model's parameters. The response statistics of the model depend on stimulus level and duration of the stimulating pulse, reproducing trends observed in the ANF. In the case of biphasic stimulation, the model reproduces the effects of pseudomonophasic pulse shapes and also the dependence on the interphase gap (IPG) of the stimulus pulse, an effect that is quantitatively reproduced. The model is fitted to ANF data using a procedure that uniquely determines each model parameter. It is thus possible to rapidly parameterize a large population of neurons to reproduce a given set of response statistic distributions. Our work extends the stochastic leaky integrate and fire (SLIF) neuron, a well-studied phenomenological model of the electrically stimulated neuron. We extend the SLIF neuron so as to produce a realistic latency distribution by delaying the moment of spiking. During this delay, spiking may be abolished by anodic current. By this means, the probability of the model neuron responding to a stimulus is reduced when a trailing phase of opposite polarity is introduced. By introducing a minimum wait period that must elapse before a spike may be emitted, the model is able to reproduce the differences in the threshold level observed in the ANF for monophasic and biphasic stimuli. Thus, the ANF response to a large variety of pulse shapes are reproduced correctly by this model. PMID:26903850

  20. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  1. A nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model for articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on articular cartilage have shown nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the solid phase. The aim of this study was to propose a nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model that combines the intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix with a nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive equation. The proposed equation satisfies objectivity and reduces for uniaxial loading to a solid type viscous model in which the actions of the springs are represented by the hyperelastic function proposed by Holmes and Mow [1990. J. Biomechanics 23, 1145-1156.]. Results of the model, that were efficiently implemented in an updated Lagrangian algorithm, were compared with experimental infinitesimal data reported by DiSilverstro and Suh [2001. J. Biomechanics 34, 519-525.] and showed acceptable fitting for the axial force (R(2)=0.991) and lateral displacement (R(2)=0.914) curves in unconfined compression as well as a good fitting of the axial indentation force curve (R(2)=0.982). In addition, the model showed an excellent fitting of finite-deformation confined compression stress relaxation data reported by Ateshian et al. [1997. J. Biomechanics 30, 1157-1164.] and Huang et al. [2005. J. Biomechanics 38, 799-809.] (R(2)=0.993 and R(2)=0.995, respectively). The constitutive equation may be used to represent the mechanical behavior of the proteoglycan matrix in a fiber reinforced model of articular cartilage.

  2. A nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model for articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on articular cartilage have shown nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the solid phase. The aim of this study was to propose a nonlinear biphasic viscohyperelastic model that combines the intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix with a nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive equation. The proposed equation satisfies objectivity and reduces for uniaxial loading to a solid type viscous model in which the actions of the springs are represented by the hyperelastic function proposed by Holmes and Mow [1990. J. Biomechanics 23, 1145-1156.]. Results of the model, that were efficiently implemented in an updated Lagrangian algorithm, were compared with experimental infinitesimal data reported by DiSilverstro and Suh [2001. J. Biomechanics 34, 519-525.] and showed acceptable fitting for the axial force (R(2)=0.991) and lateral displacement (R(2)=0.914) curves in unconfined compression as well as a good fitting of the axial indentation force curve (R(2)=0.982). In addition, the model showed an excellent fitting of finite-deformation confined compression stress relaxation data reported by Ateshian et al. [1997. J. Biomechanics 30, 1157-1164.] and Huang et al. [2005. J. Biomechanics 38, 799-809.] (R(2)=0.993 and R(2)=0.995, respectively). The constitutive equation may be used to represent the mechanical behavior of the proteoglycan matrix in a fiber reinforced model of articular cartilage. PMID:16316659

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  4. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  5. Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Tumas, William; Johnston, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

  6. Position Effects in Choice From Simultaneous Displays: A Conundrum Solved.

    PubMed

    Bar-Hillel, Maya

    2015-07-01

    From drop-down computer menus to department-store aisles, people in everyday life often choose from simultaneous displays of products or options. Studies of position effects in such choices show seemingly inconsistent results. For example, in restaurant choice, items enjoy an advantage when placed at the beginning or end of the menu listings, but in multiple-choice tests, answers are more popular when placed in the middle of the offered list. When reaching for a bottle on a supermarket shelf, bottles in the middle of the display are more popular. But on voting ballots, first is the most advantageous position. Some of the effects are quite sensible, whereas others are harder to justify and can aptly be regarded as biases. This article attempts to put position effects into a unified and coherent framework and to account for them simply by using a small number of familiar psychological principles.

  7. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  8. Biphasic nanoparticles made by electrified jetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahann, Joerg

    2005-03-01

    Nano-colloids have recently attracted intense attention due to unique properties that are distinctly different from bulk solid-state materials; including unique magnetic, electronic, optical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The vision that these nano-objects could essentially act as functional components in novel device generations, which ``magically'' assemble following a master blueprint void any human manipulation, has resulted in a new ``gold rush'' in materials science. These concepts have results in the synthesis of a multitude of nano-objects, such as nano-wires, nano-rods, nano-disks, or nano-prisms.^ Recently, nano-particles with anisotropic materials distributions (biphasic nano-particles) moved in the focus of research. Our approach differs fundamentally from the above-mentioned methods in that it takes advantage of electrified polymer jets to create anisotropic materials distributions in nano-objects. jetting is a process to generate liquid jets by use of electrostatic forces. It is well-known that high electrical potentials (typically several thousand volts) applied between the jetting liquids that are fed through a capillary and a collecting substrate will induce jetting of a charged liquid. The differences in the final morphologies from similar processes are mainly determined by the properties of the jetting liquids and the process parameters. transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate the applicability of the process to control size, shape, and materials distribution at the nanoscale. The resulting anisotropic nanoparticles may have potential applications for targeted drug delivery or as electro-rehological fluids. a) F. M. Van der Kooij, K. Kassapidou and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, Liquid crystal phase transitions in suspensions of polydisperse plate-like particles, Nature 406, 868 (2000); b) C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic and J. J. Storhoff, A DNA

  9. INVESTIGATION OF AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS FOR THE SEPARATIONS OF LIGNINS FROM CELLULOSE IN THE PAPER PULPING PROCESS. (R826732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In efforts to apply a polymer-based aqueous biphasic system (ABS) extraction to the paper pulping process, the study of the distribution of various lignin and cellulosic fractions in ABS and the effects of temperature on system composition and solute partitioning have been inv...

  10. Effect of The Swimmer's Head Position on Passive Drag.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer's head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer's head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body's horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4-5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer's arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4-10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer's arms above the swimmer's head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer's head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding.

  11. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingen; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-09-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated.

  12. Comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for biphasic contact problems

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Wilcox, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage plays an important role in the function of diarthrodial joints. Computational methods have been used to study the biphasic mechanics of cartilage, and Abaqus has been one of the most widely used commercial software packages for this purpose. A newly developed open-source finite element solver, FEBio, has been developed specifically for biomechanical applications. The aim of this study was to undertake a direct comparison between FEBio and Abaqus for some practical contact problems involving cartilage. Three model types, representing a porous flat-ended indentation test, a spherical-ended indentation test, and a conceptual natural joint contact model, were compared. In addition, a parameter sensitivity study was also performed for the spherical-ended indentation test to investigate the effects of changes in the input material properties on the model outputs, using both FEBio and Abaqus. Excellent agreement was found between FEBio and Abaqus for all of the model types and across the range of material properties that were investigated. PMID:23804955

  13. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of HbO2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain can be used for age determination of bloodstains. In this study, we further analyze the conversion of HbO2 to met-Hb and HC, and determine the effect of temperature and humidity on the conversion rates. Methodology The fractions of HbO2, met-Hb and HC in a bloodstain, as determined by quantitative analysis of optical reflectance spectra (450–800 nm), were measured as function of age, temperature and humidity. Additionally, Optical Coherence Tomography around 1300 nm was used to confirm quantitative spectral analysis approach. Conclusions The oxidation rate of HbO2 in bloodstains is biphasic. At first, the oxidation of HbO2 is rapid, but slows down after a few hours. These oxidation rates are strongly temperature dependent. However, the oxidation of HbO2 seems to be independent of humidity, whereas the transition of met-Hb into HC strongly depends on humidity. Knowledge of these decay rates is indispensable for translating laboratory results into forensic practice, and to enable bloodstain age determination on the crime scene. PMID:21789186

  14. Pauses and durations exhibit a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Karl; Lawrence, Holly; Krohn, Talia; Bower, Katherine; Thomas, J Graham

    2005-02-01

    This article reports evidence of two kinds of serial position effects in immediate serial recall: One involves interresponse pauses, and the other response durations. In forward and backward recall, responding was faster at initial and final positions than at center positions, exhibitinga bow-shaped function relative to serial position. These data were obtained in a spoken recall study in which ungrouped lists of four to six words and postcuing of recall direction were used. The pause pattern is consistent with several models of serial memory, including a distinctiveness model (Brown, Neath, & Chater, 2002) and a version of the ACT-R model augmented with a spontaneous grouping strategy (Maybery, Parmentier, & Jones, 2002). The duration pattern suggests that response articulation depends on the processing context, rather than being modular.

  15. Histone Gene Multiplicity and Position Effect Variegation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gerald D.; Sinclair, Donald A.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    The histone genes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster are reiterated 100–150 times per haploid genome and are located in the segment of chromosome 2 that corresponds to polytene bands 39D2-3 to E1-2. The influence of altered histone gene multiplicity on chromatin structure has been assayed by measuring modification of the gene inactivation associated with position effect variegation in genotypes bearing deletions of the 39D-E segment. The proportion of cells in which a variegating gene is active is increased in genotypes that are heterozygous for a deficiency that removes the histone gene complex. Deletions that remove segments adjacent to the histone gene complex have no effect on the expression of variegating genes. Suppression of position effect variegation associated with reduction of histone gene multiplicity applies to both X-linked and autosomal variegating genes. Position effects exerted by both autosomal and sex-chromosome heterochromatin were suppressible by deletions of the histone gene complex. The suppression was independent of the presence of the Y chromosome. A deficiency that deletes only the distal portion of the histone gene complex also has the ability to suppress position effect variegation. Duplication of the histone gene complex did not enhance position effect variegation. Deletion or duplication of the histone gene complex in the maternal genome had no effect on the extent of variegation in progeny whose histone gene multiplicity was normal. These results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the organization of the histone gene complex and control of its expression. PMID:17246163

  16. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W.

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  17. Biphasic solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit with distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Parrozzani, Raffaele; Fusetti, Stefano; Montesco, Cristina; Favero, Vittorio; Midena, Edoardo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to report the first case of biphasic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the orbit with documented histological transformation and metastatic diffusion. We describe a case of a 23-year-old Caucasian man with recurrent SFT of the right orbit with intracranial invasion. The patient underwent surgical tumor removal via a right fronto-orbital approach. Histopathological examination showed a biphasic tumor pattern with both spindle cell and epithelioid components. The histopathological re-evaluation of previously removed lesions (1999 and 2004) confirmed the diagnosis of SFT, without any evidence of epithelioid component at that time. The patient developed local recurrence and systemic metastases (occipital foramen and clivus, paravertebral muscles and peritoneum) three years after surgery. We are unaware of previous reports of biphasic solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit with documented histological transformation and metastatic diffusion.

  18. The Effect of Positive Reinforcement on Students in Juvenile Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Vincent

    This thesis details a program of teacher-reinforced behaviors for juveniles convicted of a felony and incarcerated at the West Virginia Industrial Home for Youth (WVIHY). The goal was to determine an effective way to control behaviors of incarcerated youth in an educational setting by use of a positive reinforcement program: "Keys to Innervision."…

  19. Divergent Effects of Different Positive Emotions on Moral Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohminger, Nina; Lewis, Richard L.; Meyer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Positive emotions are often treated as relatively similar in their cognitive-behavioral effects, and as having unambiguously beneficial consequences. For example, Valdesolo and DeSteno (2006) reported that a humorous video made people more prone to choose a utilitarian solution to a moral dilemma. They attributed this finding to increased positive…

  20. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  1. In vitro and in vivo studies of three dimensional porous composites of biphasic calcium phosphate/poly ɛ-caprolactone: Effect of bio-functionalization for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Kyung-A.; Jyoti, Md. Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2014-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and poly ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) each have many applications as tissue repair materials. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) PCL infiltrated BCP scaffold was prepared. This composite was further modified and bio-functionalized for bone tissue engineering by subsequent amination and immobilization technique using silicon (Si) and fibronectin (FN) on the surfaces (BCP/PCL + Si and BCP/PCL + Si + FN). In this study, such 3D porous scaffolds were evaluated for bone formation applicability. In vitro studies by immunocytochemistry showed cell morphology and adherence on these scaffolds. Interconnected networks like appearance of tubulin and vinculin expression were notably higher in BCP/PCL + Si and BCP/PCL + Si + FN scaffold surfaces than BCP/PCL surfaces. The scaffolds were also investigated detailed and quantitatively using micro-CT tomography for the repair of bone defects (4 mm diameter) in rats. Micro-CT tomography showed the BCP/PCL + Si + FN scaffolds were almost replaced by newly grown bone within 12 weeks after surgery, suggesting that they have an especially strong capacity for osteogenesis, mineralization, and biodegradation for bone replacement.

  2. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27660729

  3. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  4. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  5. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gleason, James Benjamin; Tashtoush, Basheer; Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27660729

  6. The Theory Behind the Age-Related Positivity Effect

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    The “positivity effect” refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people. PMID:23060825

  7. [Positive feedback is not fully effective in all situations].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Kazuho; Horishita, Tomoko; Kanayama, Masaki

    2013-02-01

    This experimental study investigated how leader-member exchange (LMX) and positive feedback pertinent to the goal is related to subordinates' responsibility, assessment of their supervisors, and feeling of being implicitly scolded, to elaborate and confirm the findings of Bezuijen et al. (2010). We hypothesized that positive feedback pertinent to the goal would be more effective compared to unrelated feedback. Secondly, we hypothesized that this effect would be moderated by the quality of LMX. Undergraduate students (29 male, 51 female; 20.4 +/- .63 yrs) participated as subordinates in an experiment consisting of two sessions. The results supported our hypotheses. We found that the positive feedback pertinent to the goal led to increased levels of responsibility. This effect was greater under high-quality LMX conditions, but was inhibited under low-quality LMX conditions. In the high-quality LMX condition, subordinates who did not get any feedback decreased their responsibility, gave lower supervisor assessment ratings, and felt more strongly scolded than under conditions where they received feedback. We discussed the importance of the combination of the quality of the relationship and positive feedback related to the goal, and provided directions for future research.

  8. Postantibiotic effect of ceftaroline against gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of ceftaroline, a novel injectable cephalosporin, were determined for 15 gram-positive organisms. The pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAEs were 0.8 to 1.8 h, 0.7 to 2.2 h, and 0.2 to 1.1 h, respectively. The corresponding PA-SMEs (0.4 times the MIC) were 2.5 to 6.7 h, 2.9 to >0.0 h, and 7.9 to >10.3 h, respectively. The PA-SMEs were longer than the PAEs, suggesting that sub-MIC levels extend the PAE of ceftaroline against gram-positive cocci.

  9. Testing a positional model of the Hebb effect.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Nick; Page, Mike; Norris, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that a strengthening of position-item associations underlies the improvement seen in performance on an immediate serial recall task, for a list that is surreptitiously repeated every third trial. Having established a strong effect of repetition, performance was tested on transfer lists in which half the items held the same position as in the repeated list (S-items) and the remainder moved (D-items). In Experiment 1, S-items showed a small advantage in order errors over control and D-items. A second experiment tested whether a design feature in Experiment 1 underlay this advantage. When the experimental design was better controlled, no improvement was shown for either S- or D-items over controls. These data were shown to be inconsistent with the results of computer simulations of a positional model. An alternative model is outlined.

  10. Asymmetric effects of positive and negative affect on decision making.

    PubMed

    Cahir, Caitriona; Thomas, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Although affect is a fundamental element of decision making, there are different theoretical accounts and conflicting empirical evidence of its influence. This experiment was done to begin a more coherent account of the influence of affect by using standardised images to induce affect and a betting task to measure decision making. Eighty-five participants were assigned to a positive, a negative, or a neutral affect condition before making decisions on two hypothetical horse races. Analysis indicated that those in the positive and negative conditions made lower-risk decisions than those in the neutral condition; however, this did not differ between the races, suggesting that task familiarity did not moderate the influence of affect. Contrary to previous research, these results indicate that positive and negative affect do not necessarily exert symmetrical effects on decision making. Implications for the major accounts of the influence of affect on decision making are discussed in relation to the findings.

  11. Distinctiveness and serial position effects in tonal sequences.

    PubMed

    Surprenant, A M

    2001-05-01

    The proportion-of-the-total-duration rule (Kidd & Watson, 1992) states that the detectability of a change in a component of a tonal sequence can be predicted by the proportional duration of the changed component relative to the length of the sequence as a whole. A similar viewpoint relies on temporal distinctiveness to account for primacy, recency, and other serial position effects in memory (Murdock, 1960; Neath, 1993a, 1993b). Such distinctiveness models predict that an item will be remembered if it is more distinctive along some dimension relative to possible competitors. Three experiments explored the relation between distinctiveness and proportional duration by examining the effects of the proportion of the total duration of a tone in a sequence, serial position, and interstimulus interval (ISI) on the detection of a change in one component of a tonal sequence. Experiment 1 replicated the basic effect with relatively untrained subjects and a fixed frequency difference. Experiment 2 showed that distinctiveness holds for tonal sequences and a same/different task. Experiment 3 combined the two to show that proportional duration, ISI, and position of the changed tone all contribute to discrimination performance. The present research combines theories that have been proposed in the psychophysics and memory fields and suggests that a comprehensive principle based on relative distinctiveness may be able to account for both perceptual and memory effects.

  12. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  13. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W

    2006-02-21

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.

  14. The Innuendo Effect: Hearing the Positive but Inferring the Negative

    PubMed Central

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Speakers can convey mixed impressions by providing only positive information. As a series of studies shows, when communicators omit information on a salient, relevant dimension of social perception, listeners make negative inferences about the target on that omitted dimension, despite directly receiving only positive information on another dimension (Studies 1 and 2a). These negative inferences mediated the effect of the innuendo manipulation on judgments about the target person's suitability for inclusion in one's group. Simulating communication, Study 2b participants read Study 2a's descriptions and showed this innuendo effect is stronger for descriptions of female as opposed to male targets in an academic domain. We discuss implications of innuendo for the communication and perpetuation of mixed impressions and their prevalence in descriptions of subordinate group members. PMID:26023243

  15. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG)/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50) and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D. PMID:27186543

  16. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG)/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50) and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal-bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal-bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D. PMID:27186543

  17. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    PubMed

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items. PMID:22339312

  18. Parafoveal preview during reading: Effects of sentence position

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah J.; Warren, Tessa; Reichle, Erik D.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined parafoveal preview for words located in the middle of sentences and at sentence boundaries. Parafoveal processing was shown to occur for words at sentence-initial, mid-sentence, and sentence-final positions. Both Experiments 1 and 2 showed reduced effects of preview on regressions out for sentence-initial words. In addition, Experiment 2 showed reduced preview effects on first-pass reading times for sentence-initial words. These effects of sentence position on preview could result from reduced parafoveal processing for sentence-initial words, or other processes specific to word reading at sentence boundaries. In addition to the effects of preview, the experiments also demonstrate variability in the effects of sentence wrap-up on different reading measures, indicating that the presence and time course of wrap-up effects may be modulated by text-specific factors. We also report simulations of Experiment 2 using version 10 of E-Z Reader (Reichle, Warren, & McConnell, 2009), designed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying parafoveal preview at sentence boundaries. PMID:21500948

  19. Biphasic forearm vascular responses to intraarterial arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S; Takeshita, A; Imaizumi, T; Hirooka, Y; Yoshida, M; Ando, S; Nakamura, M

    1989-01-01

    Forearm vascular responses to arginine vasopressin (AVP) infused into a brachial artery in a wide range of infusion rates (0.05-2.0 ng/kg per min) were examined in 20 young healthy volunteers. Intraarterial AVP at lower doses (0.05 and 0.1 ng/kg per min) caused forearm vasoconstriction, whereas AVP at a dose of 0.2 ng/kg per min or higher caused forearm vasodilatation. The maximal forearm vasoconstriction was induced at the venous plasma AVP level of 76.3 +/- 8.8 pg/ml. Forearm vasodilatation was associated with the venous plasma AVP level of 369 +/- 43 pg/ml or higher. Forearm vasodilatation was the result of the direct effect of AVP since forearm blood flow and vascular resistance in the contralateral arm did not change. We attempted to explore the mechanisms involved in AVP-induced direct vasodilatation. The treatment with indomethacin, 75 mg/d for 3 d, did not alter AVP-induced forearm vasodilatation. In contrast, intraarterial infusion of isoosmolar CaCl2 totally prevented AVP-induced forearm vasodilatation. Intra-arterial CaCl2 also markedly attenuated forearm vasodilatation induced by intraarterial sodium nitroprusside, but did not alter forearm vasodilatation induced by intraarterial isoproterenol. These results indicate that the direct vascular effects of intra-arterial AVP on the forearm vessels are biphasic, causing vasoconstriction at lower doses and vasodilatation at higher doses. The direct vasodilatation induced by intraarterial AVP at higher doses is not mediated by prostaglandins but may involve cGMP-related mechanisms. PMID:2547832

  20. Effects of market position and competition on rural hospital closures.

    PubMed Central

    Succi, M J; Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dynamic effects of competition and hospital market position on rural hospital closures. DATA SOURCE/STUDY SETTING: Analysis of all rural community hospitals operating between 1984 and 1991, with the exception of sole-provider hospitals. Data for the study are obtained from four sources: the AHA Annual Surveys of Hospitals, the HCFA Cost Reports, the Area Resource File, and a hospital address file constructed by Geographic Inc. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Variables are merged to construct pooled, time-series observations for study hospitals. Hospital closure is specified as a function of hospital market position, market level competition, and control variables. Discrete-time logistic regressions are used to test hypotheses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rural hospitals operating in markets with higher density had higher risk of closure. Rural hospitals that differentiated from others in the market on the basis of geographic distance, basic services, and high-tech services had lower risks of closure. Effects of market density on closure disappeared when market position was included in the model, indicating that differentiation in markets should be taken into account when evaluating the effects of competition on rural hospital closure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that rural hospitals can reduce competitive pressures through differentiation and that accurate measures of competition in geographically defined market areas are critical for understanding competitive dynamics among rural hospitals. PMID:9018211

  1. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  2. The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. K.; Kar, S.; Goswami, K. S.

    2012-10-15

    The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

  3. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2011-02-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.

  4. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  5. Effect of positive pleural pressure on left ventricular performance

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, T.K.; Karam, M.; Wise, R.; Wagner, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    A sudden increase in pleural pressure such as coughing or a valsalva maneuver causes a transient increase in left ventricular stroke volume but the mechanism is not known. To help understand this phenomenon we studied 7 normal volunteers during spontaneous breathing and when breathing under positive pleural pressure. The positive pressure was developed by expiring against a 24cm H/sub 2/O threshold load. Radionuclide ventriculopgraphy using a double gating technique as performed. Image data were acquired during the cardiac cycles occurring during positive pleural pressure by means of a pressure transducer coupled to an EKG gate. They were compared to data acquired by EKG gating alone under quiet respiration as control. Results are shown for end diastolic (EDC), end systolic (ESC) and stroke counts (SC) and are expressed as % change from control for each parameter. The authors conclude that a transient increase in positive pleural pressure comparable to that reached during forceful coughing increases stroke volume and cardiac output through a combination of increased end diastolic volume with a lesser increase in end systolic volume. This effect was seen in the absence of any change in cardiac rhythm or rate.

  6. Conjugation position of quercetin glucuronides and effect on biological activity.

    PubMed

    Day, A J; Bao, Y; Morgan, M R; Williamson, G

    2000-12-15

    Quercetin glycosides are common dietary antioxidants. In general, however, potential biological effects of the circulating plasma metabolites (e.g., glucuronide conjugates) have not been measured. We have determined the rate of glucuronidation of quercetin at each position on the polyphenol ring by human liver cell-free extracts containing UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. The apparent affinity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase followed the order 4'- > 3'- > 7- > 3, although the apparent maximum rate of formation was for the 7-position. The 5-position did not appear to be a site for conjugation. After isolation of individual glucuronides, the inhibition of xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase were assessed. The K(i) for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by quercetin glucuronides followed the order 4'- > 3'- > 7- > 3-, with quercetin-4'-glucuronide a particularly potent inhibitor (K(i) = 0. 25 microM). The glucuronides, with the exception of quercetin-3-glucuronide, were also inhibitors of lipoxygenase. Quercetin glucuronides are metabolites of quercetin in humans, and these compounds can retain some biological activity depending on conjugation position at expected plasma concentrations. PMID:11118813

  7. Advanced glycation end products biphasically modulate bone resorption in osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziqing; Li, Chaohong; Zhou, Yuhuan; Chen, Weishen; Luo, Guotian; Zhang, Ziji; Wang, Haixing; Zhang, Yangchun; Xu, Dongliang; Sheng, Puyi

    2016-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) disturb bone remodeling during aging, and this process is accelerated in diabetes. However, their role in modulation of osteoclast-induced bone resorption is controversial, with some studies indicating that AGEs enhance bone resorption and others showing the opposite effect. We determined whether AGEs present at different stages of osteoclast differentiation affect bone resorption differently. Based on increased levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K (CTSK), we identified day 4 of induction as the dividing time of cell fusion stage and mature stage in RAW264.7 cell-derived osteoclast-like cells (OCLs). AGE-modified BSA (50-400 μg/ml) or control BSA (100 μg/ml) was then added at the beginning of each stage. Results showed that the presence of AGEs at the cell fusion stage reduced pit numbers, resorption area, and CTSK expression. Moreover, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) as well as the number of TRAP-positive cells, nuclei per OCL, actin rings, and podosomes also decreased. However, the presence of AGEs at the mature stage enlarged the resorption area markedly and increased pit numbers slightly. Intriguingly, only the number of nuclei per OCL and podosomes increased. These data indicate that AGEs biphasically modulate bone resorption activity of OCLs in a differentiation stage-dependent manner. AGEs at the cell fusion stage reduce bone resorption dramatically, mainly via suppression of RANK expression in osteoclast precursors, whereas AGEs at the mature stage enhance bone resorption slightly, most likely by increasing the number of podosomes in mature OCLs.

  8. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingli; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-04-01

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in β-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than β-TCP.

  9. Serial-position effects in motor short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Magill, R A; Dowel, M N

    1977-12-01

    This study examined the effect of the length of a series of movements on the recall of those movements. Subjects (n = 45) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups with each group recalling either three, six, or nine movements on a linear-slide apparatus. The subjects, while blindfolded, were presented with each movement by actively moving to a stop. Recall occurred 5 sec after the last movement to a stop on a trial. All subjects were given nine trials, each containing a different series of to-be-recalled movements. Results indicated that absolute error of recall of the three movements increased in a linear fashion. However, for six and nine movements, a bowing effect of the recall curve was noted following the fifth position. A primacy effect was more evident than was a recency effect. Accuracy of recall was a function of list length up to six movements, after which accuracy was not further impaired.

  10. Serial position effects in recall of television commercials.

    PubMed

    Terry, W Scott

    2005-04-01

    Does the position of a television commercial in a block of commercials determine how well it will be recalled? The findings of naturalistic studies can be affected by uncontrolled presentation, viewing, and retention variables. In the present article, college students viewed lists of 15 commercials in a laboratory simulation and recalled the product brand names. In an immediate test, the first commercials in a list were well recalled (a primacy effect), as were the last items (a recency effect), in comparison with the recall of middle items. In an end-of-session test, the primacy effect persisted, but the recency effect disappeared. Embedding lists within a television program again produced better recall of the first items during end-of-session tests of recall and recognition. These results offered convergent validity for the naturalistic studies of commercial memory, and they supported the usefulness of combining laboratory and field methods to answer questions about everyday memory.

  11. Differential Biphasic Transcriptional Host Response Associated with Coevolution of Hemagglutinin Quasispecies of Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Himanshu; Seidel, Nora; Blaess, Markus F; Claus, Ralf A; Linde, Joerg; Slevogt, Hortense; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Severe influenza associated with strong symptoms and lung inflammation can be caused by intra-host evolution of quasispecies with aspartic acid or glycine in hemagglutinin position 222 (HA-222D/G; H1 numbering). To gain insights into the dynamics of host response to this coevolution and to identify key mechanisms contributing to copathogenesis, the lung transcriptional response of BALB/c mice infected with an A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate consisting HA-222D/G quasispecies was analyzed from days 1 to 12 post infection (p.i). At day 2 p.i. 968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. The DEG number declined to 359 at day 4 and reached 1001 at day 7 p.i. prior to recovery. Interestingly, a biphasic expression profile was shown for the majority of these genes. Cytokine assays confirmed these results on protein level exemplarily for two key inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 6. Using a reverse engineering strategy, a regulatory network was inferred to hypothetically explain the biphasic pattern for selected DEGs. Known regulatory interactions were extracted by Pathway Studio 9.0 and integrated during network inference. The hypothetic gene regulatory network revealed a positive feedback loop of Ifng, Stat1, and Tlr3 gene signaling that was triggered by the HA-G222 variant and correlated with a clinical symptom score indicating disease severity.

  12. Differential Biphasic Transcriptional Host Response Associated with Coevolution of Hemagglutinin Quasispecies of Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Himanshu; Seidel, Nora; Blaess, Markus F; Claus, Ralf A; Linde, Joerg; Slevogt, Hortense; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Severe influenza associated with strong symptoms and lung inflammation can be caused by intra-host evolution of quasispecies with aspartic acid or glycine in hemagglutinin position 222 (HA-222D/G; H1 numbering). To gain insights into the dynamics of host response to this coevolution and to identify key mechanisms contributing to copathogenesis, the lung transcriptional response of BALB/c mice infected with an A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate consisting HA-222D/G quasispecies was analyzed from days 1 to 12 post infection (p.i). At day 2 p.i. 968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. The DEG number declined to 359 at day 4 and reached 1001 at day 7 p.i. prior to recovery. Interestingly, a biphasic expression profile was shown for the majority of these genes. Cytokine assays confirmed these results on protein level exemplarily for two key inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 6. Using a reverse engineering strategy, a regulatory network was inferred to hypothetically explain the biphasic pattern for selected DEGs. Known regulatory interactions were extracted by Pathway Studio 9.0 and integrated during network inference. The hypothetic gene regulatory network revealed a positive feedback loop of Ifng, Stat1, and Tlr3 gene signaling that was triggered by the HA-G222 variant and correlated with a clinical symptom score indicating disease severity. PMID:27536272

  13. Differential Biphasic Transcriptional Host Response Associated with Coevolution of Hemagglutinin Quasispecies of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Himanshu; Seidel, Nora; Blaess, Markus F.; Claus, Ralf A.; Linde, Joerg; Slevogt, Hortense; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Severe influenza associated with strong symptoms and lung inflammation can be caused by intra-host evolution of quasispecies with aspartic acid or glycine in hemagglutinin position 222 (HA-222D/G; H1 numbering). To gain insights into the dynamics of host response to this coevolution and to identify key mechanisms contributing to copathogenesis, the lung transcriptional response of BALB/c mice infected with an A(H1N1)pdm09 isolate consisting HA-222D/G quasispecies was analyzed from days 1 to 12 post infection (p.i). At day 2 p.i. 968 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected. The DEG number declined to 359 at day 4 and reached 1001 at day 7 p.i. prior to recovery. Interestingly, a biphasic expression profile was shown for the majority of these genes. Cytokine assays confirmed these results on protein level exemplarily for two key inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 6. Using a reverse engineering strategy, a regulatory network was inferred to hypothetically explain the biphasic pattern for selected DEGs. Known regulatory interactions were extracted by Pathway Studio 9.0 and integrated during network inference. The hypothetic gene regulatory network revealed a positive feedback loop of Ifng, Stat1, and Tlr3 gene signaling that was triggered by the HA-G222 variant and correlated with a clinical symptom score indicating disease severity. PMID:27536272

  14. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  15. Positive Effects of Nonnative Invasive Phragmites australis on Larval Bullfrogs

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Mary Alta; Skelly, David Kiernan

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on native wildlife, a view based primarily on observational results. We took an experimental approach to test this assumption, estimating the effects of nonnative Phragmites australis on a native amphibian. Methodology/Principal Findings Concurrent common garden and reciprocal transplant field experiments revealed consistently strong positive influences of Phragmites on Rana catesbeiana (North American bullfrog) larval performance. Decomposing Phragmites litter appears to contribute to the effect. Conclusions/Significance Positive effects of Phragmites merit further research, particularly in regions where both Phragmites and R. catesbeiana are invasive. More broadly, the findings of this study reinforce the importance of experimental evaluations of the effects of biological invasion to make informed conservation and restoration decisions. PMID:22952976

  16. Composition during serial learning: a serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Frensch, P A

    1994-03-01

    Composition is a computational learning mechanism that merges serially performed elementary processes into hierarchically organized knowledge structures. The main goals of this research were to explore (a) the role of serial position in composition and (b) the relation between degree of composition and explicit serial recall in serial learning. In 3 experiments, Ss performed a rule-based serial reaction time task in which they had to categorize a sequence of 12 stimuli shown simultaneously on a video monitor. A procedure based on the comparison of reaction times to random sequences and a repeating sequence identified a serial position effect of composition that was, however, moderated by Ss' explicit, postexperimental recall of the repeating sequence. A production-system-based computational model of composition is described that qualitatively reproduces the empirical findings. Implications for the mechanisms governing serial learning are discussed.

  17. Contextual variability and serial position effects in free recall.

    PubMed

    Howard, M W; Kahana, M J

    1999-07-01

    In immediate free recall, words recalled successively tend to come from nearby serial positions. M. J. Kahana (1996) documented this effect and showed that this tendency, which the authors refer to as the lag recency effect, is well described by a variant of the search of associative memory (SAM) model (J. G. W. Raaijmakers & R. M. Shiffrin, 1980, 1981). In 2 experiments, participants performed immediate, delayed, and continuous distractor free recall under conditions designed to minimize rehearsal. The lag recency effect, previously observed in immediate free recall, was also observed in delayed and continuous distractor free recall. Although two-store memory models, such as SAM, readily account for the end-of-list recency effect in immediate free recall, and its attenuation in delayed free recall, these models fail to account for the long-term recency effect. By means of analytic simulations, the authors show that both the end of list recency effect and the lag recency effect, across all distractor conditions, can be explained by a single-store model in which context, retrieved with each recalled item, serves as a cue for subsequent recalls.

  18. The Effects of Positive Peer Reporting as a Class-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2007-01-01

    School-wide, selective, and individual positive behavioral supports are critical elements of a comprehensive, tiered model of service delivery. Positive peer reporting (PPR) involves brief, highly structured sessions during which peers are provided the opportunity to praise the behavior of target students. PPR procedures were modified in this…

  19. Patient position alters attenuation effects in multipinhole cardiac SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, Rachel; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Dedicated cardiac cameras offer improved sensitivity over conventional SPECT cameras. Sensitivity gains are obtained by large numbers of detectors and novel collimator arrangements such as an array of multiple pinholes that focus on the heart. Pinholes lead to variable amounts of attenuation as a source is moved within the camera field of view. This study evaluated the effects of this variable attenuation on myocardial SPECT images. Methods: Computer simulations were performed for a set of nine point sources distributed in the left ventricular wall (LV). Sources were placed at the location of the heart in both an anthropomorphic and a water-cylinder computer phantom. Sources were translated in x, y, and z by up to 5 cm from the center. Projections were simulated with and without attenuation and the changes in attenuation were compared. A LV with an inferior wall defect was also simulated in both phantoms over the same range of positions. Real camera data were acquired on a Discovery NM530c camera (GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel) for five min in list-mode using an anthropomorphic phantom (DataSpectrum, Durham, NC) with 100 MBq of Tc-99m in the LV. Images were taken over the same range of positions as the simulations and were compared based on the summed perfusion score (SPS), defect width, and apparent defect uptake for each position. Results: Point sources in the water phantom showed absolute changes in attenuation of ≤8% over the range of positions and relative changes of ≤5% compared to the apex. In the anthropomorphic computer simulations, absolute change increased to 20%. The changes in relative attenuation caused a change in SPS of <1.5 for the water phantom but up to 4.2 in the anthropomorphic phantom. Changes were larger for axial than for transverse translations. These results were supported by SPS changes of up to six seen in the physical anthropomorphic phantom for axial translations. Defect width was also seen to significantly increase. The

  20. InCl3-catalyzed conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in biphasic system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Sun, Jiankui; Yi, Yuxuan; Li, Mingfei; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2014-11-01

    InCl3, a water-compatible Lewis acid, was used for the conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a H2O/THF biphasic system. Addition of NaCl increased the HMF yield significantly but suppressed the levulinic acid (LA) formation. The HMF yield of 39.7% was obtained in 2h at 200°C in the NaCl-H2O/THF catalytic system catalyzed by InCl3. The catalytic system also showed effectiveness to convert other carbohydrates to HMF, including glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, which demonstrated great potential towards different feedstocks.

  1. Determinants of positive and negative generation effects in free recall.

    PubMed

    Steffens, M C; Erdfelder, E

    1998-11-01

    Better retention of self-produced as opposed to experimenter-presented material is called generation effect; the reverse phenomenon is the negative generation effect. Both are found in intentional-learning experiments in which generating versus reading is manipulated between subjects. The present article presents an overview of those findings and aims at clarifying the conditions under which these effects emerge. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that if cue-target relations are manipulated within one list, a negative generation effect in free recall can be obtained for all items, no matter which cue-target relation they bear. In Experiment 3, cue-target relations were manipulated between lists. Here, a negative generation effect in free recall was found only in lists in which items were cued with words that mismatched the inter-target relations, whereas a positive generation effect was observed in those lists in which the generation cues matched the inter-target relations. A subsequent cued-recall test demonstrated that in cases of mismatch of relations, participants in the generate condition process cue-target relations at the expense of inter-target relations. The three-factor theory can be integrated with the task-demand account in a transfer-appropriate processing framework to accommodate these findings. PMID:9854440

  2. Serial position effects in recognition memory for odors: a reexamination.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher; Hodder, Kathryn

    2005-10-01

    Seven experiments examined recognition memory for sequentially presented odors. Following Reed (2000), participants were presented with a sequence of odors and then required to identify an odor from the sequence in a test probe comprising 2 odors. The pattern of results obtained by Reed (2000, although statistically marginal) demonstrated enhanced recognition for odors presented at the start (primacy) and end (recency) of the sequence: a result that we failed to replicate in any of the experiments reported here. Experiments 1 and 3 were designed to replicate Reed (2000), employing five-item and seven-item sequences, respectively, and each demonstrated significant recency, with evidence of primacy in Experiment 3 only. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1, with reduced interstimulus intervals, and produced a null effect of serial position. The ease with which the odors could be verbally labeled was manipulated in Experiments 4 and 5. Nameable odors produced a null effect of serial position (Experiment 4), and hard-to-name odors produced a pronounced recency effect (Experiment 5); nevertheless, overall rates of recognition were remarkably similar for the two experiments at around 70%. Articulatory suppression reduced recognition accuracy (Experiment 6), but recency was again present in the absence of primacy. Odor recognition performance was immune to the effects of an interleaved odor (Experiment 7), and, again, both primacy and recency effects were absent. There was no evidence of olfactory fatigue: Recognition accuracy improved across trials (Experiment 1). It is argued that the results of the experiments reported here are generally consistent with that body of work employing hard-to-name visual stimuli, where recency is obtained in the absence of primacy when the retention interval is short.

  3. [Caloric restriction: about its positive metabolic effects and cellular impact].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction, as a 30 to 60% decrease of ad libitum balanced caloric intake, without malnutrition, is the non-genetic strategy that has consistently extended the average and maximum lifespan of most living beings, and it has been tested from unicellular organisms like yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Rhesus primates. In addition, various genetic and pharmacological caloric restriction models have shown to protect against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Primate studies suggest that this intervention delays the onset of age-related diseases; in humans, it has physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects decreasing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Although currently the mechanism by which caloric restriction has its positive effects at the cellular level is unknown, it has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and increase in mitochondrial biogenesis.

  4. Positive effects of vegetation: urban heat island and green roofs.

    PubMed

    Susca, T; Gaffin, S R; Dell'osso, G R

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 °C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO(2) equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role.

  5. [Caloric restriction: about its positive metabolic effects and cellular impact].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction, as a 30 to 60% decrease of ad libitum balanced caloric intake, without malnutrition, is the non-genetic strategy that has consistently extended the average and maximum lifespan of most living beings, and it has been tested from unicellular organisms like yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Rhesus primates. In addition, various genetic and pharmacological caloric restriction models have shown to protect against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Primate studies suggest that this intervention delays the onset of age-related diseases; in humans, it has physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects decreasing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Although currently the mechanism by which caloric restriction has its positive effects at the cellular level is unknown, it has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25125067

  6. Mutual positive effects between shrubs in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Reyes; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Pugnaire, Francisco I.

    2015-01-01

    One-way facilitation in plants has been found in many harsh environments and their role as structural forces governing species composition in plant communities is now well established. However, reciprocal positive effects benefiting two interacting species have seldom been reported and, in recent reviews, conceptually considered merely as facilitation when in fact there is room for adaptive strategies and evolutionary responses. We tested the existence of such reciprocal positive effects in an arid environment in SE Spain using spatial pattern analysis, a species removal experiment, and a natural experiment. We found that the spatial association between Maytenus senegalensis and Whitania frutescens, two shrub species of roughly similar size intimately interacting in our community, resulted in mutual benefit for both species. Benefits included improved water relations and nutritional status and protection against browsing, and did occur despite simultaneous competition for resources. Our data suggest two-way facilitation or, rather, a facultative mutualism among higher plant species, a process often overlooked which could be a main driver of plant community dynamics allowing for evolutionary processes. PMID:26419958

  7. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, M.; Umathum, R.; Sikora, J.; Brenner, S.; Aguor, E. N.; Semmler, W.

    2006-02-01

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m-1 gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved. This paper has been presented in parts at the 11th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in Toronto, 2003.

  8. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. PMID:25573419

  9. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    PubMed

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  10. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process. PMID:26843320

  11. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  12. Online Epileptic Seizure Prediction Using Wavelet-Based Bi-Phase Correlation of Electrical Signals Tomography.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Zahra; Amirfattahi, Rasoul; Shayegh, Farzaneh; Ghassemi, Fahimeh

    2015-09-01

    Considerable efforts have been made in order to predict seizures. Among these methods, the ones that quantify synchronization between brain areas, are the most important methods. However, to date, a practically acceptable result has not been reported. In this paper, we use a synchronization measurement method that is derived according to the ability of bi-spectrum in determining the nonlinear properties of a system. In this method, first, temporal variation of the bi-spectrum of different channels of electro cardiography (ECoG) signals are obtained via an extended wavelet-based time-frequency analysis method; then, to compare different channels, the bi-phase correlation measure is introduced. Since, in this way, the temporal variation of the amount of nonlinear coupling between brain regions, which have not been considered yet, are taken into account, results are more reliable than the conventional phase-synchronization measures. It is shown that, for 21 patients of FSPEEG database, bi-phase correlation can discriminate the pre-ictal and ictal states, with very low false positive rates (FPRs) (average: 0.078/h) and high sensitivity (100%). However, the proposed seizure predictor still cannot significantly overcome the random predictor for all patients. PMID:26126613

  13. Primary Esophageal Extranasal NK/T Cell Lymphoma With Biphasic Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi-Yin; Cao, Qing-Hua; Liu, Fang; Lu, Xiao-Fang; Li, Shu-Rong; Li, Chang-Zhao; Chen, Shao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report a case of esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma with biphasic morphologic features revealed by a deep large piecemeal biopsy. A 40-year-old man present with pharyngalgia, dysphagia, recurrent fever, and 5-kg weight loss for 8 months. Endoscopy demonstrated progressing longitudinal ulcers and mucosal bridges along the esophagus. The first and second biopsies obtained superficial mucosa with scattered bland-looking small lymphocytes. A subsequent large piecemeal snare abscission for biopsy showed atypical lymphoid cells infiltrating into the deep lamina propria and muscularis mucosae, whereas the superficial lamina propria was highly edematous with scant small lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that both underlying atypical cells and superficial small lymphocytes were neoplastic, sharing an identical immunophenotype: positive for CD2, CD3, CD43, CD8, CD56, TIA-1 and granzyme B. Epstein-Barr virus–encoded small RNAs were found in both cells. The histologic findings were diagnostic of primary esophageal extranasal NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the patient developed bone marrow depression during chemotherapy and died of massive cerebral hemorrhage after the first cycle of chemotherapy. Primary esophageal extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma nasal type is extremely rare. We show the biphasic morphology of this disease, which highlights the importance of deep biopsy for accurate diagnosis. PMID:26181557

  14. Different patterns of gene silencing in position-effect variegation.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Vett K; Dyment, David; Sinclair, Donald A R; Grigliatti, Thomas A

    2003-12-01

    Position-effect variegation (PEV) results when a fully functional gene is moved from its normal position to a position near to a broken heterochromatic-euchromatic boundary. In this new position, the gene, while remaining unaltered at the DNA level, is transcriptionally silenced in some cells but active in others, producing a diagnostic mosaic phenotype. Many variegating stocks show phenotypic instability, in that the level of variegation is dramatically different in different isolates or when out crossed. To test if this phenotypic instability was due to segregation of spontaneously accumulated mutations that suppress variegation, four different and well-characterized strains showing PEV for the white+ gene (wm4, wmMc, wm51b, and wmJ) and representing both large and small spot variegators were repeatedly out crossed to a strain free of modifiers, and the phenotypes of these variegators were monitored for 30 generations. Once free of modifiers, these variegating strains were then allowed to reaccumulate modifiers. The spontaneous suppressors of variegation were found to include both dominant and recessive, autosomal and X-linked alleles selected to reduce the detrimental effects of silencing white+ and adjacent genes. The time of peak sensitivity to temperature during development was also determined for these four variegators. Although large and small spot variegators have previously been attributed to early and late silencing events, respectively, the variegators we examined all shared a common early period of peak sensitivity to temperature. Once free of their variegation suppressors, the different variegating strains showed considerable differences in the frequency of inactivation at a cellular level (the number of cells showing silencing of a given gene) and the extent of variegation within the cell (the number of silenced genes). These results suggest that large and small spot variegation may be a superficial consequence of spontaneous variegation suppressors

  15. Bioabsorbable zinc ion induced biphasic cellular responses in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Bioabsorbable metal zinc (Zn) is a promising new generation of implantable scaffold for cardiovascular and orthopedic applications. In cardiovascular stent applications, zinc ion (Zn2+) will be gradually released into the surrounding vascular tissues from such Zn-containing scaffolds after implantation. However, the interactions between vascular cells and Zn2+ are still largely unknown. We explored the short-term effects of extracellular Zn2+ on human smooth muscle cells (SMCs) up to 24 h, and an interesting biphasic effect of Zn2+ was observed. Lower concentrations (<80 μM) of Zn2+ had no adverse effects on cell viability but promoted cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell proliferation, cell migration, and enhanced the expression of F-actin and vinculin. Cells treated with such lower concentrations of Zn2+ displayed an elongated shape compared to controls without any treatment. In contrast, cells treated with higher Zn2+ concentrations (80–120 μM) had opposite cellular responses and behaviors. Gene expression profiles revealed that the most affected functional genes were related to angiogenesis, inflammation, cell adhesion, vessel tone, and platelet aggregation. Results indicated that Zn has interesting concentration-dependent biphasic effects on SMCs with low concentrations being beneficial to cellular functions. PMID:27248371

  16. Interleukin-18 Induces Acute Biphasic Reduction in the Levels of Circulating Leukocytes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosohara, Katsushi; Ueda, Haruyasu; Kashiwamura, Shin-Ichiro; Yano, Takako; Ogura, Takeharu; Marukawa, Seishiro; Okamura, Haruki

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the acute hematological changes caused by interleukin-18 (IL-18) in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of IL-18 (2 μg/mouse) resulted in biphasic decreases in the number of leukocytes in the blood. The first phase of decrease occurred within 2 h of IL-18 administration and was followed by a transient increase at 5 h. The second phase of decrease occurred at around 6 h, reaching a nadir which lasted for more than 24 h. In mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the first phase of reduction of leukocytes did not occur although the second phase of decrease was observed. In mice deficient in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or in mice depleted of natural killer cells and incapable of producing IFN-γ, IL-18 had no effect on the number of circulating leukocytes. Levels of nitrite and/or nitrate in the serum were elevated within 2 h after administration of IL-18, reaching a peak at 4 h and then decreasing gradually to the basal level over a 24-h period of time. On the other hand, serum IFN-γ levels changed in a biphasic manner, reaching a peak at 2 h after IL-18 administration, followed by a decrease in the basal level and a second increase at 6 h. Levels of IL-18 receptor mRNAs also showed biphasic changes in correlation with the changes in serum IFN-γ levels. These results suggest that the changes in the leukocyte number following IL-18 administration are mediated by NO and IFN-γ, with NO being involved in the first phase of reduction and IFN-γ being involved in both phases. PMID:12093672

  17. [The detection of biphasic reactivity of the airway by astograph].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Masashi; Kishi, Fujiya; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2010-03-01

    Dose-related curves of the airway responses to Methacholine by Astograph are frequently biphasic. That is, respiratory resistance (Rrs) increases slowly at first and rapidly after that. We proposed (-dGrs/dt)/Grs obtained by using Astograph as an index of dynamic property of the airway, which we suggested was related to a coefficient of the contraction or dilatation of the airway. Grs represents respiratory conductance. By calculating (-dGrs/dt)/Grs, we found that biphasic dose-related curves were composed of the slow and subsequently rapid contraction of the airways. And by mathematical analysis, we found that all segments of the airway contracted simultaneously at a uniform velocity. The combination of slow and rapid contraction explains three types of the airway responses, that is, the monophasic reactivity of the airway with slow contraction, the monophasic reactivity of the airway with rapid contraction and the biphasic reactivity of the airway with slow and subsequently rapid contraction. We found that the frequency of the monophasic reactivity of the airway with slow contraction was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects or in patients with mild asthma. But there was no significant difference in (-dGrs/dt)/Grs values among healthy subjects, patients with mild asthma and patients with COPD.

  18. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C; McNaughter, Paul D; McGettrick, James D; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R; Dunnill, Charles W

    2015-11-14

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with "Janus-like" characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.

  19. Working positively with sexual offenders: maximizing the effectiveness of treatment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, William L; Ward, Tony; Mann, Ruth E; Moulden, Heather; Fernandez, Yolanda M; Serran, Geris; Marshall, Liam E

    2005-09-01

    In this article, the authors draw on literatures outside sexual offending and make suggestions for working more positively and constructively with these offenders. Although the management of risk is a necessary feature of treatment, it needs to occur in conjunction with a strength-based approach. An exclusive focus on risk can lead to overly confrontational therapeutic encounters, a lack of rapport between offenders and clinicians, and fragmented and mechanistic treatment delivery. The authors suggest that the goals of sexual offender treatment should be the attainment of good lives, which is achieved by enhancing hope, increasing self-esteem, developing approach goals, and working collaboratively with the offenders. Examples are provided of how these targets may be met. When this is done within a therapeutic context where the treatment providers display empathy and warmth and are rewarding and directive, the authors suggest that treatment effects will be maximized. PMID:16051729

  20. Targeted transgene integration overcomes variability of position effects in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer Anne; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Slovik, Katherine Joan; Walsh, Kathleen Theodora; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Sanges, Remo; Stupka, Elia; Marsh, Elizabeth Kate; Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius; Müller, Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish transgenesis is increasingly popular owing to the optical transparency and external development of embryos, which provide a scalable vertebrate model for in vivo experimentation. The ability to express transgenes in a tightly controlled spatio-temporal pattern is an important prerequisite for exploitation of zebrafish in a wide range of biomedical applications. However, conventional transgenesis methods are plagued by position effects: the regulatory environment of genomic integration sites leads to variation of expression patterns of transgenes driven by engineered cis-regulatory modules. This limitation represents a bottleneck when studying the precise function of cis-regulatory modules and their subtle variants or when various effector proteins are to be expressed for labelling and manipulation of defined sets of cells. Here, we provide evidence for the efficient elimination of variability of position effects by developing a PhiC31 integrase-based targeting method. To detect targeted integration events, a simple phenotype scoring of colour change in the lens of larvae is used. We compared PhiC31-based integration and Tol2 transgenesis in the analysis of the activity of a novel conserved enhancer from the developmentally regulated neural-specific esrrga gene. Reporter expression was highly variable among independent lines generated with Tol2, whereas all lines generated with PhiC31 into a single integration site displayed nearly identical, enhancer-specific reporter expression in brain nuclei. Moreover, we demonstrate that a modified integrase system can also be used for the detection of enhancer activity in transient transgenesis. These results demonstrate the power of the PhiC31-based transgene integration for the annotation and fine analysis of transcriptional regulatory elements and it promises to be a generally desirable tool for a range of applications, which rely on highly reproducible patterns of transgene activity in zebrafish. PMID:24449846

  1. Partition of fine particles in aqueous biphase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xi

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems. In the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/salt/H2O system, it was found that pyrite partition was highly dependent upon pH conditions: at high pH the particles preferred the salt-rich (bottom) phase, while they moved to the polymer-rich (top) phase at low pH. This behavior is attributable to the different surface oxidation products associated with the pH variations: formation of FeOOH in alkaline solution, and a hydrophobic iron-deficient product (Fe 1-xS2) in acidic environment. The partitioning behavior of oxide particles (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O 3, SiO2, TiO2) in the PEG/Na2SO 4/H2O system indicated that, in the absence of polymer-solid interaction, the surface hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties determined solid partition; otherwise, the specific polymer-solid interaction dominated the distribution of the solid particles. Aside from the polymer/salt aqueous biphase systems, the partitioning behavior of hematite and silica was also investigated in polymer/polymer (PEG/dextran) and polymer/nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100 (TX100

  2. Positioning the Co-op Program for Maximum Marketing Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ronald R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the concept of positioning, which is the way that individuals perceive and are made aware of a program and believe in its benefit to them and its application to cooperative education programs. Includes a five-step plan for assessing the position of cooperative programs and six ways to implement a positioning strategy. (JOW)

  3. A Biphasic Multiscale Study of the Mechanical Microenvironment of Chondrocytes within Articular Cartilage under Unconfined Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongqiang; Maher, Suzanne A.; Torzilli, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Computational analyses have been used to study the biomechanical microenvironment of the chondrocyte that cannot be assessed by in vitro experimental studies; yet all computational studies thus far have focused on the effect of zonal location (superficial, middle, and deep) on the mechanical microenvironment of chondrocytes. The aim of this paper was to study the effect of both zonal and radial locations on the biomechanical microenvironment of chondrocytes in inhomogeneous cartilage under unconfined stress relaxation. A biphasic multiscale approach was employed and nine chondrocytes in different locations were studied. Hyperelastic biphasic theory and depth-dependent aggregate modulus and permeability of articular cartilage were included in the models. It was found that both zonal and radial locations affected the biomechanical stresses and strains of the chondrocytes. Chondrocytes in the mid-radial location had increased volume during the early stage of the loading process. Maximum principal shear stress at the interface between the chondrocyte and the extracellular matrix (ECM) increased with depth, yet that at the ECM-pericellular matrix (PCM) interface had an inverse trend. Fluid pressure decreased with depth, while the fluid pressure difference between the top and bottom boundaries of the microscale model increased with depth. Regardless of location, fluid was exchanged between the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM. These findings suggested that even under simple compressive loading conditions, the biomechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes, PCM and ECM were spatially dependent. The current study provides new insight on chondrocyte biomechanics. PMID:24882738

  4. The positive effect of skin transpiration in peach fruit growth.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca

    2010-09-01

    The effect of fruit transpiration on the mechanisms driving peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) daily growth was investigated. In peach, fruit water losses increase during the season and might play a key role in determining fruit growth. Skin transpiration was reduced during the cell expansion stage by enclosing fruit in plastic bags fitted with holes. In the first year, diameter changes of bagged and control fruit were precisely monitored for 15 days, and percentage dry matter and soluble solids content were determined during the experiment and at harvest. In the second year, midday fruit water potential, daily patterns of fruit growth and of vascular and transpiration flows were monitored. Bagging reduced fruit daily growth on some days, and negatively affected both fruit dry matter percentage and soluble solids content. Fruit transpiration rate was reduced during the midday hours, thus increasing midday fruit water potential and lowering xylem inflows. In accordance with the Münch hypothesis on traslocation, these conditions likely decreased the necessary gradient needed for the transport of phloem sap to sink organs, as in the afternoon, bagged fruit showed lower phloem inflows. These data suggest that skin transpiration in peach has a positive effect on fruit growth, as it enhances fruit phloem import.

  5. Prioritizing positivity: an effective approach to pursuing happiness?

    PubMed

    Catalino, Lahnna I; Algoe, Sara B; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2014-12-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit.

  6. On the appropriateness of modelling brain parenchyma as a biphasic continuum.

    PubMed

    Tavner, A C R; Roy, T Dutta; Hor, K W W; Majimbi, M; Joldes, G R; Wittek, A; Bunt, S; Miller, K

    2016-08-01

    Computational methods originally developed for analysis in engineering have been applied to the analysis of biological materials for many years. One particular application of these engineering tools is the brain, allowing researchers to predict the behaviour of brain tissue in various traumatic, surgical and medical scenarios. Typically two different approaches have been used to model deformation of brain tissue: single-phase models which treat the brain as a viscoelastic material, and biphasic models which treat the brain as a porous deformable medium through which liquid can move. In order to model the brain as a biphasic continuum, the hydraulic conductivity of the solid phase is required; there are many theoretical values for this conductivity in the literature, with variations of up to three orders of magnitude. We carried out a series of simple experiments using lamb and sheep brain tissue to establish the rate at which cerebrospinal fluid moves through the brain parenchyma. Mindful of possible variations in hydraulic conductivity with tissue deformation, our intention was to carry out our experiments on brain tissue subjected to minimal deformation. This has enabled us to compare the rate of flow with values predicted by some of the theoretical values of hydraulic conductivity from the literature. Our results indicate that the hydraulic conductivity of the brain parenchyma is consistent with the lowest theoretical published values. These extremely low hydraulic conductivities lead to such low rates of CSF flow through the brain tissue that in effect the material behaves as a single-phase deformable solid. PMID:27136087

  7. Superabsorbent biphasic system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Pandini, Stefano; Baldi, Francesco; Bignotti, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    In this research work, biocomposites based on crosslinked particles of poly(acrylic acid), commonly used as superabsorbent polymer (SAP), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were developed to elucidate the role of the filler (i.e., polymeric crosslinked particles) on the overall physico-mechanical behavior and to obtain superabsorbent thermoplastic products. Samples prepared by melt-blending of components in different ratios showed a biphasic system with a regular distribution of particles, with diameter ranging from 5 to 10 μm, within the PLLA polymeric matrix. The polymeric biphasic system, coded PLASA i.e. superabsorbent poly(lactic acid), showed excellent swelling properties, demonstrating that cross-linked particles retain their superabsorbent ability, as in their free counterparts, even if distributed in a thermoplastic polymeric matrix. The thermal characteristics of the biocomposites evidence enhanced thermal stability in comparison with neat PLLA and also mechanical properties are markedly modified by addition of crosslinked particles which induce regular stiffening effect. Furthermore, in aqueous environments the particles swell and are leached from PLLA matrix generating very high porosity. These new open-pore PLLA foams, produced in absence of organic solvents and chemical foaming agents, with good physico-mechanical properties appear very promising for several applications, for instance in tissue engineering for scaffold production.

  8. Aqueous biphasic microprinting approach to tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tavana, Hossein; Takayama, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    We summarize a recently developed microtechnology for printing biomaterials on biological surfaces. The technique is based on the use of immiscible aqueous solutions of two biopolymers and allows spatially defined placement of cells and biomolecules suspended in the denser aqueous phase on existing cell layers and extracellular matrix hydrogel surfaces maintained in the second phase. Printing takes place due to an extremely small interfacial tension and density difference between the two aqueous phases. The contact-free printing process ensures that both printed cells and the underlying cell monolayer maintain full viability and functionality. The technique accommodates both arbitrarily shaped patterns and microarrays of cells and bioreagents. The capability to print cells and small molecules on existing cell layers enables unique interrogations of the effects of cell-cell and cell-material interaction on cell fate and function. Furthermore, the very gentle conditions and the ability to directly pattern nongel embedded cells over cells make this technology appealing to tissue engineering applications where patterned multicellar organization with minimal scaffolding materials is needed, such as in dense tissues of the skeletal muscle and liver. PMID:21522494

  9. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  10. Effect of stance position on kick performance in taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Isaac; Jandacka, Daniel; Falco, Coral

    2013-01-01

    In taekwondo, the stance position can potentially affect kick performance. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanical variables in the roundhouse kick in taekwondo according to three stance positions (0°, 45°, 90°). Nine experienced taekwondo athletes performed consecutive kicking trials in a random order according to these three relative positions of the feet on the ground. Measurements for the mechanical analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight-camera motion capture system. The taekwondo athletes' reaction and execution times were shorter when starting from the 0° and 45° stance positions than from the 90° position (P < 0.05). Moreover, the ground reaction force was negatively correlated with execution time and positively with velocity of thigh and shank. Our results suggest that the stance position affects the execution technique of taekwondo athletes' kicks. It is suggested that athletes should not adopt the 90° stance position because it will not enable them to achieve the best performance in the roundhouse kick.

  11. Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John S.; White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate

    2009-01-01

    "Positive Unified Behavior Support" (PUBS) is a school-wide intervention designed to establish uniform attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and roles among faculty, staff, and administration. PUBS is grounded in the general principles of positive behavior support and represents a straightforward, practical implementation model. When…

  12. Independence of uniphasic and biphasic audiogenic seizure progressions in mice.

    PubMed

    Reid, H M; Collins, R L

    1989-11-01

    DBA/2J mice were monaurally or binaurally tested for susceptibility to sound-induced seizure. Two seconds following the beginning of running, one group of binaurally tested mice had acoustic stimulation interrupted for 15 s. These mice later seized when the stimulation was readministered. Their seizure progression closely resembled the behavior exhibited by noninterrupted binaurally stimulated mice and did not shift to the biphasic motor pattern of monaurally stimulated subjects. We conclude that the single burst of running of a binaurally tested mouse is qualitatively different from either of the two bursts of running exhibited by monaurally tested mice.

  13. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C.; McNaughter, Paul D.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R.; Dunnill, Charles W.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co

  14. Effects of transducer position on backscattered intensity in coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Brian K; Robertson, Abel L; Maehara, Akiko; Luna, Jorge; Kitamura, Katsuhiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Achalu, Radha; Kirti, Shailaja; Yock, Paul G; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a frequent cause of sudden death, and is typically initiated by the rupture of coronary artery plaques. The likelihood and severity of rupture are influenced by the plaque structures and components. Radiofrequency (RF) intravascular ultrasound (US) (IVUS-RF) measurements extend current IVUS imaging techniques and may eventually enable the in vivo identification of these features. However, IVUS-RF measurements are affected by the transducer's instantaneous position in the vessel. Specifically, backscattered intensity (BI) decreases as either the distance between the tissue and the transducer increases, or as the beam's angle of incidence on the tissue increases. IVUS-RF data were acquired from seven disease-free coronary arteries in vitro. The 0-dB level for BI was defined as the peak intensity of the reflection from a stainless-steel flat reflector at each distance. The baseline BI measured in adventitial tissue was -32.5 dB (at 0 degrees, 0 mm) with angle and distance dependencies of -0.172 dB/ degrees and -3.37 dB/mm. In contrast, the BI from combined intima and media was -38.2 dB with dependencies of -0.111 dB/ degrees and -4.46 dB/mm (p < 0.05 for all three parameters). Acknowledging and compensating for these effects may allow IVUS-RF to develop into a rapidly deployable tool for the clinical detection of vulnerable plaques and to monitor coronary artery disease progression and regression. PMID:11879955

  15. Biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Robert D; Willis, Catherine M; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Klüppel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulfate is a critical component of proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. As such, chondroitin sulfate side chains and the sulfation balance of chondroitin play important roles in the control of signaling pathways, and have a functional importance in human disease. In contrast, very little is known about the roles of chondroitin sulfate molecules and sulfation patterns during mammalian development and cell lineage specification. Here, we report a novel biphasic role of chondroitin sulfate in the specification of the cardiac cell lineage during embryonic stem cell differentiation through modulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Lineage marker analysis demonstrates that enzymatic elimination of endogenous chondroitin sulfates leads to defects specifically in cardiac differentiation. This is accompanied by a reduction in the number of beating cardiac foci. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous chondroitin sulfate controls cardiac differentiation in a temporal biphasic manner through inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, a known regulatory pathway for the cardiac lineage. Treatment with a specific exogenous chondroitin sulfate, CS-E, could mimic these biphasic effects on cardiac differentiation and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. These results establish chondroitin sulfate and its sulfation balance as important regulators of cardiac cell lineage decisions through control of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Our work suggests that targeting the chondroitin biosynthesis and sulfation machinery is a novel promising avenue in regenerative strategies after heart injury.

  16. Design and development of a low-cost biphasic charge-balanced functional electric stimulator and its clinical validation.

    PubMed

    Shendkar, Chandrashekhar; Lenka, Prasanna K; Biswas, Abhishek; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2015-10-01

    Functional electric stimulators that produce near-ideal, charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveforms with interphase delay are considered safer and more efficacious than conventional stimulators. An indigenously designed, low-cost, portable FES device named InStim is developed. It features a charge-balanced biphasic single channel. The authors present the complete design, mathematical analysis of the circuit and the clinical evaluation of the device. The developed circuit was tested on stroke patients affected by foot drop problems. It was tested both under laboratory conditions and in clinical settings. The key building blocks of this circuit are low dropout regulators, a DC-DC voltage booster and a single high-power current source OP-Amp with current-limiting capabilities. This allows the device to deliver high-voltage, constant current, biphasic pulses without the use of a bulky step-up transformer. The advantages of the proposed design over the currently existing devices include improved safety features (zero DC current, current-limiting mechanism and safe pulses), waveform morphology that causes less muscle fatigue, cost-effectiveness and compact power-efficient circuit design with minimal components. The device is also capable of producing appropriate ankle dorsiflexion in patients having foot drop problems of various Medical Research Council scale grades. PMID:26609419

  17. Social Anxiety and Interpretation Bias: Effect of Positive Priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Qian, Mingyi; Yu, Hongyu; Sun, Yang; Li, Songwei; Yang, Peng; Lin, Muyu; Yao, Nishao; Zhang, Xilin

    2016-10-01

    This study examined how positive-scale assessment of ambiguous social stimuli affects interpretation bias in social anxiety. Participants with high and low social anxiety (N = 60) performed a facial expression discrimination task to assess interpretation bias. Participants were then randomly assigned to assess the emotion of briefly presented faces either on a negative or on a positive scale. They subsequently repeated the facial expression discrimination task. Participants with high versus low social anxiety made more negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. However, those in the positive-scale assessment condition subsequently showed reduced negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. These results suggest that interpretation bias in social anxiety could be mediated by positive priming rather than an outright negative bias.

  18. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  19. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered. PMID:22905966

  20. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition.

    PubMed

    Huber, Steven C; Li, Kunzhi; Nelson, Randall; Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health

  1. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    PubMed Central

    Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health

  2. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    PubMed Central

    Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health

  3. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition.

    PubMed

    Huber, Steven C; Li, Kunzhi; Nelson, Randall; Ulanov, Alexander; DeMuro, Catherine M; Baxter, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health

  4. Long-Term Effectiveness and Compliance of Positional Therapy with the Sleep Position Trainer in the Treatment of Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Maanen, J. Peter; de Vries, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate effectiveness, long-term compliance, and effects on subjective sleep of the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) in patients with position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (POSAS). Design: Prospective, multicenter cohort study. Patients or Participants: Adult patients with mild and moderate POSAS were included. Interventions: Patients asked to use the SPT for 6 mo. At baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 mo, questionnaires would be completed: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and questions related to SPT use. Measurements and Results: One hundred forty-five patients were included. SPT use and SPT data could not be retrieved in 39 patients. In the remaining 106 patients, median percentage of supine sleep decreased rapidly during SPT's training phase (day 3 to 9) to near-total avoidance of supine sleep. This decrease was maintained during the following months of treatment (21% at baseline versus 3% at 6 mo). SPT compliance, defined as more than 4 h of nightly use, was 64.4%. Regular use, defined as more than 4 h of usage over 5 nights/w, was 71.2%. Subjective compliance and regular use were 59.8% and 74.4%, respectively. Median ESS (11 to 8), PSQI (8 to 6), and FOSQ (87 to 103) values significantly improved compared with baseline. Conclusions: Positional therapy using the Sleep Position Trainer (SPT) effectively diminished the percentage of supine sleep and subjective sleepiness and improved sleep related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate position-dependent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SPT treatment appeared to have sustained effects over 6 months. SPT compliance and regular use rate were relatively good. Subjective and objective compliance data corresponded well. The lack of a placebo-controlled group limited the efficacy of conclusions. Citation: van Maamen JP, de Vries N. Long-term effectiveness and compliance of positional

  5. Two forms of intergroup discrimination with positive and negative outcomes: explaining the positive-negative asymmetry effect.

    PubMed

    Gardham, K; Brown, R

    2001-03-01

    The minimal group paradigm is widely used for the study of intergroup discrimination. Reliably, group members show in-group favouritism in the allocation of positive outcomes but not in the allocation of negative outcomes. Less frequently investigated has been the withdrawal of positive and negative outcomes in the minimal paradigm. In this minimal group experiment the method of discrimination (allocation vs. withdrawal) and valence of outcomes (positive vs. negative) were combined in a 2 x 2 design (N = 57). Participants showed significant in-group favouritism only in the allocate (+) condition, less in withdrawal (-), and none at all in the remaining two cells (where parity predominated). Measures of subgroup and superordinate category identification paralleled these findings, and their inclusion as covariates in the analyses of favouritism and parity measures eliminated the previously significant interactions, thus implicating recategorization as the process mediating positive-negative asymmetry effects in intergroup discrimination.

  6. Two forms of intergroup discrimination with positive and negative outcomes: explaining the positive-negative asymmetry effect.

    PubMed

    Gardham, K; Brown, R

    2001-03-01

    The minimal group paradigm is widely used for the study of intergroup discrimination. Reliably, group members show in-group favouritism in the allocation of positive outcomes but not in the allocation of negative outcomes. Less frequently investigated has been the withdrawal of positive and negative outcomes in the minimal paradigm. In this minimal group experiment the method of discrimination (allocation vs. withdrawal) and valence of outcomes (positive vs. negative) were combined in a 2 x 2 design (N = 57). Participants showed significant in-group favouritism only in the allocate (+) condition, less in withdrawal (-), and none at all in the remaining two cells (where parity predominated). Measures of subgroup and superordinate category identification paralleled these findings, and their inclusion as covariates in the analyses of favouritism and parity measures eliminated the previously significant interactions, thus implicating recategorization as the process mediating positive-negative asymmetry effects in intergroup discrimination. PMID:11329832

  7. Biphasic behavior of energy in a stepped chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping-Jian, Wang; Ai-Xiang, He; Zhong-Hai, Lin; Guang-Fen, Wei; Yan-Li, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The impact energy decay in a step-up chain containing two sections is numerically studied. There is a marked biphasic behavior of energy decay in the first section. Two sections close to the interface are in compression state. The degree of compression of the first section first decreases and becomes weakest at “crossing” time of biphasic behavior of energy, then increases. The further calculations provide the dependence of the character time on mass ratio (m 1/m 2), where m 1 and m 2 are the particle mass in the first and second section respectively. The bigger the α (α = [(Ωm 1 - m 2)/(Ωm 1 + m 2)]2 with Ω = 1.345), the bigger the energy ratio is. The multipulse structure restricts the transport of energy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61174007 and 61307041) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2013AL014).

  8. Biphasic patterns of diversification and the emergence of modules

    PubMed Central

    Mittenthal, Jay; Caetano-Anollés, Derek; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The intricate molecular and cellular structure of organisms converts energy to work, which builds and maintains structure. Evolving structure implements modules, in which parts are tightly linked. Each module performs characteristic functions. In this work we propose that a module can emerge through two phases of diversification of parts. Early in the first phase of this biphasic pattern, the parts have weak linkage—they interact weakly and associate variously. The parts diversify and compete. Under selection for performance, interactions among the parts increasingly constrain their structure and associations. As many variants are eliminated, parts self-organize into modules with tight linkage. Linkage may increase in response to exogenous stresses as well as endogenous processes. In the second phase of diversification, variants of the module and its functions evolve and become new parts for a new cycle of generation of higher-level modules. This linkage hypothesis can interpret biphasic patterns in the diversification of protein domain structure, RNA and protein shapes, and networks in metabolism, codes, and embryos, and can explain hierarchical levels of structural organization that are widespread in biology. PMID:22891076

  9. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  10. Biphasic Ferrogels for Triggered Drug and Cell Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cezar, Christine A.; Kennedy, Stephen M.; Mehta, Manav; Weaver, James C.; Gu, Luo; Vandenburgh, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Ferrogels are an attractive material for many biomedical applications due to their ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic drugs on-demand. However, typical ferrogels have yet to be optimized for use in cell-based therapies, as they possess limited ability to harbor and release viable cells. Previously, we have demonstrated an active porous scaffold that exhibits large deformations under moderate magnetic fields, resulting in enhanced biological agent release. However, at small device sizes optimal for implantation (e.g., 2 mm thickness), these monophasic ferrogels no longer achieve significant deformation due to a reduced body force. In this study, we present a new biphasic ferrogel containing an iron oxide gradient capable of large deformations and triggered release even at small gel dimensions. Biphasic ferrogels demonstrate increased porosity, enhanced mechanical properties, and potentially increased biocompatibility due to their reduced iron oxide content. With their ability to deliver drugs and cells on-demand, it is expected that these ferrogels will have wide utility in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:24862232

  11. Effects of student ontological position on cognition of human origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervin, Jeremy Alan

    In this study, the narratives from a hermeneutical dialectic cycle of three high school students were analyzed to understand the influences of ontological position on the learning of human origins. The interpretation of the narratives provides the reader an opportunity to consider the learning process from the perspective of worldview and conceptual change theories. Questions guiding this research include: Within a context of a worldview, what is the range of ontological positions among a high school AP biology class? To what extent does ontological position influence the learning of scientific concepts about human origins? If a student's ontological position is contradictory to scientific explanation of human origins, how will learning strategies and motivations change? All consenting students in an AP biology class were interviewed in order to select three students who represented three different ontological positions of a worldview: No Supernatural, Supernatural Without Impact, or Supernatural Impact. The issue of worldview is addressed at length in this work. Consenting students had completed the graduation requirements in biology, but were taking an additional biology course in preparation for college. Enrollment in an AP biology course was assumed to indicate that the selected students have an understanding of the concept of human origins at a comprehensive level, but not necessarily at an apprehension level, both being needed for conceptual change. Examination of the narratives reveals that students may alternate between two ontological positions in order to account for inconsistencies within a situation. This relativity enables the range of ontological positions to vary depending on concepts being considered. Not all Supernatural Impact positions conflict with biological understanding of human origins due to the ability of some to create a dichotomy between religion and school. Any comprehended concepts within this dichotomy lead to plagiaristic knowledge

  12. [Cancer as psychological trauma and its effects on positive illusions].

    PubMed

    Tanyi, Zsuzsanna; Bugán, Antal; Szluha, Kornélia

    2012-01-01

    Cancer as a psychological trauma can result in development of psychopathological disorders (e.g. depression), and also positive changes experienced in numerous domains of life (e.g. greater appreciation of life). Cognitivists tried to explain the potential traumatic impact of the adversities with the phenomenon that most of the people's world concepts are full of positive illusions and they mostly lack the idea that tragedies can occur also with them. However, this naive worldview can be altered by a trauma in a negative way. Moreover, according to the theory of cognitive adaptation certain positive illusions (perception of personal control, self-enhancement, unrealistic optimism, search for meaning) become even more activated by traumatic life events helping the adjustment to the adversity. More recently, researches have succeeded in proving the role of positive illusions in maintaining mental and physical health. The aim of the present study is to review the potential psychological consequences of cancer as a trauma and to display the schema-changes of trauma victims through the phenomenon of positive illusions.

  13. Accentuate the negative: the positive effects of negative acknowledgment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Brenner, Lyle

    2006-11-01

    Three studies investigated the capacity of negative acknowledgment, the admission of an unfavorable quality, to elicit relatively positive responses. In Study 1, an acknowledgment that a written paragraph was confusing led individuals to rate the paragraph as clearer than they did when no acknowledgment was offered. In Study 2, a foreign speaker was rated as possessing a clearer voice when he acknowledged his strong accent than when he did not. In Study 3, a hypothetical college applicant's acknowledgment of receiving less than stellar high school grades resulted in a more positive evaluation of those grades. The interpersonal risks and benefits of negative acknowledgment as an impression-management strategy are discussed.

  14. Gelation behavior of in situ forming gels based on HPMC and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marefat Seyedlar, Roghayyeh; Nodehi, Azizollah; Atai, Mohammad; Imani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in situ forming gels are prepared using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as filler and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a matrix exhibiting temperature-sensitive behavior. BCP was composed of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) with plate-like morphology and nano-sized hyadroxyapatite (HAp). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and rheological results showed that low molecular weight HPMC had lower gelation temperature. Effects of BCP content and HAp/β-TCP ratio on rheological behavior of the gels were investigated. According to the results, all samples showed a pseudoplastic behavior and their viscosity increased with increasing mineral phase, especially β-tricalcium phosphate. In order to investigate interaction mechanisms between the mineral phase and polymer and also the effects of ion release, particle size, hydrophobisity, and hydrophilisity, hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica with different particle sizes were also utilized. Results showed that factors affecting the hydrophobisity and hydrophilisity of solution may influence the rheological properties.

  15. Effect of welding position on porosity formation in aluminum alloy welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haryung, J.; Wroth, R. S.

    1967-01-01

    Program investigates the effects of varied welding positions on weld qualities. Progressive changes in bead geometry occur as the weld plane angle is varied from upslope to downslope. The gravitational effect on the weld puddle varies greatly with welding position.

  16. An augmented Lagrangian finite element formulation for three-dimensional contact of biphasic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongqiang; Spilker, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Biphasic contact analysis is essential to obtain a complete understanding of soft tissue biomechanics, and the importance of physiological structure on the joint biomechanics has long been recognized; however, up to date, there is no successful developments of biphasic finite element contact analysis for 3D geometries of physiological joints. The aim of this study is to develop a finite element formulation for biphasic contact of 3D physiological joints. The augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The biphasic contact method was implemented in the commercial software COMSOL multiphysics. The accuracy of the implementation was verified using 3D biphasic contact problems, including indentation with a flat-ended indenter and contact of glenohumeral cartilage layers. The ability of the method to model multibody biphasic contact of physiological joints was proved by a 3D knee model. The 3D biphasic finite element contact method developed in this study can be used to study the biphasic behaviors of the physiological joints. PMID:23181617

  17. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  18. Functional Cues for Position Learning Effects in Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard A.; Johnson, Kendra S.; Harris, Brian A.; Kinney, Beth A.; Wright, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    Using transfer methodology, several possible factors that could have affected the expression of serial position learning were examined with runway-trained rats. A 3-trial series (SNP) --for which S and P refer to series trials when sucrose (S) and plain (P) Noyes pellets were used as a reward, and N refers to a trial without reward -- was the…

  19. Working Positively with Sexual Offenders: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, William L.; Ward, Tony; Mann, Ruth E.; Moulden, Heather; Fernandez, Yolanda M.; Serran, Geris; Marshall, Liam E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on literatures outside sexual offending and make suggestions for working more positively and constructively with these offenders. Although the management of risk is a necessary feature of treatment, it needs to occur in conjunction with a strength-based approach. An exclusive focus on risk can lead to overly…

  20. Canopy position has a profound effect on soybean seed composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although soybean seeds appear homogenous their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with canopy position. Seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced ...

  1. The Positive Educational Effects of Racial Diversity on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mitchell J.

    This study examined links between racial diversity on college campuses and positive educational outcomes. Data came from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program database, a longitudinal set of student and faculty surveys and research that assessed the impact of college on students. This study used data from a 1985 freshman survey and the…

  2. Design, building and test of one prototype and four final position sensor assemblies: Hall effect position sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the development of a three channel Hall effect position sensing system for the commutation of a three phase dc torquer motor. The effort consisted of the evaluation, modification and re-packaging of a commercial position sensor and the design of a target configuration unique to this application. The resulting design meets the contract requirements and, furthermore, the test results indicate not only the practicality and versatility of the design, but also that there may be higher limits of resolution and accuracy achievable.

  3. Oscillatory Motion of a Bi-Phasic Slug in a Teflon Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Jensen, Klavs

    2015-11-01

    Bi-phasic physical/chemical processes require transfer of solute/reagent molecules across the interface. Continuous multi-phase flow approaches (using gas as the continuous phase), usually fail in providing sufficient interfacial area for transfer of molecules between the aqueous and organic phases. In continuous segmented flow platforms (with a fluorinated polymer-based reactor), the higher surface tension of the aqueous phase compared to the organic phase of a bi-phasic slug, in combination with the low surface energy of the reactor wall result in a more facile motion of the aqueous phase. Thus, upon applying a pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug, the aqueous phase of the slug moves through the organic phase and leads the bi-phasic slug, thereby limiting the available interfacial area for the bi-phasic mass transfer only to the semi-spherical interface between the two phases. Disrupting the quasi-equilibrium state of the bi-phasic slug through reversing the pressure gradient across the bi-phasic slug causes the aqueous phase to move back through the organic phase. In this work, we experimentally investigate the dynamics of periodic alteration of the pressure gradient across a bi-phasic slug, and characterize the resulting enhanced interfacial area on the bi-phasic mass transfer rate. We demonstrate the enhanced mass transfer rate of the oscillatory flow strategy compared to the continuous multi-phase approach using bi-phasic Pd catalyzed carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen cross coupling reactions. NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship, Novartis Center for Continuous Manufacturing.

  4. Effect of body position on feline electrocardiographic recordings.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A M; Faena, M; Darke, P G G; Ferasin, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in body position alter feline electrocardiographic parameters. Forty-seven cats referred to the Feline Unit of the University of Bristol had electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded. Only cats presenting in sinus rhythm were included in the study (n = 41). ECGs were recorded either as part of the investigation for potential cardiac disease (n = 38) or as a preanesthetic screen (n = 3). Standard 6-lead ECGs (leads I, II, III, aVR, aVL, and aVF) were recorded in 3 different recumbent positions in the 41 cats. Recordings were 1st made in right lateral (RL) recumbency, followed by sternal (ST) and then left lateral (LL) recumbency. Measurements were taken of the amplitude and duration of P waves and QRS complexes and duration of PQ and QT intervals from lead II was taken in the 3 different positions. Mean electrical axis (MEA) also was calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed and identified a significant difference in R wave amplitudes (P = .009) and MEA (P = .037) among the 3 different body positions. Two-tailed paired t-tests demonstrated that the R wave amplitude differed significantly both in ST (P = .025) and LL recumbency (P = .009). The mean R wave amplitude was reduced in both ST and LL recumbency when compared with RL recumbency. The MEA only was significantly different in LL recumbency (P = .037). ST and LL recumbencies should not be used for recording ECGs in cats if amplitudes and MEA are to be compared with standard references. PMID:16097093

  5. Effect of low pull headgear on head position

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in head position following the use of low pull headgear (LHG) and compare these changes with an untreated control group. Subjects and methods The test group comprised pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 30 males, aged 11 ± 1.5 years, who were receiving LHG therapy for correction of Class II malocclusion. Pre-observation and post-observation lateral cephalograms of 25 untreated male subjects, aged 11 ± 1.6 years, served as controls. The average treatment time for the treatment group was 12 ± 2.02 months and the average observation period for the control group was 11 ± 1.03 months. Four postural variables (NSL/CVT, NSL/OPT, CVT/HOR, OPT/HOR) were measured to evaluate the head position in all subjects pre- and post-observations. Results There was no significant difference in all the measurements concerning the head position within each group (p > 0.05). The mean differences of pre- and post-observations of 4 postural variables in the LHG group were 1.43, 0.9, −1.13, and −1.08, while those of the control group were 1.56, −0.32, −0.24, and 0.04, respectively. There was no significant difference between the headgear and control groups for any of the postural variables measured (p = 0.924, 0.338, 0.448, and 0.398, respectively). Conclusions Although postural variables showed considerable variability in both groups, head position exhibited no significant changes over a period of 11–12 months either in the control or headgear group. PMID:23960551

  6. Effect of a positive cosmological constant on cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2008-09-15

    We study cosmic Nielsen-Olesen strings in space-times with a positive cosmological constant. For the free cosmic string in a cylindrically symmetric space-time, we calculate the contribution of the cosmological constant to the angle deficit, and to the bending of null geodesics. For a cosmic string in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time, we use Kruskal patches around the inner and outer horizons to show that a thin string can pierce them.

  7. Biphasic hormonal responses to the adrenocorticolytic DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asp, Vendela; Ulleras, Erik; Lindstroem, Veronica; Bergstroem, Ulrika; Oskarsson, Agneta; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-02-01

    The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE) has been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) treatment. ACC is a rare malignant disorder with poor prognosis, and the current pharmacological therapy o,p'-DDD (mitotane) has limited efficacy and causes severe adverse effects. 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11B1 in mice and causes formation of irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduced glucocorticoid secretion, and cell death in the adrenal cortex of several animal species. The present study was carried out to assess similarities and differences between mice and humans concerning the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE. The results support previous indications that humans are sensitive to the adrenocorticolytic actions of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE by demonstrating protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R. However, neither the irreversible binding nor the cytotoxicity of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in H295R cells was inhibited by the CYP11B1 inhibitor etomidate. We also report biphasic responses to 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in cortisol and aldosterone secretion as well as in mRNA levels of the steroidogenic genes StAR, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Hormone levels and mRNA levels were increased at lower concentrations of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE, while higher concentrations decreased hormone levels. These biphasic responses were not observed with o,p'-DDD or with the precursor DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE. Based on these results, 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE remains a viable lead compound for drug design, although the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in human cells seem more complex than in murine cells.

  8. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    SciTech Connect

    Pietsch, Constanze; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml{sup -1} shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: > DON uptake by cells is not extensive. > All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. > DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. > Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. > Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  9. Somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 pretreatment down-regulate somatostatin-14 receptors and have biphasic effects on forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenosine, 3',5'-monophosphate synthesis and adrenocorticotropin secretion in mouse anterior pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Heisler, S; Srikant, C B

    1985-07-01

    Activation of somatostatin-14 (S-14) receptors on mouse AtT-20 pituitary tumor cells by S-14 or somatostatin-28 (S-28) inhibits forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis and ACTH secretion. In this study, the effects of prolonged exposure of cells to S-14 or S-28 was found to reduce, in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion, the density of S-14 receptors without affecting the affinity of these sites for [125I]Tyr11-S-14. This response was rapidly reversible after removal of peptide from incubation media. Additionally, S-14 and S-28 pretreatment also resulted in a time-dependent sensitizing effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation and ACTH secretion which preceded S-14 receptor down-regulation. Enhancement of the forskolin response was concentration dependent, with maximal effects observed at 10(-8) M with either peptide. Higher pretreatment concentrations of S-14 resulted in an abolition of the enhanced biological response to forskolin; pretreatment with S-28 (10(-6) M) depressed forskolin- and (-)isoproterenol-induced cAMP formation below levels observed in nonpretreated cells. The enhancing effect of S-14 and S-28 required new protein synthesis, since it was partially blocked by cycloheximide; the depressor effect was independent of new protein synthesis. Both the enhanced and depressed forskolin responses after peptide pretreatment were reversible after withdrawal of S-14 or S-28; normalization of the forskolin response (cAMP formation and ACTH secretion) followed the return to control levels of S-14 receptor density. Pretreatment of cells with 10(-8) M or 10(-6) M S-28 increased and decreased, respectively, the ACTH secretory response to agonists which act in the absence of prior cAMP synthesis such as 8-bromo-cAMP, A-23187, and phorbol ester. The data suggest that S-14 receptor down-regulation is not causally associated with the sensitizing effects of S-14 and S-28 on adenylate cyclase and that the S-14 receptor may be also coupled to other effector

  10. Genetic mapping of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in diamondback moth using biphasic linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Heckel, D G; Gahan, L J; Liu, Y B; Tabashnik, B E

    1999-07-20

    Transgenic plants producing environmentally benign Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are deployed increasingly for insect control, but their efficacy will be short-lived if pests adapt quickly. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a worldwide pest of vegetables, is the first insect to evolve resistance to Bt toxins in open-field populations. A recessive autosomal gene confers resistance to at least four Bt toxins and enables survival without adverse effects on transgenic plants. Allelic variants of this gene confer resistance in strains from Hawaii, Pennsylvania, and the Philippines. Here we exploited the biphasic nature of Lepidopteran genetic linkage to map this gene in diamondback moth with 207 amplified fragment length polymorphisms as DNA markers. We also cloned and sequenced an amplified fragment length polymorphism marker for the chromosome containing the Bt resistance gene. The results provide a powerful tool for facilitating progress in understanding, monitoring, and managing resistance to Bt.

  11. Light controlled reversible inversion of nanophosphor-stabilized Pickering emulsions for biphasic enantioselective biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaowei; Zhou, Li; Bing, Wei; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Zhenhua; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-05-21

    In this work, by utilizing photochromic spiropyrans conjugated upconversion nanophosphors, we have successfully prepared NIR/visible light tuned interfacially active nanoparticles for the formulation of Pickering emulsions with reversible inversion properties. By loading a model enantioselective biocatalytic active bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 8750 in the aqueous phase, we demonstrated for the first time that the multifunctional Pickering emulsion not only highly enhanced its catalytic performance but also relieved the substrate inhibition effect. In addition, product recovery, and biocatalysts and colloid emulsifiers recycling could be easily realized based on the inversion ability of the Pickering emulsion. Most importantly, the utilization of NIR/visible light to perform the reversible inversion without any chemical auxiliaries or temperature variation showed little damage toward the biocatalysts, which was highlighted by the high catalytic efficiency and high enantioselectivity even after 10 cycles. The NIR/visible light controlled Pickering emulsion showed promising potential as a powerful technique for biocatalysis in biphasic systems.

  12. Aqueous biphasic systems for metal separations : a microcalorimetric analysis of polymer/salt interactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D. J.; Hatton, T. A.; Zaslavsky, B.

    1999-05-03

    Certain radionuclide ions (e.g., TcO{sub 4}{sup 16}) exhibit unusually strong Affinities toward the polymer-rich phase in aqueous biphase systems generated by combinations of salt solutions with polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG). Thus, aqueous polymer phases could potentially be used to selectively extract these ions during pretreatment of radioactive tank wastes at Hanford. To help develop a fundamental understanding of the interactions between various ions and polymers in aqueous solution, interaction enthalpies between sodium perrhenate and a random copolymer of PEG and PPG (UCON-50) were measured by microcalorimetric titration. An entropy compensation effect was observed in this system in which changes in enthalpic interactions were balanced by entropy changes such that the interaction free energy remained constant and approximately equal to zero.

  13. Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première exp

  14. Receiver Widelane Analysis and Its Effect on Precise Point Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsobeiey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Typically, differential carrier-phase-based methods have been used in positioning applications that require high accuracy. The main advantage of differential methods is solving the carrier-phase ambiguities and obtain millimetre-level accuracy carrier-phase measurements. Recent studies showed that it is possible to fix the un-differenced carrier-phase ambiguities into integers which is well-known as un-differenced carrier-phase ambiguity resolution. Unfortunately, the IGS neglects satellite hardware delay during satellite clock corrections estimation process. In case of differential methods, however, this will not affect the user as all common errors between the reference and rover receivers will be cancelled out by. Point positioning, on the other hand, will be affected by neglecting satellite hardware delays as those hardware delays will be lumped into the carrier-phase ambiguities destroying its integer nature. To solve this problem, satellite clock corrections must be estimated based on clock correction for each observable bases. The user, on the other hand, can form the ionosphere-free linear combination and divide and fix its two components, namely widelane and narrowlane. If both ambiguities are successfully fixed, few millimetres level of accuracy measurements are then obtained. In this paper, one month (December, 2013) of GPS data is used to study the receiver widelane bias, its behaviour over time, and receiver dependency are provided. It is shown that the receiver widelane bias is receiver dependent, stable over time for high-grade geodetic receivers. These results are expected to have a great impact on precise point positioning (PPP) conversion time and PPP carrierphase ambiguity resolution.

  15. Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première exp

  16. Obesity independently predicts responders to biphasic insulin 50/50 (Humalog Mix50 and Insuman Comb 50) following conversion from other insulin regimens: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mamza, J; Mehta, R; Idris, I

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study aims to examine the metabolic effects of intensification or initiation of insulin treatment with biphasic insulin 50/50, and determine the predictors of responders or non-responders to biphasic insulin 50/50. Methods A cohort of 2183 patients ≥18 years with diabetes, newly treated with biphasic insulin 50/50 between January 2000 and May 2012, were sourced from UK General Practices via The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Baseline clinical parameters of 1267 patients with suboptimal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol) who had received background insulin regimens for at least 6 months preceding biphasic insulin 50/50 were compared against 12-month outcome data. Responders were defined as those with HbA1c <7.5% (58 mmol/mol) and/or HbA1c reduction of ≥1% (10.9 mmol/mol) at 12 months. Comparative analyses were carried out on subgroups of 237 patients initiating insulin therapy with biphasic insulin 50/50, and between users of the Humalog Mix50 (HM50) versus Insuman Comb 50 (IC50). Associations were examined using t tests and multivariate logistic regression techniques. Results The overall mean HbA1c reduction at 12 months as a result of intensification and initiation with biphasic insulin 50/50 was 0.5% (5.5 mmol/mol) and 1.6% (17.5 mmol/mol), respectively. Adjusted ORs show obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2), treatment duration for ≥9 months, and baseline HbA1c are independent determinants of responders. In addition, stratified for baseline HbA1c levels, HM50 was associated with better HbA1c outcome compared with IC50. Conclusions biphasic insulin 50/50 is effective for achieving glycemic control in suboptimal HbA1c levels, especially among obese patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Stratified for baseline HbA1c, HM50 was associated with improved HbA1c outcome compared with IC50. PMID:25452865

  17. Multipath effects in a Global Positioning Satellite system receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1992-01-01

    This study, as a part of a large continuing investigation being conducted by the Communications Systems Branch of the Information and Electronic Systems Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center, was undertaken to explore the multipath response characteristics of a particular Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver which was available in the laboratory at the beginning and throughout the entirety of the study, and to develop a suitable regime of experimental procedure which can be applied to other state-of-the-art GPS receivers in the larger investigation.

  18. Transverse Beam Size Effects in Beam Position Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2001-04-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The corrections to BPM signals due to a finite beam size are found analytically for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current. The results for fields can also be directly applied for calculating the beam coupling impedances of small discontinuities.

  19. Regulation of the Demographic Structure in Isomorphic Biphasic Life Cycles at the Spatial Fine Scale

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva; Mateus, Marcos Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid) different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability). Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth) did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far. PMID:24658603

  20. Nicotine effects on skin: are they positive or negative?

    PubMed

    Misery, Laurent

    2004-11-01

    The adverse effects of tobacco on the skin are well known but the role of nicotine is more controversial. Nicotinic receptors are expressed in the skin, on keratinocytes, fibroblasts and blood vessels. Nicotine induces vasoconstriction associated with local hyperaemia. It inhibits inflammation through effects on central and peripheral nervous system and through direct effect on immune cells. It delays wound healing and accelerates skin aging. The role of nicotine on skin diseases remains unclear. Therapeutic effects of nicotine could be possible and this a new stimulating field of research.

  1. Effect of sound similarity and word position on lexical selection

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Megan; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2014-01-01

    Spoken word production research has shown that phonological information influences lexical selection. It remains unclear, however, whether this phonological information is specified for its phonological environment (e.g., word position) or its phonetic (allophonic) realization. To examine this, two definition naming experiments were performed during which subjects produced lexical targets (e.g., “balcony”) in response to the targets’ definitions (“deck higher than a building’s first floor”) after naming a series of phonologically related or unrelated primes. Subjects produced target responses significantly more often when the primes were phonologically related to the target, regardless of whether the phonologically related primes matched the target’s word position or did not. For example, subjects were equally primed to produce the target “balcony” after the prime “ballast” or “unbalanced” relative to unrelated primes. Moreover, equal priming occurred irrespective of phonological environment or phonetic realization. The results support models of spoken word production which include context-independent phonological representations. PMID:25436217

  2. Biphasic Thermal Inactivation Kinetics in Salmonella enteritidis PT4

    PubMed Central

    Humpheson, L.; Adams, M. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Cole, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 between 49 and 60°C were investigated. Using procedures designed to eliminate methodological artifacts, we found that the death kinetics deviated from the accepted model of first-order inactivation. When we used high-density stationary-phase populations and sensitive enumeration, the survivor curves at 60°C were reproducibly biphasic. The decimal reduction time at 60°C (D60°C) of the tail subpopulation was more than four times that of the majority population. This difference decreased with decreasing temperature; i.e., the survivor curves became more linear, but the proportion of tail cells remained a constant proportion of the initial population, about 1 in 104 to 105. Z plots (log D versus temperature) for the two populations showed that the D values coincided at 51°C, indicating that the survivor curves should be linear at this temperature, and this was confirmed experimentally. Investigations into the nature of the tails ruled out genotypic differences between the populations and protection due to leakage from early heat casualties. Heating of cells at 59°C in the presence of 5 or 100 μg of chloramphenicol per ml resulted in reductions in the levels of tailing. These reductions were greatest at the higher chloramphenicol concentration. Our results indicate that de novo protein synthesis of heat shock proteins is responsible for the observed tailing. Chemostat-cultured cells heated at 60°C also produced biphasic survivor curves in all but one instance. Cells with higher growth rates were more heat sensitive, but tailing was comparable with batch cultures. Starved cells (no dilution input) displayed linear inactivation kinetics, suggesting that during starvation a rapid heat shock response cannot be initiated. PMID:9464380

  3. Biphasic Modulation of NOS Expression, Protein and Nitrite Products by Hydroxocobalamin Underlies Its Protective Effect in Endotoxemic Shock: Downstream Regulation of COX-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and HMGB1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, André L. F.; Dalli, Jesmond; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; D'Acquisto, Fulvio; Perretti, Mauro; Wheatley, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Background. NOS/•NO inhibitors are potential therapeutics for sepsis, yet they increase clinical mortality. However, there has been no in vivo investigation of the (in vitro) •NO scavenger, cobalamin's (Cbl) endogenous effects on NOS/•NO/inflammatory mediators during the immune response to sepsis. Methods. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), ELISA, Western blot, and NOS Griess assays, in a C57BL/6 mouse, acute endotoxaemia model. Results. During the immune response, pro-inflammatory phase, parenteral hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) treatment partially inhibits hepatic, but not lung, iNOS mRNA and promotes lung eNOS mRNA, but attenuates the LPS hepatic rise in eNOS mRNA, whilst paradoxically promoting high iNOS/eNOS protein translation, but relatively moderate •NO production. HOCbl/NOS/•NO regulation is reciprocally associated with lower 4 h expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and lower circulating TNF-α, but not IL-6. In resolution, 24 h after LPS, HOCbl completely abrogates a major late mediator of sepsis mortality, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mRNA, inhibits iNOS mRNA, and attenuates LPS-induced hepatic inhibition of eNOS mRNA, whilst showing increased, but still moderate, NOS activity, relative to LPS only. experiments (LPS+D-Galactosamine) HOCbl afforded significant, dose-dependent protection in mice Conclusions. HOCbl produces a complex, time- and organ-dependent, selective regulation of NOS/•NO during endotoxaemia, corollary regulation of downstream inflammatory mediators, and increased survival. This merits clinical evaluation. PMID:23781123

  4. Hall-effect thruster--Cathode coupling: The effect of cathode position and magnetic field topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerville, Jason D.

    2009-12-01

    Hall-effect thruster (HET) cathodes are responsible for the generation of the free electrons necessary to initiate and sustain the main plasma discharge and to neutralize the ion beam. The position of the cathode relative to the thruster strongly affects the efficiency of thrust generation. However, the mechanisms by which the position affects the efficiency are not well understood. This dissertation explores the effect of cathode position on HET efficiency. Magnetic field topology is shown to play an important role in the coupling between the cathode plasma and the main discharge plasma. The position of the cathode within the magnetic field affects the ion beam and the plasma properties of the near-field plume, which explains the changes in efficiency of the thruster. Several experiments were conducted which explored the changes of efficiency arising from changes in cathode coupling. In each experiment, the thrust, discharge current, and cathode coupling voltage were monitored while changes in the independent variables of cathode position, cathode mass flow and magnetic field topology were made. From the telemetry data, the efficiency of the HET thrust generation was calculated. Furthermore, several ion beam and plasma properties were measured including ion energy distribution, beam current density profile, near-field plasma potential, electron temperature, and electron density. The ion beam data show how the independent variables affected the quality of ion beam and therefore the efficiency of thrust generation. The measurements of near-field plasma properties partially explain how the changes in ion beam quality arise. The results of the experiments show that cathode position, mass flow, and field topology affect several aspects of the HET operation, especially beam divergence and voltage utilization efficiencies. Furthermore, the experiments show that magnetic field topology is important in the cathode coupling process. In particular, the magnetic field

  5. Position Effect Based on Anthracene Core for OLED Emitters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeonmi; Shin, Hwangyu; Kim, Beomjin; Park, Jongwook

    2016-03-01

    Green-orange emitters based on anthracene core have been successfully synthesized by substitution with triphenylamine side group in the 9, 10 or 2, 6 positions. There are larger blue shifts in the UV-visible absorption and PL spectra of the synthesized 2,6-substituted derivative compared to the 9,10-substituted derivative. When the synthesized compounds were used as emitting layers in non-doped OLED devices, a related trend was observed in their optical properties. In particular, the OLED device containing the 2,6-substituted derivative was found to exhibit excellent characteristics, with maximum EL emission at 518 nm, pure green emission with CIE coordinates of (0.334, 0.604), and external quantum efficiency of 2.83%.

  6. EFFECTS OF TRANSFERSE BEAM SIZE IN BEAM POSITIONS MONITORS

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. KURENNOY

    2001-06-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The non-linearities and corrections to BPM signals due to a finite transverse beam size are calculated for an arbitrary chamber cross section. Simple analytical expressions are given for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current in a circular or rectangular chamber. Of particular interest is a general proof that in an arbitrary homogeneous chamber the beam-size corrections vanish for any axisymmetric beam current distribution.

  7. Effects of transverse beam size in beam position monitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2001-01-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The non-linearities and corrections to BPM signals due to a finite transverse beam size are calculated for an arbitrary chamber cross section. Simple analytical expressions are given for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current in a circular or rectangular chamber. Of particular interest is a general proof that in an arbitrary homogeneous chamber the beam-size corrections vanish for any axisymmetric beam current distribution.

  8. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    PubMed

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior. PMID:27213486

  9. Progranulin haploinsufficiency causes biphasic social dominance abnormalities in the tube test.

    PubMed

    Arrant, A E; Filiano, A J; Warmus, B A; Hall, A M; Roberson, E D

    2016-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major autosomal dominant cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disorder in which social behavior is disrupted. Progranulin-insufficient mice, both Grn(+/-) and Grn(-/-) , are used as models of FTD due to GRN mutations, with Grn(+/-) mice mimicking the progranulin haploinsufficiency of FTD patients with GRN mutations. Grn(+/-) mice have increased social dominance in the tube test at 6 months of age, although this phenotype has not been reported in Grn(-/-) mice. In this study, we investigated how the tube test phenotype of progranulin-insufficient mice changes with age, determined its robustness under several testing conditions, and explored the associated cellular mechanisms. We observed biphasic social dominance abnormalities in Grn(+/-) mice: at 6-8 months, Grn(+/-) mice were more dominant than wild-type littermates, while after 9 months of age, Grn(+/-) mice were less dominant. In contrast, Grn(-/-) mice did not exhibit abnormal social dominance, suggesting that progranulin haploinsufficiency has distinct effects from complete progranulin deficiency. The biphasic tube test phenotype of Grn(+/-) mice was associated with abnormal cellular signaling and neuronal morphology in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. At 6-9 months, Grn(+/-) mice exhibited increased mTORC2/Akt signaling in the amygdala and enhanced dendritic arbors in the basomedial amygdala, and at 9-16 months Grn(+/-) mice exhibited diminished basal dendritic arbors in the prelimbic cortex. These data show a progressive change in tube test dominance in Grn(+/-) mice and highlight potential underlying mechanisms by which progranulin insufficiency may disrupt social behavior.

  10. Green synthesis of biphasic TiO₂-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sher Shah, Md Selim Arif; Park, A Reum; Zhang, Kan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Yoo, Pil J

    2012-08-01

    A series of TiO(2)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites were prepared by simple one-step hydrothermal reactions using the titania precursor, TiCl(4) and graphene oxide (GO) without reducing agents. Hydrolysis of TiCl(4) and mild reduction of GO were simultaneously carried out under hydrothermal conditions. While conventional approaches mostly utilize multistep chemical methods wherein strong reducing agents, such as hydrazine, hydroquinone, and sodium borohydride are employed, our method provides the notable advantages of a single step reaction without employing toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing a novel green synthetic route to produce the nanocomposites of RGO and TiO(2). The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by several crystallographic, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterization methods, which enabled confrimation of the robustness of the suggested reaction scheme. Notably, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron micrograph proved that TiO(2) contained both anatase and rutile phases. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of the synthesized composites were measured for the degradation of rhodamine B dye. The catalyst also can degrade a colorless dye such as benzoic acid under visible light. The synthesized nanocomposites of biphasic TiO(2) with RGO showed enhanced catalytic activity compared to conventional TiO(2) photocatalyst, P25. The photocatalytic activity is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites, with the best photocatalytic activity observed for the composite of 2.0 wt % RGO. Since the synthesized biphasic TiO(2)-RGO nanocomposites have been shown to effectively reduce the electron-hole recombination rate, it is anticipated that they will be utilized as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. PMID:22788800

  11. Order in choice: effects of serial position on preferences.

    PubMed

    Mantonakis, Antonia; Rodero, Pauline; Lesschaeve, Isabelle; Hastie, Reid

    2009-11-01

    When several choice options are sampled one at a time in a sequence and a single choice of the best option is made at the end of the sequence, which location in the sequence is chosen most often? We report a large-scale experiment that assessed tasting preferences in choice sets of two, three, four, or five wines. We found a large primacy effect-the first wine had a large advantage in the end-of-sequence choice. We also found that participants who were knowledgeable about wines showed a recency effect in the longer sequences. We conclude with a process model that explains our findings.

  12. Effects of spacecraft reflections on RF interferometer position location accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. G.; Ward, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes one of three study tasks related to the application of an RF interferometer aboard a low-orbiting spacecraft to determine the location of ground-based transmitters. Computer modeling was used to estimate the error in the measured signal angle-of-arrival caused by reflection and diffraction off the spacecraft. Existing computer codes (NEC-BSC) were modified and used to determine the perturbation, due to the spacecraft, in the phase difference between two interferometer antennas, suspended on either side of the spacecraft. This phase perturbation was found as a function of the angle-of-arrival of the signal from a far-field source. The spacecraft antennas were assumed to be circularly polarized with a cardioid pattern. It was found that the perturbation was as much 12.4 deg within the + or - 60 deg field-of-view. This suggests that phase calibration and correction of phase measurements are essential for precision position location using this technique.

  13. The effect of positive reinforcement on hourly compliance in nasal continuous positive airway pressure users with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E C; Luckett, R A

    1991-05-01

    Previous reports have described compliance with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) only in terms of the number of patients able to use it beyond their initial trial night or those continuing after some home use. Because of a possible difference between the level of compliance (mean number of hours of use per 24 h) needed for symptomatic relief of OSA versus cardiovascular improvement, the level of hourly compliance in chronic nCPAP users may be important. The first part of this study prospectively examines compliance in a stable population of OSA patients already using nCPAP for 6 months to 2 yr. The second part is a prospective randomized, crossover study examining the effect of weekly (three times) then monthly (twice) positive reinforcement on hourly compliance of new nCPAP users for 3 months versus no reinforcement for 3 months. Positive reinforcement consisted of telephone discussions with the patients about the severity or complications of OSA, benefits of nCPAP, and suggestions about minimizing side effects. Using self-assessment scales, each patient reported the perceived level of improvement from the untreated to the treated condition and the prevalence and severity of side effects from the nCPAP therapy. The level of compliance in stable, chronic nCPAP users with OSA was 6.1 +/- 2.2 h/24 h (n = 9). For the new nCPAP users during the nonreinforced period, the mean compliance was 6.0 +/- 2.8 h/24 h; that during the reinforcement period was 6.0 +/- 2.7 h/24 h (NS). There was no significant correlation between perceived improvement in OSA symptoms or between the perceived side effects of nCPAP versus hourly compliance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Positioning for Effectiveness: Applying Marketing Concepts to Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenburg, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how colleges can use distance education to attract and retain a "critical mass" of learners for distance programs. Explores alternative ways to view distance education market opportunities and determine which avenues to pursue. Suggests how to be more effective in all aspects of distance education programs. (13 citations) (YKH)

  15. Positive effects of family dinner are undone by television viewing.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Edmunds, Lynn S; Dennison, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the independent associations of eating dinner as a family and having the television on during dinner with child feeding behaviors. Parents/guardians of children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in New York state were surveyed (n=1,336). Main outcome variables were frequencies of serving fruits, vegetables, and milk. Main exposure variables were the number of days per week the family ate dinner together and the number of days per week the television was on during dinner. Multiple logistic regressions assessed the association between the exposure variables and each of the main outcome measures controlling for race/ethnicity and parental educational attainment. Each night the family ate dinner together was positively associated with serving fruits (odds ratio [OR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.21) or vegetables (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.23). Serving fruits (OR= 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99) or vegetables (OR=0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98) decreased with each night the television was on during dinner. Neither family dinner nor television on during dinner was significantly associated with serving milk. Family dinners and dinners without television on are independent predictors of servings of fruits or vegetables offered to preschool children. Because dietary habits and preferences are established early in life, parents should be counseled to promote family meal environments that support healthful eating.

  16. [Positive effects of wheat bran for digestive health; scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roso Calvo de Mora, Baltasar

    2015-07-18

    Wheat bran (ST) is very rich in insoluble fiber, consisting mainly arabinoxylans and, to a lesser extent, cellulose and β-glucans, as well as vitamins, minerals and antioxidants polyphenolic. The ST is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology and health: delayed gastric emptying and intestinal transit speeds and increases fecal bulk. The ST has an effect on faecal bulking greater than other grains such as oats or vegetables and fruits. However, phytic acid present in the bran may reduce the absorption of certain minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn), due to formation phytate-mineral complexes. Different studies have shown that consumption of bran has protective effect against different diseases: cardiovascular, obesity and some gastrointestinal diseases, including constipation, diverticular disease and colorectal cancer, among others. In Spain the consumption of fiber (18 g/day on average) is below the recommended (30 g/day), so the increased consumption of foods with wheat bran help achieve this recommendation and reduce the incidence of diseases associated a low intake of fiber.

  17. Evaluating the separate and combined effects of positive and negative reinforcement on task compliance.

    PubMed

    Bouxsein, Kelly J; Roane, Henry S; Harper, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance.

  18. Evaluating the Separate and Combined Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Task Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouxsein, Kelly J.; Roane, Henry S.; Harper, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Positive and negative reinforcement are effective for treating escape-maintained destructive behavior. The current study evaluated the separate and combined effects of these contingencies to increase task compliance. Results showed that a combination of positive and negative reinforcement was most effective for increasing compliance. (Contains 1…

  19. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. PMID:27515418

  20. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation.

  1. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. PMID:27515418

  2. Fixation location effects on fixation durations during reading: an inverted optimal viewing position effect.

    PubMed

    Vitu, F; McConkie, G W; Kerr, P; O'Regan, J K

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has found that words are identified most quickly when the eyes are near their center (the Optimal Viewing Position effect). A study was conducted to determine whether this same phenomenon is observed during reading, as revealed by a relationship between fixation position in a word and the duration of the fixation. An analysis of three large existing corpora of eye movement data, two from adults and one from children, showed a surprising inverted Optimal Viewing Position curve: mean fixation duration is greatest, rather than lowest, when the eyes were at the centers of words. From this phenomenon, we suggest an alternative explanation to the fixation duration trade-off effect in word refixations [O'Regan & Lévy-Schoen, Attention and performance XII: the psychology of reading (1987)]; the phenomenon also contradicts expectations of both oculomotor and cognitive theories of eye movement control. Attempts to test alternative explanations led to the discovery of another phenomenon, the Saccade Distance effect: mean fixation durations vary with the distance of the prior fixation from the currently-fixated word, being longer with greater distances. The durations of fixations in reading are complexly determined, with influences both from language and perceptual/oculomotor levels.

  3. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  4. Early Effects of Radical Position Legality in Chinese: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Yen Na; Su, I-Fan; Law, Sam-Po

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the timecourse and neural underpinnings of the coding of radical positions in Chinese character reading. To isolate effects of radical positions, four types of pseudocharacters were created in which the constituent radicals appeared in positions varying in probability of occurrence, that is, Unique, Dominant,…

  5. Sentence-Position Effects on Children's Perception and Production of English Third Person Singular "-s"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two-year-olds produce third person singular "-s" more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. Method: For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds'…

  6. Effects of positive intrathoracic pressure on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tyberg, J V; Grant, D A; Kingma, I; Moore, T D; Sun, Y; Smith, E R; Belenkie, I

    2000-02-01

    The Frank-Starling Law accounts for many changes in cardiac performance previously attributed to changes in contractility in that changes in contractility might have been incorrectly inferred from changing ventricular function curves (i.e. systolic performance plotted against filling pressure) if diastolic compliance also changed. To apply the Frank-Starling Law in the presence of changing diastolic compliance, it is necessary to measure end-diastolic volume directly or to calculate end-diastolic transmural pressure, which requires that pericardial pressure be known. Under most normal circumstances, increased intrathoracic pressure (and other interventions, such as vasodilators or lower-body negative pressure, that decrease central blood volume) decreases the transmural end-diastolic pressures of both ventricles, their end-diastolic volumes and stroke work. However, when ventricular interaction is significant, the effects of these interventions might be quite different; this may be important in patients with heart-failure. Although these interventions decrease RV transmural pressure, they may increase LV transmural pressure, end-diastolic volume, and thus stroke work by the Frank-Starling mechanism. PMID:10722860

  7. Evaluation of a new biphasic culture system for the recovery of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Giger, T; Burkardt, H J

    1990-06-01

    A newly developed biphasic culture system (MB-Check) for recovery of mycobacteria was evaluated. The biphasic system consists of a bottle containing selective modified Middlebrook 7H9 broth and a mounted dip slide with chocolate agar and modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar with and without NAP. The system was compared with culture on two egg-based media, Lowenstein medium and a selective Gottsacker medium, using 995 routine specimens and 90 artificially seeded sputa. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected in 17 of the 995 routine specimens by the biphasic system and in 14 specimens by the egg-based media together. In the artificially seeded sputa the biphasic system showed higher sensitivity in detection of both tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria than the egg-based media. The recovery times of the new system were comparable to those of the two conventional culture methods. PMID:2387296

  8. Experimental characterization of biphasic materials using rate-controlled Hertzian indentation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, A.C.; Zimmerman, B.K.; Chen, X; Lu, X.L.; Burris, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method, based on Hertzian biphasic theory (HBT), to characterize properties of biphasic materials with reduced time demands, increased surface sensitivity, and reduced computational demands compared to the current gold standards. Indentation experiments were conducted at a single location on a representative osteochondral plug to demonstrate and validate the HBT method against two gold standards, linear biphasic theory (LBT) and tension-compression nonlinear biphasic theory (TCN). The 1) aggregate moduli, 2) permeability and 3) tensile moduli from HBT, LBT, and TCN were 1) HA=0.47, 0.47, and 0.40 MPa, 2) k=0.0026, 0.0014 and 0.0016mm4/Ns, and 3) Et=8.7, 0.46, and 10.3MPa, respectively. The results support the HBT method and encourage its use, especially in light of its practical advantages. PMID:26160994

  9. Generation of useful energy from process fluids using the biphase turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    The six largest energy consuming industries in the United States were surveyed to determine the energy savings that could result from applying the Biphase turbine to industrial process streams. A national potential energy savings of 58 million barrels of oil per year (technical market) was identified. This energy is recoverable from flashing gas liquid process streams and is separate and distinct from exhaust gas waste heat recovery. The industries surveyed in this program were the petroleum chemical, primary metals, paper and pulp, stone-clay-glass, and food. It was required to determine the applicability of the Biphase turbine to flashing operations connected with process streams, to determine the energy changes associated with these flashes if carried out in a Biphase turbine, and to determine the suitability (technical and economical feasibility) of applying the Biphase turbine to these processes.

  10. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  11. Micrometer-scale mixing with Pickering emulsions: biphasic reactions without stirring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Fu, Luman; Yang, Hengquan

    2014-02-01

    A general strategy that avoids stirring for organic/aqueous reactions involving solid catalysts is reported. The strategy involves converting a conventional biphasic system into a Pickering emulsion phase with micrometer-scale droplets ensuring good mixing. In test reactions, nitrotoluene reduction and epoxidation of allylic alcohols, the reaction efficiency is comparable to conventional stirrer-driven biphasic catalysis reaction systems. Short diffusion distances, arising from the compartmentalization of densely packed droplets, play an important role in boosting the reaction efficiency.

  12. Controlled and reversible induction of differentiation and activation of adult human hepatocytes by a biphasic culture technique

    PubMed Central

    Auth, Marcus K.H.; Boost, Kim A.; Leckel, Kerstin; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Engl, Tobias; Jonas, Dietger; Oppermann, Elsie; Hilgard, Philip; Markus, Bernd H.; Bechstein, Wolf-Otto; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clinical application of human hepatocytes (HC) is hampered by the progressive loss of growth and differentiation in vitro. The object of the study was to evaluate the effect of a biphasic culture technique on expression and activation of growth factor receptors and differentiation of human adult HC. METHODS: Isolated HC were sequentially cultured in a hormone enriched differentiation medium (DM) containing nicotinamide, insulin, transferrin, selenium, and dexame-thasone or activation medium (AM) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Expression, distribution and activation of the HC receptors (MET and EGFR) and the pattern of characteristic cytokeratin (CK) filaments were measured by fluorometry, confocal microscopy and Western blotting. RESULTS: In the biphasic culture system, HC underwent repeated cycles of activation (characterized by expression and activation of growth factor receptors) and re-differentiation (illustrated by distribution of typical filaments CK-18 but low or absent expression of CK-19). In AM increased expression of MET and EGFR was associated with receptor translocation into the cytoplasm and induction of atypical CK-19. In DM low expression of MET and EGFR was localized on the cell membrane and CK-19 was reduced. Receptor phosphorylation required embedding of HC in collagen type I gel. CONCLUSION: Control and reversible modulation of growth factor receptor activation of mature human HC can be accomplished in vitro, when defined signals from the extracellular matrix and sequential growth stimuli are provided. The biphasic technique helps overcome de-differentiation, which occurs during continuous stimulation by means of growth factors. PMID:15810072

  13. Neutron Polarization Analysis for Biphasic Solvent Extraction Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Motokawa, Ryuhei; Endo, Hitoshi; Nagao, Michihiro; Heller, William T.

    2016-06-16

    Here we performed neutron polarization analysis (NPA) of extracted organic phases containing complexes, comprised of Zr(NO3)4 and tri-n-butyl phosphate, which enabled decomposition of the intensity distribution of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) into the coherent and incoherent scattering components. The coherent scattering intensity, containing structural information, and the incoherent scattering compete over a wide range of magnitude of scattering vector, q, specifically when q is larger than q* ≈ 1/Rg, where Rg is the radius of gyration of scatterer. Therefore, it is important to determine the incoherent scattering intensity exactly to perform an accurate structural analysis from SANS data when Rgmore » is small, such as the aforementioned extracted coordination species. Although NPA is the best method for evaluating the incoherent scattering component for accurately determining the coherent scattering in SANS, this method is not used frequently in SANS data analysis because it is technically challenging. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that experimental determination of the incoherent scattering using NPA is suitable for sample systems containing a small scatterer with a weak coherent scattering intensity, such as extracted complexes in biphasic solvent extraction systems.« less

  14. Nucleic acid sample preparation using spontaneous biphasic plug flow.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter C; Strotman, Lindsay N; Theberge, Ashleigh B; Berthier, Erwin; O'Connell, Rachel; Loeb, Jennifer M; Berry, Scott M; Beebe, David J

    2013-09-17

    Nucleic acid (NA) extraction and purification has become a common technique in both research and clinical laboratories. Current methods require repetitive wash steps with a pipet that are laborious and time-consuming, making the procedure inefficient for clinical settings. We present here a simple technique that relies on spontaneous biphasic plug flow inside a capillary to achieve sample preparation. By filling the sample with oil, aqueous contaminants were displaced from the captured NA without pipetting wash buffers or use of external force and equipment. mRNA from mammalian cell culture was purified, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification showed similar threshold cycle values as those obtained from a commercially available kit. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral-like particles were spiked into serum and a 5-fold increase in viral RNA extraction yield was achieved compared to the conventional wash method. In addition, viral RNA was successfully purified from human whole blood, and a limit of detection of approximately 14 copies of RNA extracted per sample was determined. The results demonstrate the utility of the current technique for nucleic acid purification for clinical purposes, and the overall approach provides a potential method to implement nucleic acid testing in low-resource settings.

  15. Dynamin 2 regulates biphasic insulin secretion and plasma glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Ji, Chen; Wu, Yumei; Ferguson, Shawn M.; Tamarina, Natalia; Philipson, Louis H.; Lou, Xuelin

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in insulin granule exocytosis and endocytosis are paramount to pancreatic β cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Here, using temporally controlled gene ablation specifically in β cells in mice, we identified an essential role of dynamin 2 GTPase in preserving normal biphasic insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Dynamin 2 deletion in β cells caused glucose intolerance and substantial reduction of the second phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, mutant β cells still maintained abundant insulin granules, with no signs of cell surface expansion. Compared with control β cells, real-time capacitance measurements demonstrated that exocytosis-endocytosis coupling was less efficient but not abolished; clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) was severely impaired at the step of membrane fission, which resulted in accumulation of clathrin-coated endocytic intermediates on the plasma membrane. Moreover, dynamin 2 ablation in β cells led to striking reorganization and enhancement of actin filaments, and insulin granule recruitment and mobilization were impaired at the later stage of GSIS. Together, our results demonstrate that dynamin 2 regulates insulin secretory capacity and dynamics in vivo through a mechanism depending on CME and F-actin remodeling. Moreover, this study indicates a potential pathophysiological link between endocytosis and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26413867

  16. Save the last dance for me: unwanted serial position effects in jury evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2005-03-01

    Whenever competing options are considered in sequence, their evaluations may be affected by order of appearance. Such serial position effects would threaten the fairness of competitions using jury evaluations. Randomization cannot reduce potential order effects, but it does give candidates an equal chance of being assigned to preferred serial positions. Whether, or what, serial position effects emerge may depend on the cognitive demands of the judgment task. In end-of-sequence procedures, final scores are not given until all candidates have performed, possibly burdening judges' memory. If judges' evaluations are based on how well they remember performances, serial position effects may resemble those found with free recall. Candidates may also be evaluated step-by-step, immediately after each performance. This procedure should not burden memory, though it may produce different serial position effects. Yet, this paper reports similar serial position effects with end-of-sequence and step-by-step procedures used for the Eurovision Song Contest: Ratings increased with serial position. The linear order effect was replicated in the step-by-step judgments of World and European Figure Skating Contests. It is proposed that, independent of the evaluation procedure, judges' initial impressions of sequentially appearing candidates may be formed step-by-step, yielding serial position effects.

  17. Analysing Item Position Effects due to Test Booklet Design within Large-Scale Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D.; Reif, Manuel; Schleicher, Eva; Khorramdel, Lale

    2011-01-01

    For large-scale assessments, usually booklet designs administering the same item at different positions within a booklet are used. Therefore, the occurrence of position effects influencing the difficulty of the item is a crucial issue. Not taking learning or fatigue effects into account would result in a bias of estimated item difficulty. The…

  18. Ratio of phosphorylated HSP27 to nonphosphorylated HSP27 biphasically acts as a determinant of cellular fate in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongxu; Choi, Hye Jin; Kang, Sujin; Kim, So Young; Hwang, Yong-Sic; Je, Suyeon; Han, Zhezhu; Kim, Joo-Hang; Song, Jae J

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine has been used most commonly as an anticancer drug to treat advanced pancreatic cancer patients. However, intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine was also developed, which leads to very low five-year survival rates. Here, we investigated whether cellular levels of HSP27 phosphorylation act as a determinant of cellular fate with gemcitabine. In addition we have demonstrated whether HSP27 downregulation effectively could overcome the acquisition of gemcitabine resistance by using transcriptomic analysis. We observed that gemcitabine induced p38/HSP27 phosphorylation and caused acquired resistance. After acquisition of gemcitabine resistance, cancer cells showed higher activity of NF-κB. NF-κB activity, as well as colony formation in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, was significantly decreased by HSP27 downregulation and subsequent TRAIL treatment, showing that HSP27 was a common network mediator of gemcitabine/TRAIL-induced cell death. After transcriptomic analysis, gene fluctuation after HSP27 downregulation was very similar to that of pancreatic cancer cells susceptible to gemcitabine, and then in opposite position to that of acquired gemcitabine resistance, which makes it possible to downregulate HSP27 to overcome the acquired gemcitabine resistance to function as an overall survival network inhibitor. Most importantly, we demonstrated that the ratio of phosphorylated HSP27 to nonphosphorylated HSP27 rather than the cellular level of HSP27 itself acts biphasically as a determinant of cellular fate in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia

    2015-07-01

    Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.

  20. Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia

    2015-07-01

    Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.

  1. Successful Evaluation of Biphasic T-wave of Wellens Syndrome in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ali Attila; Ulutas, Kemal Türker; Aydin, Cemile; Kaya, Murtaza; Akar, Umut; Ture, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Wellens Syndrome (WS) is a condition characterized by typical changes in ECG, which are biphasic T-wave inversions (less common) or symmetric and deeply inverted T waves (including 75%) in lead V2–V3 chest derivations. WS is considered important because it has not only diagnostic value but also prognostic value. Case report: A 52-year-old male patient without cardiovascular disease or risk factors was admitted to the emergency department (ED) suffering with chest pain and syncope, just after having been involved in a discussion at work. Chest pain was radiating to the left arm and was not precipitated by exertion. Shortness of breath was not accompanied by angina. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization at Department of Cardiology. Stents were positioned in both LADA and a severe lesion in the left main coronary artery. The patient was discharged two days following catheterization, due to no chest pain and hemodynamic instability during the hospitalization. The patient has approved the inform consent for to be used for this case report. PMID:27041816

  2. Biomechanical analysis of biphasic distribution of skull injury in falls from height.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungji; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Youngseok; Seo, Insoo; Lee, Bongwoo; Choi, Youngshik; Choi, Woongchul; Yang, Kyungmoo

    2015-10-01

    Fall from height is one of the most common ways of suicide in Korea. Skull fractures are typically accompanied with these cases, but several autopsy cases show absence of skull fracture even with serious body injuries including sternal and vertebral fracture. The mechanism of this pattern of injury can be explained by impact of facial part on chest or abdomen when the back of the body touches the ground first. We tried to figure out the relevance of this pattern of injury to the height of fall using a computer simulation tool (MADYMO 7.5). For this experiment, a condition of initial pose was limited to leaning forward. The simulation showed that when the body rotated forward, the body parts which got injured by the ground depended on the height of fall. For relatively lower height, head got injured, but as the height was set higher, the point of first impact area changed to the back, hip and then legs. When the body struck first around hip area on supine position, the impact made forceful flexion of lumbar, thoracic and cervical vertebrae, leading to folding the body in two, which resulted in collision between the part of face and the anterior part of body. Through the current investigation, it was explained that the biphasic distribution of the number of head injury cases versus the height distribution was attributed to the forward rotation of the body during the fall. PMID:26159255

  3. Estimation of the biphasic property in a female's menstrual cycle from cutaneous temperature measured during sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxi; Kitazawa, Masumi; Togawa, Tatsuo

    2009-09-01

    This paper proposes a method to estimate a woman's menstrual cycle based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). A tiny device was developed that attaches around the abdominal region to measure cutaneous temperature at 10-min intervals during sleep. The measured temperature data were encoded as a two-dimensional image (QR code, i.e., quick response code) and displayed in the LCD window of the device. A mobile phone captured the QR code image, decoded the information and transmitted the data to a database server. The collected data were analyzed by three steps to estimate the biphasic temperature property in a menstrual cycle. The key step was an HMM-based step between preprocessing and postprocessing. A discrete Markov model, with two hidden phases, was assumed to represent higher- and lower-temperature phases during a menstrual cycle. The proposed method was verified by the data collected from 30 female participants, aged from 14 to 46, over six consecutive months. By comparing the estimated results with individual records from the participants, 71.6% of 190 menstrual cycles were correctly estimated. The sensitivity and positive predictability were 91.8 and 96.6%, respectively. This objective evaluation provides a promising approach for managing premenstrual syndrome and birth control. PMID:19551509

  4. Live imaging reveals a biphasic mode of dissemination of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks

    PubMed Central

    Dunham-Ems, Star M.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Pal, Utpal; Wolgemuth, Charles W.; Eggers, Christian H.; Balic, Anamaria; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    Lyme disease is caused by transmission of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi from ticks to humans. Although much is known about B. burgdorferi replication, the routes and mechanisms by which it disseminates within the tick remain unclear. To better understand this process, we imaged live, infectious B. burgdorferi expressing a stably integrated, constitutively expressed GFP reporter. Using isolated tick midguts and salivary glands, we observed B. burgdorferi progress through the feeding tick via what we believe to be a novel, biphasic mode of dissemination. In the first phase, replicating spirochetes, positioned at varying depths throughout the midgut at the onset of feeding, formed networks of nonmotile organisms that advanced toward the basolateral surface of the epithelium while adhering to differentiating, hypertrophying, and detaching epithelial cells. In the second phase of dissemination, the nonmotile spirochetes transitioned into motile organisms that penetrated the basement membrane and entered the hemocoel, then migrated to and entered the salivary glands. We designated the first phase of dissemination “adherence-mediated migration” and provided evidence that it involves the inhibition of spirochete motility by one or more diffusible factors elaborated by the feeding tick midgut. Our studies, which we believe are the first to relate the transmission dynamics of spirochetes to the complex morphological and developmental changes that the midgut and salivary glands undergo during engorgement, challenge the conventional viewpoint that dissemination of Lyme disease–causing spirochetes within ticks is exclusively motility driven. PMID:19920352

  5. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-17

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy ({alpha}+{beta}) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  6. The upward spiral of adolescents' positive school experiences and happiness: investigating reciprocal effects over time.

    PubMed

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjäger, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-04-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined over the course of an academic year. Data were collected from 215 secondary school students at 5 measurement occasions. The results of longitudinal cross-lagged structural equation modeling support the notion of an upward spiral of positive school experiences and happiness over time. Positive school experiences had a stable lagged effect on happiness, and, in turn, happiness had a lagged effect on future positive school experiences.

  7. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P. K.; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  8. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  9. Feeling blue, going green and finding other attractive alternatives: a case of biphasic anaphylaxis to patent blue and a literature review of alternative sentinel node localisation methods.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fahad Mujtaba; Basit, Abdul; Salem, Fathi; Vidya, Raghavan

    2015-12-15

    Patent blue dye is used for sentinel lymph node localisation in order to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer. Patent blue is one of the most common dyes used across the UK, however, the incidence of adverse effects seems to be increasing. This case highlights our experience of a biphasic anaphylactic reaction to patent blue dye, and we conduct a brief literature review of alternative and more novel methods to adequately visualise the lymphatics for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  10. The effectiveness of a standardised positioning tool and bedside education on the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Arlene; Hill, Constance; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the developmental proficiency of neonatal intensive care unit nurses, a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and a bedside education programme were introduced to the registered nurses in a 46 bed level III neonatal intensive care unit in the western United States. A developmental positioning team collected pre-intervention positioning scores on 54 preterm infants. This was followed by a survey of the registered nurses beliefs and attitudes, the introduction of the standardised assessment tool and an informal education programme. Post-intervention positioning scores were collected on 55 preterm infants, and analysis of the data indicated there was a statistically significant change in mean positioning scores. Additionally, the registered nurses identified several barriers to the implementation of developmental positioning. This research indicates the use of a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and bedside education may be useful strategies for improving the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

  11. Treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform automatic external defibrillator. The LIFE Investigators.

    PubMed

    Gliner, B E; Jorgenson, D B; Poole, J E; White, R D; Kanz, K G; Lyster, T D; Leyde, K W; Powers, D J; Morgan, C B; Kronmal, R A; Bardy, G H

    1998-01-01

    Few victims of sudden cardiac arrest survive. A new generation of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), smaller, lighter, easier to use, and less costly, makes the goal of widespread AED deployment and early defibrillation feasible. A low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform allows AED device characteristics more suitable to the goal of early defibrillation than high-energy waveforms. This study observed the performance of such a biphasic waveform in the out-of-hospital setting on 100 consecutive victims of sudden cardiac arrest treated by a wide range of first-responders. AEDs incorporating 150-J impedance-compensating biphasic waveforms were placed into service of 34 EMS systems. Data were obtained from the AED PC data card-recording system. The first endpoint was to determine the effectiveness of this waveform in terminating ventricular fibrillation (VF). The second endpoint was to determine whether or not the use of such an AED culminated in an organized rhythm at the time of patient transfer to an advanced life support (ALS) team or emergency department (ED). The third endpoint was to assess the efficiency of the human-factors design of the AED by measuring user time intervals. The 34 sites provided data from 286 consecutive AED uses, 100 from SCA victims with VF as their initial rhythm upon attachment of the AED. All 286 patients were correctly identified by the AED as requiring a shock (100% sensitivity for the 100 VF patients) or not (100% specificity to the 186 patients not presenting in VF). Times from emergency call to first shock delivery averaged 9.1 +/- 7.3 minutes. A single 150-J biphasic shock defibrillated the initial VF episode in 86% of patients. For all 450 episodes of VF in these 100 patients, an average of 86% +/- 24% of VF episodes were terminated with a single biphasic shock. Of the 449 VF episodes that received up to three shocks, 97% +/- 11% were terminated with three shocks or fewer. The average number of shocks per VF

  12. Quantitative Effects of Trunk and Head Position on the Apnea Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Ellen R.; van Maanen, J. Peter; Hilgevoord, Anthony A.J.; Laman, D. Martin; de Vries, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that head position, separately from trunk position, is an additionally important factor for the occurrence of apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Patients and Participants: Three hundred patients referred to our department because of clinically suspected OSA. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Patients underwent overnight polysomnography with 2 position sensors: one on the trunk, and one in the mid-forehead. Of the 300 subjects, 241 were diagnosed with OSA, based on an AHI > 5. Of these patients, 199 could be analyzed for position-dependent OSA based on head and trunk position sensors (AHI in supine position twice as high as AHI in non-supine positions): 41.2% of the cases were not position dependent, 52.3% were supine position dependent based on the trunk sensor, 6.5% were supine position dependent based on the head sensor alone. In 46.2% of the trunk supine position-dependent group, head position was of considerable influence on the AHI (AHI was > 5 higher when the head was also in supine position compared to when the head was turned to the side). Conclusions: The results of this study confirm our hypothesis that the occurrence of OSA may also be dependent on the position of the head. Therefore in patients with a suspicion of position-dependent OSA, sleep recording with dual position sensors placed on both trunk and head should be considered. Citation: van Kesteren ER; van Maanen JP; Hilgevoord AAJ; Laman DM; de Vries N. Quantitative effects of trunk and head position on the apnea hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1075-1081. PMID:21804669

  13. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments.

  14. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    PubMed

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments. PMID:26033303

  15. Design and characterization of cefuroxime axetil biphasic floating minitablets.

    PubMed

    Jammula, Sruti; Patra, Ch Niranjan; Swain, Suryakanta; Panigrahi, Kanhu Charan; Nayak, Sabita; Dinda, Subas Chandra; Rao, Muddana Eswara Bhanoji

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic floating minitablets of cefuroxime axetil were prepared by melt granulation technique using two different grades of gelucire namely 50/13 and 43/01 to maintain constant plasma drug concentration. Loading dose of cefuroxime axetil was formulated as immediate release (IR) minitablets by using hydrophilic grade of gelucire 50/13. Maintenance dose was formulated as floating sustained release (SR) minitablets by using hydrophobic grade of gelucire 43/01. The prepared IR and SR granules were subjected to micromeritic studies and scanning electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) study revealed that drug and selected carriers were compatible. In vitro dissolution study of optimized IR minitablets showed more than 85% of loading dose dissolved within 30 min. Optimized SR minitablets showed zero lag time with floating duration more than 12 h. The drug release from SR minitablets was linear with square root of time with non-Fickian diffusion-controlled release. The optimized batch of minitablets was filled into 0 size hard gelatin capsule. In vitro dissolution study for capsule showed an immediate burst release followed by SR up to 12 h. There is no significant change in dissolution data after storage at 40 °C and 75% RH for three months. Microbiological assay of dissolution samples of optimized minitablets filled in capsules showed proportionate increase in inhibition of growth against Escherichia coli up to 12 h samples. In vivo bioavailability study in albino rabbits showed three times improvement in oral bioavailability.

  16. Core-shell nanoreactors for efficient aqueous biphasic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Cardozo, Andrés F; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wenjing; Julcour, Carine; Lansalot, Muriel; Blanco, Jean-François; Gayet, Florence; Delmas, Henri; Charleux, Bernadette; Manoury, Eric; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2014-11-17

    Water-borne phosphine-functionalized core-cross-linked micelles (CCM) consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell were obtained as stable latexes by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) in water in a one-pot, three-step process. Initial homogeneous aqueous-phase copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether methacrylate (PEOMA) is followed by copolymerization of styrene (S) and 4-diphenylphosphinostyrene (DPPS), yielding P(MAA-co-PEOMA)-b-P(S-co-DPPS) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles (M) by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA), and final micellar cross-linking with a mixture of S and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The CCM were characterized by dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to evaluate size, dispersity, stability, and the swelling ability of various organic substrates. Coordination of [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) to the core-confined phosphine groups was rapid and quantitative. The CCM and M latexes were then used, in combination with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ], to catalyze the aqueous biphasic hydroformylation of 1-octene, in which they showed high activity, recyclability, protection of the activated Rh center by the polymer scaffold, and low Rh leaching. The CCM latex gave slightly lower catalytic activity but significantly less Rh leaching than the M latex. A control experiment conducted in the presence of the sulfoxantphos ligand pointed to the action of the CCM as catalytic nanoreactors with substrate and product transport into and out of the polymer core, rather than as a surfactant in interfacial catalysis.

  17. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  18. A biphasic viscohyperelastic fibril-reinforced model for articular cartilage: formulation and comparison with experimental data.

    PubMed

    García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Experiments in articular cartilage have shown highly nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations, nonlinear tension-compression response as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix and the collagen fibers. A biphasic viscohyperelastic fibril-reinforced model is proposed here, which is able to describe the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the fibrillar and nonfibrillar components of the solid phase, the nonlinear tension-compression response and the nonlinear stress-strain curves under tension and compression. A viscohyperelastic constitutive equation was used for the matrix and the fibers encompassing, respectively, a hyperelastic function used previously for the matrix and a hyperelastic law used before to represent biological connective tissues. This model, implemented in an updated Lagrangian finite element code, displayed good ability to follow experimental stress-strain equilibrium curves under tension and compression for human humeral cartilage. In addition, curve fitting of experimental reaction force and lateral displacement unconfined compression curves showed that the inclusion of viscous effects in the matrix allows the description of experimental data with material properties for the fibers consistent with experimental tensile tests, suggesting that intrinsic viscous effects in the matrix of articular cartilage plays an important role in the mechanical response of the tissue.

  19. A biphasic viscohyperelastic fibril-reinforced model for articular cartilage: formulation and comparison with experimental data.

    PubMed

    García, José Jaime; Cortés, Daniel Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Experiments in articular cartilage have shown highly nonlinear stress-strain curves under finite deformations, nonlinear tension-compression response as well as intrinsic viscous effects of the proteoglycan matrix and the collagen fibers. A biphasic viscohyperelastic fibril-reinforced model is proposed here, which is able to describe the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the fibrillar and nonfibrillar components of the solid phase, the nonlinear tension-compression response and the nonlinear stress-strain curves under tension and compression. A viscohyperelastic constitutive equation was used for the matrix and the fibers encompassing, respectively, a hyperelastic function used previously for the matrix and a hyperelastic law used before to represent biological connective tissues. This model, implemented in an updated Lagrangian finite element code, displayed good ability to follow experimental stress-strain equilibrium curves under tension and compression for human humeral cartilage. In addition, curve fitting of experimental reaction force and lateral displacement unconfined compression curves showed that the inclusion of viscous effects in the matrix allows the description of experimental data with material properties for the fibers consistent with experimental tensile tests, suggesting that intrinsic viscous effects in the matrix of articular cartilage plays an important role in the mechanical response of the tissue. PMID:17014853

  20. Effect of fast positive ions incident on caesiated plasma grid of negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the effect on negative ion formation on a caesiated surface of the backscattering of positive ions approaching it with energy of a few tens of eV. For a positive ion energy of 45 eV, the surface produced negative ion current density due to these fast positive ions is 12 times larger than that due to thermal atoms, thus dominating the negative ion surface production instead of the thermal atoms, as considered until now.

  1. Automatic beam position control at Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF)

    SciTech Connect

    Oothoudt, M.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M.

    1997-08-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual methods to control the position of the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp is used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances.

  2. Space positional and motion SRC effects: A comparison with the use of reaction time distribution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Styrkowiec, Piotr; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of reaction time (RT) distributions has become a recognized standard in studies on the stimulus response correspondence (SRC) effect as it allows exploring how this effect changes as a function of response speed. In this study, we compared the spatial SRC effect (the classic Simon effect) with the motion SRC effect using RT distribution analysis. Four experiments were conducted, in which we manipulated factors of space position and motion for stimulus and response, in order to obtain a clear distinction between positional SRC and motion SRC. Results showed that these two types of SRC effects differ in their RT distribution functions as the space positional SRC effect showed a decreasing function, while the motion SRC showed an increasing function. This suggests that different types of codes underlie these two SRC effects. Potential mechanisms and processes are discussed. PMID:24605178

  3. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization.

  4. AIC649 Induces a Bi-Phasic Treatment Response in the Woodchuck Model of Chronic Hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Daniela; Weber, Olaf; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Tennant, Bud C; Menne, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    AIC649 has been shown to directly address the antigen presenting cell arm of the host immune defense leading to a regulated cytokine release and activation of T cell responses. In the present study we analyzed the antiviral efficacy of AIC649 as well as its potential to induce functional cure in animal models for chronic hepatitis B. Hepatitis B virus transgenic mice and chronically woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infected woodchucks were treated with AIC649, respectively. In the mouse system AIC649 decreased the hepatitis B virus titer as effective as the "gold standard", Tenofovir. Interestingly, AIC649-treated chronically WHV infected woodchucks displayed a bi-phasic pattern of response: The marker for functional cure--hepatitis surface antigen--first increased but subsequently decreased even after cessation of treatment to significantly reduced levels. We hypothesize that the observed bi-phasic response pattern to AIC649 treatment reflects a physiologically "concerted", reconstituted immune response against WHV and therefore may indicate a potential for inducing functional cure in HBV-infected patients. PMID:26656974

  5. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release.

  6. Direct transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural via SnCl₄ catalysts in aqueous and biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenju; Ren, Junli; Li, Huiling; Deng, Aojie; Sun, Runcang

    2015-05-01

    Direct catalytic transformation of xylan-type hemicelluloses to furfural in the aqueous system and the biphasic system were comparatively investigated under mild conditions. Screening of several promising chlorides for conversion of beech xylan in the aqueous system revealed the Lewis acid SnCl4 was the most effective catalyst. Comparing to the single aqueous system, the bio-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF)/H2O biphasic system was more conducive to the synthesis of furfural, in which the highest furfural yield of 78.1% was achieved by using SnCl4 as catalysts under the optimized reaction conditions (150°C, 120 min). Additionally, the influences of xylan-type hemicelluloses with different chemical and structural features from beech, corncob and bagasse on the furfural production were studied. It was found that furfural yield to some extent was determined by the xylose content in hemicelluloses and also had relationships with the molecular weight of hemicelluloses and the degree of crystallization. PMID:25742750

  7. Biphasic regulation of NF-kappa B activity underlies the pro- and anti-inflammatory actions of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Connelly, L; Palacios-Callender, M; Ameixa, C; Moncada, S; Hobbs, A J

    2001-03-15

    Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by macrophages is a prerequisite for the production of high output NO, which mediates many bactericidal and tumoricidal actions of these immune cells. The expression of iNOS in mammalian cells is governed predominantly by the transcription factor, NF-kappa B, which regulates the expression of many host defense proteins. In the present study, we characterize a novel, biphasic effect of NO on NF-kappa B activity in murine macrophages. This mechanism depends on the local concentration of NO and enables it both to up- and down-regulate the expression of host defense proteins including iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2, and IL-6. This biphasic activity of NO appears to play a pivotal role in the time course of activation of these immune cells and, by inference, in facilitating the initiation of a defense response against pathogenic stimuli and in its termination to limit tissue damage. This mechanism may explain at least in part the reported ability of NO to act in both a pro- and anti-inflammatory manner.

  8. Biphasic modeling of brain tumor biomechanics and response to radiation treatment.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Stelios; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2016-06-14

    Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers where tumors are surrounded by tissues with different mechanical properties. Existing mathematical models ignore direct mechanical interactions of the tumor with the normal brain. Here, we developed a clinically relevant model, which predicts tumor growth accounting directly for mechanical interactions. A three-dimensional model of the gray and white matter and the cerebrospinal fluid was constructed from magnetic resonance images of a normal brain. Subsequently, a biphasic tissue growth theory for an initial tumor seed was employed, incorporating the effects of radiotherapy. Additionally, three different sets of brain tissue properties taken from the literature were used to investigate their effect on tumor growth. Results show the evolution of solid stress and interstitial fluid pressure within the tumor and the normal brain. Heterogeneous distribution of the solid stress exerted on the tumor resulted in a 35% spatial variation in cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, the model predicted that distant from the tumor, normal tissues still undergo significant deformations while it was found that intratumoral fluid pressure is elevated. Our predictions relate to clinical symptoms of brain cancers and present useful tools for therapy planning. PMID:27086116

  9. Biphasic responses of human vascular smooth muscle cells to magnesium ion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium-based alloys are promising in biodegradable cardiovascular stent applications. The degradation products of magnesium stents may have significant impacts on the surrounding vascular cells. However, knowledge on the interactions between magnesium ion and vascular cells at the molecular and cellular levels is still largely missing. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of restenosis and wound healing after stent implantation. This study evaluated the short-term effects of extracellular magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) on the cellular behaviors of SMCs. Cellular responses to Mg(2+) were biphasic and in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations (10 mM) of Mg(2+) increased cell viability, cell proliferation rate, cell adhesion, cell spreading, cell migration rate, and actin expression. In contrast, higher concentrations (40-60 mM) of Mg(2+) had deleterious effects on cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that Mg(2+) altered the expressions of genes mostly related to cell adhesion, cell injury, angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation, and cell growth. Finding from this study provides some valuable information on SMC responses toward magnesium ions at the cellular and molecular levels, and guidance for future controlled release of magnesium from the stent material.

  10. Why Do We Mipsell the Middle of Words? Orthographic Texture and the Serial Position Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.

    2013-01-01

    In the current set of studies, a new hypothesis regarding the cause of the commonly observed U-shaped serial position effect (SPE) in spelling is introduced and tested. Instead of greater competition during output or weaker positional representation for word-medial letters, commonly accepted explanations for the cause of the SPE, the…

  11. Effects of Positive Reframing and Paradoxical Directives in Counseling for Negative Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Explored the effects of two paradoxical directives on negative emotions. Subjects received either positive reframing or no reframing statements and either paradoxical or nonparadoxical directives. Positive reframing produced greater reduction in negative emotions than no reframing though negative emotions were reduced in all conditions. The two…

  12. The Effects of Implementing a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on Office Discipline Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Cheryl Denise

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of PBIS (Positive Behavioral Intervention Support) program had a positive significant effect in decreasing office discipline referrals in a local elementary school. A sample independent t-Test was used to examine data on the school's average office discipline referrals for two years…

  13. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Positivity Effect in Memory: United States vs. China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Christie; Lin, Ziyong

    2012-01-01

    Many studies conducted in the United States (U.S.) have documented a positivity effect in aging--a tendency for older adults to remember more positive than negative information in comparison to young adults. Despite this cognitive emotional benefit, U.S. adults still hold a more negative view of aging compared to adults in Asia. We hypothesized…

  15. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  16. Effects of Seating Position on Student Performance in High School Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Paul Eric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of seating position on mathematics course performance with relationship to gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The study was conducted using three seating arrangements: alphabetic, student self-select and rotation. The data collected included the students' seating position,…

  17. The Relative Position Priming Effect Depends on Whether Letters Are Vowels or Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The relative position priming effect is a type of subset priming in which target word recognition is facilitated as a consequence of priming the word with some of its letters, maintaining their relative position (e.g., "csn" as a prime for "casino"). Five experiments were conducted to test whether vowel-only and consonant-only subset primes…

  18. The Effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Support on Changing the Behavior of Red Zone Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Fredrick

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve culture, safety, and climate, numerous schools nationwide are implementing Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS) model for reducing high-risk behaviors of students identified as red zone. The…

  19. Biphasic change in correlation between ovarian lipid peroxides and progestational activity during pseudopregnancy induced in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Kurusu, S; Tsukamoto, K; Konishi, H; Tachibana, M; Kawaminami, M; Hashimoto, I

    1999-09-01

    We measured ovarian lipid peroxide (LP) levels and plasma progestins, progesterone (P4) and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, throughout pseudopregnancy in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Plasma P4 fluctuated, with two peaks on days 5 (PSP5) and 8 of pseudopregnancy, and then declined to the basal level by PSP12. Ovarian LP increased from PSP1 to PSP4, decreased temporarily until PSP8, and then rose gradually until PSP14. From PSP1 through PSP7, ovarian LP was positively correlated with total progestins according to the Spearman ranked correlation coefficient (r=+0.829, p<0.05). In contrast, a negative correlation between ovarian LP and plasma P4 was apparent (r=-0.816, p<0.05) from PSP8 to PSP14. These results show the biphasic correlation of LP with luteal progestational activity depending on the luteal stage.

  20. An experimental test for lineage-specific position effects on alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    Independent transgene insertions differ in expression based on their location in the genome; these position effects are of interest because they reflect the influence of genome organization on gene regulation. Position effects also represent potentially insurmountable obstacles to the rigorous functional comparison of homologous genes from different species because (i) quantitative variation in expression of each gene across genomic positions (generalized position effects, or GPEs) may overwhelm differences between the genes of interest, or (ii) divergent genes may be differentially sensitive to position effects, reflecting unique interactions between each gene and its genomic milieu (lineage-specific position effects, or LSPEs). We have investigated both types of position-effect variation by applying our method of transgene coplacement, which allows comparisons of transgenes in the same position in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report an experimental test for LSPE in Drosophila. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes of D. melanogaster and Drosophila affinidisjuncta differ in both tissue distribution and amounts of ADH activity. Despite this striking regulatory divergence, we found a very high correlation in overall ADH activity between the genes of the two species when placed in the same genomic position as assayed in otherwise Adh-null adults and larvae. These results argue against the influence of LSPE for these sequences, although the effects of GPE are significant. Our new findings validate the coplacement approach and show that it greatly magnifies the power to detect differences in expression between transgenes. Transgene coplacement thus dramatically extends the range of functional and evolutionary questions that can be addressed by transgenic technology. PMID:9861000

  1. Aging and emotional memory: the co-occurrence of neurophysiological and behavioral positivity effects.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2009-06-01

    The positivity effect is a trend for adults to increasingly process positive and/or decreasingly process negative information compared with other information with advancing age. The positivity effect has been observed with behavioral measures, such as in attention and memory tests, and with measures of neurophysiological activity, such as in amygdala activation and the late positive potential (LPP). In this study, it was investigated whether these behavioral and neurophysiological positivity effects co-occur. The electroencephalogram of younger (19-26 years) and older (65-82 years) adults was recorded while they encoded unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures for retrieval in free and cued recall tests. Positivity effects occurred in the late LPP amplitude (700-1,000 ms) and in the free recall test, with negativity biases in younger adults and no biases in older adults. The occurrence of a valence bias in the LPP was substantially but nonsignificantly correlated with the occurrence of a similar valence bias in memory in the older adults. In conclusion, neurophysiological and behavioral positivity effects appear to co-occur, a finding that awaits expansion using different neurophysiological and behavioral measures. PMID:19485614

  2. Analyzing surface plasmon resonance data: choosing a correct biphasic model for interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Wang, Xuewen; He, Jin; Darici, Yesim

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been widely used as a label-free biophysical technique to quantitatively study biochemical processes. For the SPR data fitting using a single exponential function, the procedure to extract the rate constants is straightforward. However, there is no simple procedure for SPR data fitting with double exponential functions. A highly non-linear fitting procedure is, therefore, used to fit the biphasic SPR data with numerical solutions of the rate equations. This procedure requires some prior knowledge of the underlying interaction mechanism, and the extracted rate constants often have large uncertainties. In this report, we propose a new method of analyzing the biphasic SPR data using the three commonly employed biphasic models. Our method is based on a general analytical solution of the biphasic rate equations, which is much more transparent and straightforward than the highly non-linear numerical integration approach. Our method can be used to determine the underlying biphasic interaction mechanism from the analysis of the SPR data and to extract the rate constants with high confidence levels. We have illustrated the procedures with examples of the data analysis on simulated SPR profiles, and the results are discussed.

  3. Analyzing surface plasmon resonance data: Choosing a correct biphasic model for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Wang, Xuewen; He, Jin; Darici, Yesim

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been widely used as a label-free biophysical technique to quantitatively study biochemical processes. For the SPR data fitting using a single exponential function, the procedure to extract the rate constants is straightforward. However, there is no simple procedure for SPR data fitting with double exponential functions. A highly non-linear fitting procedure is, therefore, used to fit the biphasic SPR data with numerical solutions of the rate equations. This procedure requires some prior knowledge of the underlying interaction mechanism, and the extracted rate constants often have large uncertainties. In this report, we propose a new method of analyzing the biphasic SPR data using the three commonly employed biphasic models. Our method is based on a general analytical solution of the biphasic rate equations, which is much more transparent and straightforward than the highly non-linear numerical integration approach. Our method can be used to determine the underlying biphasic interaction mechanism from the analysis of the SPR data and to extract the rate constants with high confidence levels. We have illustrated the procedures with examples of the data analysis on simulated SPR profiles, and the results are discussed.

  4. Anaphylaxis presentations to an emergency department in Hong Kong: incidence and predictors of biphasic reactions.

    PubMed

    Smit, De Villiers; Cameron, Peter A; Rainer, Timothy H

    2005-05-01

    We describe the epidemiology, clinical features and management of anaphylaxis in a population in Hong Kong, including the features associated with progression to biphasic reactions and the nature of these reactions. A retrospective review was undertaken of patients of all age groups, presenting consecutively to the resuscitation room of a large Hong Kong emergency department with the diagnosis of anaphylaxis, from March 1999 to February 2003. There were 282 patients included. Median age was 28 years, with 59% male. A precipitant was identified in 89%, with 19% of patients claiming a known allergy to the precipitant. Seafood was responsible for 71% of all food-related reactions. More patients reacted to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs rather than antibiotics. Cutaneous features were present in 79%, and 12% presented with hypotension. Ninety-five percent received H1 antagonist, and 67% received epinephrine. Biphasic reactions were reported in 15 (5.3%) cases with 20% of these patients having unstable vital signs. The mean time from treatment to onset of biphasic reaction was 8 h (range 1-23). Patients with respiratory features on initial presentation were less likely to develop biphasic reactions. It is concluded that prolonged observation of patients with anaphylaxis is important, because of the risk of biphasic reactions. Better education could prevent recurrent anaphylaxis. PMID:15837017

  5. Primacy and recency effects in immediate free recall of sequences of spatial positions.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Rita; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the serial position curve based on free recall of spatial position sequences. To evaluate the memory processes underlying spatial recall, some manipulations were introduced by varying the length of spatial sequences (Exp. 1) and modifying the presentation rate of individual positions (Exp. 2). A primacy effect emerged for all sequence lengths, while a recency effect was evident only in the longer sequences. Moreover, slowing the presentation rate increased the magnitude of the primacy effect and abolished the recency effect. The main novelty of the present results is represented by the finding that better recall of early items in a sequence of spatial positions does not depend on the task requirement of an ordered recall but it can also be observed in a free recall paradigm.

  6. Effects of Positive and Negative Adult-Child Interactions on Children's Social Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied the effects of positive and negative interaction on the performance of preschool and elementary school children and their preferences for the adults associated with each type of interaction. (Author/SDH)

  7. The effect of positive air ions on reproduction and growth in laboratory rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsull, S. M.; Head, E. L.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the growth rates, reproductive success and early mortality of laboratory rats maintained at 10,000 positive ions/ml over two generations. These findings were compared with those from animals maintained at ambient ion levels. The present work indicates that positive ions do not have any adverse effects on the reproductive capabilities or the growth of laboratory rats. In contrast it is shown that exposure to elevated levels of positive ions promotes overall growth, particularly in male rats. This action of positive ions increases with each successive generation exposed to the ions. It is suggested that the growth promoting effect of positive ions may be mediated via some modulation of the endocrine system.

  8. Attentional control mediates the effect of social anxiety on positive affect☆

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Amanda S.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to examine whether attentional control, a self-regulatory attentional mechanism, mediates the effect of social anxiety on positive affect. We tested this mediation in two studies using undergraduate students selected to represent a broad range of severity of social anxiety. Self-report assessments of social anxiety, attentional control, and positive affect were collected in a cross-sectional design (Study 1) and in a longitudinal design with three assessment points (Study 2). Results of both studies supported the hypothesized mediational model. Specifically, social anxiety was inversely related to attentional control, which itself positively predicted positive affect. This mediation remained significant even when statistically controlling for the effects of depression. Additionally, the hypothesized model provided superior model fit to theoretically-grounded equivalent models in both studies. Implications of these findings for understanding diminished positive affect in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:23254261

  9. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M M; Abd El-Hamid, H K; Mohamed, A F

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C2S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C2S (27-30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450°C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7-15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4·12H2O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C2S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. PMID:26354276

  10. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Radwan, M M; Abd El-Hamid, H K; Mohamed, A F

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C2S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C2S (27-30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450°C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7-15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4·12H2O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C2S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way.

  11. Mood and organizational citizenship behavior: the effects of positive affect on employee organizational citizenship behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Shiaw, W T

    1999-11-01

    This study, involving 139 employees from a variety of industries, organizations, and positions in Singapore, measured the effects of mood on the intentions of employees to contribute actions that are organizationally desirable but are not part of their formal job requirements (organizational citizenship behavior). After effects of established patterns of historical organizational citizenship behavior, demographic characteristics, and employee positive and negative affectivity had been controlled, stepwise regression analysis revealed that the amount of positive affect currently experienced by an employee significantly influenced the employee's intention to perform specific acts of organizational citizenship.

  12. Serial position effects in auditory event-related potentials during working memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2004-01-01

    It is established that recall of an item from a list of sequentially presented items is sensitive to the item's position in the memorized list. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms that mediate these serial position effects. Studies of working memory retrieval using event-related potentials report amplitude reductions during retrieval (auditory cortical N100, neocortical late positive wave [LPW]) as memory load increases. We tested the hypothesis that N100 and LPW amplitudes to probes are also affected by serial position. Event-related potentials were recorded from subjects performing an auditory working memory task. A set of one or five digits was memorized, then subjects classified a probe digit as either present or absent from the memory set. A control task was also given. Amplitudes of the N100 and LPW were reduced in the 5-item versus the 1-item set. In the 5-item set N100 amplitude was significantly larger for the initial (1st) serial position, relative to Positions 2-5, while linear increases in LPW amplitude were seen across serial positions (5th > 1st position). A control task without memorization showed no N100 or LPW amplitude changes with set size or serial position. The findings reveal that the N100 and LPW are influenced differently by serial position during working memory retrieval: N100 shows a primacy effect and LPW demonstrates a recency effect. The results suggest that primacy and recency effects may be mediated by different brain regions at different times during memory retrieval.

  13. Serial position effects in free memory recall--An ERP-study.

    PubMed

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by recalled and non-recalled words were recorded from 18 female subjects to investigate primacy and recency effects in free memory recall. The typical pattern of a serial position curve (SPC) was obtained with words presented at first and final positions in a list recalled better than words presented in the middle of a list. A marked positivity is seen in the ERPs for words on Primacy, but not on Recency positions at frontocentral electrodes. In contrast, ERP amplitudes on parietal electrodes resemble the SPC seen in behavioral data: P300 amplitude is largest for words on Primacy and Recency positions and attenuated on Plateau positions. Furthermore, subjects with a clear Primacy effect in behavioral data show a distinct frontal positive slow wave for Primacy words only, whereas subjects without a clear primacy effect show a frontal "difference due to subsequent memory" (DM) effect for Primacy and Plateau words. These results are discussed in the framework of working memory and distinctiveness.

  14. Essential biphasic role for JAK3 catalytic activity in IL-2 receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Geoffrey A.; Uchida, Kenji; Weiss, Arthur; Taunton, Jack

    2016-01-01

    To drive lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation, common γ-chain (γc) cytokine receptors require hours to days of sustained stimulation. While JAK1 and JAK3 kinases are found together in all γc-receptor complexes, it is not known how their respective catalytic activities contribute to signaling over time. Here, we dissect the temporal requirements for JAK3 kinase activity with a selective covalent inhibitor (JAK3i). By monitoring STAT5 phosphorylation over 20 hours in IL-2-stimulated CD4+ T cells, we document a previously unappreciated second wave of signaling that is much more sensitive to JAK3i than the first wave. Selective inhibition of this second wave is sufficient to block cyclin expression and S-phase entry. An inhibitor-resistant JAK3 mutant (Cys905Ser) rescued all effects of JAK3i in isolated T cells and in mice. Our chemical genetic toolkit elucidates a biphasic requirement for JAK3 kinase activity in IL-2-driven T-cell proliferation and will find broad utility in studies of γc-receptor signaling. PMID:27018889

  15. Cytocompatibility evaluation of microwave sintered biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds synthesized using pH control.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Jones, Andrew D; Zhou, Huan; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-04-01

    Compounds belonging to the calcium phosphate (CaP) system are known to be major constituents of bone and are bioactive to different extents in vitro and in vivo. Their chemical similarity makes them prime candidates for implants and bone tissue engineering scaffolds. CaP nanoparticles of amorphous hydroxyapatite (aHA) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) were synthesized using chemical precipitation. Uniaxially pressed aHA and DCPD powders were subjected to microwave radiation to promote solid state phase transformations resulting in crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic compositions: HA/TCP and TCP/calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) and their subsequent densification. Phase composition of microwave sintered compacts was confirmed via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Solution pH during crystal growth was found to have a profound effect on particle morphology and post-sintered phases, despite constant sintering temperature. Cytocompatibility assessment using 7F2 cells, corresponding to adult mouse osteoblasts, on microwave and conventional, furnace sintered samples demonstrated that manufacturing method does not impact cellular viability after 24 h or proliferation over 7 days. New CaP deposition and extracellular matrix components were observed in vitro via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23827628

  16. A simple biphasic route to water soluble dithiocarbamate functionalized quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Xu, J.; Goodman, M.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Lin, Z.

    2008-06-11

    Hydrophobic trioctylphosphine oxide-functionalized CdSe quantum dots (CdSe-TOPO QDs) were transferred from organic solvent to aqueous solution via a simple yet novel biphasic ligand exchange process in one step, which involved the in-situ formation of hydrophilic dithiocarbamate moieties and subsequent ligand exchange with TOPO at the chloroform/water interface. The resulting water dispersible, dithiocarbamate functionalized CdSe QDs (i.e., D-CdSe) exhibited an increased photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield as compared to the original CdSe-TOPO QDs, suggesting an effective passivation of dithiocarbamate ligands on the QD surface. The D-CdSe QDs were then mixed with hydroxyl terminated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A decrease in the PL of the mixture was observed, indicating a possible charge transfer from the D-CdSe QDs to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The reaction of the carboxyl group on the D-CdSe surface with the hydroxyl group on the TiO{sub 2} rendered QDs in direct contact with TiO{sub 2}, thereby facilitating the electronic interaction between them.

  17. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  18. A biphasic memory curve in the chambered nautilus, Nautilus pompilius L. (Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea).

    PubMed

    Crook, Robyn; Basil, Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Cephalopods are an exceptional taxon for examining the competing influences of ecology and evolutionary history on brain and behaviour. Coleoid cephalopods (octopuses, cuttlefishes and squids) have evolved specialised brains containing dedicated learning and memory centres, and rely on plastic behaviours to hunt prey effectively and communicate intricate visual displays. Their closest living relative, the primitive nautilus, is the sole remnant of an ancient lineage that has persisted since the Cambrian. Nautilus brains are the simplest among the extant cephalopods, and the absence of dedicated learning and memory regions may represent an ancestral condition. It is assumed that the absence of these regions should limit memory storage and recall in nautilus, but this assumption has never been tested. Here we describe the first evidence of learning and memory in chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius). Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we demonstrate that chambered nautilus exhibits temporally separated short- and long-term memory stores, producing a characteristic biphasic memory curve similar to that of cuttlefishes. Short-term memory persisted for less than 1 h post-training, whereas long-term memory was expressed between 6 and 24 h after training. Despite lacking the dedicated neural regions that support learning and memory in all other extant cephalopods, nautilus expressed a similar memory profile to coleoids. Thus the absence of these regions in the nautilus brain does not appear to limit memory expression, as hypothesised. Our results provide valuable insights into the evolution of neural structures supporting memory.

  19. Water drinking causes a biphasic change in blood composition in humans.

    PubMed

    Endo, Y; Torii, R; Yamazaki, F; Sagawa, S; Yamauchi, K; Tsutsui, Y; Morikawa, T; Shiraki, K

    2001-06-01

    To investigate precisely the fluid shifts associated with water drinking in humans, we measured continuously blood density and plasma electrolyte concentrations using the mechanical oscillator technique and ion-selective electrodes, respectively, in healthy young volunteers before (10 min) and after (48 min) water drinking for a period of 2 min. Beat-by-beat blood pressure was also monitored throughout the experiment. Drinking 1 l tap water caused a transient increase in blood density immediately after the drinking episode (from 1051.1+/-0.5 g/l before drinking to 1051.8+/-0.5 g/l 4 min after the start of drinking, P<0.05), followed by a gradual reduction (1050.1+/-0.5 g/l at 31 min). This drinking-induced change paralleled those of haematocrit, plasma density and plasma volume. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl-] and osmolality decreased after drinking without transient increases and reached minima at about 30 min. A transient increase in mean arterial blood pressure was observed prior to the increase in blood density. These findings suggest that water drinking causes a biphasic change in plasma volume: initial haemoconcentration, probably due to sympathetic acceleration, followed by haemodilution due to the post-absorptive effect, and further suggest that the fluid shift associated with the initial haemoconcentration is isosmotic.

  20. Event-related potential correlates of the serial position effect in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J V; Pratt, H; Starr, A

    1991-06-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of the serial position effect in short-term memory were investigated using a memory scanning task. Nine normal young adults (18-39 years) indicated whether a probe item was a member of a previously presented 5-item memory set by pressing 1 of 2 reaction-time buttons. Three types of stimuli were used: verbal digits presented both auditorily and visually, and musical notes presented auditorily. The ERPs to the probes were separately averaged according to the serial position of the probe (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) in the memory set. The ERPs to the memory set items in positions 1, 3 and 5 also were separately averaged. Both baseline-to-peak and average amplitudes of a late positive parietal potential to the probes were larger to probe items presented in the last position in the memory set than to probes presented in the middle positions (2, 3 and 4), showing a significant recency effect, but only for auditory digits. Reaction time reflected significant recency effects for both auditory digits and notes, but not for visual digits. Response accuracy (percent correct) showed a significant recency effect only for notes. For each stimulus type, both the baseline-to-peak and average amplitudes of a late frontal component to the memory set items became more negative (in the case of the visual digits, less positive) in the third and last serial position of the memory set compared to the first. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence of serial position effects in short-term memory, which, during memory scanning, are dependent on stimulus modality (auditory, visual) and type (verbal, non-verbal).

  1. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, Jean; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one-dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 106 simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  2. A finite element implementation for biphasic contact of hydrated porous media under finite deformation and sliding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongqiang; Shah, Mitul; Spilker, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The study of biphasic soft tissues contact is fundamental to understanding the biomechanical behavior of human diarthrodial joints. However, to date, few biphasic finite element contact analysis for 3D physiological geometries under finite deformation has been developed. The objective of this paper is to develop a hyperelastic biphasic contact implementation for finite deformation and sliding problem. An augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The finite element implementation was based on a general purpose software, COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the implementation is verified using example problems, for which solutions are available by alternative analyses. The implementation was proven to be robust and able to handle finite deformation and sliding. PMID:24496915

  3. Apomorphine-induced biphasic circling behaviour in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. A pharmacological kindling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Coward, D M

    1983-06-01

    Factors governing the development of apomorphine-induced biphasic circling behaviour in rats having unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra were investigated. It was found that a post-lesion time of at least 2--3 weeks and the repeated exposure to apomorphine were essential for its development. Optimal results were obtained when animals received weekly apomorphine, 0.05 mg/kg sc, in post-lesion weeks 6, 7 and 8. Pretreatment with haloperidol, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg ip 1 h beforehand in post-lesion week 9, converted the biphasic response into an enhanced, uniphasic one. The findings suggest that the development of the biphasic response to apomorphine is a multi-factorial process representing a pharmacological kindling phenomenon.

  4. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Bragard, Jean Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 10{sup 6} simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  5. Negative and positive testing effects in terms of item-specific and relational information.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the negative testing effect. The item-specific-relational account proposes that this occurs when retrieval disrupts interitem relational encoding despite enhancing item-specific information. Four experiments examined the negative testing effect, showing the following: (a) The basic phenomenon is replicable in free recall; (b) it extends to category-cued recall; (c) it converts to a positive testing effect when the final test is recognition, a test heavily reliant on item-specific information; (d) the negative testing effect in recall, robust in a pure list design, reverses to a positive testing effect in a mixed-list design; and (e) more generally, the present testing manipulation interacts with experimental design, such that an initially negative effect becomes positive or an initially positive effect becomes larger as the design changes from pure-list to mixed-list. The breadth of results fits well within the item-specific-relational framework and provides evidence against 2 alternative accounts. Finally, this research indicates that the testing effect shares important similarities with the generation effect and other similar memory phenomena. PMID:25181496

  6. Why do we misspell the middle of words? Orthographic texture and the serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Jones, Angela C

    2013-09-01

    In the current set of studies, a new hypothesis regarding the cause of the commonly observed U-shaped serial position effect (SPE) in spelling is introduced and tested. Instead of greater competition during output or weaker positional representation for word-medial letters, commonly accepted explanations for the cause of the SPE, the orthographic texture hypothesis suggests that variations in the activation strength of individual letters are responsible for the variations typically observed in spelling accuracy as a function of letter position. Sound-letter convergence, a measure of orthographic texture referring to how often a single letter appears in a sound's spelling, may be responsible for higher accuracy rates at word-flanking letter positions. Indeed, when sound-letter convergence was manipulated, spelling accuracy was as high as or higher in word-medial letter positions than in word-initial or -final letter positions indicating that letter position alone cannot account for the pervasive U-shaped serial position effect.

  7. Are Age Effects in Positivity Influenced by the Valence of Distractors?

    PubMed

    Ziaei, Maryam; von Hippel, William; Henry, Julie D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2015-01-01

    An age-related 'positivity' effect has been identified, in which older adults show an information-processing bias towards positive emotional items in attention and memory. In the present study, we examined this positivity bias by using a novel paradigm in which emotional and neutral distractors were presented along with emotionally valenced targets. Thirty-five older and 37 younger adults were asked during encoding to attend to emotional targets paired with distractors that were either neutral or opposite in valence to the target. Pupillary responses were recorded during initial encoding as well as a later incidental recognition task. Memory and pupillary responses for negative items were not affected by the valence of distractors, suggesting that positive distractors did not automatically attract older adults' attention while they were encoding negative targets. Additionally, the pupil dilation to negative items mediated the relation between age and positivity in memory. Overall, memory and pupillary responses provide converging support for a cognitive control account of positivity effects in late adulthood and suggest a link between attentional processes and the memory positivity effect. PMID:26366872

  8. Effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Tsuneo; Seko, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Yui

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of movement from a postural maintenance position on lumbar hemodynamic changes, in order to prevent lower back pain and develop exercise therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 years) participated in the study. During flexion-extension exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually to a flexed position from an upright posture while sitting and standing, and then returned to and maintained an upright (re-upright) position. In the extension–flexion exercise, the subjects moved their trunks gradually from an upright posture to an extended position, and back while maintaining an upright (re-upright) position. Lumbar spinal muscle activity and hemodynamic changes were evaluated during both exercises. [Results] During the flexion and extension exercises, increased trunk-flexion angle caused increased muscle activity, decreased oxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus muscle, and increased deoxygenated hemoglobin in the multifidus and lumbar erector spinae muscles. Moreover, the muscle activities were nearly the same in the re-upright and upright positions, and total hemoglobin also increased. [Conclusion] In both standing and sitting positions, holding the trunk in a flexed position causes ischemic hemodynamic changes in the multifidus muscle; however, the hyperemic response when returning the trunk to an extended position may improve circulation. PMID:27390450

  9. Effect of position on pulmonary mechanics in healthy preterm newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Fox, R E; Viscardi, R M; Taciak, V L; Niknafs, H; Cinoman, M I

    1993-01-01

    Preterm infants are often placed in the supine position to facilitate care and observation. Prone positioning may positively affect later neurodevelopmental outcome, but it may also affect pulmonary function. Using a computerized system, we examined the effect of positioning on pulmonary mechanics in spontaneously breathing healthy preterm infants. Eleven infants with a mean birth weight (+/- SD) of 1523 +/- 171 gm and a mean gestational age (+/- SD) of 31.7 +/- 1.5 weeks were studied during the first 2 weeks of life. Pulmonary mechanic measurements were obtained in both supine and prone positions by mask pneumotachography and esophageal balloon technique. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were unaffected by positioning. There was a statistically, but not clinically, significant increase in heart rate in the prone position. However, there were no significant differences in tidal volume, minute ventilation, pulmonary resistance, or dynamic compliance between positions. The contribution of intrasubject variability of serial measurements was assessed in a separate group of four infants studied three times in the same position. There was no significant difference in respiratory rate, tidal volume, dynamic compliance per kilogram, or total pulmonary resistance in the same infant when studied in the same position over time (p > or = 0.24). The maximum variability (95% confidence limit) was 25.5% for tidal volume, 21% for dynamic compliance, and 44.3% for resistance. Because prone positioning did not adversely affect pulmonary mechanics or oxygen saturation in these healthy preterm infants, we suggest that prone position be used to facilitate the developmental needs of these infants.

  10. Biphasic flow-volume loop in granulomatosis with polyangiitis related unilateral bronchus obstruction.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sahni, Sonu; Marder, Galina; Shah, Rakesh; Talwar, Arunabh

    2016-07-01

    Spirometry flow-volume measurement is used routinely in the outpatient setting to rule out obstructive lung diseases. Biphasic flow-volume loop is a classic presentation of unilateral bronchial stenosis due to multiple etiologies and it should raise clinical suspicion. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic inflammatory condition with pulmonary manifestations that may be infiltrative (e.g., pneumonia), hemorrhagic, and may rarely cause bronchial stenosis. Herein, we present a case of GPA-related, bronchial obstruction that caused biphasic flow-volume loop along with a literature review. PMID:27424828

  11. Contrasting effects of hemiparasites on ecosystem processes: can positive litter effects offset the negative effects of parasitism?

    PubMed Central

    Suding, Katharine N.

    2010-01-01

    Hemiparasites are known to influence community structure and ecosystem functioning, but the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Variation in the impacts of hemiparasites on diversity and production could be due to the difference in the relative strength of two interacting pathways: direct negative effects of parasitism and positive effects on N availability via litter. Strong effects of parasitism should result in substantial changes in diversity and declines in productivity. Conversely, strong litter effects should result in minor changes in diversity and increased productivity. We conducted field-based surveys to determine the association of Castillejaoccidentalis with diversity and productivity in the alpine tundra. To examine litter effects, we compared the decomposition of Castilleja litter with litter of four other abundant plant species, and examined the decomposition of those four species when mixed with Castilleja. Castilleja was associated with minor changes in diversity but almost a twofold increase in productivity and greater foliar N in co-occurring species. Our decomposition trials suggest litter effects are due to both the rapid N loss of Castilleja litter and the effects of mixing Castilleja litter with co-occurring species. Castilleja produces litter that accelerates decomposition in the alpine tundra, which could accelerate the slow N cycle and boost productivity. We speculate that these positive effects of litter outweigh the effects of parasitism in nutrient-poor systems with long-lived hemiparasites. Determining the relative importance of parasitism and litter effects of this functional group is crucial to understand the strong but variable roles hemiparasites play in affecting community structure and ecosystem processes. PMID:20658151

  12. Turn Down the Volume or Change the Channel?: Emotional Effects of Detached Versus Positive Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Michelle N.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one’s interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. While both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed. PMID:22746676

  13. The role of elicited responding in the feature-positive effect.

    PubMed

    Nallan, G B; Pace, G M; McCoy, D F; Zentall, T R

    1983-01-01

    Hearst and Jenkins proposed in 1974 that elicited responding accounts for the feature-positive effect. To test this position, pigeons were exposed to a feature-positive or feature-negative discrimination between successively presented displays--one consisted of a red and a green response key and the other consisted of two green response keys. There were four main conditions: 5-5 (5-sec trials, 5-sec intertrial intervals), 5-30, 30-30, and 30-180. Conditions 5-30 and 30-180 should produce the largest amount of elicited responding, and therefore the largest feature-positive effects. A response-independent bird was yoked to each response-dependent bird to allow direct assessment of the amount of elicited responding generated by each condition. Contrary to the predictions by Hearst and Jenkins's theory, response-dependent birds showed large feature-positive effects in each condition. The largest feature-positive effect was obtained in condition 5-5. Response-independent birds produced similar results, but manifested low response rates.

  14. The serial-position effect in short-term motor retention.

    PubMed

    Wrisberg, C A

    1975-12-01

    The existence of inter-item interference was demonstrated in an experiment investigating proactive inhibition in motor short-term memory. Blindfolded subjects moved a slide to a stop and then attempted to replace the slide in the correct (criterion) location with the stop removed. Independent variables were positions recalled in addition to the criterion (zero or four) and retention interval length (5 or 50 sec). While retention loss on the criterion position was found only for the group with four additional positions and a 50-sec retention interval, analysis of recall error at each position for subjects given a five-item sequence and a 5-sec retention interval indicated a serial-position effect. Implications of the findings for the role of cognitive processes in motor short-term memory were discussed.

  15. Serial position effects in visual short-term memory for words and abstract spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, M S; Magnussen, S; Reinvang, I

    1996-03-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of list position, and retention-interval in recognition for two distinct stimulus categories in young adults. Stimulus categories were spatial abstract patterns and words presented on a computer screen. At short delay intervals recency effects predominates and at longer delay intervals a primacy effect predominates in both experiments, indicating similar basic memory processes producing the serial position functions for the two different categories of visual stimuli, but as length of retention-interval increases, memory for first list items improves for words and remains constant for abstract patterns. Recency functions are similar for both stimulus categories tested.

  16. Serial position effects in implicit memory for multiple-digit numbers.

    PubMed

    Raanaas, Ruth K; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-01-01

    Serial position effects in implicit and explicit memory were investigated in a short-term memory task. A study list composed of four, spatially distributed, two-digit numbers was presented, followed by an item recognition task (explicit test) and an implicit memory task in which participants were asked to verify a simple addition equation where the presented answer was either primed or not primed by one of the number pairs in the study list. Similar serial position effects were observed in explicit and implicit memory, with faster response times for correct decisions on the first than on the later list positions. The presence of a primacy effect but no recency effect is consistent with previous studies of explicit memory with visual presentation. The results suggest that similar principles of temporal information processing govern priming and episodic short-term memory.

  17. Investigating the Phonological Similarity Effect: Syllable Structure and the Position of Common Phonemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Lisa M.; Roodenrys, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to determine whether the effect that phonological similarity has on immediate serial recall is influenced by the consistency and position of phonemes within words. In comparison to phonologically dissimilar lists, when the stimulus lists rhyme there is a facilitative effect on the recall of item information and…

  18. The Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Ann-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) in an elementary school within a large, urban school district located in the South. The effects of first year implementation of the SWPBS program were studied by examining Office Disciplinary Referrals (ODRs) and academic achievement data in…

  19. Influence of surface microstructure and chemistry on osteoinduction and osteoclastogenesis by biphasic calcium phosphate discs.

    PubMed

    Davison, N L; Su, J; Yuan, H; van den Beucken, J J J P; de Bruijn, J D; Barrère-de Groot, F

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that surface microstructural dimensions can influence the osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates (CaPs), and osteoclasts may play a role in this process. We hypothesised that surface structural dimensions of ≤ 1 μm trigger osteoinduction and osteoclast formation irrespective of macrostructure (e.g., concavities, interconnected macropores, interparticle space) or surface chemistry. To test this, planar discs made of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP: 80% hydroxyapatite, 20% tricalcium phosphate) were prepared with different surface structural dimensions - either ~ 1 μm (BCP1150) or ~ 2-4 μm (BCP1300) - and no macropores or concavities. A third material was made by sputter coating BCP1150 with titanium (BCP1150Ti), thereby changing its surface chemistry but preserving its surface structure and chemical reactivity. After intramuscular implantation in 5 dogs for 12 weeks, BCP1150 formed ectopic bone in 4 out of 5 samples, BCP1150Ti formed ectopic bone in 3 out of 5 samples, and BCP1300 formed no ectopic bone in any of the 5 samples. In vivo, large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells densely colonised BCP1150, smaller osteoclast-like cells formed on BCP1150Ti, and osteoclast-like cells scarcely formed on BCP1300. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells cultured on the surface of BCP1150 and BCP1150Ti in the presence of osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL (receptor activator for NF-κB ligand) proliferated then differentiated into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells with positive tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. However, cell proliferation, fusion, and TRAP activity were all significantly inhibited on BCP1300. These results indicate that of the material parameters tested - namely, surface microstructure, macrostructure, and surface chemistry - microstructural dimensions are critical in promoting osteoclastogenesis and triggering ectopic bone formation. PMID:26091730

  20. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  1. Analysis of the effect of swimmer's head position on swimming performance using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zaïdi, H; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Polidori, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this numerical work is to analyze the effect of the position of the swimmer's head on the hydrodynamic performances in swimming. In this initial study, the problem was modeled as 2D and in steady hydrodynamic state. The geometry is generated by the CAD software CATIA and the numerical simulation is carried out by the use of the CFD Fluent code. The standard k-epsilon turbulence model is used with a specific wall law. Three positions of the head were studied, for a range of Reynolds numbers about 10(6). The obtained numerical results revealed that the position of the head had a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamic performances, strongly modifying the wake around the swimmer. The analysis of these results made it possible to propose an optimal position of the head of a swimmer in underwater swimming.

  2. Effects of Kinesio taping on joint position sense of the ankle

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Do; Kim, Min-Young; Choi, Jung-Eun; Lim, Ga-Hee; Jung, Seong-In; Park, So-Hyun; Cheon, Song-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Kinesio taping on the joint position sense of the ankle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 nomal adults who had experienced ankle sprain. Kinesio taping was applied over the ankle medial ligament and ankle lateral ligament with eight pattern reinforcement taping. Joint position sense was measured using isokinetic equipment (Biodex System 4 pro dynamometer, Biodex Medical systems Inc., USA) during dorsiflexion/plantarflexion and inversion/eversion, before and after taping. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 21.0 for Windows. [Results] Joint position sense after Kinesio taping was improved in the dorsiflexion and inversion positions. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, Kinesio taping of the ankle is effective for the prevention of ankle sprain. PMID:27190446

  3. Dynamic Effects of Anchor Positional Tolerance on Tension Moored Floating Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher; Pakrashi, Vikram; Murphy, Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    For water depths greater than 60m floating wind turbines will become the most economical option for generating offshore wind energy. Tension mooring stabilised units are one type of platform being considered by the offshore wind energy industry. The complex mooring arrangement used by this type of platform means that the dynamics are greatly effected by offsets in the positioning of the anchors. This paper examines the issue of tendon anchor position tolerances. The dynamic effects of three positional tolerances are analysed in survival state using the time domain FASTLink. The severe impact of worst case anchor positional offsets on platform and turbine survivability is shown. The worst anchor misposition combinations are highlighted and should be strongly avoided. Novel methods to mitigate this issue are presented.

  4. "Up Means Good": The Effect of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.

    PubMed

    Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P; Conrad, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from six experiments that examine the effect of the position of an item on the screen on the evaluative ratings it receives. The experiments are based on the idea that respondents expect "good" things-those they view positively-to be higher up on the screen than "bad" things. The experiments use items on different topics (Congress and HMOs, a variety of foods, and six physician specialties) and different methods for varying their vertical position on the screen. A meta-analysis of all six experiments demonstrates a small but reliable effect of the item's screen position on mean ratings of the item; the ratings are significantly more positive when the item appears in a higher position on the screen than when it appears farther down. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that respondents follow the "Up means good" heuristic, using the vertical position of the item as a cue in evaluating it. Respondents seem to rely on heuristics both in interpreting response scales and in forming judgments.

  5. Effect of body position on vocal tract acoustics: Acoustic pharyngometry and vowel formants.

    PubMed

    Vorperian, Houri K; Kurtzweil, Sara L; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D; Tillman, Katelyn K; Austin, Diane

    2015-08-01

    The anatomic basis and articulatory features of speech production are often studied with imaging studies that are typically acquired in the supine body position. It is important to determine if changes in body orientation to the gravitational field alter vocal tract dimensions and speech acoustics. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body position (upright versus supine) on (1) oral and pharyngeal measurements derived from acoustic pharyngometry and (2) acoustic measurements of fundamental frequency (F0) and the first four formant frequencies (F1-F4) for the quadrilateral point vowels. Data were obtained for 27 male and female participants, aged 17 to 35 yrs. Acoustic pharyngometry showed a statistically significant effect of body position on volumetric measurements, with smaller values in the supine than upright position, but no changes in length measurements. Acoustic analyses of vowels showed significantly larger values in the supine than upright position for the variables of F0, F3, and the Euclidean distance from the centroid to each corner vowel in the F1-F2-F3 space. Changes in body position affected measurements of vocal tract volume but not length. Body position also affected the aforementioned acoustic variables, but the main vowel formants were preserved.

  6. Happy heart, smiling eyes: A systematic review of positive mood effects on broadening of visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Vanlessen, Naomi; De Raedt, Rudi; Koster, Ernst H W; Pourtois, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Positive mood contributes to mental and physical wellbeing. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001) proposed that the beneficial effects of positive mood on life quality result from attentional broadening. In this article, we systematically review (following PRISMA guidelines; Moher et al., 2009), a host of studies investigating the nature and extent of attentional changes triggered by the experience of positive mood, with a focus on vision. While several studies reported a broadening of attention, others found that positive mood led to a more diffuse information processing style. Positive mood appears to lessen attention selectivity in a way that is context-specific and bound to limitations. We propose a new framework in which we postulate that positive mood impacts the balance between internally and externally directed attention, through modulations of cognitive control processes, instead of broadening attention per se. This novel model is able to accommodate discrepant findings, seeks to translate the phenomenon of the so-called broadening of attention with positive mood into functional terms, and provides plausible neurobiological mechanisms underlying this effect, suggesting a crucial role of the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex in this interaction. PMID:27395341

  7. Effect of body position on vocal tract acoustics: Acoustic pharyngometry and vowel formants

    PubMed Central

    Vorperian, Houri K.; Kurtzweil, Sara L.; Fourakis, Marios; Kent, Ray D.; Tillman, Katelyn K.; Austin, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The anatomic basis and articulatory features of speech production are often studied with imaging studies that are typically acquired in the supine body position. It is important to determine if changes in body orientation to the gravitational field alter vocal tract dimensions and speech acoustics. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body position (upright versus supine) on (1) oral and pharyngeal measurements derived from acoustic pharyngometry and (2) acoustic measurements of fundamental frequency (F0) and the first four formant frequencies (F1–F4) for the quadrilateral point vowels. Data were obtained for 27 male and female participants, aged 17 to 35 yrs. Acoustic pharyngometry showed a statistically significant effect of body position on volumetric measurements, with smaller values in the supine than upright position, but no changes in length measurements. Acoustic analyses of vowels showed significantly larger values in the supine than upright position for the variables of F0, F3, and the Euclidean distance from the centroid to each corner vowel in the F1-F2-F3 space. Changes in body position affected measurements of vocal tract volume but not length. Body position also affected the aforementioned acoustic variables, but the main vowel formants were preserved. PMID:26328699

  8. Reduction of threshold voltage fluctuation in field-effect transistors by controlling individual dopant position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masahiro; Taira, Keigo; Komatsubara, Akira; Kumagai, Kuninori; Ono, Yukinori; Tanii, Takashi; Endoh, Tetsuo; Shinada, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the impact of only the dopant position on threshold voltage (Vth) in nanoscale field-effect transistors, we fabricated transistors with ordered dopant arrays and conventional random channel doping. Electrical measurements revealed that device performance could be enhanced by controlling the dopant position alone, despite varying dopant number according to a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, device-to-device fluctuations in Vth could be suppressed by implanting a heavier ion such as arsenic owing to the reduction of the projected ion struggling. The results of our study highlight potential improvements in device performance by controlling individual dopant positions.

  9. Effects of box handle position and carrying range on bi-manual carrying capacity for females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi; Loiu, Yi; Chien, Te Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study utilizes a psychophysical approach to examine the effects on carrying capacity for bi-manual carrying tasks involving different handle positions and carrying ranges. A total of 16 female subjects participated in the experiment in groups of two people, and each group of subjects performed the tasks in a random order with 12 different combinations of carrying task. The independent variables are handle position (upper, middle, lower) and carrying range (F-F: floor height carried to floor height, F-W: floor height carried to waist height, W-W: waist height carried to waist height, W-F: waist height carried to floor height), the dependent variable is the maximum acceptable carried weight (MAWC), heart rate (HR), and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The results show that the handle position has a significant effect on MAWC and overall RPE but no significant effect on HR. Carrying range has a significant effect on the MAWC and HR, but no significant effect on overall HR. The handle position and carrying range have a significant interaction on the MAWC and HR. The RPE for different body parts shows significant differences, and the hands feel the most tired. Overall, this study confirms that the lower handle position with the W-W carrying range is the best combination for a two-person carrying task. PMID:26212410

  10. Age and positional effect on the anterior chamber angle: assessment by ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Nicholas P; Nagi, Kundandeep S; Cumba, Ricardo J; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Prager, Thomas C; Rao, Kavita; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate age- and position-related changes of anterior chamber angle anatomy in normal, healthy eyes. Patients and Methods. Thirty subjects were separated into a younger and older cohort. The superior and inferior anterior chamber angles of the eyes were measured in supine and sitting positions by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with bag/balloon technology. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate positional and age-related changes in angle morphology. Results. In the younger cohort, no location or positional differences in angle anatomy were observed. In the older cohort, the inferior quadrant was significantly narrower than the superior quadrant (P = 0.0186) in the supine position. This cohort also demonstrated an interaction effect between position and location. In the older cohort, the angle was deeper inferiorly while the subject was sitting but was deeper superiorly while the subject was supine. Conclusion. Comparison of positional variations in anterior chamber angle anatomy as measured by UBM has recently become possible. This study found that age-related positional changes in the anterior chamber angle anatomy exist in normal healthy eyes.

  11. Age and Positional Effect on the Anterior Chamber Angle: Assessment by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicholas P.; Nagi, Kundandeep S.; Cumba, Ricardo J.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Lee, David A.; Prager, Thomas C.; Rao, Kavita; Feldman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate age- and position-related changes of anterior chamber angle anatomy in normal, healthy eyes. Patients and Methods. Thirty subjects were separated into a younger and older cohort. The superior and inferior anterior chamber angles of the eyes were measured in supine and sitting positions by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) with bag/balloon technology. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate positional and age-related changes in angle morphology. Results. In the younger cohort, no location or positional differences in angle anatomy were observed. In the older cohort, the inferior quadrant was significantly narrower than the superior quadrant (P = 0.0186) in the supine position. This cohort also demonstrated an interaction effect between position and location. In the older cohort, the angle was deeper inferiorly while the subject was sitting but was deeper superiorly while the subject was supine. Conclusion. Comparison of positional variations in anterior chamber angle anatomy as measured by UBM has recently become possible. This study found that age-related positional changes in the anterior chamber angle anatomy exist in normal healthy eyes. PMID:24558603

  12. Species-specific effects of single sensillum ablation on mating position in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Acebes, Angel; Cobb, Matthew; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2003-09-01

    Dipteran insects show a wide range of species-specific mating positions. Interspecific transitions from one position to another may reflect sexual or natural selection, or be pleiotropic consequences of other genetic changes. Like many cyclorrhaphan flies, Drosophila species mate with the male on the back of the female, positioned centrally. Mechanosensory sensilla on the male genitalia of three species of the melanogaster species sub-group of Drosophila have species-specific effects on mating position and on courtship success: ablation of a single pair of bristles on the genital claspers of D. melanogaster males halved homotypic mating success, and unilateral ablation produced a contralateral asymmetry in the male's mating posture. Ablation of mechanoreceptors on the male genital lateral plate affected mating posture less radically and had no effect on mating frequency. Surprisingly, ablation of sensilla on the claspers of D. simulans and D. sechellia males showed no effect on homotypic mating. A similar result was found for D. melanogaster x D. simulans hybrid males. The existence of major differences in the sensory bases of mating position and copulation success in closely related species shows how differing mating positions may have evolved and underlines the need for detailed functional studies in studying the evolution of insect genitalia: homologous structures may serve different functions in different species.

  13. Serial-position effects on a free-recall task in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeewon; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined mechanisms that underlie free-recall performance in bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2) through the prism of serial-position effects. On free-recall tasks, a typical pattern of performance follows a U-shaped serial-position curve, where items from the beginning of the list (the primacy effect) and items from the end of the list (the recency effect) are recalled with higher accuracy than items from the middle of the list. The present study contrasted serial-position effects on the free-recall task in Korean-English bilinguals' L1 vs. L2 and examined the relationship between an independent working memory (WM) measure and serial-position effects in bilinguals' two languages. Results revealed stronger pre-recency (primacy and middle) effects in L1 than in L2, but similar recency effects in the two languages. A close association was observed between WM and recall performance in the pre-recency region in the L1 but not in the L2. Together, these findings suggest that linguistic knowledge constrains free-recall performance in bilinguals, but only in the pre-recency region.

  14. Comparison the effect of Sleep Positioning on Cardiorespiratory Rate in Noninvasive Ventilated Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Asadollahi, Maliheh; Valizadeh, Sousan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Results of several studies suggest that prone position is beneficial in improving the preterm infants’ cardio-respiratory status. Previous studies showed opposite results, and also there is not any available clear study about the effect of this position on cardio-respiratory rates of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (N-CPAP) treating premature infants. Objectives: This study aimed at comparing supine and prone positions on cardio-respiratory rates of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who were treated using N-CPAP. Patients and Methods: This was a cross over study which was performed in 2010 on 44 hospitalized 29-34 weeks gestation premature infants who were receiving N-CPAP in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Al-Zahra Hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Infants were randomly assigned into two groups, and the first group was placed in prone at first and then in supine, and the position of second group was at first supine and then prone. Infants’ Heart Rate (HR) and Respiratory Rate (RR) were assessed three times in each position for 30 minutes. The data was recorded in a data-collection form, and demographic data was analyzed using t test, Chi square and Fisher exact test. Also, repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. Results: There was a significant difference in HR and RR of premature infants who were similar in gestational age and clinical condition and placed in two positions. Premature infants’ HR and RR became lower at prone position than supine in both groups. So it can be concluded that prone position could decrease infants HR and RR, but supine position might increase them (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings support prone positioning for premature infants. Therefore, it is advisable to NICU staff that if there is no obstacle for changing the infant’s position, prone position in infants with respiratory complications during receiving N-CPAP in NICU can be useful

  15. Effects of Herceptin on circulating tumor cells in HER2 positive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-L; Yao, Q; Chen Y Wang, J-H; Wang, H; Fan, Q; Ling, R; Yi, J; Wang, L

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the changes in peripheral blood circulating tumor cells in HER2-positive early breast cancer before and after Herceptin therapy, and to explore the effects of the HER2 gene and Herceptin on circulating tumor cells. CK19 mRNA expression in peripheral blood was evaluated by qRT-PCR as an index of circulating tumor cells in 15 cases of HER-2-positive breast cancer and 18 cases of HER2-negative breast cancer before, and after chemotherapy as well. Ten cases of HER2-positive breast cancer continued on Herceptin therapy for 3 months after chemotherapy, and their peripheral blood was again drawn and assayed for CK-19 mRNA expression. Preoperatively, all cases of HER2-positive cancer were positive for CK19 mRNA in peripheral blood, but 6 cases of HER2-negative breast cancer were positive (33.3%), where there was a substantial difference between the two groups. After 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, CK19 positive rates in cases of HER2-positive and -negative breast cancer reduced by 93.3 and 11.1%, respectively, with a significant difference still existing. After 3 months of Herceptin therapy, expression of CK19 mRNA declined considerably in 10 cases of HER2 positive breast cancer (113.66 ± 88.65 vs 63.35 ± 49.27, P = 0.025). HER-2 gene expression closely correlated with circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of early breast cancer patients. Moreover, Herceptin, a monoclonal antibody for HER2, can reduce the number of circulating tumor cells, which can be an early predictive factor for Herceptin therapy effectiveness against breast cancer.

  16. A nonlinear biphasic fiber-reinforced porohyperviscoelastic model of articular cartilage incorporating fiber reorientation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Seifzadeh, A; Wang, J; Oguamanam, D C D; Papini, M

    2011-08-01

    A nonlinear biphasic fiber-reinforced porohyperviscoelastic (BFPHVE) model of articular cartilage incorporating fiber reorientation effects during applied load was used to predict the response of ovine articular cartilage at relatively high strains (20%). The constitutive material parameters were determined using a coupled finite element-optimization algorithm that utilized stress relaxation indentation tests at relatively high strains. The proposed model incorporates the strain-hardening, tension-compression, permeability, and finite deformation nonlinearities that inherently exist in cartilage, and accounts for effects associated with fiber dispersion and reorientation and intrinsic viscoelasticity at relatively high strains. A new optimization cost function was used to overcome problems associated with large peak-to-peak differences between the predicted finite element and experimental loads that were due to the large strain levels utilized in the experiments. The optimized material parameters were found to be insensitive to the initial guesses. Using experimental data from the literature, the model was also able to predict both the lateral displacement and reaction force in unconfined compression, and the reaction force in an indentation test with a single set of material parameters. Finally, it was demonstrated that neglecting the effects of fiber reorientation and dispersion resulted in poorer agreement with experiments than when they were considered. There was an indication that the proposed BFPHVE model, which includes the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the nonfibrillar matrix (proteoglycan), might be used to model the behavior of cartilage up to relatively high strains (20%). The maximum percentage error between the indentation force predicted by the FE model using the optimized material parameters and that measured experimentally was 3%. PMID:21950897

  17. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Targets and Biphasic Responses in Breast Cancer Cells Treated by Curcumin Alone and in Association with Docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Curcumin (CUR) has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX). In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx) increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l−1–28 µM-) (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01), but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l−1 −70 µM-) (−49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and −56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025). At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (−60 to −80%, all, P<0.05). Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025), and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about −60%, P<0.025). Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l−1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. Conclusions/Significance Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  18. [Time order error and position effect of a standardized stimulus in discrimination of short time duration].

    PubMed

    Rammsayer, T; Wittkowski, K M

    1990-01-01

    In comparison judgments of two successively presented time intervals ranging from 30 to 70 msec a time-order error (TOE) as well as a systematic effect depending on the constant position error (CPE) were demonstrated. The effects proved to be independent. Contrary to Vierordt's law, a negative TOE was found. When presenting the standard interval first, an increased hit rate resulting in a positive CPE was established. Furthermore, a test statistic is introduced that allows analysis of experiments utilizing all available information of a subject's psychometric function.

  19. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Sheaffer, M.K.

    1991-10-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted rf signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by {pi} radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple arguments.

  20. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Sheaffer, M. K.

    1991-10-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted RF signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by (pi) radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple arguments.

  1. Amplification of a bi-phase shift-key modulated signal by a mm-wave FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Scharlemann, E. T.; Sheaffer, M. K.

    1992-07-01

    Bi-phase shift keying (BPSK) is a modulation scheme used in communications and radar in which the phase of a transmitted rf signal is switched in a coded pattern between discrete values differing by π radians. The transmitted information rate (in communications) or resolution (in imaging radar) depends on the rate at which the transmitted signal can be modulated. Modulation rates of greater than 1 GHz are generally desired. Although the instantaneous gain bandwidth of a mm-wave FEL amplifier can be much greater than 10 GHz, slippage may limit the BPSK modulation rate that can be amplified. Qualitative slippage arguments would limit the modulation rate to relatively low values; nevertheless, simulations with a time-dependent FEL code (GINGER) indicate that rates of 2 GHz or more are amplified without much loss in modulation integrity. In this paper we describe the effects of slippage in the simulations and discuss the limits of simple slippage arguments.

  2. Epidermal growth factor induces biphasic activation of ornithine decarboxylase in human stomach-derived KATO-III cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Mitsuhashi, M; Ichikawa, Y; Tarnawski, A

    1994-01-01

    Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) was examined in human gastric cancer-derived KATO-III cells, because 125I-EGF binding studies indicated a presence of specific binding sites for EGF on these cells. Upon stimulation with EGF, both ODC mRNA expression and ODC enzyme activity were significantly increased in KATO-III cells. However, unlike in other cellular systems, both EGF-induced ODC mRNA expression and ODC enzyme activation were biphasic with the peaks at 15 +/- 10 min and 2.1 +/- 1.5 hrs (mean +/- SE) for mRNA, and 3.1 +/- 1.5 and 7.7 +/- 1.8 hrs (mean +/- SE) for enzyme activity, respectively. Therefore, KATO-III cell line may provide a unique model for the biochemical analysis of EGF action on ODC activation. PMID:8190004

  3. Effect of different bicycle body positions on power output in aerobically trained females.

    PubMed

    Hubenig, Lindsay R; Game, Alex B; Kennedy, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Aerodynamic bicycle positioning reduces drag but also reduces power output (PO) in males. The effect of aerodynamic bicycle positioning in trained endurance females is unknown. Eighteen females participants (VO2max 49.7 ± 6.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) all with competitive experience performed cycling trials at ventilatory threshold 1 and 2 (VT-1, VT-2) in both an aerodynamic and an upright position. There was a significant difference in PO between the aerodynamic and upright positions at VT-1 (152.7 ± 28.0 Watts and 159.7 ± 33.1 Watts, respectively) but not at VT-2 (191.2 ± 39.1 Watts and 192.4 ± 40.0 Watts, respectively). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen consumption, or cadence between positions at either intensity. At both intensities the individual response was varied and no trends due to years of experience or background (triathlete or cyclist) explained this variability. Therefore, despite the significant mean difference in PO at VT-1, these results indicate that in trained females the effect of aerodynamic positioning is individual.

  4. Effects on lung stress of position and different doses of perfluorocarbon in a model of ARDS.

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Josefina; Lucangelo, Umberto; Albaiceta, Guillermo M; Nahum, Avi; Murias, Gastón; Cañizares, Rosario; Oliva, Joan Carles; Romero, Pablo V; Blanch, Lluís

    2015-05-01

    We determined whether the combination of low dose partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) and prone positioning improved lung function while inducing minimal stress. Eighteen pigs with acute lung injury were assigned to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or PLV (5 or 10 ml/kg of PFC). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trials in supine and prone positions were performed. Data were analyzed by a multivariate polynomial regression model. The interplay between PLV and position depended on the PEEP level. In supine PLV dampened the stress induced by increased PEEP during the trial. The PFC dose of 5 ml/kg was more effective than the dose 10 ml/kg. This effect was not observed in prone. Oxygenation was significantly higher in prone than in supine position mainly at lower levels of PEEP. In conclusion, MV settings should take both gas exchange and stress/strain into account. When protective CMV fails, rescue strategies combining prone positioning and PLV with optimal PEEP should improve gas exchange with minimal stress.

  5. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  6. Effects of upper extremity training in a standing position on trunk alignment in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ja; Lee, Kyoung Bo; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effect of upper extremity training in the standing position on trunk alignment of patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve stroke patients were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: a group of six patients in a sitting position and a group of six patients in a standing position. Upper extremity training for 30 min per day, five times a week for six weeks was given to subjects in both groups. In order to assess trunk alignment, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis were examined before and after upper extremity training using Formetric 4D. [Results] After training the standing position group had no significant change in lumbar lordosis but a significant change in thoracic kyphosis. The sitting position group showed no significant changes in either lumbar lordosis or thoracic kyphosis. The comparison between groups showed there was no significant difference in the change in lumbar lordosis but there was a significant difference in the change in thoracic kyphosis. [Conclusion] Examination of trunk alignment showed that upper extremity training conducted in a standing position reduced thoracic kyphosis more than in a sitting position. PMID:27799662

  7. Hydroxyapatite/polylactide biphasic combination scaffold loaded with dexamethasone for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Son, Jun-Sik; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; Appleford, Mark; Oh, Sunho; Ong, Joo L; Lee, Kyu-Bok

    2011-12-15

    This study presents a novel design of a ceramic/polymer biphasic combination scaffold that mimics natural bone structures and is used as a bone graft substitute. To mimic the natural bone structures, the outside cortical-like shells were composed of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with a hollow interior using a polymeric template-coating technique; the inner trabecular-like core consisted of porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) that was loaded with dexamethasone (DEX) and was directly produced using a particle leaching/gas forming technique to create the inner diameter of the HA scaffold. It was observed that the HA and PLA parts of the fabricated HA/PLA biphasic scaffold contained open and interconnected pore structures, and the boundary between both parts was tightly connected without any gaps. It was found that the structure of the combination scaffold was analogous to that of natural bone based on micro-computed tomography analysis. Additionally, the dense, uniform apatite layer was formed on the surface of the HA/PLA biphasic scaffold through a biomimetic process, and DEX was successfully released from the PLA of the biphasic scaffold over a 1-month period. This release caused human embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells to proliferate, differentiate, produce ECM, and form tissue in vitro. Therefore, it was concluded that this functionally graded scaffold is similar to natural bone and represents a potential bone-substitute material.

  8. Selection of Xenobiotic-Degrading Microorganisms in a Biphasic Aqueous-Organic System

    PubMed Central

    Ascon-Cabrera, Miguel; Lebeault, Jean-Michel

    1993-01-01

    Microbial selection on mixtures of chlorinated and nonchlorinated compounds that are poorly soluble in water and/or toxic to growing microbial cells was examined in both biphasic aqueous-organic and monophasic aqueous systems. A biphasic system in which silicone oil was used as the organic phase permitted the acceleration of acclimation, leading to rapid selection and to an increase in xenobiotic compound degradation. In contrast, acclimation, selection, and degradation were very slow in the monophasic aqueous system. The variation in microbial growth rate with the degree of dispersion (i.e., dispersion at different silicone oil concentrations and agitation rates), and cell adhesion to the silicone oil indicate that the performance of the biphasic aqueous-organic system is dependent on the interfacial area between the two phases and that microbial activity is important at this interface. Therefore, the biphasic water-silicone oil system could be used for microbial selection in the presence of xenobiotic compounds that are toxic and have low water solubility. PMID:16348949

  9. Cell-laden biphasic scaffolds with anisotropic structure for the regeneration of osteochondral tissue.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Kathleen; Despang, Florian; Lode, Anja; Gelinsky, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Sufficient treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects to restore function of the respective tissue remains challenging in regenerative medicine. Biphasic scaffolds that mimic properties of bone and cartilage are appropriate to regenerate both tissues at the same time. The present study describes the development of biphasic, but monolithic scaffolds based on alginate, which are suitable for embedding of living cells in the chondral part. Scaffolds are fabricated under sterile and cell-compatible conditions according to the principle of diffusion-controlled, directed ionotropic gelation, which leads to the formation of channel-like, parallel aligned pores, running through the whole length of the biphasic constructs. The synthesis process leads to an anisotropic structure, as it is found in many natural tissues. The two different layers of the scaffolds are characterized by different microstructure and mechanical properties which provide a suitable environment for cells to form the respective tissue. Human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells were embedded within the chondral layer of the biphasic scaffolds during hydrogel formation and their chondrogenic (re)differentiation was successfully induced. Whereas viability of non-induced human mesenchymal stem cells decreased during culture, cell viability of human chondrocytes and chondrogenically induced human mesenchymal stem cells remained high within the scaffolds over the whole culture period of 3 weeks, demonstrating successful fabrication of cell-laden centimetre-scaled constructs for potential application in regenerative treatment of osteochondral defects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis with distinct biphasic pattern: An extremely rare entity and diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Primary adenocarcinoma of rete testis is one of the rarest intrascrotal tumors. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. In addition, presence of biphasic component creates difficulty in the diagnosis. We present here a unique third case of rete testis adenocarcinoma having distinct cytologically malignant spindle cell component in a young male who presented with recurrent hydrocele. PMID:25810664

  11. Cell surface energy, contact angles and phase partition. II. Bacterial cells in biphasic aqueous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gerson, D F; Akit, J

    1980-11-01

    Partition coefficients in biphasic mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) and Dextran are compared to cell surface energies obtained from contact angles of each liquid phase on cell layers. Linear relationships are observed between these two independent measurements for a variety of bacterial cells. The results demonstrate the importance of interfacial phenomena and contact angles in the phase-partition process. PMID:6159003

  12. The serial position effect in mild and moderately severe vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia M; Gordon, Norman

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined the serial position effect in 2 subgroups of individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). Nineteen individuals with mild VaD and 17 individuals with moderate VaD were administered the California Verbal Learning Test. Both groups were impaired on a general memory measure, and the moderately impaired group demonstrated significantly poorer recall than the mildly impaired group on the first learning trial and on total learning across trials. In addition, individuals with mild dementia demonstrated an intact primacy and recency effect, whereas individuals with moderate dementia demonstrated neither primacy nor recency effects. The latter findings are consistent with studies examining the serial position effect in other dementia populations, and suggests that the absence of primacy and recency effects in more advanced dementia may occur regardless of dementia type.

  13. Litter effects on seedling establishment interact with seed position and earthworm activity.

    PubMed

    Donath, T W; Eckstein, R L

    2012-01-01

    Seedling establishment is influenced by litter cover and by seed predators, but little is known about interactions between these two factors. We tested their effects on emergence of five typical grassland species in a microcosm experiment. We manipulated the amounts of grass litter, seed sowing position and earthworm activity to determine whether: (i) the protective effect of litter against seed predation depends on cover amount and seed sowing position, i.e., on top or beneath litter; (ii) seed transport by earthworms changes the effect of seed sowing position on seedling emergence; and (iii) seeds transported into deeper soil layers by earthworms are still germinable. Litter cover and presence of earthworms lowered seedling emergence. The impact of seed position increased with seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species was reduced when sown on the surface. Additionally, we found an important seed position × earthworm interaction related to seed size. Emergence of large-seeded species sown on top of the litter was up to three times higher when earthworms were present than without earthworms. Earthworms also significantly altered the depth distribution of seeds in the soil and across treatments: on average 6% of seeds germinated after burial. In contrast to the seed position effect, we found no size effect on mobility and germinability of seeds after burial in the soil. Nevertheless, the fate of different-sized seeds may differ. While burial will remove large seeds from the regeneration pool, it may enhance seed bank build up in small-seeded species. Consequently, changes in the amount of litter cover and the invertebrate community play a significant role in plant community composition. PMID:21972886

  14. Effects of colony size and polyp position on polyp fecundity in the scleractinian coral genus Acropora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Yoko; Lin, Che-Hung

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of colony size and polyp position on six variables of polyp fecundity [egg number, egg size, total egg volume, total testis volume, total gonad volume, and gonad ratio (egg volume/testis volume)] in three tabular Acropora corals (Scleractinia), A. hyacinthus, A. japonica, and A. solitaryensis. Samples were collected from various colony sizes ( n = 21-30 colonies species-1), just before the predicted spawning at Kochi, Japan, in 2009. Five replicate polyps were sampled at three positions (center, middle, and outer) from the center to the marginal area in each tabular colony. Results indicated effects of colony size and polyp position on both male and female gonads polyp-1. A positive effect of colony size was observed on variables of female gonads polyp-1 (egg number, total egg volume) in A. hyacinthus only, while the positive effect on the variable of male gonads polyp-1 (total testis volume) was common in all Acropora species, with total testis volume polyp-1 increasing 2-4-fold from the small (200-400 cm2) to the large size class (5,000-9,000 cm2). Among the polyp positions, lower values were observed mostly in center polyps in A. hyacinthus, while lower values were observed only in outer polyps in the other Acropora species. The distinct patterns between A. hyacinthus and the other two Acropora species suggest different reproductive strategies at the species level. Further studies are needed to confirm the prevalence of these effects in scleractinian corals, which will broaden our understanding of reproductive life history strategies and improve the estimation of reproductive performance.

  15. Amyloid-β peptide induces temporal membrane biphasic changes in astrocytes through cytosolic phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Jacob B.; Lai, Yinzhi; Sheng, Wenwen; Yang, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Donghui; Sun, Grace Y.; Lee, James C-M

    2008-01-01

    Oligomeric amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is known to induce cytotoxic effects and to damage cell functions in Alzheimer’s disease. However, mechanisms underlying the effects of Aβ on cell membranes have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, Aβ 1–42 (Aβ42) was shown to cause a temporal biphasic change in membranes of astrocytic DITNC cells using fluorescence microscopy of Laurdan. Aβ42 made astrocyte cell membranes became more molecularly-disordered within the first 30 minutes to 1 hour, but gradually changed to more molecularly-ordered after 3 hours. However, Aβ42 caused artificial membranes of vesicles made of rat whole brain lipid extract to become more disordered only. The trend for more molecularly-ordered membranes in astrocytes induced by Aβ42 was abrogated by either an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, or an inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not by an inhibitor of calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2). Apocynin also suppressed the increased production of superoxide anions (O2.−) and phosphorylation of cPLA2 induced by Aβ42. In addition, hydrolyzed products of cPLA2, arachidonic acid (AA), but not lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) caused astrocyte membranes to become more molecularly-ordered. These results suggest (1) a direct interaction of Aβ42 with cell membranes making them more molecularly-disordered, and (2) Aβ42 also indirectly makes membranes become more molecularly-ordered by triggering the signaling pathway involving NADPH oxidase and cPLA2 in astrocytes. PMID:18725190

  16. The spatial Stroop effect: a comparison of color-word and position-word interference.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Sven; Nakagawa, Tristan Toyo; Bindl, Manuela; Bühner, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Stroop effect is one of the most famous examples of interference in human perception. The present study demonstrates that a position Stroop paradigm, comparable to the classical color-word interference paradigm, resulted in the same pattern of interference for the spatial dimension; however, the interference was significantly weaker. By exchanging the original oral response for a manual response in the spatial paradigm, we showed that the verbal component is crucial for the Stroop effect: Manual responses lead to a disappearance of the interference effect. Moreover, with manual responses word position was recognized at the same speed for the baseline condition and for words that were incongruent as well as congruent with the spatial position. The results indicate (1) that the Stoop effect depends heavily on verbal components and (2) that differing processing speeds between reading and position recognition do not serve as a proper explanation for the effect. In addition, the provided paradigm plausibly transfers the classical color-word interference to the spatial dimension.

  17. Effect of head position on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, RC; Sanderink, GCH; Berkhout, WER

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: During a cone beam CT scan, the patient is in an upright or supine position. This position depends on the brand and type of the scanner. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate if the head position has an effect on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile, comparing the recordings in natural head position (NHP) and supine head position (SHP) and (2) to investigate if age, gender and body mass index (BMI) are contributing factors to the effect of the head position. Methods: 90 subjects were photographed in profile both in NHP and in SHP. 12 soft-tissue angular and linear cephalometric values were calculated. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine observer reliability. Paired t-tests and linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the differences between the head positions and the influence of age, gender and BMI. Results: Intraobserver reliability was generally high. Paired t-tests showed significant changes as a result of head positioning (p < 0.0001) in 9 of the 12 measurements. These differences were small and clinically not relevant, except for the “lower face—throat angle”. Regression analysis revealed no relevant influence of age, gender and BMI. Conclusions: Cephalometric soft-tissue evaluation from a recording in SHP is generally reliable, except for the throat–chin area where a clinically relevant difference was found. The contour of the submandibular tissues in SHP causes the chin to appear more prominently. This can cause incorrect orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23412462

  18. Effect of Gemini primary mirror position relative to the lateral support on mirror figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Stepp, Larry M.

    2000-07-01

    The Gemini primary mirror support incorporates a system of hydraulic whiffletrees to carry the mirror weight and define its position. The six orthogonal kinematic degrees of freedom are controlled by six hydraulic zones--three axial, two lateral, plus a transverse lateral. By varying the fluid volumes in these hydraulic zones the mirror position can be adjusted in all six degrees of freedom. Because of the finite lengths of the linkages that connect the mirror to the lateral supports, any shift in mirror position changes the amplitudes and directions of the applied forces with a resulting effect on the static balance and mirror figure. These effects have been calculated for mirror translations and rotations in all six degrees of freedom, resulting in predictions of the changes in the axial and lateral support forces and in the mirror figure. This paper describes the modeling as well as experimental verification of the results.

  19. Generalized Effect Algebras of Positive Operators Densely Defined on Hilbert Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polakovič, Marcel; Riečanová, Zdenka

    2011-04-01

    Axioms of quantum structures, motivated by properties of some sets of linear operators in Hilbert spaces are studied. Namely, we consider examples of sets of positive linear operators defined on a dense linear subspace D in a (complex) Hilbert space ℋ. Some of these operators may have a physical meaning in quantum mechanics. We prove that the set of all positive linear operators with fixed such D and ℋ form a generalized effect algebra with respect to the usual addition of operators. Some sub-algebras are also mentioned. Moreover, on a set of all positive linear operators densely defined in an infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space, the partial binary operation is defined making this set a generalized effect algebra.

  20. Association with positive outcome induces early effects in event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Annekathrin; Adler, Nele; Chen, Peiyao; Guo, Taomei; Sommer, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Emotional pictures, faces, or words elicit an early posterior negativity (EPN) in the event-related potential, starting around 200-400 ms, followed by a late positive complex (LPC). Occasionally, also very early effects of emotion (VEEEs) are seen prior to 200 ms. The present study examined whether VEEEs can be due to direct links established by reinforcement learning. In the learning session, participants learned to associate previously unknown Chinese words with monetary gain, loss, or neither. In the test session, they were required to distinguish the learned stimuli from novel distracters. Specific to stimuli associated with positive outcome a VEEE, consisting of a posterior positivity, appeared around 150 ms and an LPC between 550 and 700 ms, whereas an EPN was absent. These results show that previous association with reward can induce VEEEs, indicating that emotion effects in ERPs may arise in the absence of biologically preparedness and semantic meaning. PMID:22027086

  1. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoli; Shi, Wendian; Han, Xiangxiang; Wang, Nana; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving any training in meditation intervention were randomly divided into the meditation group (25 subjects) and the control group (25 subjects). The meditation group was implemented with group meditation intervention for 4 weeks, three times a week, about 30 minutes each time. The results revealed that the effect sizes in interpersonal interaction and complex understanding of others in the meditation group were both above 0.8, indicating strong effects. It was concluded that loving-kindness meditation can effectively improve positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and complex understanding of others in college students. PMID:26060402

  2. When less is more: positive population-level effects of mortality.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Arne; van Leeuwen, Anieke; Cameron, Tom C

    2014-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical models used to study mortality effects vary in the effects predicted and mechanisms proposed. Experiments predominantly demonstrate stage-specific density increases in response to mortality. We argue that the empirical evidence supports theory based on stage-structured population models but not on unstructured models. We conclude that stage-specific positive mortality effects are likely to be common in nature and that accounting for within-population individual variation is essential for developing ecological theory.

  3. When less is more: positive population-level effects of mortality.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Arne; van Leeuwen, Anieke; Cameron, Tom C

    2014-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical models used to study mortality effects vary in the effects predicted and mechanisms proposed. Experiments predominantly demonstrate stage-specific density increases in response to mortality. We argue that the empirical evidence supports theory based on stage-structured population models but not on unstructured models. We conclude that stage-specific positive mortality effects are likely to be common in nature and that accounting for within-population individual variation is essential for developing ecological theory. PMID:25262501

  4. Recognition Time for Letters and Nonletters: Effects of Serial Position, Array Size, and Processing Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mildred

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments report additional evidence that it is a mistake to account for all interletter effects solely in terms of sensory variables. These experiments attest to the importance of structural variables such as retina location, array size, and ordinal position. (Author/PN)

  5. Recall of Brief Television News Items: Effects of Presentation Mode, Picture Content and Serial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, B.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of presentation mode, picture content, and serial position upon the recall of brief television news items. Fifteen items were presented in either video- or audio-only mode to 40 subjects. The results are discussed in terms of various imagery hypotheses. (Author)

  6. Development of Letter Position Processing: Effects of Age and Orthographic Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktori, Maria; Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relative extent to which developing readers (6- and 9-year-olds) of English (deep) or Greek (transparent) orthography exhibit serial and exterior letter effects in letter position encoding. Participants were given a visual search task that required detection of a pre-specified target letter within a random five-letter…

  7. Effect of Presentation Time on Nominal and Functional Serial-Position Curves of Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Delbert A.; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Results in Experiment I contradict certain predictions regarding the effect of presentation time on nominal and functional serial-position curves. Experiment II indicates that differences between nominal and functional curves are not an artifact produced by item selection. (Author/RM)

  8. Examining the Effect of Positive Behaviour Support on Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Makweche-Chitiyo, Plaxedes; Park, Meungguk; Ametepee, Lawrence K.; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Students who engage in challenging behaviour compromise the fundamental ability of schools to educate children. Consequently, teachers face the daunting task of designing effective strategies to promote positive educational outcomes for their students. Since the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments, the use of positive…

  9. Chromosome position effects on gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jack A; Sellars, Laura E; Busby, Stephen J W; Lee, David J

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the location of a gene on the chromosome is known to affect its expression, but such position effects are poorly understood in bacteria. Here, using Escherichia coli K-12, we demonstrate that expression of a reporter gene cassette, comprised of the model E. coli lac promoter driving expression of gfp, varies by ∼300-fold depending on its precise position on the chromosome. At some positions, expression was more than 3-fold higher than at the natural lac promoter locus, whereas at several other locations, the reporter cassette was completely silenced: effectively overriding local lac promoter control. These effects were not due to differences in gene copy number, caused by partially replicated genomes. Rather, the differences in gene expression occur predominantly at the level of transcription and are mediated by several different features that are involved in chromosome organization. Taken together, our findings identify a tier of gene regulation above local promoter control and highlight the importance of chromosome position effects on gene expression profiles in bacteria.

  10. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  11. The Effects of Different Drawing Materials on Children's Drawings of Positive and Negative Human Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Children tend to use certain drawing strategies differentially when asked to draw topics with positive and negative emotional characterisations. These effects have however only been established when children are asked to use standard drawing materials. The present study was designed to investigate whether the above pattern of children's response…

  12. Spotlight on the positive effects of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis on agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the midst of considerable negativity surrounding the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), this paper sheds some light on the positive effects that this predator has had on agriculture. Using resources available at the USDA, National Agricultural Library (DigiTop literature database, Navigator pla...

  13. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  14. An Extension of the Effects of Praising Positive Qualifying Autoclitics on the Frequency of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheyab, Mahmoud; Pritchard, Josh; Malady, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we reinforced tacts with positive qualifying autoclitics for reading and evaluated the subsequent effect on the allocation of reading behavior. Participants were four typically developing children between 9 and 12 years of age whose primary language was Arabic. We exposed each participant to pre- and posttreatment sessions to…

  15. The Effect of Positive Peer Reinforcement on Psychological Measures and Guitar Songleading Performance in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of positive peer reinforcement on self-reported psychological measures and songleading performance in beginning guitar students. No differences were found between the control group (n = 21) and the experimental group (n = 20) concerning psychological measures of self-esteem, stress, and…

  16. The Effect of Anatomic Factors on Tongue Position Variability during Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Krista; Yunusova, Yana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effect of palate morphology and anthropometric measures of the head on positional variability of the tongue during consonants. Method: An electromagnetic tracking system was used to record tongue movements of 21 adults. Each talker produced a series of symmetrical VCV syllables containing one of the…

  17. Imagined Positive Emotions and Inhibitory Control: The Differentiated Effect of Pride versus Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Meiran, Nachshon; Kessler, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    "Inhibitory control" is a cognitive mechanism that contributes to successful self-control (i.e., adherence to a long-term goal in the face of an interfering short-term goal). This research explored the effect of imagined positive emotional events on inhibition. The authors proposed that the influence of imagined emotions on inhibition depends on…

  18. Using the Effective Behavior Supports Survey to Guide Development of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist…

  19. 5 CFR 316.703 - Effect on tenure of position change of status quo employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... status quo employees. 316.703 Section 316.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Into the Competitive Service § 316.703 Effect on tenure of position change of status quo employees. (a) A status quo employee who is promoted, demoted, or reassigned becomes: (1) An indefinite...

  20. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  1. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…

  2. Effects of Content Acquisition Podcasts to Develop Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Thomas, Cathy Newman

    2012-01-01

    A critical issue facing the field of education is the need to improve teachers' preparation to effectively manage student behavior in the classroom. Many pre- and in-service teachers receive exposure to evidence-based behavioral interventions, such as schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports, during teacher preparation programs;…

  3. Comparison of the Frequency and Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Reinforcement Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dad, Hukam; Ali, Riasat; Janjua, Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer; Shahzad, Saqib; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to compare the frequency and effectiveness of positive and negative reinforcement practices deployed by teachers in boys' and girls' secondary schools in urban and rural areas. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in use of reward and punishment by teachers in secondary schools in urban and rural…

  4. Investigating the Effect of Item Position in Computer-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Feiming; Cohen, Allan; Shen, Linjun

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based tests (CBTs) often use random ordering of items in order to minimize item exposure and reduce the potential for answer copying. Little research has been done, however, to examine item position effects for these tests. In this study, different versions of a Rasch model and different response time models were examined and applied to…

  5. The Effect of School Wide Positive Behavior Support Programs on Teacher Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, William A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the implementation of a School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) Program on teacher morale. This quantitative study used the Perdue Teacher Opinionaire (PTO) to survey the faculties for two rural, Title I middle schools in Tennessee. Middle School 1 implemented the SWPBS program. Middle School 2 was the…

  6. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  7. The Effects of Social Position, Race, and Sex on Work Values of Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of social class, race, and sex on the work values of ninth-grade students in a large metropolitan area. Results indicated that the primary differences were for the dependent variables of race and sex. In general, low social position black females scored low on the work values scales. (Author)

  8. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  9. Negative Feedback and Positive Evidence in Task-Based Interaction: Differential Effects on L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the acquisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Australian tertiary…

  10. Chromosome position effects on gene expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jack A; Sellars, Laura E; Busby, Stephen J W; Lee, David J

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the location of a gene on the chromosome is known to affect its expression, but such position effects are poorly understood in bacteria. Here, using Escherichia coli K-12, we demonstrate that expression of a reporter gene cassette, comprised of the model E. coli lac promoter driving expression of gfp, varies by ∼300-fold depending on its precise position on the chromosome. At some positions, expression was more than 3-fold higher than at the natural lac promoter locus, whereas at several other locations, the reporter cassette was completely silenced: effectively overriding local lac promoter control. These effects were not due to differences in gene copy number, caused by partially replicated genomes. Rather, the differences in gene expression occur predominantly at the level of transcription and are mediated by several different features that are involved in chromosome organization. Taken together, our findings identify a tier of gene regulation above local promoter control and highlight the importance of chromosome position effects on gene expression profiles in bacteria. PMID:25209233

  11. Dopaminergic and noradrenergic substrates of positive reinforcement: differential effects of d- and l-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A G; Fibiger, H C

    1973-02-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation was elicited from electrodes located in either the lateral hypothalamus or substantia nigra of the rat. Facilitatory effects of d- and l-isomers of amphetamine on self-stimulation were assessed. The d-isomer was seven to ten times more effective than the l-isomer at the hypothalamic placement, whereas the two isomers were equipotent for substantia nigra electrodes. These data support the hypothesis that both dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems subserve positive reinforcement.

  12. Effect of elastic stockings and ankle positions on the blood velocity in the common femoral vein

    PubMed Central

    Toya, Kaori; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Yuta; Nishimoto, Teppei; Takasoh, Tomomi; Sasano, Ken; Kusaka, Satomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify how to effectively use elastic stockings. [Subjects and Methods] Ten young healthy men participated in this study. Time-averaged maximum flow velocity in the common femoral vein was measured for 20 seconds using a pulse Doppler method with a diagnostic ultrasound system under six conditions (three different positions and with and without stockings). Changes of blood flow velocity were compared. [Results] Elastic stockings did not affect the blood flow velocity in the common femoral vein. For both the with stockings condition and without stockings condition, the time-averaged maximum flow velocity in the head-up position was significantly lower than that in the supine and leg-up positions. Time-averaged maximum flow velocity showed no significant difference between the supine position and leg-up position. [Conclusion] Elastic stockings did not affect the blood flow velocity in the common femoral vein, but ankle positions did affect it. Further studies of patients with venous insufficiency are needed. PMID:27799704

  13. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.

    PubMed

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2015-01-15

    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; P<0.05). Across all tongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume.

  14. Effect of Different Positions on FVC and FEV1 Measurements of Asthmatic Patients.

    PubMed

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Buragadda, Syamala; Alhusaini, Adel; Alghamdi, Mohammed Abdulrahman; Alghamdi, Mansour Saleh; Kaushal, Parmveer

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of different positions on pulmonary function test (PFT) values such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of asthmatic patients .[Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with severe asthma aged between 20-39 years were enrolled after they had signed a written consent. Subjects were selected using the inclusion criteria, and PFT were randomly administered. Spirometer measurements (FVC, FEV1) were taken in the supine, side lying on right, side lying on left, sitting and standing positions. Each measurement was taken three times, and the average values were analyzed. [Results] One- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Test (post hoc) for pair- wise comparison indicated that there was a significant difference in the FEV1 values of the asthmatic patients however a significant difference was obtained between standing and supine positions. There was also a significant difference in the FVC values between the standing and supine lying position in the pair -wise comparison. [Conclusion] This study showed standing is the best position for measuring FEV1 and FVC of asthmatic subjects. The more upright the position, the higher the FEV1 and FVC will be.

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) Satellite Clock Error via GPS Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh; Shafii, Shalini; Amin, Zainal Fitry M.; Jusoh, Asmariah; Zainun Ali, Siti

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock error using GPS simulation. Two conditions of tests are used; Case 1: All the GPS satellites have clock errors within the normal range of 0 to 7 ns, corresponding to pseudorange error range of 0 to 2.1 m; Case 2: One GPS satellite suffers from critical failure, resulting in clock error in the pseudorange of up to 1 km. It is found that increase of GPS satellite clock error causes increase of average positional error due to increase of pseudorange error in the GPS satellite signals, which results in increasing error in the coordinates computed by the GPS receiver. Varying average positional error patterns are observed for the each of the readings. This is due to the GPS satellite constellation being dynamic, causing varying GPS satellite geometry over location and time, resulting in GPS accuracy being location / time dependent. For Case 1, in general, the highest average positional error values are observed for readings with the highest PDOP values, while the lowest average positional error values are observed for readings with the lowest PDOP values. For Case 2, no correlation is observed between the average positional error values and PDOP, indicating that the error generated is random.

  16. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.

    PubMed

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2015-01-15

    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; P<0.05). Across all tongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume. PMID:25481541

  17. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease on serial position profiles

    PubMed Central

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E.; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background An exaggerated recency effect (i.e., disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our study sought to determine if there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD due to parental family history. Methods Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median = 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. Results There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared to controls, AD children showed a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) or depressive symptoms. Conclusions Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared to controls, but exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD. PMID:18631980

  18. Effect of enzymatic randomization on positional distribution and stability of seal blubber and menhaden oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-04-27

    In an effort to investigate the effect of positional distribution on oxidative stability of menhaden and seal blubber oils, Novozyme 435 was used as a random biocatalyst. Positional distribution of fatty acids was determined using gas chromatography. As some of the α-tocopherol was lost during randomization, its content was adjusted to the level prior to the process to eliminate this effect on oxidative stability of oils tested. Conjugated dienes (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were used as indicators of oxidative stability. The results showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids were distributed predominantly at terminal positions in randomized menhaden oil, whereas they were distributed more evenly among all positions in enzymatically randomized seal blubber oil, compared to their unrandomized counterparts. Results of CD and TBARS values indicated that randomized menhaden oil was more stable than the original oil, whereas randomized seal blubber oil was more vulnerable to oxidation compared to its counterpart. Changes of oxidative stability after randomization were mainly due to positional redistribution of fatty acids, especially those of the polyunsaturated types.

  19. Superiority of Biphasic Over Monophasic Defibrillation Shocks is Attributable to Less Intracellular Calcium Transient Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Tang, Liang; Joung, Boyoung; Morita, Norishige; Hayashi, Hideki; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Weiss, James N.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that superiority of biphasic waveform (BW) over monophasic waveform (MW) defibrillation shocks is attributable to less intracellular calcium (Cai) transient heterogeneity. Background The mechanism by which BW shocks have a higher defibrillation efficacy than MW shocks remains unclear. Methods We simultaneously mapped epicardial membrane potential (Vm) and Cai during 6 ms MW and 3/3 ms BW shocks in 19 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. After shock, the percentage of depolarized area was plotted over time. The maximum (peak) postshock values (VmP and CaiP, respectively) were used to measure heterogeneity. Higher VmP and CaiP imply less heterogeneity. Results The defibrillation threshold was for BW and MW shocks were 288±99 V and 399±155 V, respectively (p=0.0005). Successful BW shocks had higher VmP (88±9 %) and CaiP (70±13 %) than unsuccessful MW shocks (VmP 76 %±10, p<0.001; CaiP, 57±8 %, p<0.001) of the same shock strength. In contrast, for unsuccessful BW and MW shocks of the same shock strengths, the VmP and CaiP were not significantly different. MW shocks more frequently created regions of low Cai surrounded by regions of high Cai (postshock Cai sinkholes). The defibrillation threshold for MW and BW shocks became similar after disabling the sarcoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin and ryanodine. Conclusions The greater efficacy of BW shocks is directly related to their less heterogeneous effects on shock-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release and Cai transients. Less heterogeneous Cai transients reduces the probability of Cai sinkhole formation, thereby preventing the postshock reinitiation of VF. PMID:18755345

  20. Growth hormone administration produces a biphasic cellular muscle growth in weaning mice.

    PubMed

    López-Oliva, M E; Agis-Torres, A; Muñoz-Martínez, E

    2001-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of the exogenous administration of rhGH on the time course of the cellular muscle growth in male and female BALB/c mice fed 20% dietary protein between weaning and 50 days of age. Also, the efficiency of utilization of protein and energy intake to muscle DNA content and protein per cell (protein to DNA ratio) storage were studied. 120 weaned mice (21 d) were assigned to four groups based on rhGH-treatment (rhGH-treated: 7.4 ng x g(-1) BW and control: saline vehicle; via s.c. every two days) and gender. Feed intake was measured daily. At 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days of age twenty mice were killed by cervical dislocation and the samples of gastrocnemius muscles were isolated, weighed and protein and DNA contents were measured. The rhGH administration caused a biphasic response altering the muscle cellular growth as a consequence of age-specific feed intake changes. The GH-induced fall of feed intake between 25 and 30 days of age caused decreases in muscle weight and myonuclei number (DNA), whereas muscle cell size was maintained. Later on, the self-controlled increase of feed intake led to the muscle weight recovery to control level, in spite of the irreversible DNA fall, as a consequence of the increase of cellular protein deposition and an enhancement of utilization of protein and energy intakes to deposit protein per cell. These results demonstrate that in spite of the initial (25-30 d of age) muscle DNA fall, rhGH-administration from weaning ensures the recovery of cellular muscle growth to control level through a compensatory muscle hypertrophy.

  1. BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide nanoparticle modified biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenming; Wang, Kefeng; Lu, Xiong; Li, Minqi; Liu, Hongrui; Xie, Chaoming; Meng, Fanzhi; Jiang, Ou; Li, Chen; Zhi, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphology protein-2 (BMP-2) encapsulated chitosan/chondrotin sulfate nanoparticles (CHI/CS NPs) are developed to enhance ectopic bone formation on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. BMP-2 contained CHI/CS NPs were prepared by a simple and mild polyelectrolyte complexation process. It does not involve harsh organic solvents and high temperature, and therefore retain growth factors activity. These NPs were immobilized on BCP scaffolds, and realize the sustained release of growth factors from the scaffolds. The bare BCP scaffolds, NP loaded scaffolds (BCP-NP), and NP loaded and polydopamine coated scaffolds (BCP-Dop-NP) were seeded with bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) to evaluate the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. BMSC culture results indicate that all scaffolds favor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation. Afterwards, the bare BCP, BCP-NP, and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds were implanted into rabbits intramuscularly to evaluate the ectopic bone formation of scaffolds. In vivo results indicate that the BCP-NP and BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds enhance more ectopic bone formation than the bare BCP scaffolds. Both the in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that BMP-2 encapsulated polysaccharide NPs are effective to improve the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. In addition, BCP-NP scaffolds induce more bone formation than BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds. This is because BCP-NP scaffolds harness the intrinsic osteoinductivity BCP and BMP-2, whereas BCP-Dop-NP scaffolds have polydopamine coatings that inhibit the surfaces biological features of BCP scaffolds, and therefore weaken the bone formation ability of scaffolds. PMID:25100662

  2. Bioproduction of 2-phenylethanol in a biphasic ionic liquid aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Sendovski, Mor; Nir, Netta; Fishman, Ayelet

    2010-02-24

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA) is a commercial flavor and fragrance compound, with a rose-like odor, used in the cosmetics and food industries. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce PEA in a growth-associated manner but are prone to product inhibition, resulting in low production yields. The aim of this study was to use immiscible ionic liquids (ILs) in a biphasic system to enhance the PEA concentration by means of in situ product removal (ISPR). Nine ILs were tested for their influence on growing yeast cells, and five of them were found to be biocompatible. A correlation between the IL structure and the effect on yeast growth was investigated. [Tf(2)N] anions were found to be the most biocompatible in comparison to [PF(6)] and [BF(4)], and the pyridinium and ammonium cations were slightly preferable than the imidazolium cation. Furthermore, the longer the alkyl side chain on the imidazolium ring, the less it is biocompatible, with major significance above six carbons. The five biocompatible ILs were tested for PEA recovery capability by determining their distribution coefficients (K(D)), with the highest value of 17.6 obtained for BMIM[Tf(2)N]. Finally, ILs were tested for their efficiency as ISPR solvents under stress conditions of a high product concentration. A 3-5-fold increase in the total PEA concentration produced by the cells was obtained with MPPyr[Tf(2)N], OMA[Tf(2)N], and BMIM[Tf(2)N], demonstrating the potential of ILs for enhancing productivity in bioprocesses using growing cells. PMID:20095569

  3. Bioproduction of 2-phenylethanol in a biphasic ionic liquid aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Sendovski, Mor; Nir, Netta; Fishman, Ayelet

    2010-02-24

    2-Phenylethanol (PEA) is a commercial flavor and fragrance compound, with a rose-like odor, used in the cosmetics and food industries. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produce PEA in a growth-associated manner but are prone to product inhibition, resulting in low production yields. The aim of this study was to use immiscible ionic liquids (ILs) in a biphasic system to enhance the PEA concentration by means of in situ product removal (ISPR). Nine ILs were tested for their influence on growing yeast cells, and five of them were found to be biocompatible. A correlation between the IL structure and the effect on yeast growth was investigated. [Tf(2)N] anions were found to be the most biocompatible in comparison to [PF(6)] and [BF(4)], and the pyridinium and ammonium cations were slightly preferable than the imidazolium cation. Furthermore, the longer the alkyl side chain on the imidazolium ring, the less it is biocompatible, with major significance above six carbons. The five biocompatible ILs were tested for PEA recovery capability by determining their distribution coefficients (K(D)), with the highest value of 17.6 obtained for BMIM[Tf(2)N]. Finally, ILs were tested for their efficiency as ISPR solvents under stress conditions of a high product concentration. A 3-5-fold increase in the total PEA concentration produced by the cells was obtained with MPPyr[Tf(2)N], OMA[Tf(2)N], and BMIM[Tf(2)N], demonstrating the potential of ILs for enhancing productivity in bioprocesses using growing cells.

  4. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M.; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked. PMID:24795678

  5. The effect of textile-based inductive coil sensor positions for heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Young-Jae; Gi, Sunok; Khang, Seonah; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Min-Gyu; Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-02-01

    In the research related to heart rate measurement, few studies have been done using magnetic-induced conductivity sensing methods to measure the heart rate. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the position of a textile-based inductive coil sensor on the measurement of the heart rate. In order to assess the capability of the textile-based inductive coil sensor and the repeatability of measured cardiac muscle contractions, we proposed a new quality index based on the morphology of measured signals using a textile-based inductive coil sensor. We initially explored eight potential positions of the inductive sensor in a pilot experiment, followed by three sensor positions in the main experiment. A simultaneously measured electrocardiography (ECG) signal (Lead II) which was used as a reference signal for a comparison of the R-peak location with signals obtained from selected positions of the textile-based inductive coil sensor. The result of the main experiment indicated that the total quality index obtained from the sensor position 'P3', which was located 3 cm away from the left side from the center front line on the chest circumference line, was the highest (QI value = 1.30) among the three positions across all the subjects. This finding led us to conclude that (1) the position of the textile-based inductive coil sensor significantly affected the quality of the measurement results, and that (2) P3 would be the most appropriate position for the textile-based inductive coil sensor for heart rate measurements based on the magnetic-induced conductivity sensing principle.

  6. Obervations on the Induction of Position Effect Variegation of Euchromatic Genes in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pokholkova, G. V.; Makunin, I. V.; Belyaeva, E. S.; Zhimulev, I. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the T(1;2)dor(var7) translocation, the 1A-2B7-8 segment of the X chromosome is brought to the vicinity of 2R-chromosome heterochromatin resulting in position effect variegation of dor, BR-C and more distal genes, as well as compaction of chromatin in this segment. By irradiation of T(1;2)dor(var7), nine reversions (rev) to a normal phenotype were recovered. In two cases (rev27, rev226), the 1A-2B7-8 section is relocated to the 19A region of the X chromosome, forming free duplications (1A-2B7-8/19A-20F-X-het). Modifiers of position effect do not change the normal expression of the BR-C and dor genes in these duplications. In five reversions (rev3, rev40, rev60, rev167, rev175), free duplications have formed from the 1A-2B7-8 fragment and X chromosome heterochromatin. In these rearrangements, modifiers of position effect (low temperature, removal of Y and 2R-chromosome heterochromatin and a genetic enhancer (E-var(3)201) induce position-effect again. Two reversions (rev45 and rev110) are associated with additional inversions in the original dor(var7) chromosomes. The inversions relocate part of the heterochromatin adjacent to the 1A-2B7-8 section into new positions. In T(1;2)dor(rev45), position-effect is seen in the 2B7-8-7A element as compaction spreading from 2B7-8 proximally in some cases as far as the 5D region. Thus, in rev45 the pattern of euchromatin compaction is reciprocal to that of the initial dor(var7) strain. Apparently, it is due to the same variegation-evoking center near the 2R centromere in both cases. In all nine revertants, weakening or complete disappearance of the position-effect is observed despite retention of the 20- kb heterochromatic segment adjacent to the 1A-2B7-8 region. Thus, a 20-kb heterochromatic sequence does not inactivate euchromatin joined to it. PMID:8514132

  7. The effect of positive emotion and perceived risk on usage intention to online decision aids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-guo; Wang, Kai

    2009-10-01

    Although perceived risk has a negative effect on usage intention toward new information technology, both perceived risk and usage intention are the results of cognitive processes, so they are inevitably influenced by emotion. Based on positive mood theory and the appraisal-tendency framework (ATF), a laboratory experiment using online decision aids with 126 participants was conducted. The results indicate that positive emotion (happy emotion in the current study) can increase usage intention and decrease perceived risk, while perceived risk decreases usage intention. Further investigation finds that perceived risk is a mediator between emotion and usage intention.

  8. Under pressure: the effects of stress on positive and negative relationship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Gary W; Mattingly, Brent A; Pedreiro, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of acute stress on positive and negative relationship behaviors, specifically assurances and attention to alternatives. A sample of 129 college students were randomly assigned to either a high or low stress condition, then were led to believe they had the opportunity to interact with attractive potential relationship partners and list compliments about their current partner. Results indicated that those in the high stress condition gave their partner fewer assurances and paid more attention to alternatives. These results suggest that when individuals experience acute stress, they may engage in fewer positive relationship behaviors and more behaviors that are potentially harmful to their relationship.

  9. Possible role of more positive social behaviour in the clinical effect of antidepressant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon N.; Moskowitz, Debbie S.; Rot, Marije aan het

    2014-01-01

    Increasing serotonin decreases quarrelsome behaviours and enhances agreeable behaviours in humans. Antidepressants, even those whose primary action is not on serotonin, seem to increase serotonin function. We suggest that antidepressants act in part by effects on social behaviour, which leads to a gradual improvement in mood. We review the evidence supporting the idea that anti-depressants may be moving behaviour from quarrelsome to agreeable. The more positive social responses of interaction partners would initiate a cycle of more positive social behaviour, and this iterative process would result in a clinically significant improvement in mood. PMID:24280182

  10. Effects of a vertical console position on operator muscular stress during ultrasonic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takayoshi; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound examinations tend to put sonographers in unnatural postures, which may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, we focused on the height of the operation panel of the diagnostic ultrasound system to quantitatively assess the effects of panel height (work plane height) on musculoskeletal stress during scanning in a sitting position. Eight subjects were asked to perform a simulated scanning task that involved touching nine points on the operation panel at four different panel heights. Electromyogram, left wrist joint angle, and subjective evaluation on ease of manipulation, etc., indicated that the optimum height of the operation panel during scanning in a sitting position is elbow height.

  11. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior.

  12. Distracted by pleasure: Effects of positive versus negative valence on emotional capture under load.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Hur, Young-Jin; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-04-01

    We report 3 experiments examining the effects of positive versus negative valence and perceptual load in determining attention capture by irrelevant emotional distractors. Participants performed a letter search task searching for 1 of 2 target letters (X or N) in conditions of either low perceptual load (circular nontarget letters) or high perceptual load (angular nontarget letters that are similar to the target letters). On 25% of the trials an irrelevant emotional distractor was presented at the display center and participants were instructed to ignore it. The distractor stimulus was either positive or negative and was selected from 3 different classes: IAPS pictures of erotica or mutilated bodies (Experiment 1), happy or angry faces (Experiment 2), and faces associated with gain or loss in a prior value-learning phase involving a betting game (Experiment 3). The results showed a consistent pattern of interaction of load and valence across the 3 experiments. Irrelevant emotional distractors produced interference effects on search reaction time (RT) in conditions of low load, with no difference between negative and positive valence. High perceptual load, however, consistently reduced interference from the negative-valence distractors, but had no effect on the positive-valence distractors. As these results were consistently found across 3 different categories of emotional distractors, they suggest the general conclusion that attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractors depends on both their valence and the level of perceptual load in the task and highlight the special status of distractors associated with pleasure. PMID:26479771

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron noise effects on beam position determination at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Leach, Richard R.; Datte, Philip; Manuel, Anastacia

    2013-09-01

    Images obtained through charged coupled device (CCD) cameras in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are crucial to precise alignment of the 192 laser beams to the NIF target-chamber center (TCC). Cameras in and around the target chamber are increasingly exposed to the effects of neutron radiation as the laser power is increased for high energy fusion experiments. NIF was carefully designed to operate under these conditions. The present work examines the degradation of the measured TCC camera position accuracy resulting from the effects of neutron radiation on the sensor and verifies operation within design specifications. Both synthetic and real beam images are used for measuring position degradation. Monte Carlo simulations based on camera performance models are used to create images with added neutron noise. These models predict neutron induced camera noise based on exposure estimates of the cumulative single-shot fluence in the NIF environment. The neutron induced noise images are used to measure beam positions on a target calculated from the alignment images with the added noise. The effects of this noise are also determined using noise artifacts from real camera images viewing TCC to estimate beam position uncertainty.

  14. The acute effects of nicotine on positive and negative affect in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Kassel, Jon D; Evatt, Daniel P; Greenstein, Justin E; Wardle, Margaret C; Yates, Marisa C; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2007-08-01

    Although adolescent cigarette smoking remains a critical public health concern, little is known about the reinforcing mechanisms governing smoking in this vulnerable population. To assess predictions derived from both positive and negative reinforcement models of drug use, the authors measured the acute effects of nicotine, as administered via tobacco cigarettes, on both positive and negative affect in a group of 15- to 18-year-old smokers. A matched group of nonsmokers served as a comparison group. Findings revealed that whereas adolescents who smoked a cigarette experienced reductions in both positive and negative affect, the observed reductions in negative affect were moderated by nicotine content of the cigarette (high yield vs. denicotinized), level of nicotine dependence, level of baseline craving, and smoking expectancies pertinent to negative affect regulation. Nonsmokers experienced no change in affect over the 10-min assessment period, and no interaction effects were observed for positive affect. Overall, the findings conform to a negative reinforcement model of nicotine effects and strongly suggest that, even among young light smokers, nicotine dependence and resultant withdrawal symptomatology may serve as motivating factors governing smoking behavior. PMID:17696710

  15. The influence of phoneme position overlap on the phonemic similarity effect in nonword recall.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, Lisa M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2006-03-01

    The current research examined the predictions that short-term memory models generate for the phonological similarity effect, when similarity was defined in different ways. Three serial recall experiments with consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonwords are reported, where the position of the phonemes that list items shared was manipulated (i.e., shared vowel and final consonant [_VC; Experiment 1], initial consonant and vowel [CV_; Experiment 2], or the two consonants [C_C; Experiment 3]. The results show that the position of common phonemes in nonwords has differential effects on order and item information. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research into the effect of phonemic similarity on nonword recall, and modifications to current short-term memory models are proposed.

  16. The effects of social punishment on noncompliance: a comparison with timeout and positive practice.

    PubMed Central

    Doleys, D M; Wells, K C; Hobbs, S A; Roberts, M W; Cartelli, L M

    1976-01-01

    The effects of social punishment, positive practice, and timeout on the noncompliant behavior of four mentally retarded children were assessed in a multitreatment withdrawal design. When programmed, the experimental procedure occurred contigent on non-compliance to experimenter-issued commands. Commands were given at 55-sec intervals throughout each experimental session. The results showed (1) lower levels of noncompliance with social punishment than with the positive-practice or timeout conditions, and (2) that relatively few applications of social punishment were required to obtain this effect. The advantages of social punishment over other punishment procedures, considerations to be made before using it, and the various aspects of the procedure that contribute to its effectiveness were discussed. PMID:1002633

  17. Effect of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the Precision of GPS Relative Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, A. N.; Sathyamoorthy, D.; Suldi, A. M.; Hamid, J. R. A.

    2014-02-01

    The successful of GPS observations are dependent on several factors between satellite vehicles and GPS receivers, where low GPS power levels have led to the threat of radio frequency interference (RFI) on the GPS signals. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFI on the precision of positions of single and dual frequency receivers through relative positioning technique by taking into consideration the radius of GPS receiver from interference source, length of baseline and response of rejection. Several tests were conducted in real environment by simulating the interference signal towards GPS receivers in the nominated GPS L1 and L2 bands. Calculations were made to indentify the distance and interference signal power between interference source and GPS receiver in order to investigate the level of effect. To be able to study this effect on the precision of GPS positions, the 3D residual positions and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) have been used. The findings of this study have demonstrated that a sufficient time for the GPS receiver to respond in particular interference signal power level and the radius from the interference source were made as compared to previous work. It was also indicated that the residual positions and GDOPs were affected proportionally when nearly to interference source but not similar for both days due to GPS coverage and other probable errors. Therefore, a good investigation on RFI towards GPS signals should be conducted in secured environment which can control the various GPS error parameters in order to obtain a reliable result on this effect.

  18. Short Alleles, Bigger Smiles? The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Positive Emotional Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Claudia M.; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Saturn, Sarina R.; Lwi, Sandy J.; Casey, James J.; Nguyen, Nguyen K.; Whalen, Patrick K.; Keltner, Dacher J.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (which typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions. PMID:26029940

  19. Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R; Shiota, Michelle N; Saturn, Sarina R; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Whalen, Patrick K; Keltner, Dacher; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions.

  20. Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R; Shiota, Michelle N; Saturn, Sarina R; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Whalen, Patrick K; Keltner, Dacher; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions. PMID:26029940