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Sample records for biphenyl

  1. Biphenyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Biphenyl ; CASRN 92 - 52 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development . Sections I ( H

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  6. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  7. Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Statement was prepared to give one information about polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,408 hazardous waste sites as the most serious in the nation. PBBs have been found that at least eight of the sites on the NPL.

  8. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  9. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  10. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4,4′-dibromo- (CAS No. 92-86-4); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. Dioxygenation of the Biphenyl Dioxygenation Product

    PubMed Central

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Two biphenyl dioxygenases (BphAs) were shown to catalyze dioxygenation of biphenyldienediol in the nonoxidized ring to form the respective symmetrical biphenyl-bis-dienediol. This novel metabolite served as a growth substrate for both BphA source strains. Its catabolism through the upper bph pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was analyzed. PMID:22504819

  14. Bacterial metabolism of hydroxylated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Higson, F K; Focht, D D

    1989-01-01

    Isolates able to grow on 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl (HB) as the sole carbon source were obtained by enrichment culture. The 3-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH12 used an NADPH-dependent monooxygenase restricted to 3- and 3,3'-HBs to introduce an ortho-hydroxyl. The 4-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH23 used either a mono- or dioxygenase to generate a 2,3-diphenolic substitution pattern which allowed meta-fission of the aromatic ring. By using 3-chlorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity, it was found that 2- and 3-HBs were converted by FH23 to 2,3-HB, whereas biphenyl and 4-HB were attacked by dioxygenation. 4-HB was metabolized to 2,3,4'-trihydroxybiphenyl. Neither organism attacked chlorinated HBs. The degradation of 3- and 4-HBs by these strains is therefore analogous to the metabolism of biphenyl, 2-HB, and naphthalene in the requirement for 2,3-catechol formation. PMID:2729993

  15. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  17. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2013-08-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment.

  18. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  4. Aerobic biodegradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls by Arctic soil microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W; Westerberg, K; Cullen, W R; Reimer, K J

    1997-01-01

    We examined the degradation of biphenyl and the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1221 by indigenous Arctic soil microorganisms to assess both the response of the soil microflora to PCB pollution and the potential of the microflora for bioremediation. In soil slurries, Arctic soil microflora and temperate-soil microflora had similar potentials to mineralize [14C]biphenyl. Mineralization began sooner and was more extensive in slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils than in slurries of uncontaminated Arctic soils. The maximum mineralization rates at 30 and 7 degrees C were typically 1.2 to 1.4 and 0.52 to 1.0 mg of biphenyl g of dry soil-1 day-1, respectively. Slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils degraded Aroclor 1221 more extensively at 30 degrees C (71 to 76% removal) than at 7 degrees C (14 to 40% removal). We isolated from Arctic soils organisms that were capable of psychrotolerant (growing at 7 to 30 degrees C) or psychrophilic (growing at 7 to 15 degrees C) growth on biphenyl. Two psychrotolerant isolates extensively degraded Aroclor 1221 at 7 degrees C (54 to 60% removal). The soil microflora and psychrotolerant isolates degraded all mono-, most di-, and some trichlorobiphenyl congeners. The results suggest that PCB pollution selected for biphenyl-mineralizing microorganisms in Arctic soils. While low temperatures severely limited Aroclor 1221 removal in slurries of Arctic soils, results with pure cultures suggest that more effective PCB biodegradation is possible under appropriate conditions. PMID:9292988

  5. Chronic toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna Straus

    SciTech Connect

    Gersich, F.M.; Bartlett, E.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Milazzo, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final test rule (1985) for biphenyl on the authority of Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Contained within this rule was the requirement for generating chronic daphnid toxicity data for biphenyl. Biphenyl is used primarily to produce dye carriers, heat-transfer fluids and alkylated biphenyls. The acute toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna has been reported. The 48-hr LC50 values were 4.7 and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. To date, the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to fish and aquatic invertebrates has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to D. magna. The daphnid chronic toxicity test is designed to estimate the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC). The MATC is defined as the concentration falling between the highest concentration showing no effect and the next higher concentration showing a toxic effect when compared to the controls.

  6. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  7. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  8. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  9. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  12. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.T.; Cruden, D.L.; Haddock, J.D.; Zylstra, G.J.; Brand, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls that do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  14. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB) could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri-) PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L −1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments. PMID:25875180

  15. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  17. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) (September 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  19. Toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in Domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T; Jurgelski, W; Posner, H S; Vouk, V B; Bernheim, N J; Guthrie, J; Luster, M; Falk, H L

    1982-01-01

    The composition, environmental fate, and effects of the polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster BP-6 or FF-1) involved in the accidental contamination of cattle feed in Michigan in 1973 are reviewed. Toxic effects referred to in this report are limited to those occurring in domestic and laboratory animals and include general toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of these polybrominated biphenyls are discussed along with the interactions with other chemicals and drugs. PMID:6282577

  20. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  1. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  2. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily contaminated, with a range from 0.2 to 159 micrograms PCBs per cm2 of surface. Considerable amounts of PCBs were detected on the palms of the hands of the workers (2-28 microgram/cm2 of skin surface). In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently exposed and workers exposed only in the past. In groups of workers who were homogeneous as regards work area and job, the PCB concentrations in the blood were closely correlated with the length of actual occupational exposure to these compounds. These findings led to the conclusion that absorption of PCBs in these workers had occurred mainly through the skin, therefore industrial preventive surveillance must take this route of exposure into account. Since blood PCB concentrations appear to be correlated with the length of exposure, PCB determination on whole blood may be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure to PCBs. PMID:6781529

  3. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  4. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  5. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    PubMed

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  6. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  7. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  8. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  9. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U

    2012-12-01

    Phytoremediation-plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater-is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants.

  10. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Safe, S.

    1984-01-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls are industrial chemical mixtures which have been implicated in numerous human poisonings in Taiwan and Japan (PCBs) and Michigan (PBBs). Moreover, these polyhalogenated biphenyls have been widely detected in the environment including the air, water, fish, wildlife, human adipose tissue, and blood and breast milk. A major problem associated with the analysis and toxicology of this group of chemicals is their chemical complexity (e.g., there are 209 possible PCB isomers and congeners) and the remarkable effects of structure on activity. This article will discuss the effects of structure on the biologic and toxic effects of individual PCB and PBB congeners as well as reconstituted mixtures. The results clearly show that like ''dioxin'' (or 2,3,7,8-TCDD), the PCBs and PBBs elicit their effects through a cytosolic receptor protein which preferentially binds with the toxins which are approximate isostereomers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The evidence for this mechanism of action will be discussed in detail.

  12. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  13. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  14. Estrogenicity of selected biphenyls evaluated using a recombinant yeast assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Kraut, D.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Layton, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    The estrogenic activity of biphenyl and 4-hydroxylated derivatives with varied levels of chloro- and/or hydroxyl substitution was measured in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z ({beta}-galactosidase) reporter assay, {beta}-Galactosidase activity was compared with competitive binding to soluble mouse uterine estrogen receptor protein. The comparison of relative potency for biphenyls hydroxylated on one ring and chlorinated on the other ring (n = 5) revealed excellent correlation between the two systems (r{sup 2} = 0.995). However, estrogenicities of biphenyls hydroxylated and chlorinated on the same ring were not in agreement. Although weak ligand binding was demonstrated for these compounds, {beta}-galactosidase activity was not observed. Rather, these compounds were shown to be cytotoxic to yeast. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that both an unhindered phenolic ring and molecular symmetry are structural features associated with estrogenicity.

  15. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  16. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  17. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  1. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  2. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  3. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero.

  4. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  5. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.; Welch, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year-old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21 percent; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70 percent. Nursing (Mothers' milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  6. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21%; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70%. Nursing (Mothers milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  7. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r = .42) and PBBs (r = .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  8. The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r . .42) and PBBs (r . .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Biphenyl, that was distributed to other federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President for comment during Interagency Science Discussion (IASD) (Step 6b) of the IRIS assessment development process. Interagenc...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  11. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  13. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  16. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 ] RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting... Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this proposed rule to update and clarify several... Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are to match, as much as possible, the...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples of Bombay

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, C.V. ); Banerji, S. )

    1989-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have received considerable attention in the last two decades, since studies have shown that these are extremely persistent environmental pollutants worldover. Presence of PCBs in human blood has been reported by several investigators. This paper reports the levels of PCBs in the blood of 60 professional and 20 voluntary blood donors.

  18. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) General. (1) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one member of a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds... Protection Agency regulation (40 CFR 761), applicable State laws, and 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2. For proper disposal information, contact the nearest EPA office. For transportation requirements, see 49 CFR Parts...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  20. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  1. Characterization of biphenyl catabolic genes of gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl degrader rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1

    SciTech Connect

    Masai, Eiji; Hatta, Takashi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    1995-06-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 is a gram-positive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrader which can degrade 10 ppm of PCB-48 (equivalent to Aroclor 1248), including tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls, in a few days. We isolated the 7.6-kb EcoRI-BamHI fragment carrying the biphenyl catabolic genes of RHA1 and determined their nucleotide sequence. On the basis of deduced amino acid sequence homology, we identified six bph genes, bphA1A2A3A4, bphB, and bphC, that are responsible for the initial three steps of biphenyl degradation. The order of bph genes in RHA1 is bphA1A2A3A4-bphC-bphB. This gene order differs from that of other PCB degraders reported previously. The amino acid sequences deduced from the RHA1 bph genes have a higher degree of homology with the tod genes from Pseudomonas putida F1 (49 to 79%) than with the bph genes of Pseudomonas sp. strains KF707 and KKS102 (30-65%). FIn Escherichia coli, bphA gene activity was not observed even when expression vectors were used. The activities of bphB and bphC, however, were confirmed by observing the transformation of biphenyl to a meta-cleavage compound with the aid of benzene dioxygenase activity that complemented the bphA gene activity (S. Irie, S. Djoi, T. Yorifuji, M. Takagi, and K. Yano, J. Bacteriol. 169:5174-5179, 1987). The expected products of the cloned bph genes, except bphA3, were observed in E. coli in an in vitro transcription-translation system. Insertion mutations of bphA1 and bphC of Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1 were constructed by gene replacement with cloned gene fragments. The bphA1 and bphC insertion mutants lost the ability to grow on biphenyl, demonstrating that the cloned bph genes are essential for biphenyl catabolism in this strain. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  3. Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and altered peripheral sensation were noted with increasing concentrations of serum PCB. No clinical abnormalities attributable to exposure to PCB were observed. Serum PCB concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), and plasma triglyceride, and inversely correlated with plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. These correlations were present across all study sites. These findings are indicative of PCBs' physiological effect on the liver, whose long-range health significance is unknown. Nevertheless, the consistent positive association of serum PCB with plasma triglyceride and negative association with plasma HDL-cholesterol may have long-term cardiovascular consequences. PMID:6128023

  4. Subculturing of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating anaerobic enrichment on solid media.

    PubMed Central

    May, H D; Boyle, A W; Price, W A; Blake, C K

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic culture capable of dechlorinating polychlorinated biphenyls was subcultured under strict anaerobic conditions on solid media containing sterilized river sediment. The dechlorination activity was transferred as a bacterial colony on a solid medium three times. After two transfers on solid medium, the culture was no longer methanogenic but still dechlorinated a mixture of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This demonstrates that anaerobic bacteria are responsible for the polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination and can be grown without polychlorinated biphenyl on solid media. PMID:1476444

  5. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  6. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  7. [Diversity of the Key Biphenyl Destruction Genes in the Microbial Community of the Anadyr Bay Coastal Sediments].

    PubMed

    Shumkova, E S; Voronina, A O; Kuznetsova, N V; Plotnikova, E G

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase is the key enzyme involved in the bacterial destruction of biphenyl and polychlo- rinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are highly stable toxic compounds. The diversity of bphA1 genes encoding the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit of biphenyl-decomposing bacteria from the microbial community of the Bering Sea coastal sediments (the Anadyr port area) was studied. The enrichment culture was obtained by the incubation of bottom sediments samples with biphenyl as the only carbon source. It was followed by total DNA extraction and PCR analysis with degenerate primers specific to the bacterial biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase a subunit genes. Subsequent cloning of the PCR products led to the identification of three types of aromatic dioxygenase genes, which appeared to be phylogenetically close to the genes of the biphenyl/toluene dioxygenase and 3-phenylpropionate dioxygenase subfamilies of the Actinomycetales bacteria. PMID:26410940

  8. Biodegradation of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by a Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated coal mine soil.

    PubMed

    Nam, In-Hyun; Chon, Chul-Min; Jung, Ka-Young; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2014-07-01

    The biphenyl-degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. KM-04, was isolated from polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil sample obtained from the vicinity of a former coal mine. We herein report that strain KM-04 can use biphenyl as a sole carbon source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its corresponding metabolic intermediates. Incubation of KM-04 with autoclaved mining-contaminated soil for 10 days in a slurry system reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 98.5 % and 82.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of a mine-soil microcosm with strain KM-04 for 15 days in a composting system under laboratory conditions reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 87.1 % and 68.7 %, respectively. These results suggest that KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and its chlorinated derivatives from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated mining areas.

  9. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented.

  10. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented. PMID:26017378

  11. Fluorescent biphenyl derivatives of phenylalanine suitable for protein modification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengxi; Fahmi, Nour Eddine; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Wang, Lin; Jin, Yuguang; Benkovic, Stephen J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2013-11-26

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that structurally compact fluorophores incorporated into the side chains of amino acids could be introduced into dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (ecDHFR) with minimal disruption of protein structure or function, even when the site of incorporation was within a folded region of the protein. The modified proteins could be employed for FRET measurements, providing sensitive monitors of changes in protein conformation. The very favorable results achieved in that study encouraged us to prepare additional fluorescent amino acids of potential utility for studying protein dynamics. Presently, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of four positional isomers of biphenyl-phenylalanine, all of which were found to exhibit potentially useful fluorescent properties. All four phenylalanine derivatives were used to activate suppressor tRNA transcripts and incorporated into multiple positions of ecDHFR. All phenylalanine derivatives were incorporated with good efficiency into position 16 of ecDHFR and afforded modified proteins that consumed NADPH at rates up to about twice the rate measured for wild type. This phenomenon has been noted on a number of occasions previously and shown to be due to an increase in the off-rate of tetrahydrofolate from the enzyme, altering a step that is normally rate limiting. When introduced into sterically accessible position 49, the four phenylalanine derivatives afforded DHFRs having catalytic function comparable to wild type. The four phenylalanine derivatives were also introduced into position 115 of ecDHFR, which is known to be a folded region of the protein less tolerant of structural alteration. As anticipated, significant differences were noted in the catalytic efficiencies of the derived proteins. The ability of two of the sizable biphenyl-phenylalanine derivatives to be accommodated at position 115 with minimal perturbation of DHFR function is attributed to rotational

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Rhodococcus sp. WB1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Shen, Alin

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored. PMID:27738025

  14. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  15. Oxidation of biphenyl by a multicomponent enzyme system from pseudomonas sp. strain LB400

    SciTech Connect

    Haddock, J.D.; Nadim, L.M.; Gibson, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl to cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl. Incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the substrate was shown with (18)O2. The nonlinear relationship between enzyme activity and protein concentration suggested that the enzyme is composed of multiple protein components. Ion-exchange chromatography of the cell extract gave three protein fractions that were required together to restore enzymatic activity. Similarities with other multicomponent aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases indicated that biphenyl dioxygenase may consist of a flavoprotein and iron-sulfur proteins that constitute a short electron transport chain involved in catalyzing the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the aromatic ring.

  16. Biobatteries and biofuel cells with biphenylated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Kizling, Michał; Majdecka, Dominika; Żelechowska, Kamila; Biernat, Jan F.; Rogalski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) covalently biphenylated are used for the construction of cathodes in a flow biobattery and in flow biofuel cell. Zinc covered with a hopeite layer is the anode in the biobattery and glassy carbon electrode covered with bioconjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes with glucose oxidase and catalase is the anode of the biofuel cell. The potentials of the electrodes are measured vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode under changing loads of the fuel cell/biobattery. The power density of the biobattery with biphenylated nanotubes at the cathode is ca. 0.6 mW cm-2 and the open circuit potential is ca. 1.6 V. In order to obtain larger power densities and voltages three biobatteries are connected in a series which leads to the open circuit potential of ca. 4.8 V and power density 2.1 mW cm-2 at 3.9 V under 100 kΩ load. The biofuel cell shows power densities of ca. 60 μW cm-2 at 20 kΩ external resistance but the open circuit potential for such biofuel cell is only 0.5 V. The biobattery showing significantly larger power densities and open circuit voltages are especially useful for testing novel cathodes and applications such as powering units for clocks and sensing devices.

  17. Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Metabolites by Naphthalene-Catabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Barriault, Diane; Durand, Jacinthe; Maaroufi, Halim; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Sylvestre, Michel

    1998-01-01

    The ability of the dehydrogenase and ring cleavage dioxygenase of the naphthalene degradation pathway to transform 3,4-dihydroxylated biphenyl metabolites was investigated. 1,2-Dihydro-1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dehydrogenase was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein. The purified enzyme transformed 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl, and 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxy-2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl (3,4-DHB), and 3,4-dihydroxy-2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (3,4-DH-2,2′,5,5′-TCB), respectively. Our data also suggested that purified 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase catalyzed the meta cleavage of 3,4-DHB in both the 2,3 and 4,5 positions. This enzyme cleaved 3,4-DH-2,2′,5,5′-TCB and 3,4-DHB at similar rates. These results demonstrate the utility of the naphthalene catabolic enzymes in expanding the ability of the bph pathway to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:9835542

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  19. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  20. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls: new trends and promises.

    PubMed

    Aken, Benoit Van; Correa, Paola A; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2010-04-15

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environment-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. To overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs.

  1. 4-Substituted-2-Methoxyphenol: Suitable Building Block to Prepare New Bioactive Natural-like Hydroxylated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fabbri, Davide; Pisano, Marina; Rozzo, Carla; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Dessµ, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    A small collection of eugenol- and curcumin-analog hydroxylated biphenyls was prepared by straightforward methods starting from natural 4-substituted-2-methoxyphenols and their antitumoral activity was evaluated in vitro. Two curcumin-biphenyl derivatives showed interesting growth inhibitory activities on different malignant melanoma cell lines with IC50 ranging from 13 to 1 µM. Preliminary molecular modeling studies were carried out to evaluate conformations and dihedral angles suitable for antiproliferative activity in hydroxylated biphenyls bearing a side aliphatic chain. PMID:26074750

  2. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment: sources, fate, and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem has accumulated, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are, today, increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment.

  3. Donor's position-specific channel interference in substituted biphenyl molecules.

    PubMed

    Mehboob Alam, Md

    2015-07-21

    The channel interference mechanism describes the two-photon absorption process in terms of the relative orientations of different transition dipole moment vectors (TDMVs) in a molecule. Controlling these interferences is a difficult but important task, because it can provide new information about such absorption/emission processes. The present contribution aims to explain the reversal in the nature of these interferences with the relative positions of the donor-acceptor groups in substituted biphenyl molecules. The results obtained from the linear and quadratic response theories indicate that having the donor at the para position leads to a constructive interference whereas having it at any of the other two positions results in a destructive interference. This is explained by a systematic analysis of the relative orientations of all the TDMVs involved in a three-state model.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  6. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Studies on the vapor behavior of selected polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haque, R; Kohnert, R

    1976-01-01

    The vapor loss of several PCB isomers from stainless steel planchets surfaces has been studied. Experiments were carried out under two different conditions. In one case, the vapor loss was observed from 2 molecular layers of PCB, while in the other series, the loss from approximately 200 molecular layers was observed. In both cases the loss of PCB from the surface was substantial, although the controlling mechanism of vapor loss was different. In the first case, the transport was approximated by a simple first order rate law, whereas in the latter case, it was a diffusion controlled process. In general, the vapor loss decreased with increasing number of chlorine atoms present in the isomer. The 4,4(1)-dichlorobiphenyl showed a deviation as compared to others indicating that such factors as the electronic distribution, position of chlorine atom on the biphenyl ring and symmentry of the molecule are also important in discussing the vapor transport. PMID:824339

  8. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  9. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov). PMID:12117298

  10. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Probes of Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the use of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congener and homolog assemblages as tracers of biogeochemical processes in the Milwaukee and Manitowoc Rivers in southeastern Wisconsin from 1993 to 1995. PCB congeners in the dissolved and suspended particle phases, along with various algal indicators (algal carbon and pigments), were quantitated in the water seasonally. In addition, PCB congener assemblages were determined seasonally in surficial bed sediments. Biogeochemical processes investigated included: determination of the source of suspended particles and bottom sediments by comparison with known Aroclor mixtures, water-solid partitioning, and algal uptake of PCBs. Seasonal differences among the PCB assemblages were observed mainly in the dissolved phase, somewhat less in the suspended particulate phase, and not at all in the bed sediments.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  13. Infecundity and consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, B M; Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Sever, L E; Vena, J E

    2001-01-01

    Biologic capacity for reproduction, or fecundity, may be threatened by environmental contaminants, especially compounds capable of disrupting endocrine pathways. Telephone interviews that focused on reproductive events were conducted with female members of the New York State Angler Cohort Study who became pregnant between 1991 and 1993 and who reported known time to pregnancy (N = 895; 73%). Consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Lake Ontario sportfish and other factors were ascertained in 1991. The authors classified the women as follows: (a) fecund (time to pregnancy < or =12 cycles; n = 723); (b) having resolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles; n = 81); or (c) having unresolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles without pregnancy; n = 94). Adjusted odds ratios for duration of fish consumption for both resolved and unresolved infecundity were elevated (1.46 and 1.19, respectively), although confidence intervals included unity. Frequency of recent fish consumption was associated with an increased risk for select categories, although confidence intervals included one.

  14. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  15. BIOLUMINESCENCE INHIBITION ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF HYDROXYLATED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    PubMed Central

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C. Mark; Dikici, Emre; Pasini, Patrizia; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are an important class of contaminants that mainly originate from polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism. They may conceivably be as dangerous and persistent as the parent compounds; most prominently, OH-PCBs are endocrine disruptors. Due to increasing evidence of the presence of OH-PCBs in the environment and in living organisms, including humans, and of their toxicity, methods of detection for OH-PCBs are needed in the environmental and medical fields. Herein we describe the development and optimization of a protein+based inhibition assay for the quantification of OH-PCBs. Specifically, the photoprotein aequorin was utilized for the detection of OH-PCBs. We hypothesized that OH-PCBs interact with aequorin and we established that OH-PCBs actually inhibit the bioluminescence of aequorin in a dose-dependent manner. We took advantage of this phenomenon to develop an assay that is capable of detecting a wide variety of OH-PCBs with a range of detection limits, the best detection limit being 11 nM for the compound 2-hydroxy-2',3,4',5',6-pentachorobiphenyl. The viability of this system for the screening of OH-PCBs in spiked biological and environmental samples was also established. We envision the implementation of this novel bioluminescence inhibition assay as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for monitoring OH-PCBs. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge this is the first time aequorin has been employed to detect an analyte by the inhibition of its bioluminescence reaction. Hence, this strategy may prove to be a general approach for the development of a new generation of protein-based inhibition assays. PMID:22908962

  16. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  17. Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Pd/Mg Bimetallic Corrosion Nano-Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), manufactured until mid-1970's for use as electrical insulators, were banned in 1979 due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment (1). Dechlorination of PCBs using bimetallic systems is a promising technology wherein enhanced corrosio...

  18. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  19. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  20. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  1. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence studies of novel bi-phenyl based acrylate and methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, R.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-09-01

    4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl prop-2-enoate ( ACH) and 4-[(1 E)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)buta-1,3-dien-1-yl]phenyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate ( MCH) was synthesized from biphenyl in three steps and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR ( 1H, 13C, DEPT135, 1H- 1H COSY, 1H- 13C HSQC and 1H- 13C HMBC) spectroscopic techniques. In this present study, various physicochemical characteristics we demonstrate solubility, color, absorbance and fluorescence property of novel biphenyl based acrylate and methacrylate measured in different solvents like benzene, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and ethanol.

  2. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... interpretation of its regulations currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of... Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  3. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  4. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  5. The metabolism of biphenyl. V. Phenolic metabolites in some marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T; Bakke, T

    1977-02-01

    The phenolic metabolites of biphenyl in the crustacean Cirolana borealis LILJEBORG (ISOPODA), the gastropod Buccinum undatum L and the ophiuroid Ophiocomina nigra ABILDGAARD have been analysed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively as trimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, respectively. The findings demonstrate the in vivo metabolic capacity of these organisms to convert biphenyl into its hydroxylated derivatives. Thus, 2-hydroxybiphenyl is the most prominent metabolite detected in all these experiments, which also showed that minor amounts of the 4-hydroxy and 4,4'-dihydroxy metabolites are formed. Metabolites of biphenyl origin are found both in the sea water from the aquaria and in the tissue of the respective marine organisms. The experiments, moreover, indicate a slow metabolism of biphenyl in C. borealis, B. undatum and O. nigra, between which no qualitative metabolic differences are found.

  6. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  7. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  8. Preliminary results of the comparison of the electrochemical behavior of a thioether and biphenyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.; Jones, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical cell was constructed to explore the feasibility of using electrochemical techniques to simulate the tribochemistry of various substances. The electrochemical cell was used to study and compare the behavior of a thioether 1,3-bis(phenylthio) benzene and biphenyl. It is found that under controlled conditions biphenyl undergoes a reversible reduction to a radical anion whereas the thioether undergoes an irreversible reduction yielding several products. The results are discussed in relationship to boundary lubrication.

  9. Investigation of saponification for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yamazaki, Misako; Takatsu, Akiko

    2005-02-01

    The effects of saponification conditions (temperature and water content of saponifying solution) on the determination of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) in marine sediments were investigated. Although highly chlorinated biphenyls (nona- to deca-CBs) decomposed during high-temperature saponification, the degree of degradation was reduced by adding water to the ethanolic potassium hydroxide saponifying solution. Room-temperature saponification yielded quantitative recovery of highly chlorinated biphenyl surrogates but low extraction efficiencies of lightly chlorinated biphenyls (mono- to di-CBs). The same samples were analyzed by other extraction techniques, for example, pressurized liquid extraction, and analytical results were compared. The mono- and di-CB concentrations were correlated with the extraction temperatures of various extraction techniques. In particular, the concentrations of some CB congeners (CB11, CB14) were higher with saponification. The low degree of degradation of highly chlorinated biphenyls and the high recovery of lightly chlorinated biphenyls were compatible when room-temperature and high-temperature saponification were combined. Except for the anomalies of CB11 and CB14, the combined method gave satisfactory results for analysis of PCBs.

  10. Microcosm enrichment of biphenyl-degrading microbial communities from soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner-Doebler, I.; Bennasar, A.; Stroempl, C.; Bruemmer, I.; Eichner, C.; Grammel, I.; Moore, E.R.B.; Vancanneyt, M.

    1998-08-01

    A microcosm enrichment approach was employed to isolate bacteria which are representative of long-term biphenyl-adapted microbial communities. Growth of microorganisms was stimulated by incubating soil and sediment samples from polluted and nonpolluted sites with biphenyl crystals. After 6 months, stable population densities between 8 {times} 10{sup 9} and 2 {times} 10{sup 11} CFU/ml were established in the microcosms, and a large percentage of the organisms were able to grow on biphenyl-containing minimal medium plates. A total of 177 biphenyl-degrading strains were subsequently isolated and characterized by their ability to grow on biphenyl in liquid culture and to accumulate a yellow meta cleavage product when they were sprayed with dihydroxy-biphenyl. Isolates were identified by using a polyphasic approach, including fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell proteins, and genomic fingerprinting based on sequence variability in the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region. In all of the microcosms, isolates identified as Rhodococcus opacus dominated the cultivable microbial community, comprising a cluster of 137 isolates with very similar FAME profiles (Euclidean distances, <10) and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences.

  11. Biosynthesis of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures treated with Venturia inaequalis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Müller, Andreas; Ernst, Ludger; Bhavanam, Vijaya B R; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2013-12-01

    Aucuparin is the most widely distributed biphenyl phytoalexin in the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae, which includes the economically important fruit trees apple and pear. The biphenyl scaffold is formed by biphenyl synthase, which catalyzes biosynthesis of 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl. Conversion of this precursor to aucuparin (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybiphenyl) was studied in cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus Venturia inaequalis. The sequence of the biosynthetic steps detected was O-methylation - 4-hydroxylation - O-methylation. The two alkylation reactions were catalyzed by distinct methyltransferases, which differed in pH and temperature optima as well as stability. Biphenyl 4-hydroxylase was a microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, whose activity was appreciably decreased by the addition of established P450 inhibitors. When fed to V. inaequalis-treated S. aucuparia cell cultures, radioactively labeled 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl was not only incorporated into aucuparin but also into the dibenzofuran eriobofuran, the accumulation of which paralleled that of aucuparin. However, biphenyl 2'-hydroxylase activity proposed to be involved in dibenzofuran formation was detected in neither microsomes nor cell-free extracts in the presence of NADPH and 2-oxoglutarate, respectively. Nevertheless, a basis for studying biphenyl biosynthesis at the gene level is provided.

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Luotamo, M; Järvisalo, J; Aitio, A

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Occupational exposure to PCBs takes place, e.g., in manufacture and repair of capacitors and transformers. A special type of exposure of workers to PCBs may occur in connection with accidents where capacitors or transformers containing PCBs products are damaged, as in the case of a fire or electric arcing. The quantitation of PCBs poses several problems: There are 209 different homologs and isomers of PCBs. The isomers of PCBs have different responses in the electron capture detector, and the pattern of PCBs in biological specimens is different from that of commercial products. In this study a method was worked out for the analysis of PCBs in serum with the purpose of estimating occupation exposure to PCBs. The PCBs were extracted to an organic solvent, and the extract was purified by use of sulfuric acid and silica columns. Capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection was used. For separation, temperature programming was used. PMID:3928361

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Dhaliwal, Joginder; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in residential dust. Vacuum cleaner samples were collected from 289 homes in the California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds from 2001 to 2010 and 15 PCBs were measured by high resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median concentrations of the most abundant PCBs (i.e., PCBs 28, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, and 180) ranged from 1.0–5.8 ng per g of dust in the first sampling round and from 0.8–3.4 ng/g in the second sampling round. For each of these eight PCBs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variation into regional variability (6–11%), intra-regional between-home variability (27–56%), within-home variability over time (18–52%), and within-sample variability (9–16%). In mixed-effects models, differences in PCB concentrations between homes were explained by home age, with older homes having higher PCB levels. Differences in PCB concentrations within homes were explained by decreasing time trends. Estimated half-lives ranged from 5–18 years, indicating that PCBs are removed very slowly from the indoor environment. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PCB exposures in studies of children’s health. PMID:24313682

  14. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  15. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and lipemia on serum analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, K.K.; Freni-Titulaer, L.W.J.; Rogers, T.N.; Burse, V.W.; Mueller, P.W.; Stehr, P.A.; Miller, D.T.; Steele, G.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve serum analytes (triglycerides, cholesterol, total and conjugated bilirubin, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) alkaline phosphatase (AP), gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ..beta..-glucoronidase (..beta..-glu), alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'nuc)) were measured to investigate their correlation with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT). The relationship between serum lipids, lipophilic toxicants, and the analytes was also evaluated. The ..beta..-glue, 5'nuc, triglycerides, cholesterol, and total bilirubin correlated positively and significantly with log concentrations of serum total PCBs and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of DDT. The more highly chlorinated PCBs had significant, positive correlations with several serum analytes, but the less chlorinated PCBs correlated significantly and negatively only with HDL-cholesterol. Triglyercide- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins were added to serum to determine the effects of lipids on these assays. Several were spuriously elevated. AP and ..beta..-glu were not affected by lipoprotein addition with the methods used in this study. AAP was increased significantly only at triglyceide concentrations exceeding 400 mg/dl.

  16. Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment.

    PubMed Central

    Longnecker, Matthew P; Wolff, Mary S; Gladen, Beth C; Brock, John W; Grandjean, Philippe; Jacobson, Joseph L; Korrick, Susan A; Rogan, Walter J; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Ayotte, Pierre; Stewart, Paul; Winneke, Gerhard; Charles, M Judith; Jacobson, Sandra W; Dewailly, Eric; Boersma, E Rudy; Altshul, Larisa M; Heinzow, Birger; Pagano, James J; Jensen, Allan A

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Interpretation of human data regarding low-level, early-life PCB exposure and subsequent neurodevelopment is problematic because levels of exposure were not similarly quantified across studies. We expressed the exposure levels from 10 studies of PCB and neurodevelopment in a uniform manner using a combination of data from original investigators, laboratory reanalyses, calculations based on published data, and expert opinion. The mainstay of our comparison was the median level of PCB 153 in maternal pregnancy serum. The median concentration of PCB 153 in the 10 studies ranged from 30 to 450 ng/g serum lipid, and the median of the 10 medians was 110 ng/g. We found that (a)) the distribution of PCB 153 exposure in most studies overlapped substantially, (b)) exposure levels in the Faroe Islands study were about 3-4-fold higher than in most other studies, and (c)) the exposure levels in the two recent U.S. studies were about one-third of those in the four earlier U.S. studies or recent Dutch, German, and northern Québec studies. Our results will facilitate a direct comparison of the findings on PCBs and neurodevelopment when they are published for all 10 studies. PMID:12515680

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  18. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  19. Dielectric relaxation of polychlorinated biphenyl/toluene mixtures: component dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Daniele; Alegría, Angel; Colmenero, Juan

    2008-06-14

    The dynamics of homogenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB54)/toluene mixtures have been investigated by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The mixture presents dynamical heterogeneity, alike miscible polymer blends, which is manifested with the presence of two relaxational processes. The relatively slow one has been attributed to the motion of PCB54 in the mixture, whereas the relatively fast one was related to the toluene dynamics in the mixture. These results have been interpreted according to the self-concentration concept, first introduced to describe the dynamics of miscible polymer blends, which relies on the limited size of the cooperative length scale in glass-forming liquids. The self-concentration concept has been incorporated in the Adam-Gibbs theory of the glass transition relating the characteristic relaxation time and the length scale for structural relaxation to the configurational entropy. This allowed the determination of the cooperative length scale of PCB54 and toluene both in mixture and alone through the fitting of a single parameter, namely, that connecting the cooperative length scale to the configurational entropy. This length scale resulted to be in the range of 1-2 nm for all systems. Finally, the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of toluene induced by the selective freezing in of PCB54 has been examined and its relation to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation of pure toluene was critically discussed. PMID:18554030

  20. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Accumulation and efflux of polychlorinated biphenyls in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shen; Fang, Jun; Turner, Kendrick B; Daunert, Sylvia; Wei, Yinan

    2012-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that have been associated with numerous adverse health effects in human and animals. Hydroxylated PCBs (HPCBs) are the product of the oxidative metabolism of PCBs. The presence of hydroxyl groups in HPCBs makes these compounds more hydrophilic than the parent PCBs. One of the best approaches to break down and remove these contaminants is bioremediation; an environmentally friendly process that uses microorganisms to degrade hazardous chemicals into non-toxic ones. In this study, we investigated the cellular accumulation and toxicity of selected PCBs and HPCBs in Gram-negative bacteria, using Escherichia coli as a model organism. We found that none of the five PCBs tested were toxic to E. coli, presumably due to their limited bioavailability. Nevertheless, different HPCBs tested showed different levels of toxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the primary multidrug efflux system in E. coli, AcrAB-TolC, facilitated the efflux of HPCBs out of the cell. Since AcrAB-TolC is constitutively expressed in E. coli and is conserved in all sequenced Gram-negative bacterial genomes, our results suggest that the efflux activities of multidrug resistant pumps may affect the accumulation and degradation of PCBs in Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  4. Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two plants manufacturing electrical capacitors was reported in 1981. The study was conducted primarily to examine the risk of cancer mortality associated with exposure to PCBs. Based on animal data, liver cancer was the disease of most interest. Due to the small number of deaths and a relatively short observation period, the study was considered inconclusive. This study has been updated by adding 7 yr of observation. The number of deaths in the study cohort has increased from 163 to 295. Mortality from all causes was found to be lower than expected (295 observed vs. 318 expected deaths) as well as mortality from all cancers (62 observed vs. 80 expected deaths). A statistically significant excess in deaths was observed in the disease category that includes cancer of the liver (primary and unspecified), gall bladder, and biliary tract (5 observed vs. 1.9 expected; p less than .05). Most of this excess was observed in women employed in one plant. Due to the small number of deaths and the variability of specific cause of death within this category, it remains difficult to interpret these findings in regard to PCB exposure.

  5. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Curt T; Wheeler, David C; Deziel, Nicole C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K; Flory, Abigail R; Locke, Sarah J; Colt, Joanne S; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H

    2013-09-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of five PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, and 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998 and 2000 from 1187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad; percentage of developed land; number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences; and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCB levels [all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit (MPQL) vs at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs at least one congener > median concentration] were positively associated with either percentage of developed land [odds ratio (OR) range 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase] or population density (OR 1.08 for every 1000/mi(2)) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations.

  6. Charge-carrier transport in smectic mesophases of biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Akira; Haruyama, Akihide; Kurotaki, Kensuke; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2007-10-01

    The charge-transport properties of ω ,ω'-alkylalkoxylbiphenyls, one of the simplest calamitic (rodlike) liquid crystals exhibiting smectic mesophases, were investigated using the time-of-flight experiments. A mobility of ˜10-3 cm2/V s was determined for holes in both smectic B (SmB) and smectic E (SmE) phases. This high electronic mobility, comparable to the highest mobilities in amorphous organic semiconductors, indicates that the self-organization of such simple molecules including small aromatic compounds is quite effective in enhancing the charge transport in organic materials. The mobilities of both smectic mesophases, however, depend on temperatures, which is not the case for other typical smectic liquid crystals reported previously. Interestingly, the mobility in the SmE phase exhibits a Poole-Frenkel type of field dependence. Detailed experimental studies have shown that this field dependence is not due to the trapping effect of carriers caused by chemical contaminants or structural defects such as domain boundaries and dislocation, but arises from the widely distributed density of states with a distribution width of 0.11-0.13 eV for the SmE phase, as estimated based on a two-dimensional Gaussian disorder model. The phase-specific carrier transport in biphenyls may provide us with unique insights leading to a more complete understanding of the charge carrier transport in the mesophase materials.

  7. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity. PMID:26995917

  8. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  9. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E; Tew, Kwee S

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k(u)) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K(ow), and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  10. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyl Transport, Metabolism and Distribution - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Harrad, Stuart J.; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lee, Cindy M.; Lu, Zhe; Wong, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Chirality can be exploited to gain insight into enantioselective fate processes that may otherwise remain undetected because only biological, but not physical and chemical transport and transformation processes in an achiral environment will change enantiomer compositions. This review provides an in-depth overview of the application of chirality to the study of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), an important group of legacy pollutants. Like other chiral compounds, individual PCB enantiomers may interact enantioselectively (or enantiospecifically) with chiral macromolecules, such as cytochrome P-450 enzymes or ryanodine receptors, leading to differences in their toxicological effects and the enantioselective formation of chiral biotransformation products. Species and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment has been demonstrated in environmental compartments, wildlife and mammals, including humans, typically due to a complex combination of biotransformation processes and uptake via the diet by passive diffusion. Changes in the enantiomer composition of chiral PCBs in the environment have been used to understand complex aerobic and anaerobic microbial transformation pathways, to delineate and quantify PCB sources and transport in the environment, to gain insight into the biotransformation of PCBs in aquatic food webs, and to investigate the enantioselective disposition of PCBs and their methylsulfonyl PCBs metabolites in rodents. Overall, changes in chiral signatures are powerful, but currently underutilized tools for studies of environmental and biological processes of PCBs. PMID:20384371

  11. The inducing properties of polychlorinated biphenyls on hepatic monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Alvares, A P; Kappas, A

    1977-11-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a newly recognized and widely distributed category of environmental pollutants whose biologic impact on animals and man may be both substantial and highly detrimental. The pharmacologic effects of these agents on enzymes in the liver which metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds, such as carcinogens, are powerful and long lasting. PCBs mimic the effects produced on these enzymes by drugs, such as phenobarbital, and carcinogens, such as 3-methylcholanthrene. They are potent inducers of cytochromes P-45O and P-448 and associated enzymic activities. Further, these chemicals can cross the placental barrier and be transmitted through maternal milk to the newborn infant causing marked increases in drug biotransformation enzymes in the fetus and the neonate. Studies with the use of microscope immersion oils containing PCBs show that application of minute amounts of these oils to the skin of experimental animals results in a marked induction of the drug-and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. These findings suggest that even trivial skin exposure to chemicals, such as PCBs, can have significant and perhaps harmful biologic effects in man. PMID:410582

  12. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  13. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls emission from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua; Jin, Yuqi

    2009-12-30

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns were determined in the flue gas from a medical waste incinerator (MWI) using high-resolution gas chromatograph coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). The total PCBs concentration of all homologues (mono- to deca-chlorinated homologues) in the flue gas ranged from 138.01 to 855.35 ng/Nm(3) and the WHO-TEQ value varied from 0.046 to 0.549 ng/Nm(3) under the different operating conditions. PCB-77 concentration was the highest among dioxin-like PCBs and PCB-126 contributed mostly to the WHO-TEQ. The ratios of dioxin-like PCBs in the total PCB concentrations in the flue gas varied between 11.7% and 26.0% (the average value is 18.7%). Three inhibitors, sulfur, urea, and ammonium sulfate were tested to investigate the capacity for preventing PCBs formation. The decomposition efficiency for total PCBs and PCBs TEQ ranged from 38% to 84% and 69% to 92% respectively. It was shown that urea mixed with ammonium sulfate and more activated carbon was proved to be the most effective inhibitor for PCBs formation. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the total PCBs concentration and PCBs TEQ by the bag filter under two conditions were 69% and 85%, and 86% and 94% respectively.

  16. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  17. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  18. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and p<0.01), which suggests that CB-118 is a good marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  19. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected.

  20. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley; Porter, Nichola; Symons, Robert; Marriott, Philip; Ades, Peter; Stevenson, Gavin; Blackbeard, Judy

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the international scientific literature of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in sewage sludge and a survey of these compounds in sewage sludge from 16 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The SigmaPBDE mean concentration in the Australian study was 1137microgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) (s.d. 1116) and ranged between 5 and 4 230microgkg(-1)d.w. The urban mean of 1308microgkg(-1) (s.d. 1320) and the rural mean of 911microgkg(-1) (s.d. 831) are not statistically different and are similar to levels in European sludges. Principal components analysis was performed on the data set and revealed that 76% of the data variation could be explained by two components that corresponded to overall concentration of the pentaBDE and the decaBDE commercial formulations. An analysis of variance was performed comparing PBDEs levels at three WWTPs over the years 2005 and 2006, finding differences between treatment plants (BDE-47) but no significant difference in PBDE levels in the years 2005 and 2006. Low levels of BB-153 were detected in all samples of this survey (n=16); mean 0.6microgkg(-1)d.w. (s.d. 0.5). This compound has rarely been reported in any other study of sewage sludges undertaken outside Australia. This work highlights the need for a risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge when used for land application, taking into account typical levels found in Australian sludges and soils. PMID:18682307

  2. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic. PMID:21863827

  3. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  4. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  6. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of southern Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, J.E. ); Wania, F. ); Lei, Y.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1999-07-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC No. 101, 105, 118, 138/163, 153, 156, 180) were measured every week from 1992 to 1995 in Lista, a coastal station in Southern Norway. This data set of 200 samples was analyzed with respect to the influence of time, temperature, air mass origin, and wind speed on both the absolute level and the relative congeneric composition of the PCBs. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of the seven PCB congeners was 114 pg[center dot]m[sup [minus]3], which is in the range observed at urban locations in Europe during the early 1990s. No obvious concentration decrease could be observed during the 4 years. PCB concentrations showed a clear seasonal fluctuation with higher levels during the summer. The temperature dependence of the air concentrations of individual congeners increased with the number of chlorine atoms per molecule resulting in an increase in the relative importance of the higher chlorinated congeners during warm periods. Air arriving in Southern Norway from southwesterly directions had slightly higher concentrations than air coming from the North, whereas the relative composition of the PCB congeners was not influenced by air mass origin. At higher wind speed the concentrations of PCBs decreased. Episodes of conspicuously elevated PCB concentrations neither were associated with a particular air mass origin nor had an unusual congeneric composition. The data analysis suggests that whereas regional air transport from central Europe contributes to the occurrence of PCBs in Lista, a large fraction of the PCBs stems likely from local sources.

  8. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  9. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  10. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H.; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction ( ϕoil)=30 vol.%; solid concentration ( χ)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 μm, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  11. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  12. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish. PMID:25945423

  13. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  14. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic.

  15. Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Biphenyl and Terphenyl Arylene–Ethynylene Macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of single-walled carbon nanotube precursors, C3h-symmetric cyclotri(ethynylene)(biphenyl-2,4′-diyl) and cyclotri(ethynylene)(p-terphenyl-2,4″-diyl), have been prepared by a linear stepwise oligomerization–cyclization route and by statistical intermolecular cyclooligomerization. In addition to producing these members of a novel class of arylene ethynylene macrocycles, 1 and 2, the latter statistical process produces the smaller cyclic dimer, cyclodi(ethynylene)(p-terphenyl-2,4″-diyl) and the larger cyclic tetramer cyclotetra(ethynylene)(biphenyl-2,4′-diyl). These macrocycles display large Stokes shifts in their fluorescence spectra. Their biphenyl or terphenyl connectivity prevents these macrocycles from achieving full planarity in the ground state, and the ethynylene moieties could provide synthetic access to cyclic arylene oligomers and discrete carbon nanotube segments. PMID:24506215

  16. Acute toxicity and anti acetylcholinesterase potential of some biphenyl derivatives to non target species.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Siddiqui, M K; Anjum, F; Qadri, S S; Sidky, M M; Osman, F H

    1989-02-01

    Five newly synthesised biphenyl derivatives were evaluated for their acute contact toxicity (LC50) against rice weevil and honey bee and anti acetylcholinesterase potential (I50) against honey bee, fish, pigeon and rat. Amongst, O,O-dimethyl-O, p-Nitro-biphenyl phosphate was most potent against rice weevil, whereas p-(4-Nitrophenyl) phenyl-N-methyl carbamate against honey bee. Based on I50 values the biphenyl derivatives of phosphoric acid esters were more potent anti acetylcholinesterase (AChE) agents against rat and fish brain AChE while derivative of carbamic esters towards pigeon brain AChE. The anti AChE potency of both groups appear to be of the same order towards bee head AChE.

  17. [Analysis of contact dermatitis by cytokines 4--Skin sensitization of biphenyl compounds].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, S; Suzuki, K; Ikemoto, T; Kakishima, H

    2000-11-01

    Clove buds oil is one of very important natural essential oil with a typical spicy note and also known as a source of eugenol. These phenol compounds, which have the strong perfume of clove, are widely used not only as an analgesic and antiseptic agent in dentistry. However, the problem is that the phenol compounds caused sensitization on the skin occasionally. We reported that the skin sensitization by eugenol and its derivatives was detected in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and also confirmed that dehydrodi-eugenol, a biphenyl compound of eugenol, did not show the skin sensitization. To discuss more, we examined the skin sensitization by several phenol compounds and its biphenyl ones. Consequently, we confirmed that the skin sensitization by biphenyl compounds more remarkably decreased than that by phenol compounds (monomer).

  18. Concentration-dependent effects of carbon nanotubes on growth and biphenyl degradation of Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhou, Hao; Ma, Qiao; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Duanxing; Shen, Wenli; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-02-01

    To enrich the understanding on interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and microbes, the responses of a biphenyl-degrading bacterium to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carboxyl single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOHs) were investigated. Electron microscopy, viability test, cellular membrane integrity, and oxidative stress analyses indicated that CNT toxicity was mainly caused by physical piercing. Apart from antibacterial activities, the experimental results showed that CNTs enhanced cell growth and biphenyl degradation at certain concentrations (1.0-1.5 mg/L). The CNTs aggregated and adsorbed cells and biphenyl to form a CNTs-cells-biphenyl coexisting system, thus it created a suitable microenvironment for cell attachment and proliferation where the cells could utilize biphenyl easier for their growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about CNTs' impact on biodegradation efficacy and growth of aromatic-degrading bacterium.

  19. Concentration-dependent effects of carbon nanotubes on growth and biphenyl degradation of Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhou, Hao; Ma, Qiao; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Duanxing; Shen, Wenli; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-02-01

    To enrich the understanding on interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and microbes, the responses of a biphenyl-degrading bacterium to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carboxyl single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT-COOHs) were investigated. Electron microscopy, viability test, cellular membrane integrity, and oxidative stress analyses indicated that CNT toxicity was mainly caused by physical piercing. Apart from antibacterial activities, the experimental results showed that CNTs enhanced cell growth and biphenyl degradation at certain concentrations (1.0-1.5 mg/L). The CNTs aggregated and adsorbed cells and biphenyl to form a CNTs-cells-biphenyl coexisting system, thus it created a suitable microenvironment for cell attachment and proliferation where the cells could utilize biphenyl easier for their growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about CNTs' impact on biodegradation efficacy and growth of aromatic-degrading bacterium. PMID:26459414

  20. Bacterial degradation of polychlorinted biphenyls in sludge from an industrial sewer lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Takacs, A. M.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in an industrial sewer sludge can be effectively degraded by mutant bacteria. The aerated sludge was inoculated daily with mutant bacteria in order to augment the existing bacteria with bacteria that were considered to be capable of degrading PCB's. The pH, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels were monitored daily to maintain an optimum growing medium for the bacteria. A gas chromatographic method was used to determine the PCB concentrations of the sludge initially and also throughout the experiment. Results and discussion of the bacterial treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls are presented.

  1. Inputs of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Animal nutrition constitutes an important issue for the animal production industry. Products intended for animal feed may contain undesirable substances which could endanger animal health or, because of their presence in livestock products, human health or the environment. In this sense, several incidents related with the presence of persistent organic pollutants, particularly with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have happen in food and feed additives. Animal feed and feed components are challenging matrices for the determination of residues and contaminants. The variability of these matrices is enormous. It ranges from relatively simple ones like those based on wheat to all kinds of by-products from agro and food industry, such as cereal oils. Firstly, this article reviews and addresses the extraction efficiency of ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and focused ultrasonic solvent extraction (FUSE) for determining selected PCBs in animal feed and ingredients. Detection of these pollutants was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electron capture detection (ECD); tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used as confirmatory technique. Recoveries ranged from 70% to 98% by UASE and from 75% to 106% by FUSE with estimated quantification limits between 0.11 and 0.3 μg/kg in feeds and ingredients and between 0.2 and 0.75 μg/kg in fats. Once the method was optimised, it was applied to 18 feed samples as well as 16 ingredients. PCBs were detected in almost all the selected samples. As expected, the samples of animal origin as shell powder and fish oil showed the highest concentrations of 56 and 29 ng/g, which are equivalent to toxicological concentrations of 123 and 18 ng WHO-TEQDL-PCBs/kg, respectively. Feeds and ingredients from vegetable origin ranged from non-detected to 7.1 μg/kg. PCB 77 and 169 were the discriminant congeners in the selected samples of feed and ingredients. Samples showed that the pattern of PCBs depends on the sources of

  2. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  3. Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Kateley, John R.; Bazzell, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02–30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD. Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does

  4. Immunological studies in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Kateley, J R; Bazzell, S J

    1978-04-01

    The intactness of the immune system in cattle exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) has been investigated by using several immunoassays. Eighty-seven animals have been studied, 35 control animals (not exposed to PBBs) and 52 animals exposed to PBBs (0.02-30 ppm/g fat equivalent). The immunoassays included a complete blood count, identification of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte subpopulations, serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA), the in vitro response to lymphocytes to phytolectins (PHA, Con A, PWM), the antibody response to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), the cell-mediated response to PPD, and determination of autoantibodies and/or immunosuppressive serum factors. For control and PBB-exposed cattle, there was no statistical difference between the number of circulating erythrocytes or leukocytes, the hematocrit, or hemoglobin content; the percentage or number of T and B lymphocytes; the isotope incorporation index (DNA synthesis) of lymphocytes in response to mitogens; the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, or IgA; the mean peak titer to KLH; or in vivo or in vitro immune response to PPD.Additional evaluation of cattle with tissue levels of PBB greater than 3 ppm/g tissue for hematological and immunological parameters revealed no statistical difference from control animals. Other experiments were performed to evaluate serum from cattle exposed to PBBs for autoantibodies to smooth muscle, mitochondrial or nuclear antigens. No evidence for autoantibodies was observed. Further studies were done to examine the cytotoxic and/or immunosuppressive activity of sera from PBB-exposed animals. In these studies, the blastogenic response of lymphocytes from control cattle and humans were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum from animals exposed to PBBs (> 3 ppm/g tissue). No evidence for either a cytotoxic or an immunosuppressive influence of such sera was demonstrable. Our studies indicate that PBB, at the levels studied, does not

  5. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  6. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  7. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  8. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) transport from primary sources to building materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  9. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  10. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  11. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  12. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  13. Biphenyl Phytoalexin in Sorbus pohuashanensis Suspension Cell Induced by Yeast Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Kang, Chuanzhi; Xiao, Wenjuan; Lv, Chaogeng; Wang, Sheng; Tang, Jinfu; Guo, Lanping

    2016-01-01

    Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins de novo synthesized in plants in response to pathogen attack. These compounds are found in Maloideae, a subfamily of the Rosaceae. The anti-microbial activities of biphenyls have been reported in a number of studies and they appear to represent an important defense strategy against pathogens common in the Maloideae, such as species in Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, and Chaenomeles. Here, cell suspension cultures of Sorbus pohuashanensis were established to study biphenyl phytoalexins formation after yeast extract (YE) treatment. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) LC-MS/MS was applied to determine the time course of these biphenyl biomarkers accumulation in YE-treated S. pohuashanensis suspension cells. The results of quantitative analyses show the content of Noraucuparin, 2'-Hydroxyaucuparin, and their glycosides initially increased, then decreased over time. The Noraucuparin content reached its highest (225.76 μg·g(-1)) at 18 h after treatment, 6 hours earlier than that of Noraucuparin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. The content of 2'-Hydroxyaucuparin reached its highest (422.75 μg·g(-1)) at 30 h after treatment, also earlier than that of its glycoside. The understanding of phytoalexin metabolism in this study may provide a basis for improving Maloideae resistance to pathogens. PMID:27649118

  14. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in some U.S. schools are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by un...

  15. Polybrominated biphenyls: Metabolism and toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the adverse health effects resulting from polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) exposure, including liver and kidney function, neurological effects, and immune response. The biochemistry and mechanism of PBB toxicity in man and animals are examined. (Contains a minimum of 93 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  17. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  18. POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYL EXPOSURE AND BENIGN BREAST DISEASE IN A COHORT OF US WOMEN. (R825300)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PURPOSE: We examined the relation between serum polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) levels and the risk of benign breast disease in a cohort of Michigan women unintentionally exposed to PBBs in 1973 and interviewed in 1997.

    METHODS: We used extend...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Acidovorax sp. Strain KKS102, a Polychlorinated-Biphenyl Degrader

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Fumito; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Acidovorax sp. strain KKS102, a polychlorinated-biphenyl-degrading strain isolated from a soil sample in Tokyo. The genome contains a single circular 5,196,935-bp chromosome and no plasmids. PMID:23209225

  20. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  2. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  3. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  4. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  5. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  6. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  7. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.; Leatherland, J.F.; Woo, P.T.K.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  8. ENANTIOSELECTIVE REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN LAKE SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The transformation rates and enantiomeric ratios of two chiral poylchlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (2,2',3,4',5',6-HCB) and 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6-octachlorobiphenyl (2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6-OCB), were determined in anaerobic lake sediment microcosms (25oC)...

  9. Biotransformation of biphenyl by Paecilomyces lilacinus and characterization of ring cleavage products.

    PubMed

    Gesell, M; Hammer, E; Specht, M; Francke, W; Schauer, F

    2001-04-01

    We examined the pathway by which the fungicide biphenyl is metabolized in the imperfect fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus. The initial oxidation yielded the three monohydroxylated biphenyls. Further hydroxylation occurred on the first and the second aromatic ring systems, resulting in the formation of five di- and trihydroxylated metabolites. The fungus could cleave the aromatic structures, resulting in the transformation of biphenyl via ortho-substituted dihydroxybiphenyl to six-ring fission products. All compounds were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-4-phenylmuconic acid and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-muconic acid, which were produced from 3,4-dihydroxybiphenyl and further transformed to the corresponding lactones 4-phenyl-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid, which accumulated in large amounts. Two additional ring cleavage products were identified as (5-oxo-3-phenyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)-acetic acid and [5-oxo-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl]-acetic acid. We found that P. lilacinus has a high transformation capacity for biphenyl, which could explain this organism's tolerance to this fungicide.

  10. STUDIES ON ADSORPTION OF 2-CHLORO BIPHENYL ON SEDIMENTS AND SEDIMENT COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, are a family of 209 structurally related chemical compounds (congeners), consisting of two benzene rings and 1 to 10 chlorine atoms. They range from light, oily fluids to heavier, greasy or waxy substances. PCBs were discovered more than 100 ye...

  11. Absolute configurations and CD spectra of axially chiral biphenyls prepared in a facile manner by crystallization-induced configuration transformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Cheng, Senxiang; Chen, Rongfeng; Chang, Junbiao

    2010-08-01

    Axially chiral biphenyls such as (M,S)-3k have been conveniently obtained by crystallization of their diastereomeric mixtures, which were synthesized from racemic 4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-bis(methylenedioxy)-2-carboxylester-2'-carboxyl-biphenyls 4 and chiral amino alcohols (R)-alaninol, (S)-alaninol, (S)-valinol, and (S)-phenylalaninol. A crystallization-induced configuration transformation of the biphenyls was thus achieved. It was found that amide formation of an (S)-valinol or (S)-phenylalaninol at the 2'-position of the biphenyl usually induced the deposition of crystals with the (M)-configuration from ethanol in yields higher than 50%. The absolute configurations (ACs) of two crystalline biphenyls have been determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The ACs of nine biphenyls have been assigned based on their CD spectra. Further, stability investigation of these axially chiral biphenyls revealed that the ACs could revert upon redissolution. The energy barrier to epimerization between (P,R)-3b and (M,R)-3b was measured as DeltaG(#) = 21.45 kcal/mol and the half-life in ethanol at 301 K was 17.1 h. PMID:20623583

  12. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  13. OCCURRENCE OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, POLYBROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYBROMINATED DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the present study is to determine the concentrations and compositions of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as contaminants in the commercial polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) mixt...

  14. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  15. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  16. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  17. ACCUMULATION OF THE PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS METHYLMERCURY OR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN IN VITRO MODELS OF RAT NEURONAL TISSUE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are known toxicants which persist in the environment and accumulate in tissue. Studies to identify mechanisms of action associated with these toxicants have largely been conducted in vitro, and dosimetry comparisons acro...

  18. Spatial distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinlian; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ruijie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    The residual level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined in the surface sediments collected from the Qinzhou Bay, Beibu Gulf of Southern China. The results showed that the total concentration of PCBs ranged from 1.62 to 62.63 ng/g dry wt, with a mean of 9.87 ng/g dry wt. Generally, the average PCBs concentrations in three sample groups descended in this order: inner bay > outer bay > rivers. On a mean level, with respect to the PCBs homologue profiles, the analysis suggested that tetrachlorinated biphenyls was the most abundant PCB, followed by hexachlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorinated biphenyls. PCB profiles varied according to the nature of the site and its proximity to the sources. PCA with multiple linear regression analysis indicated that Aroclor products contributed to the PCBs in Qinzhou Bay. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCBs in sediments of Qinzhou Bay posed no significant risk to human health.

  19. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  1. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  2. On the roughening transition of biphenyl: Transition of faceted to non-faceted growth of biphenyl for growth from different organic solvents and the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Human, H. J.; Van Der Eerden, J. P.; Jetten, L. A. M. J.; Odekerken, J. G. M.

    1981-03-01

    In this paper the morphology of biphenyl will be derived, using the periodic bond chain PBC theory. From this derivation, the surface anisotropy factors ɛ hkl for the different faces are obtained. Next, the α hkl factors of the different F faces ( hkl) for growth from different organic solvents and the melt will be calculated using a new recipe. Then the critical values α Rhkl of the α hkl factors of the different faces will be calculated. Finally the equipment used for all the experiments will be described and the results will be discussed in relation to the calculated α hkl factors and the critical values α Rhkl of the α hkl factors.

  3. Torsion sensitivity in NMR of aligned molecules: study on various substituted biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Shahkhatuni, Aleksan G; Shahkhatuni, Astghik A; Panosyan, Henry A

    2008-02-01

    To estimate the torsion sensitivity of dipolar coupling, biphenylic molecules were chosen as probes due to their relatively simple structure and the surprisingly high ambiguity of the only flexible parameter-the interring torsion angle. Solution structures of 4,4'-dibromobiphenyl and 4,4'-diiodobiphenyl are reported for the first time in two liquid crystals I52 and ZLI 1695. The comparison of NMR structures of various para-substituted biphenyls (BPs), calculated by the additive potential maximum entropy (APME) approach, shows that the small spread of torsion angle values in case of different solvents and para-substituents is in good agreement with theoretical expectations from hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods. Furthermore, the real structural changes of interring torsion and the prevalence of solvent effects over para-halosubstitution can be correctly revealed from these small fluctuations. PMID:18095265

  4. [Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil by leguminosae-gramineae intercropping: a field trial].

    PubMed

    Tu, Chen; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong-Ming; Pan, Cheng; Sun, Xiang-Hui; Li, Zhen-Gao

    2010-12-01

    Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soil by leguminosae (alfalfa) and gramineae (ryegrass and tall fescue) was studied in a field trial. All planted treatments had significantly higher PCBs removal efficiency compared with those of unplanted control after 270 days of in-situ phytoremediation. Alfalfa monoculture received the highest removal efficiency of soil PCBs by 59.6%. Analysis of PCBs congeners composition showed that the percentage of di-chlorinated biphenyl decreased in all planted treatments. Alfalfa produced the maximum biomass among the 3 plants. Total PCBs concentration in alfalfa roots reached 355.1 microg/kg, which was significantly higher than those in ryegrass and tall fescue. The phytoextraction efficiency of different treatment was in order of alfalfa > alfalfa-ryegrass-tall fescue > alfalfa-ryegrass > ryegrass > alfalfa-tall fescue > tall fescue. The results suggest that alfalfa may be an ideal candidate for the phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil. PMID:21360900

  5. Remarkably diastereoselective synthesis of a chiral biphenyl diphosphine ligand and its application in asymmetric hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liqin; Wu, Jing; Chan, Shusun; Au-Yeung, Terry T.-L.; Ji, Jian-Xin; Guo, Rongwei; Pai, Cheng-Chao; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Li, Xingshu; Fan, Qing-Hua; Chan, Albert S. C.

    2004-01-01

    Essentially complete atropdiastereoselectivity was realized in the preparation of biaryl diphosphine dioxide by asymmetric intramolecular Ullmann coupling and oxidative coupling with central-to-axial chirality transfer. A bridged C2-symmetric biphenyl phosphine ligand possessing additional chiral centers on the linking unit of the biphenyl groups was synthesized. No resolution step was required for the preparation of the enantiomerically pure chiral ligand. These findings offer a general and practical tool for the development of previously uninvestigated atropdiastereomeric biaryl phosphine ligands. The diphosphine ligand was found to be highly effective in the asymmetric hydrogenation of α- and β-ketoesters, 2-(6′-methoxy-2′-naphthyl)propenoic acid, β-(acylamino)acrylates, and enol acetates. PMID:15067137

  6. Luminescent properties and photostability of thin films of N,N'-phenyl-substituted biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplanova, Zh. D.; Mikhailovskii, Yu. K.; Agabekov, V. E.; Galinovskii, N. A.; Gracheva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    We have studied the luminescent properties and morphology of thin films, formed by deposition from solutions (wet) and thermal vacuum deposition (TVD), of 4,4'- bis[(E)-2-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-1,1'-biphenyl (PAB-1) and its 2-oxyhexyl derivative (PAB-2). We have established that the presence of an oxyhexyl side substituent in the structure of N,N'-phenyl-substituted biphenyl promotes quenching of the photoluminescence of the TVD film based on it when stored in air. We show that introducing PAB-2 into a polymer matrix (polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, polycyclohexadiene) significantly improves the stability of such composite films when exposed to UV light and to oxygen in the air. We use electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy to establish that these films have an amorphous structure that remains resistant to degradation during photooxidative aging.

  7. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.; Evans, B.S.; Reeves, M.E.

    1996-05-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation of fluorinated biphenyl ether pro-drug scaffolds employing the chemical-microbial approach.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Alex S; Mikulski, Lena; Palmer-Brown, William; Murphy, Cormac D; Sandford, Graham

    2016-05-01

    Incorporation of fluorine in a drug can dramatically affect its metabolism and methods to assess the effect of fluorine substitution on drug metabolism are required for effective drug design. Employing a previously developed chemical-microbial method the metabolism of a series of fluorinated biphenyl ethers was determined. The substrates were synthesized via Ullmann-type condensation reactions between bromotoluene and fluorophenol. The ethers were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, which oxidises xenobiotics in an analogous fashion to mammals, generating a number of hydroxylated biphenyl ethers and acids. The propensity of the fluorinated ring to be hydroxylated depended upon the position of the fluorine atom, and the oxidation of the methyl group was observed when it was meta to the oxygen. The experiments demonstrate the applicability of the method to rapidly determine the effect of fluorine substitution on CYP-catalysed biotransformation of pro-drug molecules.

  9. Modulating Inhibitors of Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis via Sulfation: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sulfates as Models1

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Fabian A.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Robertson, Larry W.; Duffel, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules that bind with high affinity to thyroxine (T4) binding sites on transthyretin (TTR) kinetically stabilize the protein’s tetrameric structure, thereby efficiently decreasing the rate of tetramer dissociation in TTR related amyloidoses. Current research efforts aim to optimize the amyloid inhibiting properties of known inhibitors, such as derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans and benzooxazoles, by chemical modification. In order to test the hypothesis that sulfate group substituents can improve the efficiencies of such inhibitors, we evaluated the potential of six polychlorinated biphenyl sulfates to inhibit TTR amyloid fibril formation in vitro. In addition, we determined their binding orientations and molecular interactions within the T4 binding site by molecular docking simulations. Utilizing this combined experimental and computational approach, we demonstrated that sulfation significantly improves the amyloid inhibiting properties as compared to both parent and hydroxylated PCBs. Importantly, several PCB sulfates were of equal or higher potency than some of the most effective previously described inhibitors. PMID:25595224

  10. Permissivity of the biphenyl-specific aerobic bacterial metabolic pathway towards analogues with various steric requirements.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; Standfuß-Gabisch, Christine; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Reichelt, Joachim; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases do not possess a very high substrate specificity. To gain more insight into this phenomenon, we examined two powerful biphenyl dioxygenases, the well-known wild-type enzyme from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphA-LB400) and a hybrid enzyme, based on a dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. B4-Magdeburg (BphA-B4h), for their abilities to dioxygenate a selection of eight biphenyl analogues in which the second aromatic ring was replaced by aliphatic as well as aliphatic/aromatic moieties, reflecting a variety of steric requirements. Interestingly, both enzymes were able to catalyse transformation of almost all of these compounds. While the products formed were identical, major differences were observed in transformation rates. In most cases, BphA-B4h proved to be a significantly more powerful catalyst than BphA-LB400. NMR characterization of the reaction products showed that the metabolite obtained from biphenylene underwent angular dioxygenation, whereas all other compounds were subject to lateral dioxygenation at ortho and meta carbons. Subsequent growth studies revealed that both dioxygenase source strains were able to utilize several of the biphenyl analogues as sole sources of carbon and energy. Therefore, prototype BphBCD enzymes of the biphenyl degradative pathway were examined for their ability to further catabolize the lateral dioxygenation products. All of the ortho- and meta-hydroxylated compounds were converted to acids, showing that this pathway is quite permissive, enabling catalysis of the turnover of a fairly wide variety of metabolites. PMID:26297047

  11. Polybrominated biphenyl exposure and human cancer: Report of a case and public health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is a human case report of documented exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), with serial PBB determinations, obtained over an 11 year period, and signs and symptoms characteristic of PBB exposure, culminating in cancer. No epidemiological studies of PBB and cancer are available, but structure-activity relationships and animal studies were predictive of malignancy. The patient did not have the risk factors of alcoholism or cigarette smoking.

  12. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  13. [Polymorphism of the bphA genes in bacteria destructing biphenyl/chlorinated biphenils].

    PubMed

    Shumkova, E S; Egorova, D O; Boronnikova, S V; Plotnikova, E G

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BDO) is a key enzyme that determines the range of PCBs oxidized by a bacterial strain. BDO subunit α (BphA1) plays an essential role in substrate recognition and binding. The genes for dioxygenases that hydroxylate aromatic rings were screened and analyzed phylogenetically. Genes found in biphenyl-oxidizing Rhodococcus erythropolis strains G12a, B7b, and B106a proved to be similar to the published nucleotide sequences of the Rhodococcus sp. HA99 and R04 and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F199 bphA1 genes, which code for the α-subunits that do not belong to the biphenyl/toluene dioxygenase (B/TDO) family. PCB-destructing R. ruber P25 was found to possess a unique bphA1 gene, which clusters together with the phenylpropionate dioxygenase (PPDO) α-subunits of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 and Frankia sp. EuI1c. The deduced amino acid sequences of the genes were analyzed. The amino acids of the BDO active site in R. wratislaviensis P1, P12, P13, and P20 (bphA1 genes of the B/TDO family) were identical to those of the active PCB degrader R. jostii RHA1. The Rhodococcus strains in question were shown to be active toward both orthoand parachlorinated ring of 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl. The α-subunit amino acids responsible for the substrate specificity of the enzyme in Pseudomonas sp. S9, S13, S210, S211, and S212 (B/TDO family) were the same as in P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707. The Pseudomonas strains were active toward the para-chlorinated ring of 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl. The results of screening bacterial strains for bphA1 can be used to identify the biotechnologically promising PCB destructors. PMID:26299864

  14. A stress tensor and QTAIM perspective on the substituent effects of biphenyl subjected to torsion.

    PubMed

    Jiajun, D; Maza, J R; Xu, Y; Xu, T; Momen, R; Kirk, S R; Jenkins, S

    2016-10-30

    The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) defines quantities in 3D space that can be easily obtained from routine quantum chemical calculations. The present investigation shows that local properties can be related quantitatively to measures traditionally connected to experimental data, such as Hammett constants. We consider the specific case of substituted biphenyl to quantify the effects of a torsion φ, 0.0° ≤ φ ≤ 180.0°, of the C-C bond linking the two phenyl rings for C12 H9 -x, where x = N(CH3 )2 , NH2 , CH3 , CHO, CN, NO2, on the entire molecule. QTAIM interpreted Hammett constants, aΔH(rb ) are introduced and constructed using the difference between the H(rb ) value of C12 H9 -x and the C12 H9 -H, biphenyl which is the reference molecule, with a constant of proportionality a. This investigation unexpectedly yields very good or good agreement for the x groups with the Hammett para-, meta-, and ortho-substituent constants and is checked against para-substituted benzene. We then proceed to present the interpreted substituent constants of seven new biphenyl substituent groups, where tabulated Hammett substituent constant values are not available; y = SiH3 , ZnCl, COOCH3 , SO2 NH2 , SO2 OH, COCl, CB3 . Consistency is found for the QTAIM interpreted biphenyl substituent constants of the seven new groups y independently using the stress tensor polarizability Pσ . In addition, a selection of future applications is discussed that highlight the usefulness of this approach. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27546220

  15. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and environmental biotransformation products on aquatic nitrification.

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G S; Shiaris, M P; Beck, W; Held, S

    1982-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on nitrification were examined for pure cultures and natural reservoir samples. PCBs at concentrations greater than 10 microgram liter-1 inhibited nitrification, principally ammonium oxidation, in one of two natural reservoir environments. However, this inhibition could not be reproduced in pure high-cell-density cultures or in previously contaminated reservoir waters. A PCB environmental biotransformation product, p-chlorophenylglyoxylic acid, and p-chloromandelic acid had no effect on nitrification. PMID:6805434

  16. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  17. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  18. Permissivity of the biphenyl-specific aerobic bacterial metabolic pathway towards analogues with various steric requirements.

    PubMed

    Overwin, Heike; Standfuß-Gabisch, Christine; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Reichelt, Joachim; Wray, Victor; Hofer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that aryl-hydroxylating dioxygenases do not possess a very high substrate specificity. To gain more insight into this phenomenon, we examined two powerful biphenyl dioxygenases, the well-known wild-type enzyme from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphA-LB400) and a hybrid enzyme, based on a dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. B4-Magdeburg (BphA-B4h), for their abilities to dioxygenate a selection of eight biphenyl analogues in which the second aromatic ring was replaced by aliphatic as well as aliphatic/aromatic moieties, reflecting a variety of steric requirements. Interestingly, both enzymes were able to catalyse transformation of almost all of these compounds. While the products formed were identical, major differences were observed in transformation rates. In most cases, BphA-B4h proved to be a significantly more powerful catalyst than BphA-LB400. NMR characterization of the reaction products showed that the metabolite obtained from biphenylene underwent angular dioxygenation, whereas all other compounds were subject to lateral dioxygenation at ortho and meta carbons. Subsequent growth studies revealed that both dioxygenase source strains were able to utilize several of the biphenyl analogues as sole sources of carbon and energy. Therefore, prototype BphBCD enzymes of the biphenyl degradative pathway were examined for their ability to further catabolize the lateral dioxygenation products. All of the ortho- and meta-hydroxylated compounds were converted to acids, showing that this pathway is quite permissive, enabling catalysis of the turnover of a fairly wide variety of metabolites.

  19. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from capacitors and pressure-sensitive paper by vacuum thermal recycling.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Hiroshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Kanbe, Hiromi; Melber, Albrecht; Bruckamp, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new vacuum thermal recycling (VTR) method for treating discarded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated capacitors and pressure-sensitive paper. Based on results demonstrating an exceptionally high PCB separation efficiency and recovery ratio from capacitors containing high-concentration PCBs, i.e. > 99.9%, respectively, the presented VTR method is verified to effectively remove PCBs. In addition, associated safety aspects of the employed procedure were confirmed.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants. PMID:25697952

  2. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  3. A New Biphenyl Neolignan from Leaves of Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss.

    PubMed Central

    Xin-Jia, Yan; Wei, Liu; Ying, Zhao; Ning, Chen; Ying, Xu; Jian, Wu; Tan, Wang; Yue, Li; Zheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Results: One new stereoisomer of biphenylneolignan with four known compounds was isolated from the leaves of Patrinia villosa Juss. Methods: The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 2,6,2’,6’-tetramethoxy-4,4’-bis (1,2-trans-2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl) biphenyl (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. The four known compounds were identified as 2,6,2’,6’-tetramethoxy-4,4’-bis(1,2-cis-2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)biphenyl (2), 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (3), luteolin (4) and quercetin(5) by comparison of their spectral data with the reported data, respectively. Conclusions: Compound 1 is a new biphenylneolignan, compound 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from the plant. SUMMARY One new stereoisomer of biphenylneolignan named 2,6,2’,6’-tetramethoxy-4,4’-bis (1,2-trans-2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl) biphenyl with four known compounds was isolated from the leaves of Patrinia villosa Juss. PMID:27019553

  4. Laboratory and human studies on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    Similar qualitative toxic effects have been observed in animals for a class of halogenated aromatic compounds, which include the halogenated biphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans. All of these compounds are lipid soluble and persist in the environment and in mammals. The polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are the most persistent. They are predominantly stored in fatty tissue; they pass the placenta and are excreted in milk. Some isomers of the halogenated biphenyls are more toxic than others. With some exceptions, the more toxic isomers are retained longer in tissues and are also the carcinogenic components of the mixture. Most of these chemicals seem to be promoters of carcinogenesis in animals rather than initiators. An array of toxic effects in laboratory animals has been ascribed to these compounds and numerous reviews summarizing this information are available. Less information is available on the human health effects of environmental and occupational exposure. Results of recent studies in animals to further elucidate the effects of these chemicals are presented, and results from some human studies conducted in the United States are reviewed. 77 references.

  5. Benzanilide–Biphenyl Replacement: A Bioisosteric Approach to Quinoline Carboxamide-Type ABCG2 Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently reported compounds such as UR-COP78 (6) are among the most potent and selective ABCG2 modulators known so far but are prone to rapid enzymatic cleavage at the central benzanilide moiety. In search for more stable analogues, according to a bioisosteric approach, a series of N-(biphenyl-3-yl)quinoline carboxamides was prepared by solid phase and solution phase synthesis. The biphenyl moiety was constructed by Suzuki coupling. Inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 was determined in a calcein-AM and a Hoechst 33342 microplate assay, respectively. Most synthesized compounds selectively inhibited the ABCG2 transporter at submicromolar concentrations with a maximal inhibitory effect (Imax) over 90% (e.g., UR-COP228 (22a), IC50 591 nM, Imax 109%; UR-COP258 (31), IC50 544 nM, Imax 112%), though with lower potency and selectivity than 6. The biphenyl analogues are considerably more stable and demonstrate that the benzanilide core is not a crucial structural feature of quinoline carboxamide-type ABCG2 modulators. PMID:24900683

  6. Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, H L; Sayler, G S

    1983-01-01

    Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were 1.1, 1.6, and 2.0 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Monobrominated biphenyls, including 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobiphenyl, were degraded at rates of 2.3, 4.2, and 1.4 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Metabolites, including halogenated benzoates, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. By using chlorophenyl ring-labeled monochlorobiphenyls as substrates, total mineralization (defined as CO2 production from the chlorophenyl ring) was observed for 4-chlorobiphenyl but not for 2-chlorobiphenyl. Rates of total mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl (at 39 to 385 micrograms ml-1 levels) were dependent on substrate concentration, whereas variation of cell number in the range of 10(5) to 10(7) cells ml-1 had no significant effects. Simulated sunlight enhanced the rate of mineralization by ca. 400%. PMID:6639021

  7. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate duringmore » the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.« less

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  9. Toxicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®).

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Renu; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) are toxic contaminants which are produced in the environment by biological or abiotic oxidation of PCBs. The toxicity of a suite of 23 mono-hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs and 12 parent PCBs was determined using the bacterial bioluminescent assay Microtox(®). All HO-PCBs tested exhibited higher toxicity than the corresponding parent PCB, with effect concentration 50 % (EC50) ranging from 0.07 to 133 mg L(-1). The highest toxicities were recorded with 4-hydroxylated derivatives of di-chlorinated biphenyls (EC50 = 0.07-0.36 mg L(-1)) and 2-hydroxylated derivatives of tri-chlorinated biphenyls carrying a chlorine substituent on the phenolic ring (EC50 = 0.34-0.48 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of HO-PCBs generally decreased when the degree of chlorination increased. Consistently with this observation, a significant positive correlation was measured between toxicity (measured by EC50) and octanol-water partition coefficient (pK ow) for the HO-PCBs under study (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.74), which may be explained by the lower solubility and bioavailability generally associated with higher hydrophobicity. This study is the first one which assessed the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and HO-PCBs using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®), showing an inverse correlation between toxicity and hydrophobicity. PMID:27411941

  10. Nano/bio treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls with evaluation of comparative toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Thao Thanh; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Nguyen, Hoang Khanh; Jeon, Jong -Rok; Chang, Yoon -Seok

    2015-02-03

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 in soils and sediments is a major concern because of its toxicity and presence at high concentrations. In this study, we developed an integrated remediation system for PCBs using chemical catalysis and biodegradation. The dechlorination of Aroclor 1248 was achieved by treatment with bimetallic nanoparticles Pd/nFe under anoxic conditions. Among the 32 PCB congeners of Aroclor 1248 examined, our process dechlorinated 99%, 92%, 84%, and 28% of tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated biphenyls, respectively. The resulting biphenyl was biodegraded rapidly by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Benzoic acid was detected as an intermediate during the biodegradation process. The toxicity of the residual PCBs after nano-bio treatment was evaluated in terms of toxic equivalent values which decreased from 33.8 × 10-5 μg g-1 to 9.5 × 10-5 μg g-1. The residual PCBs also had low cytotoxicity toward Escherichia coli as demonstrated by lower reactive oxygen species levels, lower glutathione peroxidase activity, and a reduced number of dead bacteria.

  11. Effect of byproducts from the ozonation of pyrene: biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarbaldehyde and biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid on gap junction intercellular communication and neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Luster-Teasley, Stephanie L; Ganey, Patricia E; DiOrio, Mary; Ward, Joseph S; Maleczka, Robert E; Trosko, James E; Masten, Susan J

    2005-03-01

    In this study, biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarbaldehyde, an initial byproduct formed from the ozonation of pyrene, and biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid, a subsequent pyrene ozonation byproduct, were evaluated using two toxicology assays to compare the toxicity of ozonation byproducts with that of the parent compound. The first assay measured the potential for the compounds to block gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) using the scrape loading/dye transfer technique in normal WB-344 rat liver epithelial cells. The second assay evaluated the ability of the compounds to affect neutrophil function by measuring the production of superoxide in a human cell line (HL-60). Pyrene significantly blocked intercellular communication (f = 0.2-0.5) at 40 microM and complete inhibition of communication (f < 0.2) occurred at 50 microM. Gap junctional intercellular communication in cells exposed to biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarbaldehyde reached f < 0.5 at a concentration of 15 microM. At concentrations greater than 20 microM, biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarbaldehyde was cytotoxic and the inhibition of GJIC was caused by cell death. Biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid was neither cytotoxic nor inhibitory to GJIC at the concentrations tested (10-500 microM). Exposure to biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarbaldehyde resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated O2- production. Neither exposure to pyrene nor biphenyl-2,2',6,6'-tetracarboxylic acid caused a significant toxic effect on neutrophil function.

  12. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  13. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Thanh My; Pino Rodriguez, Nancy Johanna; Hijri, Mohamed; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation, we determined the concentration of flavanone at

  14. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A

    PubMed Central

    Hijri, Mohamed; Sylvestre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation, we determined the concentration of flavanone at

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: correlation of sensory and motor nerve conduction, neurologic symptoms, and blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, quaterphenyls, and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.C.; Tang, S.Y.; Miyata, H.; Kashimoto, T.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, K.J.; Tung, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    In 1979 in Taiwan, more than 2000 people were poisoned with rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). One hundred ten patients were studied within one year of the exposure. The blood PCB levels were 39.3 +/- 16.6 ppb. The blood levels of the PCB derivatives, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQ) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), were 8.6 +/- 4.8 and 0.076 +/- 0.038 ppb, respectively. Both the sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the patients were significantly lower than the control. Abnormal slowing of sensory NCV was found in 43.6% and abnormal slowing of motor NCV was seen in 21.8%. Patients who had higher PCQ blood levels has significantly slower median nerve sensory NCV than those with lower PCQ levels. Patients with higher PCB blood levels had significantly slower peroneal nerve motor NCV than those with lower PCB levels.

  16. Transcriptomic Assessment of Isozymes in the Biphenyl Pathway of Rhodococcus sp. Strain RHA1†

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Edmilson R.; Hara, Hirofumi; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Davies, Julian E.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Mohn, William W.

    2006-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 grows on a broad range of aromatic compounds and vigorously degrades polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous work identified RHA1 genes encoding multiple isozymes for most of the seven steps of the biphenyl (BPH) pathway, provided evidence for coexpression of some of these isozymes, and indicated the involvement of some of these enzymes in the degradation of BPH, ethylbenzene (ETB), and PCBs. To investigate the expression of these isozymes and better understand how they contribute to the robust degradative capacity of RHA1, we comprehensively analyzed the 9.7-Mb genome of RHA1 for BPH pathway genes and characterized the transcriptome of RHA1 growing on benzoate (BEN), BPH, and ETB. Sequence analyses revealed 54 potential BPH pathway genes, including 28 not previously reported. Transcriptomic analysis with a DNA microarray containing 70-mer probes for 8,213 RHA1 genes revealed a suite of 320 genes of diverse functions that were upregulated during growth both on BPH and on ETB, relative to growth on the control substrate, pyruvate. By contrast, only 65 genes were upregulated during growth on BEN. Quantitative PCR assays confirmed microarray results for selected genes and indicated that some of the catabolic genes were upregulated over 10,000-fold. Our analysis suggests that up to 22 enzymes, including 8 newly identified ones, may function in the BPH pathway of RHA1. The relative expression levels of catabolic genes did not differ for BPH and ETB, suggesting a common regulatory mechanism. This study delineated a suite of catabolic enzymes for biphenyl and alkyl-benzenes in RHA1, which is larger than previously recognized and which may serve as a model for catabolism in other environmentally important bacteria having large genomes. PMID:16957245

  17. Weakly faceted cellular patterns versus growth-induced plastic deformation in thin-sample directional solidification of monoclinic biphenyl.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Akamatsu, Silvère; Faivre, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    We present an experimental study of thin-sample directional solidification (T-DS) in impure biphenyl. The platelike growth shape of the monoclinic biphenyl crystals includes two low-mobility (001) facets and four high-mobility {110} facets. Upon T-DS, biphenyl plates oriented with (001) facets parallel to the sample plane can exhibit either a strong growth-induced plastic deformation (GID), or deformation-free weakly faceted (WF) growth patterns. We determine the respective conditions of appearance of these phenomena. GID is shown to be a long-range thermal-stress effect, which disappears when the growth front has a cellular structure. An early triggering of the cellular instability allowed us to avoid GID and study the dynamics of WF patterns as a function of the orientation of the crystal.

  18. Nonrespiratory metabolic function and morphology of lung following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls in rats

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.M.; Roth, R.A.; Wallace, K.B.; Ross, L.M.; Hook, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) resulted in increased activity of microsomal arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase in rat lung. Clearance of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and angiotensin I by perfused lungs was decreased by PBBs. However, PBBs had no effect on the activity of epoxide hydrolase, monoamine oxidase, or angiotensin-converting enzyme in lung. The only hisotpathlogic change detected in lungs from PBB-treated rats was an increase in alveolar type II cell lamellar bodies. Selective accumulation of certain PBB congeners by lung was not observed in this investigation.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in plant foliage: translocation or volatilization from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Gaggi, C.

    1985-11-01

    Physical properties such as water solubility, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constant suggest that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) can easily reach the troposphere as vapor. The potential of plant foliar tissues to take up PCB's as vapor has probably been underrated in some of the previous works. Nevertheless recently it was reported that the level of PCB's found in the foliage is mainly due to vapor transport from the soil, rather than to translocation through the plant. This research has been planned to assess the influence of translocation on the concentration of PCB's in the foliage of different plant species.

  20. Rapid separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from DDT and its analogues on silica gel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Diane; Reinert, Robert E.

    1971-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), which are used in industry worldwide (i), have been found as residues in numerous wildlife species (2-7). Because of the similarity in chemical characteristics, PCB compounds interfere with gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (8). In the present study, we sought a rapid microanalytical procedure for separation of PCB's from DDT and its analogues before analysis with GLC. A small silica gel column was found to be suitable for removing two of the Aroclor series of PCB's (1254 and 1260) from DDT and its analogues.

  1. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  2. Chiral separation of polychlorinated biphenyls by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium cholate.

    PubMed

    Crego, A L; Gonzalez, M J; Marina, M L

    1998-09-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with one kind of bile salt (sodium cholate) was used to separate three chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; 84, 95, and 176), each one in its two enantiomers. Sodium cholate was used as chiral surfactant in a 2-(N-cyclohexylamino) ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) buffer under alkaline (pH 10) conditions containing urea (2 M). The influence of bile salt concentration on the efficiency and the resolution between the two enantiomers of PCBs 84 and 95 was established. The chiral separation of three PCBs was successfully achieved in less than 30 min (approximately 23 min for PCB 176 and approximately 29 min for PCBs 84 and 95).

  3. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  4. Phase polymorphism and electro-optical properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal containing the biphenyl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalewski, Sławomir; Ossowska-Chruściel, Mirosława D.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we present results concerning phase transitions and physical properties of the ferroelectric phase of the compound (S)-4-(1-methylheptyloxy)biphenyl-4'-(heptyloxy phenyl)-4-carboxylate (MHOBOPO7). The compound has the following phases: smectic ferroelectric C (SmC*), chiral nematic N*, and two defected phases, TGBC and blue phase. The mesomorphic properties were investigated by means of three complementary methods: differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light optical microscopy, and transmitted light intensity. The electro-optical measurements were carried out on an ordered sample in a middle electric field during very slow cooling from the nematic phase to the ferroelectric phase.

  5. Antifungal agents, Part 11. Biphenyl analogues of naftifine: synthesis and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Porretta, G C; Fioravanti, R; Biava, M; Artico, M; Villa, A; Simonetti, N

    1995-09-01

    A series of naftifine analogues having the biphenyl instead of the naphthyl moiety have been synthesized in a search devoted to study bioanalogues of clinically efficacious antifungal agents. The new derivatives were tested against Candida albicans by the direct contact method. They were also assayed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against some isolates of plant pathogenic fungi. Derivatives 8a, 8c, and 9a were found to be active against Candida albicans, derivative 5a was active against E. coli, a very resistant species to antimycotic agents, and derivatives 8a and 8b inhibited the plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani.

  6. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Germaine, Kieran J.; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ, to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). PMID:22205873

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72.

    PubMed

    Cromartie, E; Reichel, W L; Locke, L N; Belisle, A A; Kaiser, T E; Lamont, T G; Mulhern, B M; Prouty, R M; Swineford, D M

    1975-06-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  9. Electronic transport in biphenyl single-molecule junctions with carbon nanotubes electrodes: The role of molecular conformation and chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Brito Silva, C. A. Jr.; Granhen, E. R.; Silva, S. J. S. da; Leal, J. F. P.; Del Nero, J.; Pinheiro, F. A.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate, by means of ab initio calculations, electronic transport in molecular junctions composed of a biphenyl molecule attached to metallic carbon nanotubes. We find that the conductance is proportional to cos{sup 2} {theta}, with {theta} the angle between phenyl rings, when the Fermi level of the contacts lies within the frontier molecular orbitals energy gap. This result, which agrees with experiments in biphenyl junctions with nonorganic contacts, suggests that the cos{sup 2} {theta} law has a more general applicability, irrespective of the nature of the electrodes. We calculate the geometrical degree of chirality of the junction, which only depends on the atomic positions, and demonstrate that it is not only proportional to cos{sup 2} {theta} but also is strongly correlated with the current through the system. These results indicate that molecular conformation plays the preponderant role in determining transport properties of biphenyl-carbon nanotubes molecular junctions.

  10. An enthalpic basis of additivity in biphenyl hydroxamic acid ligands for stromelysin-1

    PubMed Central

    Wilfong, Erin M.; Du, Yu; Toone, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Fragment based drug discovery remains a successful tool for pharmaceutical lead discovery. Although based upon the principle of thermodynamic additivity, the underlying thermodynamic basis is poorly understood. A thermodynamic additivity analysis was performed using stromelysin-1 and a series of biphenyl hydroxamate ligands identified through fragment additivity. Our studies suggest that, in this instance, additivity arises from enthalpic effects, while interaction entropies are unfavorable; this thermodynamic behavior is masked by proton transfer. Evaluation of the changes in constant pressure heat capacities during binding suggest that solvent exclusion from the binding site does not account for the dramatic affinity enhancements observed. PMID:22985855

  11. Biodegradation of biphenyl and removal of 2-chlorobiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated mine impacted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to remediate the PCBs contaminated mine soil using microcosm study. For that, the naturally occurring microorganisms are stimulated and enriched in soil itself by supplementing biphenyl as well as benzoic acid. As a result the biphenyl degrading organisms are induced to degrade the PCBs contamination. From the stimulated soil, the biphenyl degrading organisms are isolated and degraded metabolites are elucidated. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil in a coal mine-impacted area, and identification of bacteria was done by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene analysis. The growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 using biphenyl as the sole carbon source was investigated by culturing in 100-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 10 ml sterilized MSM and 10 μg/ml biphenyl, and the ability of KM-04 to remove biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from mine soil was investigated. Metabolite formation was confirmed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric analysis. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 uses biphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its metabolic intermediates, including dihydroxybiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid, and benzoic acid. Incubation of real soil collected from abandoned mine areas with resting cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 10 days resulted in the 98.5 % of biphenyl and 82.3 % of 2-chlorobiphenyl in a slurry system. The ability of the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 to bioremediate biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from abandoned mine soil was examined using soil microcosm studies under laboratory conditions. Treatment of mine soil with the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 15 days resulted in 87.1 % reduction in biphenyl and 68.7 % in 2-chlorobiphenyl contents. The results suggest that Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and chlorinated derivatives

  12. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures in soil using phanerochaete chrysosporium in nutrient rich, non-ligninolytic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Yadav, Jagjit S.; Reddy, Chilekampalli A.; Quensen, John F.; Tiedje, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Substantial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures is carried out using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, under nutrient, carbon and nitrogen source rich, non-ligninolytic conditions. The PCBs with various numbers of ortho, meta, and para chlorines were extensively degraded, indicating relative nonspecificity for the position of chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl ring. Maximal degradation of PCBs in a mixture was observed in malt extract medium (18.4% on a molar basis), in which most of the individual PCBs were degraded.

  13. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Brian C; Caldwell, Colleen A

    2008-03-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/ kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. PMID:17967068

  14. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  15. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  16. 3D QSAR studies of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as potential xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ingale, Kundan; Wheeler, John S; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are found in human biological samples and lack of data on their potential estrogenic activity has been a source of concern. We have extended our previous in silico 2D QSAR study through the application of advance techniques such as docking and 3D QSAR to gain insights into their estrogen receptor (ERα) binding. The results support our earlier findings that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the compounds; its position, orientation and surroundings in the structure are influential for the binding of OH-PCBs to ERα. This study has also revealed the following additional interactions that influence estrogenicity of these chemicals (a) the aromatic interactions of the biphenyl moieties with the receptor, (b) hydrogen bonding interactions of the p-hydroxyl group with key amino acids ARG394 and GLU353, (c) low or no electronegative substitution at para-positions of the p-hydroxyl group, (d) enhanced electrostatic interactions at the meta position on the B ring, and (e) co-planarity of the hydroxyl group on the A ring. In combination the 2D and 3D QSAR approaches have led us to the support conclusion that the hydroxyl group is the most important feature on the OH-PCB influencing the binding to estrogen receptors, and have enhanced our understanding of the mechanistic details of estrogenicity of this class of chemicals. Such in silico computational methods could serve as useful tools in risk assessment of chemicals. PMID:26598992

  17. A case study of a chemical spill: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): 1. History, distribution, and surface translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Russell J.; Cherry, John A.; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    1982-06-01

    Between 6,800 and 21,000 1 of transformer oil containing polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) and chlorobenzenes were spilled when an underground pipe broke at a transformer manufacturing plant in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods were developed to examine the surface and subsurface distribution of the contaminants. Contrary to initial expectations, large quantities of PCBs were found to have migrated both vertically and horizontally at the site. Polychlorinated biphenyls at concentrations of approximately 1000 mg/kg moved downward through granular fill and 9 m of fractured Regina clay. Contaminant migration along the interface of the clay and the upper unit of permeable granular fill probably accounts for the extensive lateral movement. It is argued that because of the low organic content of the geological units at the site (generally 0.9%) and the hydrophobicity of chlorinated organics like PCBs, contaminants at many locations exist in three phases: a dissolved aqueous phase, an adsorbed phase, and an oily liquid phase. Movement of the oily liquid seems to be the most likely explanation for the migration of large quantities of PCBs downward through fractures in the clay and laterally through the granular fill.

  18. Potential for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biodegradation in Sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that pose risks to human and environmental health. In this study, we evaluated the PCB biodegradation of sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), a PCB-contaminated site (average PCB concentration = 12,570 ng/g d.w.). PCB congener profiles and bacterial community structure in a core sediment sample (4.57 m long) were characterized. Analysis of vertical PCB congener profile patterns in sediment and pore water strongly suggest that in situ dechlorination occurred in sediments. However, 16S rRNA genes from putative PCB-dechlorinating Chloroflexi were relatively more abundant in upper 2 m sediments, as were genes indicative of aerobic biodegradation potential (i.e. biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA)). Characterization of the bacterial community by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and comparison of these with sediment and pore water PCB congener profiles with the Mantel test revealed a statistical correlation (p<0.001). Sequences classified as Acinetobacter and Acidovorax were highly abundant in deep sediments. Overall, our results suggest that PCB dechlorination has already occurred, and that IHSC sediments have the potential for further aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation. PMID:24764649

  19. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  20. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  1. Synthesis of biphenyl derivative and its application as dichroic materials in poly (vinyl alcohol) polarizing films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Almodarresiyeh, Hora A.; Filippovich, Ljudmila; Kumar, Rakesh; Darroudi, Mahdieh; Hajikolaee, Fatemeh Haji

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, first time on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and new designed structure (Potassium 2,2‧-([1,1‧-biphenyl]-4,4‧-diylbis(azanediyl))diacetate) (I) thermostable polarizing film was created. The structure (I) was first modeled and then synthesized and obtained polarizing film absorbing at λmax = 300 nm used for electronic applications. Polarizing efficiency (PE) of polarizing film is 96% at stretching degree (Rs) 4.0. On the basis of PVA, Potassium 2,2‧-([1,1‧-biphenyl]-4,4‧-diylbis(azanediyl))diacetate (I), Sodium 2-hydroxy-5-((2-methoxy-4-((4-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl)phenyl)diazenyl)benzoate (II) and commercial dye (Congo Red) thermostable polarizing film for wide spectral range of spectrum (λmax = 288-561 nm) was developed. During the work it was established that oriented PVA-films is phenomenon of anisotropy of thermal conductivity (λ||/λ⊥). It is very important for creation of thermostable polarizing films. Thermal conductivity in a direction of orientation (λ||) is higher than in a direction perpendicular orientations (λ⊥). The optimization of the molecule (1) was carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP/6-311 + G* method. Electronic absorption spectrum of the molecule (I) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution was calculated using TDB3LYP/6-311 + G* level. The nature of absorption bands in the UV spectral region was interpreted.

  2. Conductance through single biphenyl molecules: symmetric and asymmetric coupling to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, Karthiga; Pfnür, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The contacts and the chemical bonds formed between metallic electrodes and molecules determine to a large extent the conductive properties of single molecular junctions, which represent the smallest possible active elements in an electronic circuit. We therefore investigated in a comparative study, using the break junction technique (MCBJ), the conductive properties of [1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dithiol (M1) and of 4'-mercapto-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carbonitrile (M2) between gold electrodes. As a function of electrode separation, characterized by the conductance close to 0 V, we found several plateaus of relative stability, with those close to 0.01G0 being the most pronounced. The overall conductance of symmetric and asymmetric molecules were surprisingly similar, only the range of stability was smaller for M2. While M1 yielded symmetric I-V-curves, only small asymmetries were detected for M2. These are also reflected in the comparable values for coupling parameters using the single level resonance model. The high conductance for the asymmetric molecule is interpreted as a result of coherent coupling of electronic states through the whole molecule, so that the outcome cannot be predicted just by adding conductive properties of individual molecular groups. PMID:26425419

  3. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  4. Effect of biphenyl ether herbicides on the formation of mutagenic intermediates from procarcinogens by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Miyauchi, M.; Uematsu, T.

    1987-08-01

    Increasing frequencies of tumors among aquatic animals in polluted waters have been reported. Experiments have also shown that exposure of fish to certain well-known and widely distributed xenobiotics causes them to develop tumors in a relatively short time. Formation of mutagenic intermediates from procarcinogens by fish liver homogenates had been reported. It is well established that fish have the ability to biotransform xenobiotics in a manner similar to that of mammalian species. These biotransformation include cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase systems. In fish as well as mammals, cyt. P-450 systems are known to be induced by environmental pollutants. These inducers of cyt. P-450 systems are thought to influence the appearance of toxicity of chemicals. Biphenyl ether herbicides have been widely used all over the world, and particularly in Japan, they are indicated as environmental pollutants. Judging from their structures like as PCB, they are suspected to induce cyt. P-450 systems in fish. In this study, the effects of biphenyl ether herbicides and related compounds on the formation of mutagenic intermediates from procarcinogens by the S-9 fractions from rainbow trout were examined by using the Salmonella/microsome test.

  5. Establishment of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enrichment culture with predominantly meta dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, P J; Mohn, W W; Quensen, J F; Tiedje, J M; Boyd, S A

    1992-01-01

    Enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating microorganisms from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River, N.Y., was attempted. The enrichment strategy was to use pyruvate as the electron donor and dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. The enrichment medium also contained non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments, which were required for the PCB-dechlorinating activity. An enrichment culture (that had stable PCBT-dechlorinating activity over nine serial transfers during 1 year) was established under these conditions; however, the rate of dechlorination did not increase after the second serial transfer. Dechlorination occurred primarily from the meta positions of the biphenyl molecule. Hydrogen could be substituted for pyruvate as the electron donor with equal activity, but when acetate was used as the electron donor a delay in dechlorination was observed. Sulfate and bromethane sulfonate inhibited dechlorination activity. The pyruvate-Aroclor 1242 enrichment also dechlorinated Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260; the extent of chlorine removed was the greatest for Aroclor 1254. For comparison, nonautoclaved non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments used in the assay also dechlorinated Aroclors, but only after 12 to 16 weeks of incubation. This suggests that PCB-dechlorinating organisms were also present in these sediments but in numbers lower than those in the enrichment culture. PMID:1444423

  6. Long-term performance and health cows experimentally exposed to polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Schanbacher, F L; Durst, H I; Moorhead, P D

    1980-12-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows were studied for up to 15 00 days to determine whether exposure to polybrominated biphenyls produced latent or subtle toxicosis not evident in previous acute or short studies. Animals for these long studies came from three groups given 0, .25, or 250 mg of fireMaster BP-6 per day for 60 days in 1975. Another group that received 250 mg of BP-6 for 180 or 202 days in 1976 also was studied. Individual animals were in their second, third, or fourth lactations. Milk production was not different among experimental groups, and mature body weights were similar. Increases in the amount or duration of exposure did not increase number of infections, dysfunctions, or general injuries. Exposure to 250 mg/day for 60, 180, or 202 days increased frequencies of reproductive disorders at parturition, particularly related to and following a high incidence of dystocia. A contributing factor to dystocia was larger birth weights of calves from cows exposed to 250 mg daily as compared to calves from cows exposed to 0 or .25 mg polybrominated biphenyls. Although reproductive dysfunctions required more veterinary care, numbers of services per conception were not different among groups. PMID:6259226

  7. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    PubMed Central

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard. PMID:12676595

  10. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  11. SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES IN THE GENES ENCODING POLY- CHLORINATED BIPHENYL DEGRADATION BY PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400 AND ALCALIGENES EUTROPHUS H850

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA-DNA hybridization was used to compare the Pseudomonas strain LB400 genes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation with those from seven other PCB-degrading strains. Significant hybridization was detected to the genome of Alcaligenes eutrophus H850, a strain similar to L...

  12. EVIDENCE THAT CA2+ SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (CREB) ACTIVITIES STIMULATED BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARE LOCALIZED TO DEVELOPING NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a mixed culture of neonatal cortical cells, we have demonstrated that the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces complex Ca2+i signals involving multiple receptors/channels (Inglefield and Shafer, J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 295:105) and also activates/ p...

  13. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction tehnology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ear...

  14. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ...

  15. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  16. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  17. Global contamination of coplanar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in the market fishes from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Souichi; Tokusawa, Hidekazu; Nakao, Teruyuki; Aozasa, Osamu; Miyata, Hideaki; Alaee, Mehran

    2008-08-01

    Polybrominated chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs, X=Br, Cl) are a group of environmental contaminants that have not been studied previously. The introduction of the second halogen to the biphenyl backbone increases the number of possible congeners to more than 9000. Only a limited number of PXBs are commercially available. In order to determine the occurrence of these compounds in environmental matrices, an isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS method for determination of five co-planar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in biota was developed. The method detection limit for these compounds ranged between 0.05 and 0.5 pg/g for 4'-monobromo-3,3',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3',4',5'-tribromo-3,4-dichlorobiphenyl, respectively. Concentrations of five co-planar polybrominated and chlorinated biphenyls in eighteen different fish fillets from Japanese markets ranged between 4 and 46 pg/g wet weight for mink whale and young yellow-tail fish. These values are substantially lower than those reported for Co-PCBs; however, it should be noted that due to the unavailability of standards, identification and quantification of all the isomers was not possible.

  18. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  19. 77 FR 12836 - Draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Information System (IRIS); Peer Review Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Biphenyl: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' (EPA/635/R... of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available primarily...

  20. Oxidative ring cleavage of low chlorinated biphenyl derivatives by fungi leads to the formation of chlorinated lactone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sietmann, Rabea; Gesell, Manuela; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder

    2006-07-01

    The yeast Trichosporon mucoides and the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus as biphenyl oxidizing organisms are able to oxidize chlorinated biphenyl derivatives. Initial oxidation of derivatives chlorinated at C4 position started at the non-halogenated ring and went on up to ring cleavage. The products formed were mono- and dihydroxylated 4-chlorobiphenyls, muconic acid derivatives 2-hydroxy-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid and 2-hydroxy-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid as well as the corresponding lactones 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. Altogether T. mucoides formed 12 products and P. lilacinus accumulated five products. Whereas the rate of the first oxidation step at 4-chlorobiphenyl seems to be diminished by the decreased bioavailability of the compound, no considerable differences were observed between the degradation of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxybiphenyl and 4-hydroxybiphenyl. Twofold chlorinated biphenyl derivatives did not serve as substrates for oxidation by either organism with the exception of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl, transformed by the yeast Trichosporon mucoides to two monohydroxylated derivatives. The results show, that soil fungi may contribute to the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated biphenyls accumulating from anaerobic dehalogenation of PCB by bacteria.

  1. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  2. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  5. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  6. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  7. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  8. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  13. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  14. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  15. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  16. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The judgment as to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  17. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly.

  18. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB

  19. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kaufholdt, David; Broggini, Giovanni A.L.; Flachowsky, Henryk; Hänsch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H. PMID:25862456

  20. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Debabrata; Gaid, Mariam M; Chizzali, Cornelia; Reckwell, Dennis; Kaufholdt, David; Beuerle, Till; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Flachowsky, Henryk; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-06-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H.

  1. Structural insight into the expanded PCB-degrading abilities of a biphenyl dioxygenase obtained by directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pravindra; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Viger, Jean-François; Barriault, Diane; Gomez-Gil, Leticia; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is a multicomponent Rieske-type oxygenase (RO) that catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and many polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The structural bases for the substrate specificity of the enzyme’s oxygenase component (BphAELB400) are largely unknown. BphAEp4, a variant previously obtained through directed evolution, transforms several chlorobiphenyls, including 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, more efficiently than BphAELB400 yet differs from the parent oxygenase at only two positions: T335A/F336M. Herein, we compare the structure of BphAELB400 and BphAEp4 and examine the biochemical properties of two BphAELB400 variants with single substitutions, T335A or F336M. Our data show that residue 336 contacts the biphenyl and influences the regiospecificity of the reaction, but does not enhance the enzyme’s reactivity toward 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl. By contrast, residue 335 did not contact biphenyl, but contributed significantly to expansion of the enzyme’s substrate range. Crystal structures indicate that Thr335 imposes constraints through hydrogen bonds and non-bonded contacts to the segment from Val320 to Gln322. These contacts are lost when Thr is replaced by Ala, relieving intramolecular constraints and allowing for significant movement of this segment during binding of 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, increasing the space available to accommodate the doubly-ortho-chlorinated congener 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl. This study provides important insight about how ROs can expand substrate range through mutations that increase the plasticity and/or mobility of protein segments lining the catalytic cavity. PMID:21073881

  2. [EVALUATION OF MIGRATION ABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE "SOIL-PLANT" AND "SOIL-EARTHWORMS"].

    PubMed

    Baeva, Yu I; Chernykh, N A

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes. There was shown the possibility of the use of earthworms as a highly sensitive bio-indicators in monitoring for soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants, even at low concentrations. PMID:27430062

  3. Hydroxylation of biphenyl by Aspergillus toxicarius: conditions for a bench scale fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Golbeck, J.H.; Cox, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Fungi of the Aspergillus sp. can hydroxylate biphenyl to 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, a chemical intermediate used in the plastics industry. The authors studied various batch culture conditions for the production of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, by Aspergillus toxicarius, in 25-mL shake flasks and 2-L fermenter cultures. Conditions investigated included temperature, aeration, carbon and nitrogen sources, biomass content, and time of substrate addition. Under optimum conditions the authors observed a rate of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl production of 15-20 mg/day/g dry wt mycelia. Such a production rate is probably too low to support a commercial process and possible reasons for the low productivity are discussed.

  4. Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2012-02-01

    This study found that arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) transferred, on average, 11.4% (7.5 mg) and 11.1% (0.1 mg) of their polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) blubber burden to their near-term fetuses. A single physicochemical parameter, log K(OW), largely explained this transplacental transfer for PCBs (r(2) =0.79, p < 0.00001) and PBDEs (r(2) = 0.37, p = 0.007), with congeners having a log K(OW) < 6.5 preferentially transferred to the fetus. Blubber concentrations of 257 ng/g lipid weight (lw) PCBs and 3.8 ng/g (lw) PBDEs in beluga fetuses highlights the exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during a critical developmental stage. The implications of detecting these levels of legacy PCBs and the flame retardant PBDEs in unborn arctic beluga are unclear.

  5. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01).

  6. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; Gérard, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, R Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  8. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  9. [Application prospect about bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil with immobilized microorganism technique: a review].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-Xing; Su, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui-Bo; Shen, Chao-Feng; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-06-01

    As one type of the persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are tremendously harmful to organisms. These compounds are easily absorbed onto soil particles and able to accumulate in soil after they are released into the environment. Bioremediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils has become a research hotspot in recent years, and immobilized microorganism technique has high developing and applying value because of its unique advantages in environmental remediation. This paper reviewed the chief remediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils and then analyzed the characteristics of immobilized microorganism technique and its research progress in remediation of organic polluted soil. Finally, the feasibility and problems of this technique in remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil were also discussed.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants--occurrence and emission from a landfill station.

    PubMed

    Persson, N Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebühr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-11-01

    Approximately 80,000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10,000-18,000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g sigmaPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. PMID:15899540

  11. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface sediments of Gable Mountain Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Prohammer, L.A.; Neitzel, D.A.; Bean, R.M.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sediments were collected and analyzed to determine the concentration and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Gable Mountain Pond, which is located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. All samples, with one exception, were found to contain the specific PCB Aroclor 1260, a constituent of the insulating fluid used in electric utility transformers. The highest concentration of PCBs in the pond was found next to the mouth of the inlet pipe. The distribution of PCBs over the pond is consistent with the hypothesis that they entered primarily through the inlet pipe and spread along the length of the pond in a roughly westerly direction. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 ranged from 2 to 148 parts per billion, which is roughly two to four orders of magnitude below the regulated upper concentration limit (50 parts per million) for the disposal of PCB-contaminated waste. 19 res., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls on sediment

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, K.D.; Wildman, N.J.; Tai, H.

    1983-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants which were freely employed for many years in numerous industrial applications but whose use has now been regulated. Many analytical schemes for monitoring these materials in environmental samples have been developed over the last decades, however, PCBs remain difficult analytical subjects. Most protocols rely on a combination of wet chemical pre-analytical isolation and purification whose complexity depends on the sample matrix. The time required for these manipulations may greatly hamper efforts directed towards emergency cleanup of accidental or illicit contamination of the environment. Thus, a clear need exists for methods which will allow rapid analysis of relatively intransigent samples for PCB contamination. Preliminary experiments directed to assessing the use of pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in determining PCB contamination of soils and sediments are reported. In these experiments pyrolytic desorption at 1000/sup 0/C during 10 sec was used to completely replace more lengthy wet chemical manipulations.

  13. Modeling the emission sources for polychlorinated biphenyls in India: implications for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the electronic waste generated in India, toxic wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are dumped in India for recycling purpose. In addition tropical climate facilitates the rapid entry of PCBs to the atmosphere from the contaminated surfaces. Therefore it is important to identify the pathway for atmospheric PCB loading so as to regulate the ongoing release of PCBs. Hence active and passive air sampling of PCBs were conducted along the urban and suburban transects of seven major Indian cities and from the hotspots and rural/background locations in India during 2006-2012. A sinusoidal model could very well describe the diurnal pattern observed in New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, which suggests that concentrations in air are influenced by temperature-dependent air-soil surface exchange processes.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent mayflies from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Schwartz, T.R.; Wiener, J.G.; Lebo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in emergent mayflies (hexagenia bilineata) from a 1250-km reach of the upper mississippi river (umr). Total pcb concentrations (sum of 125 congeners) ranged from 0.21 To 4.1 Mu g/g of dry weight (1.2-29 mu g/g of lipid weight). Concentrations were highest in pools near the twin cities and the quad cities metropolitan areas. Longitudinal movement of pcbs was extensive downstream from the twin cities (175-320 km) but was not apparent downstream from the quad cities. The pcb composition of mayflies was relatively homogeneous throughout most of the river. However, the congener composition in mayflies from two distant locations differed markedly from the other samples and contained a greater abundance of lower molecular weight congeners. Recent pcb discharges from point and nonpoint sources may account for these differences. Emergent mayflies seem to be a useful indicator of pcb contamination of the umr.

  16. Transplacental transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Ross, Peter S; Loseto, Lisa L

    2012-02-01

    This study found that arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) transferred, on average, 11.4% (7.5 mg) and 11.1% (0.1 mg) of their polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) blubber burden to their near-term fetuses. A single physicochemical parameter, log K(OW), largely explained this transplacental transfer for PCBs (r(2) =0.79, p < 0.00001) and PBDEs (r(2) = 0.37, p = 0.007), with congeners having a log K(OW) < 6.5 preferentially transferred to the fetus. Blubber concentrations of 257 ng/g lipid weight (lw) PCBs and 3.8 ng/g (lw) PBDEs in beluga fetuses highlights the exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during a critical developmental stage. The implications of detecting these levels of legacy PCBs and the flame retardant PBDEs in unborn arctic beluga are unclear. PMID:22095624

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  18. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophil apoptosis, actin cytoskelton, and oxidative state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been proposed as a biomarker for environmental contaminant effects. In this work, we test the hypothesis that in vitro assays of apoptosis are sensitive indicators of immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophils. Apoptosis, necrosis, and viability as well as the related indicators F-actin levels, and active thiol state were measured in purified human neutrophils after treatment with contaminants. Effective concentrations observed were 0.3 μM (60 μg/L) mercury, 750 μg/L Aroclor 1254, and 50 μM (14,500 μg/L) hexachlorocylcohexanes. Concentrations of contaminants that induced apoptosis also decreased cellular F-actin levels. Active thiols were altered by mercury, but not organochlorines. Comparison of these data with levels of contaminants reported to be threats to human health indicate neutrophil apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of mercury toxicity.

  19. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  20. Strain of alcaligenes latus bacteria used for the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Dyadischev, Nikolai Romanovich; Zharikov, Gennady Alekseevich; Kapranov, Vladimir Vladimirovich

    2001-09-11

    Alcaligenes latus bacterial strain TXD-13 VKPM B 75-05 is capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The strain may be employed to detoxicate environment media and PCB-containing industrial waste. To produce biomass, the strain is incubated on media which contain carbon sources, nitrogen sources and mineral salts. The strain is cultivated by a subsurface method up to a titer from 6.0.multidot.10.sup.8 to 2.0.times.10.sup.9 cells per cu cm. The produced biomass is used for degrading PCBs in concentrations from 10.sup.7 to 10.sup.8 cells per cu cm. The strain ensures from 35 to 50% reduction in PCB content in soil and water.

  1. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    SciTech Connect

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. )

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  3. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Y. Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  4. The substituent effects on the biphenyl H⋯H bonding interactions subjected to torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiajun, Dong; Xu, Yuning; Xu, Tianlv; Momen, Roya; Kirk, Steven R.; Jenkins, Samantha

    2016-05-01

    QTAIM and the stress tensor describe a torsion φ, 0.0° ≤ φ < 25.0°, of the C4-C7 torsional bond that affects the H⋯H bonding interactions linking the two phenyl rings of para-substituted biphenyl, C12H9X, X = N(CH3)2, NH2, CH3, CHO, CN, NO2 and C12H9-Y, Y = SiH3, ZnCl, COOCH3, SO2NH2, SO2OH, COCl, CB3. For all values of X and Y, shorter H⋯H bond-path lengths corresponded to higher values of both the stiffness and torsion φ. The onset of a phase transition-like behavior is found by the stress tensor stiffness. The atomic basins of the H⋯H interactions are affected by the para-substituent groups.

  5. [EVALUATION OF MIGRATION ABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE "SOIL-PLANT" AND "SOIL-EARTHWORMS"].

    PubMed

    Baeva, Yu I; Chernykh, N A

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes. There was shown the possibility of the use of earthworms as a highly sensitive bio-indicators in monitoring for soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants, even at low concentrations.

  6. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  7. The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gilbert

    2004-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in various industrial applications. Research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Poisoning episodes in Asia were initially attributed to PCB-contaminated oil, although subsequent analysis suggested that thermal degradation products of PCBs were responsible for the observed toxicity. Commercial production of PCBs in the United States was banned in 1979. Several agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. Health effects attributable to PCBs include skin and eye irritation. There is no reliable evidence that PCBs in the environment result in either "endocrine disruption" or intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Because PCB exposures from environmental sources do not pose a significant health risk, little benefit to public health can result from continued remediation of PCB sources.

  8. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from aqueous solutions using beta-cyclodextrin grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dadong; Sheng, Guodong; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2010-04-01

    Cyclodextrins have excellent ability in the preconcentration of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions by forming inclusion complexes. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) possess high adsorption capacity in the removal of organic pollutants through the formation of conjugated complexes. In this paper, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was grafted on the surfaces of MWCNTs by using plasma technique. The beta-CD grafted MWCNTs (MWCNT-g-CD) were characterized by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy in detail. The prepared MWCNT-g-CD were used to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solutions under ambient conditions. The results suggest that MWCNT-g-CD have much higher adsorption capacity than MWCNTs in the removal of PCBs from aqueous solutions. MWCNT-g-CD are suitable materials in the preconcentration and immobilization of PCBs from large volumes of aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup.

  9. Depositional history of polychlorinated biphenyls in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Gevao, Bondi; Aba, Abdul Aziz; Al-Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Uddin, Saif

    2012-05-01

    The vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in a dated sediment core from the northwestern Arabian Gulf to reconstruct their depositional history. The downcore profile showed an increase in concentrations from depth to a subsurface maximum of approximately 1,500 pg g(-1) in approximately 1991, followed by an exponential decrease to the sediment-water interface. Current concentrations of ΣPCBs are similar to levels predating the episodic input of PCBs in sediments dated coincident with the 1991 Arabian Gulf war. The spike in ΣPCB concentrations during the war may be related to the destruction of PCB-laden transformers during the conflict. The 15-fold decrease in ΣPCB concentrations from the period of maximum flux to prewar levels suggests that the factors delivering PCBs to sediments at present are similar to those that that existed before the war-related inputs.

  10. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  11. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.G. ); Storr-Hansen, E. )

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the aquatic environment of the Mekong River, South of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, J-P; Cattini, C; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2009-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) were analyzed in sediments and clams' soft tissues from sampling sites in the Mekong River delta from the border with Cambodia to the coast of South China Sea. Concentrations of 13 individual PCB congeners are reported. Median concentration of SigmaPCB congeners was 0.279 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 0.106-2.016 ng g(-1) dry weight) in sediments, and 5.20 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 1.89-19.37 ng g(-1)) in clams. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PCBs in the delta are discussed. It is concluded that in the Mekong River delta PCB concentrations were generally lower than in other regions of Vietnam and their likely sources have been waste discharges from repair workshops and other facilities in the delta cities.

  13. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K S; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (± 2200) pg/m(-3) with a dominance of congeners with 4-7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values.

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1–L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2–3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  15. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-01-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes. PMID:15121504

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (< 1-34 ng/g). PCBs are first detected in sediment deposited during the 1930's in Richardson Bay, about a decade earlier than the onset of detectable levels of DDTs. PCB inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  17. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1-L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P < 0.05). The dissipation rates of tri-, tetrachlorinated biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that the Rhodococcus-like bphC gene was 2-3 orders of magnitude more than that of Pseudomonas-like bphC gene, and was found responded positively to AMF. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA sequenced by the Illumina Miseq sequencing platform indicated that AMF hyphae altered bacterial community compositions. The phylum Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominated in the soil, while Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales were dominated at the order level. Taxa from the Comamonadaceae responded positively to AMF and trichlorinated biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  18. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  19. Rapid assay for screening and characterizing microorganisms for the ability to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Unterman, R.; Bopp, L.H.; Brennan, M.J.; Haberl, M.L.; Johnson, C.

    1986-04-01

    A rapid assay has been designed that (i) assesses the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degradative competence and congener specificity of aerobic microorganisms, (ii) identifies strains capable of degrading highly chlorinated biphenyls, and (iii) distinguishes among those that degrade PCBs by alternative pathways. Prior attempts to assay PCB-degradative competence by measuring disappearance of Aroclors (commercial PCB mixtures) have frequently produced false-positive findings because of volatilization, adsorption, or absorption losses. Furthermore, these assays have generally left the chemical nature of the competence obscure because of incomplete gas chromatographic resolution and uncertain identification of Aroclor peaks. These problems were avoided by using defined mixtures of PCB congeners and by adopting incubation and extraction methods that prevent physical loss of PCB's. The assay mixtures include PCB congeners ranging from dichloro- to hexachlorobiphenyls and representing various structural classes, e.g., congeners chlorinated on a single ring (2,3-dichlorobiphenyl), blocked at 2,3 sites (2,5,2'5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl), blocked at 3,4 sites (4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), and lacking adjacent unchlorinated sites (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl). The PCB-degradative ability of microorganisms is assessed by packed-column gas chromatographic analysis of these defined congener mixtures following 24-h incubation with resting cells. When tested with 25 environmental isolates, this assay (i) revealed a broad range of PCB-degradative competence, (ii) highlighted differences in congener specificity and in the extent of degradation of individual congeners, (iii) predicted degradative competence on commercial PCBs, and (iv) identified strains with superior PCB-degradative ability.

  20. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for simple determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediments.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Takatsu, Akiko

    2003-03-15

    A novel sample extraction technique for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) analysis using microwave-heating device is developed. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques were combined. Desorption of the anatytes from solid matrixes was accelerated with water vapor which was generated by microwave irradiation. A sample holder in a commercial microwave extraction cell kept the sample from direct contact with the organic solvent for analytes trapping during the treatment process. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained with small amount of solvents. Without any cleanup steps, the obtained extract could be analyzed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Six PCB congeners (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 180, 194, 209) and three OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD) in two marine sediment samples (a sediment collected from a bay of Kyusyu Island, Japan, and a certified reference material NIST SRM1944) were analyzed by using this microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) technique and another extraction method (exhaustive steam distillation, MAE, and Soxhlet extraction); and comparisons of the results are shown in this report. Although recovery yields of highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCB180, 194, 209) and relatively polar OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDD) were low (30-60%) compared with other analytes (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 4,4'-DDE; recovery, 80-100%), use of isotope labeled internal standards for the MASD technique gave comparable results with the values obtained by other extraction methods and the certified values in the samples.

  1. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal. PMID:15352474

  2. Molecular diagnostics and chemical analysis for assessing biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Layton, A C; Lajoie, C A; Easter, J P; Jernigan, R; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    1994-11-01

    The microbial populations in PCB-contaminated electric power substation capacitor bank soil (TVA soil) and from another PCB-contaminated site (New England soil) were compared to determine their potential to degrade PCB. Known biphenyl operon genes were used as gene probes in colony hybridizations and in dot blots of DNA extracted from the soil to monitor the presence of PCB-degrading organisms in the soils. The microbial populations in the two soils differed in that the population in New England soil was enriched by the addition of 1000 p.p.m. 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) whereas the population in the TVA capacitor bank soil was not affected. PCB degradative activity in the New England soil was indicated by a 50% PCB disappearance (gas chromatography), accumulation of chlorobenzoates (HPLC), and 14CO2 evolution from 14C-2CB. The PCB-degrading bacteria in the New England soil could be identified by their positive hybridization to the bph gene probes, their ability to produce the yellow meta-cleavage product from 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl (2,3-DHB), and the degradation of specific PCB congeners by individual isolates in resting cell assays. Although the TVA capacitor bank soil lacked effective PCB-degrading populations, addition of a PCB-degrading organism and 10,000 p.p.m. biphenyl resulted in a > 50% reduction of PCB levels. Molecular characterization of soil microbial populations in laboratory scale treatments is expected to be valuable in the design of process monitoring and performance verification approaches for full scale bioremediation. PMID:7765670

  3. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-05-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.

  4. Evaluation of Enhanced Comprehensive 2-D Gas Chromatography-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Separation of Recalcitrant Polychlorinated Biphenyl Isomers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separation of some recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in extracts from environmental compartments has been a daunting task for environmental chemists. Summed quantitation values for coeluting PCB isomers are often reported. This composite data obscures the ac...

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  6. Preparation of high purity biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra extract by ion exchange resin catalytic transformation combined with macroporous resin separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Feng-jian; Zhao, Chun-jian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Zhong-hua

    2011-11-15

    In this study, ester-bond biphenyl cyclooctene lignans were efficiently hydrolytically degraded into free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans by ion exchange resin transformation and simultaneous removal of impurities by macroporous resin. The OH-type strongly basic anion exchange resin 201×7 was the best one, and the dynamic hydrolysis efficiency was 146.7±5.0%. HPD5000 macroporous resin, which offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities and faster adsorption than other resins. The purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product increased from 5.14±0.24% to 79.67±0.0.67%. After dynamic catalytic transformation by 201×7 resin combined with purification of HPD5000 resin, the yield and the purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product were 132.1±4.7% and 80.91±3.53%, respectively.

  7. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  8. Use of mechanistic data in the IARC evaluations of the carcinogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; Loomis, Dana; Baan, Robert; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Grosse, Yann; Straif, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds. PMID:26077316

  9. Early life-stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and estrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Andersson, P.L.; Tysklind, M.; Olsson, P.E.

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were examined for embryo and early life stage mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio). A set of eight PCBs and two hydroxylated PCBs and 17{beta}-estradiol were tested. Of the compounds tested, 4{prime}-OH-PCB30 (hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl) and PCB104 were found to be highly toxic to embryos following maternal exposure and transfer to the oocyte. It was also observed that 17{beta}-estradiol exposure resulted in a high incidence of embryo mortality. Analysis of estrogen receptor levels during embryonic development showed increased mRNA (ribonucleic acid) levels from the 1K stage to 50% epiboly. Following injection of the different compounds, the estrogen receptor mRNA levels were also analyzed in adult male fish to determine if there was a correlation between embryo mortality and estrogenicity of the studied PCBs. The two PCBs that were highly embryo toxic were observed to be estrogenic.

  10. Measurements of the dielectric and viscoelastic constants in mixtures of 4,4'-n-octyl-cyanobiphenyl and biphenyl.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Patrick; Scalliet, Camille

    2014-03-01

    We performed measurements of the dielectric constants, splay elastic constant, and rotational viscosity of the nematic phase of mixtures of 4,4'-n-octyl-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) and biphenyl (BP). In contrast with previous results of DasGupta et al. [Phys. Rev. E 63, 041703 (2001); Phys. Lett. A 288, 323 (2001)], we do not find any anomaly of these constants when the smectic-A phase is approached at all concentrations of BP. These results are compatible with recent calorimetric measurements of Denolf et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 107801 (2006); Phys. Rev. E 76, 051702 (2007)] and the absence of a tricritical point in the phase diagram. The origin of the anomalies observed by DasGupta et al. at large concentration of BP is also briefly discussed and a likely explanation in terms of biphenyl evaporation is proposed.

  11. Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

  12. European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): avian model and monitor of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination at a Superfund site in southern Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Arenal, Christine A; Halbrook, Richard S; Woodruff, MaryJo

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site located at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (IL, USA). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were monitored at nest boxes constructed at each of two study and two reference sites. During the breeding season, starling productivity and adult provisioning behavior were monitored. At 15 d after hatch, chicks and adults were collected for contaminant and biomarker analyses. Chicks and adults were necropsied. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured in liver tissue, and polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1254) and 34 chlorinated biphenyl (CB) congener concentrations were measured in carcasses. Polychlorinated biphenyl and CB concentrations also were measured in eggs that failed to hatch. Mean Aroclor 1254 and quantified CB concentrations were greater (p < 0.001) in eggs that failed to hatch, 15-d-old chicks, and adults collected from PCB-contaminated sites (hereafter PCB sites) compared to those collected from reference sites. The EROD activity was greater (p = 0.005) in 15-d-old chicks, but not adults (p = 0.972), collected from PCB sites compared to those collected from reference sites. No differences were found among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid or percent of eggs hatched; however, reduced nest provisioning behavior and decreased chick survival were observed at PCB sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations measured in samples collected from the PCB sites are similar to concentrations previously associated with adverse effects in avian species. Other avian species utilizing these sites also may be exposed to PCBs with associated adverse effects. This study demonstrates that starling nestlings are good biological monitors of local contamination and continued monitoring may provide useful data for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed remediation. PMID:14768872

  13. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in 'Harrow Sweet', while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference'. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of 'Harrow Sweet', whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in 'Conference' and not even detectable in 'Alexander Lucas'. In 'Harrow Sweet', the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of 'Alexander Lucas' and 'Conference' advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  14. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10−6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:22346675

  15. A 90-Kilobase Conjugative Chromosomal Element Coding for Biphenyl and Salicylate Catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KF715

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Akito; Tominaga, Kiyomi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2000-01-01

    The biphenyl and salicylate metabolic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KF715 are chromosomally encoded. The bph gene cluster coding for the conversion of biphenyl to benzoic acid and the sal gene cluster coding for the salicylate meta-pathway were obtained from the KF715 genomic cosmid libraries. These two gene clusters were separated by 10-kb DNA and were highly prone to deletion when KF715 was grown in nutrient medium. Two types of deletions took place at the region including only the bph genes (ca. 40 kb) or at the region including both the bph and sal genes (ca. 70 kb). A 90-kb DNA region, including both the bph and sal genes (termed the bph-sal element), was transferred by conjugation from KF715 to P. putida AC30. Such transconjugants gained the ability to grow on biphenyl and salicylate as the sole sources of carbon. The bph and sal element was located on the chromosome of the recipient. The bph-sal element in strain AC30 was also highly prone to deletion; however, it could be mobilized to the chromosome of P. putida KT2440 and the two deletion mutants of KF715. PMID:10715002

  16. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species` diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  17. Serium levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine insecticides in women with recent and former missed abortions

    SciTech Connect

    Bercovici, B.; Wassermann, M.; Cucos, S.; Ron, M.; Wassermann, D.; Pines, A.

    1983-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine insecticides (DDT isomers and their metabolites, indane (..gamma..-BHC), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide) were assessed in the serum of 17 women with recent missed abortions, 7 women who experienced one or several missed abortions in their past, and 7 women with normal, second trimester pregnancy. Fifty-three percent of the cases of recent missed abortion had PCB serum levels higher than the mean plus two standard deviations of the control group. The mean PCB serum level in women with recent missed abortion and relatively high PCB serum levels was significantly different from that of the control group (103.04 versus 20.69 ppb,P<0.001). The mean PCB serum level of the former missed abortions group was also significantly different from that of the control group (82.00 versus 20.69 ppb, P<0.001). The quantity of the higher chlorinated biphenyl homologues (penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls) was increased in the high PCB level, missed abortion group and in the former missed abortion group, while the lower chlorinated biphenyl homologues were decreased in these groups in comparsion with the control group. The fact that the former missed abortion group showed increased PCB serum levels similar to those found in the high PCB level, recent missed abortion group confirms the existence of an association between relatively high PCB serum levels and the occurance of missed abortion. (JMT)

  18. Developmental aspects of environmental neurotoxicology: lessons from lead and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Winneke, Gerhard

    2011-09-15

    The particular vulnerability of the developing nervous system for low-level exposure to chemicals is well established. It has been argued that some degree of developmental neurotoxicity was found for a large number of industrial chemicals. However, for only few of these, namely inorganic lead, arsenic, organic mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), human evidence is available to suggest that these may cause neurodevelopmental adversity and may, thus, be involved in contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders like autism, attention-deficit disorder, mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The focus of this overview is on PCBs and inorganic lead as developmental neurotoxicants at environmental levels of exposure. The adverse effects of inorganic lead on the developing brain have long been studied, and much emphasis has been on subtle degrees of mental retardation in terms of intelligence (IQ). The evidence is consistent, but the effect sizes are typically small. Research interest has also been devoted to studying aspects of "attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" (ADHD) in children in relation to environmental exposure to lead in both cross-sectional and case-control studies. More recently, we have also studied core elements of ADHD according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV in relation to environmental exposure to lead, mercury and aluminum in asymptomatic school children in Romania. Both, performance measures (several attention tasks) and questionnaire-based behavior ratings from parents and teachers showed that lead, but not Hg or Al, was consistently and adversely associated with core elements of ADHD. These findings in asymptomatic children nicely fit into the overall pattern of observations and suggest that, apart from genetic influences, low-level exposure to lead contributes to this neurodevelopmental disorder. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants with lipophilic properties. Due to their persistence, they are still present in

  19. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to < 17 years of age with documented toxicant exposures. Methods: Data were collected between February 1996 and January 2000. Fasting blood specimens were collected before breakfast by trained Akwesasne Mohawk staff. Multivariable regression models were used to estimates associations between toxicants and serum testosterone, adjusted for other toxicants, Tanner stage, and potential confounders. Results: The sum of 16 PCB congeners (Σ16PCBs) that were detected in ≥ 50% of the population was significantly and negatively associated with serum testosterone levels, such that a 10% change in exposure was associated with a 5.6% decrease in testosterone (95% CI: –10.8, –0.5%). Of the 16 congeners, the more persistent ones (Σ8PerPCBs) were related to testosterone, whereas the less persistent ones, possibly reflecting more recent exposure, were not. When PCB congeners were subgrouped, the association was significant for the sum of eight more persistent PCBs (5.7% decrease; 95% CI: –11, –0.4%), and stronger than the sum of six less persistent congeners (3.1% decrease; 95% CI: –7.2, 0.9%). p,p´-DDE was positively but not significantly associated with serum testosterone (5.2% increase with a 10% increase in exposure; 95% CI: –0.5, 10.9%). Neither lead nor HCB was significantly associated with testosterone levels. Conclusions: Exposure to PCBs, particularly the more highly persistent congeners, may negatively influence testosterone levels among adolescent males. The

  20. Involvement of the Terminal Oxygenase β Subunit in the Biphenyl Dioxygenase Reactivity Pattern toward Chlorobiphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Hurtubise, Yves; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH dox) oxidizes biphenyl on adjacent carbons to generate 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl in Comamonas testosteroni B-356 and in Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400. The enzyme comprises a two-subunit (α and β) iron sulfur protein (ISPBPH), a ferredoxin (FERBPH), and a ferredoxin reductase (REDBPH). B-356 BPH dox preferentially catalyzes the oxidation of the double-meta-substituted congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl over the double-para-substituted congener 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl or the double-ortho-substituted congener 2,2′-dichlorobiphenyl. LB400 BPH dox shows a preference for 2,2′-dichlorobiphenyl, and in addition, unlike B-356 BPH dox, it can catalyze the oxidation of selected chlorobiphenyls such as 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl on adjacent meta-para carbons. In this work, we examine the reactivity pattern of BPH dox toward various chlorobiphenyls and its capacity to catalyze the meta-para dioxygenation of chimeric enzymes obtained by exchanging the ISPBPH α or β subunit of strain B-356 for the corresponding subunit of strain LB400. These hybrid enzymes were purified by an affinity chromatography system as His-tagged proteins. Both types, the chimera with the α subunit of ISPBPH of strain LB400 and the β subunit of ISPBPH of strain B-356 (the αLB400βB-356 chimera) and the αB-356βLB400 chimera, were functional. Results with purified enzyme preparations showed for the first time that the ISPBPH β subunit influences BPH dox’s reactivity pattern toward chlorobiphenyls. Thus, if the α subunit were the sole determinant of the enzyme reactivity pattern, the αB-356βLB400 chimera should have behaved like B-356 ISPBPH; instead, its reactivity pattern toward the substrates tested was similar to that of LB400 ISPBPH. On the other hand, the αLB400βB-356 chimera showed features of both B-356 and LB400 ISPBPH where the enzyme was able to metabolize 2,2′- and 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl and where it was able to catalyze the meta

  1. The selective dietary accumulation of planar polychlorinated biphenyls in the otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Zierikzee, Y.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Cofino, W.P.; Straalen, N.M. van; Hattum, B. van

    1997-09-01

    The decline of the populations of otters in Western Europe is assumed to be related to the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in this species. A study was conducted to investigate the trophic transfer of non-ortho, mono-ortho-, and di-ortho-substituted PCBs in the food web of the otter (Lutra lutra) in the Oude Venen lake system in the Netherlands, with relatively low PCB contamination. This area was one of the last strongholds of otters in the Netherlands and the species is considered to be virtually extinct since 1988. A marked increase in concentration of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) was observed with successive trophic levels of the aquatic food web. Mean concentrations of the sum of 28 CB congeners ({Sigma}CB) increased from 142 ng CB/g (organic carbon basis) in sediment and particulate matter to 588 ng CB/g (lipid weight basis) in invertebrates, to 2,450 ng CB/g (lipid weight) in fish, and 70,940 ng CB/g (lipid weight) in otter. A diet-specific biomagnification factor (BMF) of 14 was calculated from fish to otter based on {Sigma}CB; however, on the basis of toxic equivalent concentrations ({Sigma}TEQ), a BMF of 41 was found. This higher BMF on TEQ basis was mainly due to the enrichment of non-ortho-substituted CB 126 in otter, compared to fish. In fish CB 126 contributed 30 to 50% to {Sigma}TEQ, while this congener contributed 60 to 80% in otters. A shift in the CB patterns was found from relatively high concentrations of lowly chlorinated CBs in the abiotic compartments to the higher chlorinated CBs (five to seven chlorine atoms) at the highest trophic level. The relatively low concentrations of CB 77 and CBs with vicinal H-atoms at the meta-para position in otter compared to fish indicates that otters can metabolize these CBs and have P4501A-like and P4502B- like enzyme systems. It appears that even in an ecosystem with relatively low CB contamination, concentrations of CBs can be relatively high in aquatic top predators.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  3. Residues of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals in biota from Apalachicola River, Florida, 1978.

    PubMed

    Winger, P V; Sieckman, C; May, T W; Johnson, W W

    1984-01-01

    Seventy-seven composite samples composed of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ), channel catfish ( Ictaluras punctatus), threadfin shad ( Dorosoma petenense ), Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea ), burrowing mayfly ( Hexagenia sp.), water snake ( Natrix spp.), and little green heron ( Butorides virescens ) were collected from upper and lower reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida, in 1978 for residue analysis of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and metals. Compared with data from the National Pesticide Monitoring Program and criteria recommended for the protection of aquatic life, residue concentrations were moderately high in the Apalachicola River. Biota from the upper river generally had higher organic and lower metal residues than those from the lower river. Highest residues in the biota were total DDT, total PCBs, and toxaphene. Although individual mean concentrations were below 2 micrograms/g and total organic contaminant residues never exceeded 5 micrograms/g, residue concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and toxaphene (particularly from the upper river) exceeded recommended permissible levels for the protection of aquatic life. Metal residues were generally below 1 microgram/g. Exceptions were arsenic residues in threadfin shad (1.07 micrograms/g) and Asiatic clams (1.75 micrograms/g), and selenium in eggs of channel catfish (1.39 micrograms/g). The residues observed in the biota, particularly from the upper station, indicated moderate contamination of the Apalachicola River system at the time samples were collected.

  4. Evaluation of potential health effects associated with serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Steele, G.; Steinberg, K.

    1986-12-01

    In late 1983, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study to evaluate persons at risk of exposure to three chemical waste sites by comparing clinical disease end points and clinical chemistry parameters with serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels. A total of 106 individuals participated in the study. The only statistically significant finding in regard to self-reported, physician-diagnosed health problems was a dose-response relationship between serum PCB levels and the occurrence of high blood pressure; however, this association failed to achieve statistical significance when we controlled for possible confounding effects of both age and smoking. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were also higher in the group with elevated serum PCBs; additionally, there were isolated statistically significant correlations of serum aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT) with serum lipid fraction-adjusted PCB level and serum albumin and total bilirubin with serum PCB level. Although the ranges of serum levels reported herein from exposures to PCBs in the general environment are lower than those that have been associated with acute symptoms or illness in other studies, whether these levels are associated with long-term health risks is not known. Associations of such chronic, low-dose exposures with observable health effects as suggested by this study must be evaluated further before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; Johnson, N S; Binder, T R; Rediske, R R; O'Keefe, J P

    2013-11-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native. PMID:23864162

  6. Decrease in prosaposin in spermatozoon is associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jia-Li; Sun, Ling-Bin; Guo, Zhi-Zhun; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Guan-Chao; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Sha, Ai-Guo; Wang, Chong-Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhi; Zuo, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants and they have been associated with declining male fertility. In the present study, we aimed to determine the responsiveness of prosaposin (Psap) expression to PCB exposure. Male C57 mice were exposed to PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) of environmental related doses by oral gavage. After exposure for 50 days, the expression of Psap was significantly decreased by PCB exposure in epididymides and epydidymal spermatozoa, but not in testis. The Psap abundance in sperm was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the 95% lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL) and Benchmark Dose (BMD) for Psap reduction were 1.25 and 8.89 μg/kg Aroclor 1254, and for sperm motility reduction were 11.85 and 61.9 μg/kg Aroclor 1254. The depressed Psap level also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01, r=-0.531) with PCB accumulation in liver. In men with detectable PCB exposure in semen, Psap expression in sperm was significantly decreased whereas the semen parameters were unaffected. Linear regression showed that a negative association between total PCB level in seminal plasma and Psap level in ejaculated spermatozoa (P<0.05, r=-0.396). In conclusion, our data suggested that the abundance of Psap in sperm sample may be a sensitive endpoint to predict PCB exposure. PMID:26045750

  7. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls onto biochars derived from corn straw and the effect of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Ren, Xinhao; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ling; Zhu, Hongkai; Xu, Jiayao

    2016-11-01

    The sorption of three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in single-solute and bi-solute systems in the presence of propranolol was studied on biochars at pyrolyzing temperatures of 200°C (BC200) and 700°C (BC700). Hydrophobicity and molecular planarity played a major role in PCB sorption onto BC200 and BC700, respectively. The steric hindrance caused by non-planarity made the strong specific sorption sites on BC700 less accessible to nonplanar PCBs. In bi-solute systems for BC200, propranolol monomers at an initial concentration (Cinit) of 0.8mg/L inhibited the sorption of PCB4 by competing for sorption sites. Propranolol at Cinit larger than 1.2mg/L could form hemimicelle structures on the biochar surface, providing a favorable phase for PCB4 partitioning, thereby increasing Koc up to 1.15 times. For BC700, propranolol prohibited PCB4 sorption mainly by pore-blocking, with the log Koc being reduced from 4.92 to 3.94. This study informs the application of biochar in mixture-contaminated environment. PMID:27521782

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor< 1254) residues in rainbow trout: effects on sensitivity to nine fishery chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Mauck, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of background polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on the susceptibility of the fish to nine chemicals routinely or occasionally used in fishery operations was evaluated. Rainbow trout fry were divided into three groups: one was exposed to 0.01 ppb and another to 0.1 ppb of the PCB Aroclor (R) 1254; the third (control) group was unexposed. After 30 days of exposure, whole body residues were 0.28 and 2.31 ppm for fish exposed to 0.01 and 0.1 ppb, respectively; control fish had residue concentrations of 0.04 ppm. Acute toxicity tests showed that both groups of exposed fish were more sensitive to rotenone and 2,4-D. Exposure did not significantly affect sensitivity to 2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol (GD-174), 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), nifurpirinol (Furanace), tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), or copper sulfate. Fishery managers should be aware that sensitivity of fish to control chemicals may be altered by the presence of contaminants in the water or residues of contaminants in the fish.

  9. Patterns of bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Adrian M H; Meloche, Lizanne M; Lowe, Christopher J

    2009-05-15

    Marine mussels (Modiolus modiolus) and sediment from 14 stations near a municipal outfall and three reference locations were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate and compare patterns of bioaccumulation of individual congeners between these two groups of chemicals. Of the 47 PBDEs and 209 PCBs analyzed, 34 PBDE and 153 PCB congeners or coeluting groups of congeners were detected in one or more matrices. The predominant PBDE congeners were BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 209, accounting for 80-90% of the total PBDEs in all matrices. PCBs and PBDEs exhibited a parabolic relationship of the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) versus the log octanol-water partition coefficient(Kow). Below Kow 10(5.5), BSAFs ranged between 1 and 3, reflecting approximate equilibrium between mussels and sedimentforthese relatively water soluble congeners. BSAFs increased with increasing Kow to maximum values of approximately 30-100 for congeners with Kow approximately 10(7) and then declined at higher Kow to a value of approximately 1 for BDE 209. BSAFs for PBDEs were generally 2- to 3-fold higher than those for PCBs of a similar Kow. The calculated BSAFs for PBDE congeners indicate that PBDEs have a pattern of bioaccumulative behavior in mussels similar to that of the PCBs, and that some PBDE congeners may be more bioaccumulative in mussels than PCBs. PMID:19544876

  10. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  12. Label-free impedimetric immunoassay for trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Yukie; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Ohmura, Naoya; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-03-18

    A rapid, ultrasensitive, and practical label-free impedimetric immunoassay for measuring trace levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil was developed. First, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (RU6F9) for PCBs by using a designed immunogen and characterized its binding affinity for a commercial mixtures of PCBs and its main congeners. A micro comblike gold electrode was fabricated, and the antibody was covalently immobilized on the electrode through a self-assembled monolayer formed by dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate. The antigen-binding event on the surface of the functionalized electrode was determined as the change in charge transfer resistance by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting impedimetric immunoassay in aqueous solution achieved a wide determination range (0.01-10 μg/L) and a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.001 μg/L, which was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional flow-based immunoassay for PCBs. By combining the impedimetric immunoassay with a cleanup procedure for insulating oil utilizing a multilayer cleanup column followed by DMSO partitioning, an LOD of 0.052 mg/kg-oil was achieved, which satisfied the Japanese regulation criterion of 0.5 mg/kg-oil. Finally, the immunoassay was employed to determine total PCB levels in actual used insulating oils (n = 33) sampled from a used transformer containing trace levels of PCBs, and the results agreed well with the Japanese official method (HRGC/HRMS).

  13. Organochlorines including polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua

    SciTech Connect

    Hellou, J.; Warren, W.G.; Payne, J.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-three specific organochlorine contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured as three Aroclor standards were analyzed in muscle, liver, and ovaries of cod, Gadus morhua, collected in the Northwest Atlantic. In general, contaminants were undetectable in muscle tissue, while concentrations were 10 times lower in ovaries than liver (wet weight). Comparison of results to other locations indicated a similarity between the ratio of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT, in liver of cod from the northern North Sea and from the Northwest Atlantic, although with lower levels in the present study. The ratio of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH was between that of the central and northern North Sea. Similar ratios tend to indicate similar residence times in the atmosphere, from source to sampling area. Comparison of sigma PCB and sigma DDT in the liver of cod from various geographical locations showed the following general trend in concentrations: Arctic, Northwest Atlantic, West Atlantic, Norway < North Baltic, Nova Scotia, North Sea < South Baltic. It was observed that if the liver concentration of one compound was low (high), there was a tendency for all compounds to be low (high). Cluster analysis of organochlorines in liver pointed to the presence of four basic clusters, which could reflect similar physical chemical properties within a group. Concentrations of organochlorines in ovaries were below levels expected to affect egg and larval viability.

  14. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  15. Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-poisoned rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kamohara, K.; Yagi, N.; Itokawa, Y.

    1984-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-poisoned rats, the following two experiments were carried out. Experiment No. 1: Rats were separated into three groups. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 was fed a PCB-supplemented diet, and group 3 was fed a dichlorodiphyltrichloroethane (DDT)-supplemented diet. After 5 months, the rats were killed. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in livers of the PCB- and DDT-exposed rats had increased. The activity of catalase was increased in the PCB-fed rats but decreased after the administered of DDT. The glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased only in the PCB-administered rats. These results indicate that PCB and DDT have some effects to enhance lipid oxidation. It is probable that the decrease in glutathione peroxidase is the major reason for the increase of lipid oxidation in PCB-poisoned rats. The mechanism of lipid peroxidate production in DDT-poisoned rats could be different from the case of PCB poisoning. Experiment No. 2: Rats were separated into two groups. To one group, normal diet was given and to the other group PCB-supplemented diet was given. After 1 month, the rats were killed. In PCB-exposed rats, activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were increased. The increase in glutathione reductase could be compensation for a decrease in glutathione peroxidase. It is probable that PCB is metabolized to make glutathione conjugates by the action of glutathione S-transferase.

  16. Detailed analysis of polybrominated biphenyl congeners in bird eggs from Norway.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; von der Recke, Roland; Herzke, Dorte; Nygård, Torgeir

    2008-12-01

    Individual eggs of six species of birds from Norway representing different food chains were analysed for residues of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). In all species, the residue pattern was dominated by hexaBBs. The dominating congeners were PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155. Whereas PBB 153 is present in technical hexabromobiphenyl, PBB 154 and PBB 155 are formed by the reductive debromination of decabromobiphenyl. This was evidenced by the detection of several heptaBBs and octaBBs all of which are typical degradation intermediates of PBB 209. Hepta- and octaBBs were more than one order of magnitude less abundant than the hexaBBs. The second most prevailing homologue group was pentaBBs. The most relevant pentabrominated isomers were PBB 99 and PBB 101. Concentrations of the three hexaBBs--PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155--amounted to 1.3-13 ng/g wet weight or 3-23% of the contamination with polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18472199

  17. Possible carcinogenic potential of dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Botros, Sanaa Sabet; El-Lakkany, Naglaa Mohamed; Hammam, Olfat Ali; Sabra, Abdel-Naser Abdel-Aal; Taha, Alaa Awad

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) has been extensively used in the treatment of liver diseases accounting for 1–6% of the global disease burden. Cell replication, DNA synthesis, and proliferation, providing significant information about behavior of cells were examined in mice exposed to subchronic administration with DDB. Conventional liver functions specifically gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), a marker expressing liver canceration was also investigated. Normal mice were allocated into two groups each of 10 mice. The 1st and 2nd groups were treated with DDB in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week for 1 month and 3 months, respectively. Comparable groups of normal mice were left without treatment as controls. Compared to normal control group, animals receiving DDB for 3 months showed marked elevations of both alanine aminotransferase and γ-GT, significant inhibition in cytochrome P450, a significant increase in the mean ploidy and 4C with moderate to marked increase in S-phase populations and the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. In conclusion, this is the first report on the potential relationship between the subchronic administration of DDB and the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation, cell replication and DNA synthesis that may raise an alarm regarding possible DDB insult on the biological behavior of cells. PMID:27144153

  18. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch). PMID:16583259

  19. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  20. Neurobehavioral dysfunction in firemen exposed to polycholorinated biphenyls (PCBs): possible improvement after detoxification.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, K H; Warsaw, R H; Shields, M G

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen firemen exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their byproducts generated in a transformer fire and explosion had neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests 6 mo after the fire. They were re-studied 6 wk later after undergoing 2-3 wk of an experimental detoxification program consisting of medically supervised diet, exercise, and sauna. A case-control comparison with firemen matched from the same department, but who did not participate in controlling the transformer fire, had shown significant impairment of memory for stories, visual images, and digits backwards. Cognitive function was impaired for block design, identifying embedded figures, and design association and recognition using Culture Fair. Making of trails and choice reaction time, which measured cognitive function and perceptual motor speed, were also impaired. These signs of protracted neurobehavioral impairment were attributed to PCBs and heat-produced byproducts. No relationship, however, was found between the firemen's serum or fat levels of PCBs as Arochlor 1248 and their type or degree of neurobehavioral impairment. Retesting following the detoxification program showed significantly improved scores on: three memory tests, block design, trails B, and embedded figures. Thus, there was significant reversibility of impairment after the detoxification interval. However self-appraisal scores for depression, anger, and fatigue--which were initially elevated--and for vigor--which was reduced--did not change across this interval.

  1. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate attenuates hepatic and metabolic alterations in high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2016-01-01

    High fructose consumption is currently linked to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia as well as hepatic steatosis. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) is a hepatoprotectant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the effect of DDB on high fructose-induced metabolic disturbances and hepatic steatosis in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control, fructose-fed (10% in drinking water and 10% in diet), and fructose-fed DDB (300 mg/kg, orally)-treated groups. Rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 6 weeks, while DDB was administered for an additional 2 weeks. High-fructose consumption elevated serum glucose and insulin levels and impaired oral glucose tolerance test, revealing insulin resistance. It also increased serum triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase as well as visceral fat content and decreased serum high-density lipoprotein. Additionally, histopathological examination revealed that high fructose intake induced hepatic steatosis. These alterations were associated with increased serum uric acid as well as hepatic content of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DDB administration significantly ameliorated the high fructose-induced hepatic and metabolic alterations. In conclusion, DDB ameliorates high fructose-induced metabolic disorders and hepatic steatosis in rats. Such protection is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, decrease in iNOS overexpression, and reduction of elevated uric acid.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, mercury, and potential endocrine disruption in fish from the Hudson River, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sloan, R.J.; Smith, S.B.; Denslow, N.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue residues of total mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lipid-based PCBs; plasma concentrations of endocrine biomarkers; and reproductive and histologic biomarkers were assessed in 460 carp (Cyprinus carpio), bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieui), and bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from eight sites across the Hudson River Basin in the spring of 1998 to determine if endocrine disruption was evident in resident fish species and to evaluate contaminant-biomarker interrelations. Total PCBs in bed sediments (maximum 2,500 ??g kg-1) could explain 64 to 90% of the variability in lipid-based PCB residues in tissues (maximum 1,250 ??g PCB g-lipid-1) of the four species. The 17??-estradiol to 11-ketotestosterone ratio, typically less than 1.0 in male fish and greater than 1.0 in females, exceeded 1.4 in all male largemouth bass and 35% of male carp and bullhead at one site 21 km downstream from a major PCB source. Endocrine biomarkers were significantly correlated with total Hg in female smallmouth bass and carp, and with lipid-based PCBs in males of all four species. Empirical evidence of endocrine modulation in blood plasma of male and female fish from sites with and without high PCB residues in bed sediments and fish tissues suggest that PCBs, Hg, or other contaminants may disrupt normal endocrine function in fish of the Hudson River. ?? Eawag, 2006.

  3. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  4. A longitudinal examination of factors related to changes in serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels.

    PubMed Central

    Tee, P Grace; Sweeney, Anne M; Symanski, Elaine; Gardiner, Joseph C; Gasior, Donna M; Schantz, Susan L

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of sport-caught fish from the Great Lakes is a recognized source of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Understanding temporal changes in PCB body burden is crucial for evaluating exposure levels and augmenting validity of studies investigating their relationship to adverse health effects. Using data collected from 1980 to 1995, we evaluated longitudinal changes in serum PCB levels among 179 fisheaters and non-fisheaters of the Michigan Fisheater Cohort. Participants identified as fisheaters in 1980 ate 26 lb or more of sport-caught fish per year, whereas non-fisheaters ate less than 6 lb per year. We found a monotonic decline in serum PCB levels among all participants from a mean value of 24 ppb in 1980 to 12 ppb in 1994. This was paralleled by an 83% decrease in mean fish consumption among all participants over the same period. We combined demographic, lifestyle, and fish consumption information with PCB data and evaluated the data using regression models to identify predictors of PCB body burden over a 16-year period. Results of the mixed-effects linear regression model suggest that consumption of Lake Michigan fish before 1980, amount of sport-caught fish eaten in the past year, age, and year of data collection were significant determinants of current PCB body burden over the 16-year study period. PCB levels were particularly elevated for males who were classified as fisheaters in 1980, which may reflect higher levels of sport-caught fish consumption compared with female fisheaters. PMID:12727597

  5. Structural properties of platinum(II) biphenyl complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rillema, D. Paul; Cruz, Arvin J.; Tasset, Brandon J.; Moore, Curtis; Siam, Khamis; Huang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Seven platinum(II) complexes formulated as Pt(bph)L, where bph is the 2,2'-biphenyl dianion and L = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4-Mephen), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Mephen), 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Clphen), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5,6-Me2phen), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Me2phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Ph2phen) and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-Me4phen) are reported. Protons attached to the phen ligand resonate downfield from those attached to the bph ligand and two proton signals are split by interaction with 195Pt. Pt(bph)(3,4,7,8-Me4phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(5,6-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Ph2phen) and Pt(bph)(5-Mephen) crystallize in the space groups Pna21, P21/n, P21/c, P - 1 and Pca21, respectively. The structures of the complexes deviate from true planarity and divide themselves into two groups where the bph and phen ligands cross in an X configuration or bow out in a butterfly (B) configuration. Circular dichroism revealed two different spectra with respect to the X and B configurations.

  6. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclors 1254 and 1016) on fertilization efficiency in Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, R.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure of the eggs of the purple sea urchin Arbacia punctulata to two of the commonly-occurring commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors 1254 and 1016. Eggs were exposed to PCB's 25 minutes prior to insemination and continuously thereafter. The PCB's were administered as a component of a filtered-sea-water medium (FSW). Since Arbacia eggs cleave synchronously following insemination, the percentage of eggs cleaving at 1.75 hr post-insemination was used to determine the fertilization efficiency. Toxicant concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L were employed for both Aroclors. A FSW control and a FSW-acetone control was employed since acetone was used in a 49:1, acetone:PCB ratio, to emulsify the PCB's. Differences in control and PCB exposed groups were tested using Chi square at a 95% level of confidence. Both PCB's affected the fertilization efficiency once the threshold was achieved. The Aroclor 1016 proved to be much more toxic than Aroclor 1254. These results agree with the data previously achieved using Hydraologactis as the experimental organism.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  8. A simple method for the quantitative microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from soils and sediments.

    SciTech Connect

    Szostek, B.; Tinklenberg, J. A.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Environmental Research

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate the quantitative extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from environmental solids by using a microscale adaptation of pressurized fluid extraction ({mu}PFE). The stainless steel extraction cells are filled with a solid sample and solvent and are heated at elevated temperature. After cooling the cell to room temperature, we determined PCBs in the extract by direct injection to a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detection system. This extraction method was tested on a set of PCB-spiked solid matrices and on a PCB-contaminated river sediment (KIST SRM 1939). Recoveries were measured for eight PCB congeners spiked into two soil types with hexane extraction at 100{sup o}C (>81.9 {+-} 5.4% to 112.5 {+-} 10.1 %). The extraction process for SRM 1939 with hexane at 300{sup o}C provided significantly higher recoveries for several representative PCB congeners than reported for a duplicate 16-hour Soy-Wet extraction with a mixture of organic solvents (acetone/hexane).

  9. Dissolution of benzene, naphthalene, and biphenyl in a simulated Titan lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, Michael J.; Hodyss, Robert

    2014-11-01

    We constructed a laboratory apparatus capable of measuring the saturation equilibrium concentration (csat) and dissolution rate constants (keff) of organic solutes in ethane at 94 K. We determined a csat of 18.5 ± 1.9 mg L-1, 0.159 ± 0.003 mg L-1, and 0.039 ± 0.006 mg L-1 for benzene, naphthalene, and biphenyl, respectively. The derived csat and keff can be used to predict the dissolution behavior of the materials in ethane under Titan conditions. The aromatic materials dissolved relatively quickly in liquid ethane at 94 K, reaching saturation in less than 2 h. The dissolution characteristics of benzene in ethane at 94 K are compared to those of terrestrial karst-forming materials in water at 298 K, and are used to constrain Titan surface processes. We discuss the implications of our measurements on the formation of karst on Titan, the concentration of organics in Titan's lakes, and the formation of evaporite deposits during lake evaporation.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  11. Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.S.; Garrison, A.W.; Smith, P.D.; Foreman, W.T.

    2001-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic enantiomeric fractions (EFs) were observed for PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 for aquatic and riparian biota from Lake Hartwell, SC, a reservoir heavily contaminated with PCBs, and for these congeners and PCBs 132, 174, 176, and 183 in river fish and bivalves nationwide. Fish and bivalves showed marked differences in EFs as compared to sediment found at the same sampling sites, thus suggesting that PCBs are bioprocessed in biota in a different manner from those found in sediment (e.g., reductive dechlorination). Species-dependent patterns in PCB EFs were observed, which suggest differences in the ability of different species to bioprocess PCBs enantioselectively, most likely by metabolism. The presence of nonracemic PCBs in fish and bivalves suggests greater metabolic degradation of PCBs in these organisms than indicated from previous achiral studies and underscores the powerful potential of chiral analysis as a tracer of environmental bioprocesses.

  12. Effect of polybrominated biphenyls on hepatic excretory function in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Cagen, S Z; Gibson, J E

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) on hepatic excretory function in developing and adult rats and mice. Prenatal or postnatal dietary exposure to PBBs (50 ppm in diet of pregnant or lactating mother or in diet of rat weanlings) resulted in elevated liver weight in developing rats. In 15-day-old rats that had been treated with PBBs increased liver weight correlated to enhanced ouabain transport from plasma into bile. Liver weight was also elevated in 21, 35, and 49-day-old rats exposed to PBBs, but this effect was not associated with stimulation of ouabain transport in these animals. However, adult rats fed 100 ppm PBBs for two weeks had significantly lower plasma concentrations of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and increased biliary excretion of BSP, when compared to controls. PBBs-fed adult rats also excreted a greater percentage conjugated BSP (BSP-GSH) into bile. Two week dietary treatment of 100, 150, and 200 ppm PBBs resulted in enhanced initial disappearance of indocyanine green (ICG) from plasma of adult mice. However, dietary doses of 100 and 200 ppm PBBs to adult mice was not associated with enhanced capacity for ouabain excretion. In contrast, treatment with PBBs through the mother's diet (50 ppm) resulted in an almost twofold increase in cumulative ouabain excretion in 15-day-old mice. The results suggest that PBBs stimulate hepatic drug elimination in rats and mice, but the magnitude of the effect is dependent on age and transported compound.

  13. Effects of chlorobenzoate transformation on the Pseudomonas testosteroni biphenyl and chlorobiphenyl degradation pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Sondossi, M; Sylvestre, M; Ahmad, D

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial conversion of biphenyl (BP) and chlorobiphenyls (CBPs) to benzoates and chlorobenzoates (CBAs) proceeds by introduction of molecular oxygen at the 2,3 position, followed by a 1,2-meta cleavage of the molecule. Complete mineralization of CBPs requires the presence of two sets of genes, one for the transformation fo CBPs into CBAs and a second for the degradation of CBAs. It has been shown previously that removal of the CBAs produced from the degradation of CBPs is essential for efficient degradation of CBPs. In this study we confirmed that CBAs inhibit BP and CBP transformation in Pseudomonas testosteroni B-356. Among the three monochlorobenzoates tested, 3-chlorobenzoate was the most effective inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that in strain B-356, CBA transformation is controlled by BP-induced oxygenases that are not present in benzoate-grown cells. We found that this BP-linked CBA transformation pathway transformed CBAs produced from CBPs into several metabolites, including chlorocatechols and corresponding muconic semialdehydes. These metabolites inhibited the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase, while CBAs by themselves had no effect on this enzyme. Therefore, on the basis of this and other observations, it appears that when CBAs produced from CBPs accumulate in the growth medium, they are converted into unproductive metabolites that reduce the flux of the BP and CBP degradation pathway. The practical implications of these interactions on the microbial degradation of polychlorinated BPs are also discussed. PMID:1610172

  14. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  15. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  16. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  17. Unravelling the Relationship between Body Mass Index and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations Using a Mechanistic Model.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen A; Xu, Feng; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-20

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) often reveals statistical associations between persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and body mass index (BMI). Both negative and positive associations have been observed, which has been hypothesized to reflect variable toxicokinetics in lean and obese individuals during times of increasing and decreasing exposure. We examined this hypothesis and assessed the influence of the obesity epidemic on time trends in human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at the population level using a mechanistic modeling approach and data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Using model results for PCB-153, we simulated cross-sectional body burden versus BMI trends (CBBTs), as well as population level body burden versus time trends. Negative associations between PCB-153 concentrations and BMI are predicted for all birth cohorts in HBM studies conducted in the 1990s, while for future cross-sectional studies, we predict negative or positive relationships depending on the age group sampled. At the population level, demographic changes such as the obesity epidemic and population aging had only marginal influence on the simulated rate of decline in PCB-153 concentrations between 1980 and 2010. Mechanistic bioaccumulation models can help unravel relationships between age, BMI, and POP concentrations, informing efforts to understand potential obesogenic effects of POPs. PMID:27616073

  18. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dirinck, Eveline; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites. PMID:27089353

  19. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  20. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schoeters, Greet; Hoogenboom, Ron

    2006-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentrations of these contaminants in food and feed is needed. Eggs from free-range chicken are increasingly becoming an important part of the diet. These eggs have a higher risk of being contaminated with increased levels of dioxins and DL-PCB than barn or cage eggs. Ingestion of soil particles from environmentally contaminated areas may contribute to elevated dioxin levels in free-range chicken eggs. Available data show that current soil levels of dioxins and DL-PCB in residential and agricultural areas in Europe often appear to be too high to produce free-range eggs with dioxin levels below the current limit values in the EU. On the other hand, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations in eggs from free-range chicken are not necessarily above the limit values. Contamination levels in soil should be kept low and should be controlled in areas with free foraging chicken although all modifying factors that influence uptake of dioxins and PCB from the environment and transfer into eggs are yet not well understood.

  1. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. PMID:27043381

  2. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  3. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-yi; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-hua; Zhang, Qin

    2011-02-15

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO(2) under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO(2) is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO(2). The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO(2) in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  4. Dry deposition of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, T.P.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holsen, T.M.

    1998-12-01

    Dry deposition was collected from November 1993 to October 1995 at multiple sites within the Lake Michigan basin to estimate fluxes of particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS). Samples were also collected during the Atmospheric Exchange over Lakes and Oceans (AEOLOS) project to estimate fluxes to coastal waters adjacent to the Chicago urban area. Fluxes of particulate PCBs and PAHs were higher in Chicago than <15 km offshore and at rural sites. Geometric mean dry deposition fluxes across the Lake Michigan basin ranged from 3.6 to 65 mg/m{sup 2}-day for particle mass, 0.06 to 0.21 {micro}g/m{sup 2}-day for {Sigma}-PCBs, and 0.25 to 18 {micro}g/m{sup 2}-day for {Sigma}-PAHs. Similarities in both the distribution pattern of PCB congeners and PAHs and the magnitude of their fluxes between dry deposition and surficial sediment suggest that dry deposition may dominate loadings to the lake. Conservative estimates of loadings to Lake Michigan through particle dry deposition are estimated to be 1100 kg/yr for PCBs and 5000 kg/yr for PAHs. These loadings are more than 3{times} greater than loadings by wet deposition and, for PCBs, are similar to inputs by air/water exchange.

  5. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites.

  6. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation.

  7. Workshop on human health impacts of halogenated biphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Kamrin, M A; Fischer, L J

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on the Human Health Impacts of Halogenated Biphenyls and Related Compounds was held to assess the state of current research on these chemicals and to make recommendations for future studies. Participants discussed results from laboratory animal experiments on PCBs, PBBs, dioxins, and dibenzofurans which demonstrate a common mode of toxicological action while also revealing large variations in toxicological potency both within and between these chemical families. These variations demonstrate the importance of congener-specific analyses in future studies of effects of exposure to these compounds. Results from epidemiological studies of environmentally exposed adult and pediatric populations from the U.S., Japan, and Taiwan and occupationally exposed cohorts from around the world were considered. It was concluded that available evidence did not demonstrate serious adverse effects such as cancer, in exposed adult cohorts but did provide indications of possible neurobehavioral effects in children exposed in utero. In addition, workshop participants described newly developed markers of exposure and techniques for assessing endocrinological, immunological, and neurological effects and suggested these be applied to epidemiological studies of the effects of polyhalogenated compounds. Other recommendations included identification of other cohorts and development of a large registry of exposed individuals; performance of detailed studies of reproductive function and outcomes in exposed populations; and follow up of neurobehavioral effects in offspring of exposed women. PMID:1674906

  8. Determination of the Sampler Type and Rainfall Effect on the Deposition Fluxes of the Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Birgül, Askin; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration and deposition samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 in an urban sampling site Yavuzselim, Turkey. Eighty-three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were targeted in the collected samples. It was found that 90% of the total PCB concentration was in the gas phase. Deposition samples were collected by a wet-dry deposition sampler (WDDS) and a bulk deposition sampler (BDS). Average total deposition fluxes measured with the BDS in dry periods was 5500 ± 2400 pg/(m2day); average dry deposition fluxes measured by the WDDS in the same period were 6400 ± 3300 pg/(m2day). The results indicated that the sampler type affected the measured flux values. Bulk deposition samples were also collected in rainy periods by using the BDS and the average flux value was 8700 ± 3100 pg/(m2day). The measured flux values were lower than the values reported for the urban and industrial areas. Dry deposition velocities for the WDDS and BDS samples were calculated 0.48 ± 0.35 cm/s and 0.13 ± 0.15 cm/s, respectively. PMID:22629199

  9. Human Valacyclovir Hydrolase/Biphenyl Hydrolase-Like Protein Is a Highly Efficient Homocysteine Thiolactonase

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew G.; Rademacher, Peter M.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Rettie, Allan E.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteinylation of lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL), a reactive homocysteine metabolite, results in protein aggregation and malfunction, and is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurological diseases. Human plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) have been reported as the physiological HCTL detoxifying enzymes. However, the catalytic efficiency of HCTL hydrolysis by Blmh is low and not saturated at 20 mM HCTL. The catalytic efficiency of PON1 for HCTL hydrolysis is 100-fold lower than that of Blmh. A homocysteine thiolactonase (HCTLase) was purified from human liver and identified by mass spectrometry (MS) as the previously described human biphenyl hydrolase-like protein (BPHL). To further characterize this newly described HCTLase activity, BPHL was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The sequence of the recombinant BPHL (rBPHL) and hydrolytic products of the substrates HCTL and valacyclovir were verified by MS. We found that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of rBPHL for HCTL hydrolysis was 7.7 × 104 M−1s−1, orders of magnitude higher than that of PON1 or Blmh, indicating a more significant physiological role for BPHL in detoxifying HCTL. PMID:25333274

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) induced changes in femur morphometry calcium metabolism and nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. Fischer 344 rats were dosed daily IG for 5, 10, or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, liver weight and liver-to-body weight ratio were increased at the two higher dose levels. Overt toxicity was observed at the highest dose level after 10 and 15 weeks as evidenced by significantly smaller body weight. Urinary alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure and the kidney-to-body weight ratios were elevated at the 10 and 25 mg/kg dose levels after 10 and 15 weeks of exposure indicating nephrotoxicity. Hypercalcemia was present at the highest dose level after 5 and 10 weeks of exposure but serum calcium concentration was normal at 15 weeks. Serum triglycerides were significantly elevated after 5 weeks of exposure but were significantly decreased after 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure. Serum cholesterol was significantly elevated at the two higher dose levels at all three periods. The results demonstrate that PCB exposure effects calcium metabolism and bone morphometry and is nephrotoxic.

  11. Accumulation Features of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Resident and Migratory Birds from South India

    PubMed

    Tanabe; Senthilkumar; Kannan; Subramanian

    1998-05-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in whole-body homogenates of resident and migratory birds collected from South India. Organochlorine contamination pattern in birds varied depending on their migratory behaviour. Resident birds contained relatively greater concentrations of HCHs (14-8,800 ng/g wet wt) than DDTs and PCBs concentrations. In contrast, migrants exhibited elevated concentrations of PCBs (20-4,400 ng/g wet wt). The sex differences in concentrations and burdens of organochlorines in birds were pronounced, with females containing lower levels than males. Inland piscivores and scavengers accumulated greater concentrations of HCHs and DDTs while coastal piscivores contained comparable or greater amounts of PCBs. Global comparison of organochlorine concentrations indicated that resident birds in India had the highest residues of HCHs and moderate to high residues of DDTs. It is, therefore, proposed that migratory birds wintering in India acquire considerable amounts of HCHs and DDTs. Estimates of hazards associated with organochlorine levels in resident and migratory birds in India suggested that Pond Heron, Little Ringed Plover, and Terek Sandpiper may be at risk from exposure to DDTs.

  12. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n = 290) were evaluated at birth and at 8–14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Results Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and a tendency to a smaller head circumference during childhood. Interpretation Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduce growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. PMID:25042032

  13. Toxicological assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites in the liver of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Hirakawa, Shusaku; Eguchi, Akifumi; Kanbara, Chika; Imaeda, Daisuke; Yoo, Jean; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-18

    We have previously reported that high accumulation of dioxins and related compounds induced cytochrome P450 (CYP 1s) isozymes in the liver of wild Baikal seals, implying the enhanced hydroxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study attempted to elucidate the residue concentrations and patterns of PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in the livers of Baikal seals. The hepatic residue concentrations were used to assess the potential effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs in combination with the analyses of serum thyroid hormones, hepatic mRNA levels, and biochemical markers. The hepatic expression levels of CYP1 genes were positively correlated with the concentration of each OH-PCB congener. This suggests chronic induction of these CYP1 isozymes by exposure to PCBs and hydroxylation of PCBs induced by CYP 1s. Hepatic mRNA expression monitoring using a custom microarray showed that chronic exposure to PCBs and their metabolites alters the gene expression levels related to oxidative stress, iron ion homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. In addition, the concentrations of OH-PCBs were negatively correlated with L-thyroxine (T4) levels and the ratios of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)/reverse 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyroninee (rT3). These observations imply that Baikal seals contaminated with high levels of OH-PCBs may undergo the disruption of mechanisms related to the formation (or metabolism) of T3 and T4 in the liver.

  14. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  15. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from

  18. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  19. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Great Lakes fish, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengchih; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Milligan, Michael S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-11-15

    Temporal trend analysis of the latest Great Lake Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) data showed statistically significant decreases in persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) contaminant (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane and its metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor) concentrations in Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan lake trout over the period of 1999 to 2009. In contrast, for most contaminants, no statistically significant concentration trends were found in top predator fish in Lakes Superior and Erie during the same period. For Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan 5.0 ± 2.6% average annual concentration decreases were found for PCBs, DDTs, dieldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides (OCs) decreased at a faster rate, ranging from 10 ± 4.3% to 20 ± 7.1% per year. For these three lakes, with the exception of PCBs, these current decreases are greater than were shown by an earlier trend analysis that estimated an annual contaminant decrease of about 2-5% for the period of 1980 to 2003. For Lakes Superior and Erie, the finding of no statistically significant trend is in agreement with previously reported results for these lakes.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly.

  1. Effect of sediment remediation on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in tomatoes grown near New Bedford Harbor.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alison C; Altshul, Larisa M; Vorhees, Donna J

    2007-10-01

    Measurements of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations and profiles from produce grown near New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, before, during, and after remediation of PCB-contaminated sediment are presented. Samples of tomatoes collected from locations upwind and downwind relative to harbor contamination are compared with the use of measurements of 47 individual PCB congeners. The PCB concentration in the locally grown tomatoes, as expressed by the sum of congeners, is highest during the period of harbor dredging and drops to its lowest point after remediation, which included dredging and excavation. The downwind location is characterized by higher concentrations of PCBs than the upwind location in every time period. Principal component analysis is used to distinguish both the effect of remediation over time and the effect of cultivation location on the congener profiles. Evidence of the PCB congener profile representing the contaminated harbor sediments is strongest during the dredging period and in the downwind location. These results have important implications for understanding human exposure via the food chain and highlight the importance of considering exposure pathways related to atmospheric transport during remediation of contaminated sediments.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Temperate Alpine Glacier: 2. Model Results of Chemical Fate Processes.

    PubMed

    Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Lüthi, Martin P; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-15

    We present results from a chemical fate model quantifying incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the Silvretta glacier, a temperate Alpine glacier located in Switzerland. Temperate glaciers, in contrast to cold glaciers, are glaciers where melt processes are prevalent. Incorporation of PCBs into cold glaciers has been quantified in previous studies. However, the fate of PCBs in temperate glaciers has never been investigated. In the model, we include melt processes, inducing elution of water-soluble substances and, conversely, enrichment of particles and particle-bound chemicals. The model is validated by comparing modeled and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core collected in the Silvretta accumulation area. We quantify PCB incorporation between 1900 and 2010, and discuss the fate of six PCB congeners. PCB concentrations in the ice core peak in the period of high PCB emissions, as well as in years with strong melt. While for lower-chlorinated PCB congeners revolatilization is important, for higher-chlorinated congeners, the main processes are storage in glacier ice and removal by particle runoff. This study gives insight into PCB fate and dynamics and reveals the effect of snow accumulation and melt processes on the fate of semivolatile organic chemicals in a temperate Alpine glacier. PMID:26632968

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gillan, K.A.; Haffner, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    Green frogs were collected from seven southern Ontario, Canada, locations and analyzed for chlorinated organic chemicals to establish the relative distribution of these chemicals at specific sites. At Hillman Marsh, a wildlife reserve in an agricultural area, green frogs accumulated significantly greater amount of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than green frogs from all other collection sites. The source of PCBs is unknown. At Ancaster, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) accumulated in green frogs to a significantly greater extent than at all other sites. This was attributed to the presence of agriculture at Ancaster and the historic use of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in agriculture. Chemical concentrations measured in green frogs from all locations were considerably lower than reported levels in other species resulting in observable effects. Specific data relating chronic effects in amphibians to environmental exposure to DDE and PCBs is lacking. Contaminant accumulation in southern Ontario amphibians may be an important factor contributing to amphibian declines only at specific sites.

  4. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Housatonic River and adjacent aquifer, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, Frederick B.; Frimpter, Michael H.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are sorbed to the fine-grained stream-bottom sediments along the Housatonic River from Pittsfield, Massachusetts, southward to the Massachusetts-Connecticut boundary. The highest PCB concentrations, up to 140,000 micrograms per kilogram, were found in samples of bottom material from a reach of the river between Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lee, Massachusetts. Sediments in Woods Pond have been estimated to contain about 11,000 pounds of PCB's. Approximately 490 pounds per year of PCB's have also been estimated to move past the Housatonic River gaging station at Great Barrington. The distribution of hydraulic heads, water temperatures, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese in ground water shows that industrial water-supply wells in a sand and gravel aquifer adjacent to a stretch of the river called Woods Pond have been inducing ground-water recharge through the PCB-contaminated bottom sediments of the pond since late 1956. These data indicate that, at one location along the shore of the pond, the upper 40 feet of the aquifer contains water derived from induced infiltration. However, this induced recharge has not moved PCB's from the bottom sediments into a vertical section of the aquifer located 5 feet downgradient from the edge of Woods Pond. Samples taken at selected intervals in this section showed that no PCB's sorbed to the aquifer material or dissolved in the ground water within the detection limits of the chemical analyses.

  5. Particle-Dissolved Phase Partition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in High Altitude Alpine Lakes.

    PubMed

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-08-18

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases in two high altitude alpine lakes was determined by the quantity, size structure, or composition of suspended particles. Within- and between-lakes differences in water-particulate phase partition coefficient (Kp) were not related to total suspended matter, phytoplankton biomass, or taxonomic composition. Yet, a seasonal relationship between Kp and Kow was detected for both lakes, revealing equilibrium of PCBs partition when lakes were ice covered. On the contrary, PCBs partitioning between particles and water appeared kinetically limited during the open water season. Partition is therefore mainly governed by thermodynamic laws during the ice-covered period, while none of the tested physical or biological parameters seemed to explain the distribution of these particle-reactive contaminants in the open water period. PCBs were always mainly associated with particulate matter, but partitioning within different particulate size-fractions varied between seasons and between years during open water periods. When ice cover is absent, PCBs were mainly adsorbed on microplankton, the largest phytoplanktonic size fraction, which is the least likely to get grazed by pelagic microconsumers. PMID:26189929

  6. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D E

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation included peak disappearance, formation of a phenylhexdienoate ring fission product, and chlorobenzoate accumulation in the culture supernatant. Carvone was not utilized as a growth substrate and was toxic at concentrations of greater than 500 mg liter-1. Several compounds structurally related to l-carvone, including limonene, p-cymene, and isoprene, also induced cometabolism of PCBs by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B. A structure-activity analysis showed that chemicals with an unsaturated p-menthane structural motif promoted the strongest cometabolism activity. These data suggest that certain plant-derived terpenoids may be useful for promoting enhanced rates of PCB biodegradation by soil bacteria. PMID:9143124

  7. Deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the vicinity of a steel manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Jin, Guangzhu; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) bulk deposition were investigated at four sites at and around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, South Korea from January 2008 to May 2009. The steel complex site showed the highest average deposition fluxes of 74.0, 2.1, and 41.6 ng m-2 day-1 for ∑tri-decaPCBs (Tri-DecaCBs), ∑12PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs), and ∑8PBDEs (8 PBDE congeners), respectively, indicating the steel complex is an important source of PCBs and PBDEs. The PCB deposition was dominated by Tri-TetraCBs and BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener. No clear seasonal variation of PCB and PBDE deposition was observed except at the steel complex site. Precipitation appeared to play an important role in the deposition distribution of PCBs, especially when the lowly chlorinated homologues dominated. In addition, the contribution of DL PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to the total TEQ (toxicity equivalent quantity) showed a seasonal variation and should not be neglected in the vicinity of a steel complex.

  8. Dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, Randy K.

    2002-01-01

    Sediments from the Wisconsin River, WI, USA are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Wet weight concentrations of TCDD and PCBs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus; geometric MEAN=7 pg/g TCDD and 0.92 I?g/g PCBs) and lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (Aix sponsa) (<1 pg/g and 0.07 I?g/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) were intermediate (<1 pg/g and 0.33 I?g/g). Positive accumulation rates of TCDD (8a??19 pg/day) and PCBs (0.4a??0.7 I?g/day) in tree swallow nestlings suggest that the Wisconsin River is the source of these contaminants for tree swallow nestlings. The lower representation of trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachorobiphenyls in hooded merganser eggs compared to wood duck or tree swallow eggs suggests that the hooded merganser or its diet has a greater ability to metabolize lower-numbered PCB congeners than wood ducks or tree swallows.

  9. Loading capacity and chromatographic behavior of a porous graphitic carbon column for polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Feltz, K.; O'Laughlin, J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A porous graphitic carbon column (Hypercarb) was used for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into classes of 2-4 ortho chlorines, 1 ortho chlorine and 0 ortho chlorine congeners. A method was developed that combined the fractionation of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a variety of biotic environmental samples. Many of these samples have high concentrations of PCBs which cause fractionation problems as adsorption sites on the graphitic surface are occupied. The loading capacity of the column for PCBs was determined by injecting up to 1 mg of total PCBs and monitoring changes in chromatographic behavior of tetra-/di-ortho, mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs. Effective loading capacities were 1 mg for tetra-/di-ortho PCBs, but only 3- 5 ??g for non-ortho PCBs and about 2 ??g for mono-ortho PCBs. Loading capacity of the PGC column for environmental fish and avian egg samples was determined to depend on the mono-ortho and non-ortho PCB levels found in these samples.

  10. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury exposure in inuit women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, G; Ayotte, P; Dewailly E; Jacobson, S W; Jacobson, J L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern Québec. We interviewed women from three communities at mid-pregnancy and at 1 and 11 months postpartum. We measured PCBs, Hg, and selenium in maternal blood; Hg was also measured in maternal hair. The women reported eating significant amounts of fish, beluga muktuk/fat, seal meat, and seal fat. Although consumption of fish and seal was associated with lower socioeconomic status, consumption of beluga whale was uniform across strata. Fish and seal meat consumption was associated with increased Hg concentrations in hair. Traditional food intake during pregnancy was unrelated to PCB body burden, which is more a function of lifetime consumption. This study corroborated previous findings relating marine mammal and fish consumption to increased Hg and selenium body burden. Despite widespread knowledge regarding the presence of these contaminants in traditional foods, a large proportion of Inuit women increased their consumption of these foods during pregnancy, primarily because of pregnancy-related changes in food preferences and the belief that these foods are beneficial during pregnancy. PMID:11673127

  11. Biochemical and toxicopathic biomarkers assessed in smallmouth bass recovered from a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Cacela, D; Beltman, D; Teh, S J; Okihiro, M S; Hinton, D E; Denslow, N; Zelikoff, J T

    2003-01-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected to quantify the nature and prevalence of biomarker responses, including biochemical indices, toxicopathic lesions and general health indices, among fish collected from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated and nearby uncontaminated reaches of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, USA. Blood and tissue samples (gill, liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, thyroid and gonads) were collected and preserved at necropsy for biochemical and histological analyses. The body condition factor and liver somatic index were significantly lower in fish collected from the downstream, contaminated site. Plasma vitellogenin was not detected in male fish collected from either site. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and liver and spleen superoxide dismutase activity were significantly depressed in fish collected from the downstream site. Significant toxicopathic lesions such as glycogen depletion, enhanced macrophage aggregates, hepatic foci of cellular alteration (i.e. preneoplastic lesions) and neoplasia were also detected in the liver of fish collected from the downstream site. This study indicates that many of the biochemical and histopathological biomarker responses were associated with liver and body tissue PCB concentrations. Taken together, the biomarkers of exposure and effect strongly suggest that fish within the downstream site are adversely affected by PCBs and other chemical stressors. PMID:14602522

  12. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 formed biphenyl as final product

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The desulphurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT), a recalcitrant thiophenic fossil fuel component by Serratia marcescens (UCP 1549) in order for reducing the Sulphur content was investigated. The Study was carried out establishing the growth profile using Luria Bertani medium to different concentrations of DBT during 120 hours at 28°C, and orbital Shaker at 150 rpm. Results The results indicated that concentrations of DBT 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM do not affected the growth of the bacterium. The DBT showed similar Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MCB) (3.68 mM). The desulphurization of DBT by S. marcescens was used with 96 hours of growth on 2 mM of DBT, and was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. In order to study the desulphurization process by S. marcescens was observed the presence of a sulfur-free product at 16 hours of cultivation. Conclusions The data suggests the use of metabolic pathway “4S” by S. marcescens (UCP 1549) and formed biphenyl. The microbial desulphurization process by Serratia can be suggest significant reducing sulphur content in DBT, and showed promising potential for reduction of the sulfur content in diesel oil. PMID:22583489

  13. Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the New York/New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Du, Songyan; Xiao, Baohua; Fennell, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor (also known as the Hudson River Estuary) is heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising in part from inputs from the Upper Hudson River, which is a Superfund site containing historical PCB contamination, and also due to inputs from the New York City metropolitan area. The Contamination Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) measured PCBs and other contaminants in ambient water samples collected throughout the Harbor region during 1998-2001. In order to investigate the sources of PCBs to the NY/NJ Harbor, this data base of PCB concentrations was analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This analysis resolved seven factors that are thought to be associated with sources such as the Upper Hudson River, storm water runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and wastewater effluents. The PMF model also produced a factor that appears to be related to sites contaminated with Aroclor 1260. To the extent that the NY/NJ Harbor is typical of urbanized estuaries throughout the United States, these results suggest that storm water runoff is probably a significant source of PCBs to surface waters in urban areas. PMID:21421250

  14. Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lloyd R; Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Hwang, Syni-An A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2011-10-01

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Indoor air PCB concentrations in the study area homes were not significantly different than in the comparison area homes. Total PCB concentrations in the study area homes ranged from 0.3 to 114.3 ng/m(3) (median 7.9). For the comparison area homes, concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 233.3 ng/m(3) (median 6.8). No correlations were found between PCB concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, with indoor concentrations generally 20 times higher than outdoor concentrations. Of the home characteristics cataloged, the presence of fluorescent lights was significantly associated with total PCB concentration in the study area only. The indoor PCB concentrations measured in this study are similar to those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States. PMID:21136249

  15. Chiral source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Hudson River estuary atmosphere and food web.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wong, Charles S; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2007-09-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary is subject to significant contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from numerous sources, including the historically contaminated Upper Hudson River, stormwater runoff and sewer overflows, and atmospheric deposition from PCBs originating from the surrounding urban area. However, the relative importance of these sources to the estuary's food web is not fully understood. Sources of PCBs to the estuary were apportioned using chiral signatures of PCBs in air, water, total suspended matter, phytoplankton, and sediment. PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were racemic in the atmosphere of the estuary. However, the other phases contained nonracemic PCB 95 and to a lesser extent PCB 149. Thus, the predominant atmospheric source of these congeners is likely unweathered local pollution and not volatilization from the estuary. The similarity in chiral signatures in the other phases is consistent with dynamic contaminant exchange among them. Chiral signatures in the dissolved phase and total suspended matter were correlated with Upper Hudson discharge, suggesting thatthe delivery of nonracemic contaminated sediment from the Upper Hudson, not the atmosphere, controls phytoplankton uptake of some PCBs. Thus, measures to control PCB contamination in the Upper Hudson should be effective in reducing loadings to the estuary's aquatic ecosystem. PMID:17937297

  16. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Fort Edward, New York, water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, M.; Fogelman, K.; Hoeflein, J.; Lindh, T.; Pastel, M.; Trench, W. C.; Aikens, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been determined in the water, in the soils and sediments, and in the biota of a small upstate New York public water supply system, which is near the heavily polluted section of the Hudson River and a disposal site for PCB-containing waste. The impounded water exhibits a significant and relatively uniform level of Aroclor 1016, whereas the ground and surface waters supplying the reservoir do not. Rainfall, which exhibits a high level of Aroclor 1016, constitutes a small but significant source of PCB input. Soil and sediment samples exhibit significant median levels of both Aroclor 1016 and Aroclor 1254, but the local concentrations vary widely. The biota exhibit much higher PCB levels than the water or sediments, and show a strong preference for Aroclor 1254. The PCB levels in the macroinvertebrates are particularly high, suggesting that these organisms may provide a useful indicator for monitoring PCB contamination in aquatic systems. Risk assessment indicates that the lifetime incremental risk of cancer associated with the drinking water is below 10-6. Management of such low levels of PCB contamination is best achieved by reducing the input of PCBs.

  17. Enantiomer fractions of polychlorinated biphenyls in three selected Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Joshua A; Bleackley, Derek S; Warner, Nicholas A; Wong, Charles S

    2007-01-01

    The enantiomer composition of six chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in three different certified Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 1946 (Lake Superior fish tissue), SRM 1939a (PCB Congeners in Hudson River Sediment), and SRM 2978 (organic contaminants in mussel tissue--Raritan Bay, New Jersey) to aid in quality assurance/quality control methodologies in the study of chiral pollutants in sediments and biota. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, and 183 were measured using a suite of chiral columns by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations of target analytes were in agreement with certified values. Target analyte EFs in reference materials were measured precisely (<2% relative standard deviation), indicating the utility of SRM in quality assurance/control methodologies for analyses of chiral compounds in environmental samples. Measured EFs were also in agreement with previously published analyses of similar samples, indicating that similar enantioselective processes were taking place in these environmental matrices. PMID:16777177

  18. Bayesian model for fate and transport of polychlorinated biphenyl in upper Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, L.J.; Reckhow, K.H.; Wolpert, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Modelers of contaminant fate and transport in surface waters typically rely on literature values when selecting parameter values for mechanistic models. While the expert judgment with which these selections are made is valuable, the information contained in contaminant concentration measurements should not be ignored. In this full-scale Bayesian analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the upper Hudson River, these two sources of information are combined using Bayes` theorem. A simulation model for the fate and transport of the PCBs in the upper Hudson River forms the basis of the likelihood function while the prior density is developed from literature values. The method provides estimates for the anaerobic biodegradation half-life, aerobic biodegradation plus volatilization half-life, contaminated sediment depth, and resuspension velocity of 4,400 d, 3.2 d, 0.32 m, and 0.02 m/yr, respectively. These are significantly different than values obtained with more traditional methods, and are shown to produce better predictions than those methods when used in a cross-validation study.

  19. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.

  20. Bioaccumulation patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in northwest Atlantic pilot whales

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, A.V.; Shea, D.; Moore, M.J.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2000-03-01

    Contaminant exposure is widespread among marine mammals but is of unknown significance. This study characterized organochlorine bioaccumulation in pilot whales, and these bioaccumulation patterns are proposed as representative of Northwest (NW) Atlantic cetacea. Samples were collected from whales stranded in Massachusetts and caught in nets. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and chlorinated pesticide concentrations were determined via GC/ECD and found to be similar to those reported for other NW Atlantic odontocetes. The organochlorine in highest concentration was 4,4{prime}-DDE, followed by trans-nonachlor, 4,4{prime}-DDD, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, C14(52), C15(95), C15(101), C15(118), C16(138), C16(149), C16(153), C17(180), and C17(187). The concentration of 19 pesticides was higher in blubber than liver. The concentration of 26 PCB congeners was also greater in blubber than liver. Principal component analysis and ANOVA indicated that blubber accumulated proportionately more of the most recalcitrant compounds, such as 4,4{prime}-DDE and nonmetabolizable PCBs, compared to liver. Whales that stranded together had more similar bioaccumulation than animals of the same gender or maturity. The high variation among individuals in tissue concentrations and the similarity within a stranding group suggest that pilot whale pods are exposed to a large range of pollutant sources, such as through different prey and feeding locations.

  1. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

  2. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    PubMed

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from <4 wk to >3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (<4 wk; 5230 ± 2170 ng/g lipid wt) determined to not significantly differ from those quantified in >3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Kurita-Matsuba, H.; Weseloh, D.V.; Ross, P.S.; Bishop, C.A.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.; Kubiak, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the overall potency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing extracts from double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritis) eggs with an in vitro bioassay system, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Results from the H4IIE bioassay were strongly correlated with the hatching success of eggs in the colonies, whereas conventional methods of PCB analysis correlated poorly with hatching success of eggs from the same colonies. These observations suggest that even though concentrations of total PCB residues have declined in almost all compartments of the environment, their effects are still being observed. The significance of this observation is that the adverse symptoms presently observed in certain Great Lakes fish-eating waterbird populations do not appear to be caused by some as yet unidentified industrial chemical or chemicals and seem not to be the result of pesticides, but rather to the dioxin-like activity of PCBs. Evidence is presented to suggest that the relative enrichment of the potency of PCBs in the environment may play a role in the persistence of the observed adverse symptoms.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust and yard soil near a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhees, D.J.; Altshul, L.M.; Cullen, A.C. |

    1999-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting in potential exposures for nearby residents. House dust was collected from carpet, while yard soil was collected from the main entryway to evaluate whether PCBs might be tracked indoors. All samples were analyzed for 65 PCB congeners to evaluate the relative importance of the harbor and indoor sources for human exposure. PCB concentrations in house dust were about 10 times higher than yard soil concentrations, although similar congener patterns were detected in these two media. Yard soil concentrations in neighborhoods closest to the harbor were significantly higher than those in comparison neighborhoods, while house dust concentrations did not different significantly between these two locales, PCB concentrations in house dust were correlated with those in indoor air, but house dust and yard soil concentrations were not correlated, suggesting that track-in may not be the only source of PCBs in house dust.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  7. Impaired host resistance to endotoxin and malaria in polychlorinated biphenyl- and hexachlorobenzene-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Loose, L D; Silkworth, J B; Pittman, K A; Benitz, K F; Mueller, W

    1978-01-01

    The in vivo effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on murine endotoxin sensitivity and resistance to malaria (Plasmodium berghei NYU-2) infection was studied. The dietary administration of 167 ppm (167 microgram/g) of PCB 1242 or HCB for 3 weeks resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to gram-negative endotoxin (Salmonella typhosa), which was further increased in animals maintained on the diets for 6 weeks. By 6 weeks, a 5.2- or 32-fold increase in endotoxin sensitivity was seen in mice fed PCB or HCB, respectively. A 20% decrease in mean survival time of mice fed PCB 1242 for 3 or 6 weeks and inoculated with malaria was demonstrated. Infected mice that received HCB for 3 or 6 weeks manifested a reduction in mean survival time of 24 or 31%, respectively. Histopathological examination revealed a normal thymus, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and lungs. Centrilobular and pericentral hepatocyte hypertrophy, common to organochlorine exposure, was observed. Electron capture gas chromatographic analysis for PCB 1242 or HCB in the tissues examined histologically revealed a significant deposit of the xenobiotics. HCB concentration was approximately 16 to 25 times greater than that of PCB. The data indicate that environmental chemicals impair host resistance and that the alteration may be related to the presence of the chemicals in the lymphoreticular organs. PMID:97225

  8. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chicken hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Sinnige, T.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    The relative potencies of 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in a chicken embryo hepatocyte system. The 20 congeners were selected according to a full 2{sup 4}-factorial design based on the principal properties of all 154 tetra- through heptachlorinated PCBs. The principal properties were obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) on a multitude of different physico-chemical properties of the PCBs. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for seven out of the twenty PCB congeners, viz. PCB{number_sign}41, PCB{number_sign}60, PCB{number_sign}78, PCB{number_sign}126, PCB{number_sign}169, PCB{number_sign}190, and PCB{number_sign}193, which elicit measurable catalytic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the chicken hepatocytes. A multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed by using partial least-squares to latent variables (PLS) in order to model the relationship between the set of physico-chemical descriptors of the PCBs and their TEF-values. The model showed good correlations between observed and predicted TEF-values for this training set of congeners. From the QSAR, TEF-values were predicted for a large number PCB congeners not yet tested regarding EROD activity in chicken hepatocytes. The predicted TEF-values were validated by TEF-values reported in the literature.

  9. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    PubMed

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from <4 wk to >3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (<4 wk; 5230 ± 2170 ng/g lipid wt) determined to not significantly differ from those quantified in >3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. PMID:24357032

  10. Genomic Characterization of Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain JNA That Reductively Dechlorinates Tetrachloroethene and Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanquan; Chng, Kern Rei; Chen, Chen; Bedard, Donna L; He, Jianzhong

    2015-12-15

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain JNA detoxifies highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures via 85 distinct dechlorination reactions, suggesting that it has great potential for PCB bioremediation. However, its genomic and functional gene information remain unknown due to extremely slow growth of strain JNA with PCBs. In this study, we used tetracholorethene (PCE) as an alternative electron acceptor to grow sufficient biomass of strain JNA for subsequent genome sequencing and functional gene identification. Analysis of the assembled draft genome (1 462 509 bp) revealed the presence of 29 putative reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes. Among them, JNA_RD8 and JNA_RD11 genes were highly transcribed in both PCE- and PCB-fed cultures. Furthermore, in vitro assays with crude cell lysate from PCE grown cells revealed dechlorination activity against both PCE and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl. These data suggest that both JNA_RD8 and JNA_RD11 may be bifunctional PCE/PCB RDases. This study deepens the knowledge of organohalide respiration of PCBs and facilitates in situ PCB-bioremediation with strain JNA.

  11. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods from Catalonia, Spain: estimated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Teixidó, Angel; Casas, Conrad; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB congeners (IUPAC 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, and 180) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. For toxic equivalent (TEQ) calculations, World Health Organization (WHO) toxicity equivalent factors (WHO-TEFs) were used. The highest levels of most congeners were found in fish and shellfish (11,864.18 ng/kg [wet weight]), and the next highest levels, which were substantially lower, were found in milk and dairy products (674.50 ng/kg [wet weight]). For the general population of Catalonia, the total dietary intake of PCBs was found to be 150.13 pg WHO-TEQ/day. The largest contribution to this intake came from fish and shellfish (82.87 pg WHO-TEQ/day) and dairy products (29.38 pg WHO-TEQ per day). A relatively large contribution was also noted for cereals (11.36 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Among the PCB congeners determined in this study, PCB 126 showed the largest contribution to total TEQ intake (50.56%). The data obtained in this study should be useful in risk assessment with regard to human PCB exposure through food in Catalonia.

  12. Preparation and characterization of thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shouhai; Wang, Yutian; Lu, Yan; Jian, Xigao

    2015-04-01

    Novel thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (PPBES) hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were successfully fabricated by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effects of polymer dope formulation (i.e., the PPBES concentration, different types and contents of additives) and fiber spinning conditions (i.e., air gap distance, coagulation bath temperature) on the morphologies and separation performance of PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes were investigated, respectively. It was found that the water flux of hollow fiber membrane decreased with the increase of PPBES concentration or EGME content in casting solution, while the rejection of PEG increased. However, the PPBES hollow fiber UF prepared with LiCl as inorganic small molecule additive exhibited different phenomena. In addition, the decrease of air gap distance or the increase of coagulation bath temperature could improve the water flux of UF membrane while reduce the rejection of PEG. Moreover, the thermal stability of the PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes was investigated. The water flux of PPBES membrane increased dramatically from 155 to 428 L m-2 h-1 without significant decrease of rejection when the temperature of feed solution increased from 20 °C to 95 °C.

  13. Comparison of some specific polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in human and monkey milk

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, J.; Marchand, L.

    1987-11-01

    The presence and levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in monkey milk have been reported earlier as part of studies which investigated the overall toxicity of PCBs in commercial Aroclors. Some of this information has served as a basis for an estimation of the potential health hazard of PCB contaminated breast milk to human infants. To further support such extrapolation from one primate situation to another, it would be desirable to know not only the levels of PCBs in the milk of these primates, but also the isomeric distribution in order to better evaluate the contribution of each isomer to the overall toxicity. A large concentration in breast milk of an isomer of relatively low toxicity may have the same effect on an infant as a smaller concentration of a highly toxic isomer. This paper compares the relative amounts of 29 selected PCB isomers in human milk and monkey milk samples. The selection of isomers was based on the most prevalent PCB isomers in human milk and represented approximately 80% of all reported isomers. In addition, Aroclor 1254, whose toxicity in monkeys has been investigated recently by several investigators, was analyzed for the same 29 selected PCB isomers.

  14. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch).

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Temperate Alpine Glacier: 2. Model Results of Chemical Fate Processes.

    PubMed

    Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Lüthi, Martin P; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-12-15

    We present results from a chemical fate model quantifying incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the Silvretta glacier, a temperate Alpine glacier located in Switzerland. Temperate glaciers, in contrast to cold glaciers, are glaciers where melt processes are prevalent. Incorporation of PCBs into cold glaciers has been quantified in previous studies. However, the fate of PCBs in temperate glaciers has never been investigated. In the model, we include melt processes, inducing elution of water-soluble substances and, conversely, enrichment of particles and particle-bound chemicals. The model is validated by comparing modeled and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core collected in the Silvretta accumulation area. We quantify PCB incorporation between 1900 and 2010, and discuss the fate of six PCB congeners. PCB concentrations in the ice core peak in the period of high PCB emissions, as well as in years with strong melt. While for lower-chlorinated PCB congeners revolatilization is important, for higher-chlorinated congeners, the main processes are storage in glacier ice and removal by particle runoff. This study gives insight into PCB fate and dynamics and reveals the effect of snow accumulation and melt processes on the fate of semivolatile organic chemicals in a temperate Alpine glacier.

  16. Particle-Dissolved Phase Partition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in High Altitude Alpine Lakes.

    PubMed

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-08-18

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases in two high altitude alpine lakes was determined by the quantity, size structure, or composition of suspended particles. Within- and between-lakes differences in water-particulate phase partition coefficient (Kp) were not related to total suspended matter, phytoplankton biomass, or taxonomic composition. Yet, a seasonal relationship between Kp and Kow was detected for both lakes, revealing equilibrium of PCBs partition when lakes were ice covered. On the contrary, PCBs partitioning between particles and water appeared kinetically limited during the open water season. Partition is therefore mainly governed by thermodynamic laws during the ice-covered period, while none of the tested physical or biological parameters seemed to explain the distribution of these particle-reactive contaminants in the open water period. PCBs were always mainly associated with particulate matter, but partitioning within different particulate size-fractions varied between seasons and between years during open water periods. When ice cover is absent, PCBs were mainly adsorbed on microplankton, the largest phytoplanktonic size fraction, which is the least likely to get grazed by pelagic microconsumers.

  17. Immunoassay screening of sediment cores for polychlorinated biphenyls, Devil's Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Devil?s Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, constructed by dredging in 1973 in Devil?s Swamp along the Mississippi River, is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study investigated the possible historical contribution of PCBs from a hazardous-chemical disposal facility by way of a wastewater drainage ditch that operated from 1971 to 1993. Six sediment cores from the lake and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were collected on October 5, 2004, and analyzed for PCBs using an immunoassay screening method. The results were used to evaluate qualitatively the historical input record of PCBs to the lake. Deposition dates in three of the cores were estimated by assuming that penetration of the push corer was stopped by firmer, pre-lake materials that mark the 1973 subsurface level of dredging. Sixty-one samples from five of the six cores and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were analyzed. PCBs were at higher concentrations in ditch bottom material (about 1.1 to 2.2 milligrams per kilogram) than in cores from sites near where the ditch enters the lake (about 0.1 to 1.0 milligrams per kilogram). The highest concentrations of PCBs (maximum about 15 milligrams per kilogram) were detected in lake-bottom sediment about 350 meters west of where the drainage ditch enters the lake. Detection rates and median PCB concentrations were higher in all of the dated core sediments deposited before about 1990 than after 1990.

  18. Organochlorine insecticide, herbicide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) inhibition of NaK-ATPase in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Friedhoff, Jacqueline M.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1972-01-01

    The current widespread presence of chlorinated insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and herbicides in world waterways has elicited much interest in the mechanisms of their toxicity in fishes. Inhibition of Na+,K+-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (NaK-ATPase) and Mg++-dependent ATPase (Mg-ATPase) by DDT, endosulfan and dicofol has been demonstrated in gill, brain and kidney microsomes of rainbow trout (1,2). Intestinal and gill ATPases in marine teleosts were recently reported to be sensitive to organochlorines (3). CutkonTp et al (4) noted inhibition of NaK-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in bluegill brain, liver, muscle and kidney by DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbons. Inhibition of ATPases by PCB's has been recently shown in bluegill kidney, brain and liver (5). In the present study, we have further examined the NaK-ATPase enzyme system in trout gill as a site for the possible toxicity of selected organopolychlors, i.e., chlorinated insecticides, herbicides and PCB's.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota, September 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, wherease PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2 to 4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppM, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppM. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

  20. Cellular biomarkers for measuring toxicity of xenobiotics: Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on earthworm Lumbricus terrestris coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. ); Eyambe, G.S. ); Venables, B.J. ); Cooper, E.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Acute toxicity in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was assayed immediately after 5-d filter paper exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254, using coelomocyte viability, total extruded cell counts (ECC), differential cell counts (DCC), and formation of erythrocyte (ER) and secretory rosettes (SR) with, and phagocytosis of, antigenic rabbit red blood cells (RRBC). Chronic toxicity was assayed using rates by which earthworms replaced viable immunoactive coelomocytes, removed noninvasively immediately after exposure, over an 18-week depuration period. All cytological parameters, except ECC, were acutely affected immediately after exposure, when tissue concentrations were ([anti X] [plus minus] SE) 91.2 [plus minus] 8.19 [mu]g PCB per gram dry mass. Replacement of viable immunoactive coelomocytes occurred within six weeks in unexposed control earthworms. Exposed earthworms showed significant alteration in viability, ECC, DCC, ER, and SR formation, and phagocytosis at 6 and 12 weeks when PCB tissue concentrations were 41 [plus minus] 0.31 and 30.2 [plus minus] 0.88 [mu]g/g dry mass, respectively. Replacement of extruded coelomocytes with normal DCC of viable immunocompetent cells was not observed until week 18, when PCB had decreased to 15.7 [plus minus] 0.83 [mu]g/g dry mass. Low inherent natural variability in coelomocyte viability, ECC, DCC, rosette formation, and phagocytosis, and their sensitivity to sublethal PCB body burdens, indicated that earthworm coelomocytes have potential as nonmammalian biomarkers for assaying acute and chronic sublethal toxicity of xenobiotics.

  1. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  2. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls 28, 30 and 118 on bovine spermatozoa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yurdakok, B; Tekin, K; Daskin, A; Filazi, A

    2015-02-01

    Decline of semen quality due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals is of concern globally. Among endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are associated with reduced semen quality in various epidemiological studies. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of selected PCBs (28, 30 and 118) on fresh spermatozoa of Simmetial bulls aged 2-4 years were evaluated in vitro by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) (SCA; Microptics) analysis. IC50 values were found as 8.45, 5.45 and 9.55 ng/ml for PCB 28, 30 and 118, respectively. Total motility, progressive motility and viability decreased dependent on dose and duration of exposure (0, 2, 4 h). Total motility at IC50 doses decreased the most in PCB 28 (72.24%) followed by 30 (60.75%) and 118 (64.77%) at 2nd hour following exposure. Motility results were found to be in accordance with the vitality and morphology data where total abnormalities (especially reacted acrosome rate) were found to have increased.

  3. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, MS; Halling, J; Weihe, P; Jensen, TK; Grandjean, P; Nielsen, F; Jørgensen, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. Objectives The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. Results A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables. Conclusion In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity. PMID:25766940

  4. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  5. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Kujawinski, E B; Farrington, J W; Moffett, J W

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-microm marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3',4, 4'-(14)C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 +/- 0.03 min(-1) and (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10(-5) (g of organic carbon)(-1) min(-1), respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  6. Effects of polybrominated biphenyls on kidney function and activity of renal microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, K M; Kluwe, W M; Sanger, V L; Hook, J B

    1978-04-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) cause hepatic microsomal enzyme stimulation and histopathological alterations in several organs, including kidney. Concern about effects of PBBs on the health of newborns has increased after the discovery of PBBs in milk of nursing mothers. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the effects of PBBs on kidney function and the activity of renal microsomal enzymes in adult and immature animals. Seven and eleven day old pups were treated with a single IP injection of either peanut oil or 150 mg/kg PBBs (FireMaster BP-6) in peanut oil. Adult virgin rats were fed diet containing 0 or 100 ppm PBBs for 30 or 90 days. Treatment with PBBs only retarded weight gain after 90 days exposure. Kidney-to-body weight ratio was not altered by PBBs. Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was increased while epoxide hydratase activity was decreased (adults) or not affected (immature rats) in kidney following treatment with PBBs. Administration of PBBs had no effect on blood urea nitrogen, the clearance of inulin, p-aminohippurate (PAH), or fractional sodium excretion. Similarly, the in vitro accumulation of PAH and N-methylnicotinamide (NMN) by thin renal cortical slices and ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis in renal cortical slices were not affected by PBBs. In conclusion, treatment with PBBs resulted in modification of the activity of renal microsomal enzyme activities but had no detectable effect on renal function. PMID:209969

  7. Effect of clofibrate on cholesterol metabolism in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, M.; Shimokawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Ishihara, N.; Kojima, S.

    1986-02-01

    Serum and hepatic cholesterol content in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, KC-400) were increased compared to those of control rats. This increase of cholesterol content was reduced to control level by simultaneous administration of ethyl p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate (CPIB). Also, when lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was expressed as the net cholesterol esterification, the acyltransferase activity in rats treated with PCBs was elevated, while the elevated acyltransferase activity was brought to control level by simultaneous administration of CPIB. On the other hand, the amount of bile of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased, but free and total cholesterol content in bile of these treated rats was decreased to 40-60% of those of control rats. Moreover, cytochrome P-450 content in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased. At the same time, cholesterol-metabolizing activity in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB also was elevated. Similar results were obtained for drug metabolizing (aniline hydroxylation and aminopyrine N-demethylation) activity. In addition, the amount of bile acids excreted from rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased compared to that of control rats. These results suggest that hypercholesterolemia induced by oral ingestion of PCBs is recovered by CPIB treatment and that this hypocholesterolemic effect of CPIB may be related partly to the elevation of hepatic mixed function oxidase activity for cholesterol catabolism.

  8. Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls isolated from Aroclor and Clophen technical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2008-03-01

    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) is promising as a novel and powerful method for monitoring in situ degradation of organochlorines in the environment and for source fingerprinting purposes. In order to apply CSIA-Cl in field studies of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorine isotopic composition (delta(37)Cl) of individual PCB congeners in source materials must be known. In the present study, we determined delta(37)Cl of 18 congeners isolated from three widely produced technical mixtures. All congeners provided delta(37)Cl ranging between -1.9 per thousand and -3.5 per thousand. Although the comparable products Aroclor 1242 (-2.0 per thousand to -2.5 per thousand) and Clophen A30 (-1.9 per thousand to -3.0 per thousand) were synthesized by different industries, they provided similar delta(37)Cl for the same type of congeners. On the contrary, the more chlorinated congeners present in Aroclor 1254 (-2.1 to -3.5 per thousand) were more (37)Cl depleted compared to Aroclor 1242 manufactured by the same company. Overall, delta(37)Cl of PCB congeners decreased by -0.26 per thousand for each additional chlorine atom.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, D.K.; Essumang, D.K.; Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K.

    2012-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  10. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from <1 to 100%) and was highly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient (p < 0.0001). A lack of loss for most of these other congeners during hibernation supports the notion that excretion (e.g., fecal or urinary) or lack of uptake during the feeding season underlies their lack of accumulation, because hibernating bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  11. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl (118) activates osteoclasts and induces bone resorption in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Yachiguchi, Koji; Matsumoto, Noriko; Haga, Yuki; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Okuno, Toshihiro; Nakano, Takeshi; Kawabe, Kimi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Endo, Masato; Chiba, Atsuhiko; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nakano, Masaki; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Wada, Shigehito; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118 on fish bone metabolism, we examined osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, as well as plasma calcium levels, in the scales of PCB (118)-injected goldfish. In addition, effect of PCB (118) on osteoclasts and osteoblasts was investigated in vitro. Immature goldfish, in which the endogenous effects of sex steroids are negligible, were used. PCB (118) was solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide at a concentration of 10 ppm. At 1 and 2 days after PCB (118) injection (100 ng/g body weight), both osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities, and plasma calcium levels were measured. In an in vitro study, then, both osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities as well as each marker mRNA expression were examined. At 2 days, scale osteoclastic activity in PCB (118)-injected goldfish increased significantly, while osteoblastic activity did not change significantly. Corresponding to osteoclastic activity, plasma calcium levels increased significantly at 2 days after PCB (118) administration. Osteoclastic activation also occurred in the marker enzyme activities and mRNA expressions in vitro. Thus, we conclude that PCB (118) disrupts bone metabolism in goldfish both in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  13. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from <1 to 100%) and was highly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficient (p < 0.0001). A lack of loss for most of these other congeners during hibernation supports the notion that excretion (e.g., fecal or urinary) or lack of uptake during the feeding season underlies their lack of accumulation, because hibernating bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies. PMID:19480534

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Stapanian, Martin A; Madenjian, Charles P; Cott, Peter A; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2014-11-01

    The authors compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about one-sixtieth of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCBs in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and 3 sets of coeluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. The results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 1. Deposition history from an Alpine ice core.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Pavlina Aneva; Schmid, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; Steinlin, Christine; Jenk, Theo M; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-07-15

    We present a highly time-resolved historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from an Alpine ice core (Fiescherhorn glacier, Switzerland). Introduced in the 1940s, PCBs were widely used industrial chemicals. Because of their persistence they are still found in the environment, long after their production phase-out. The Fiescherhorn ice core record covers the entire time period of industrial use of PCBs, that is, 1940-2002. The total concentration of six PCBs varies from 0.5 to 5 ng L(-1) and reveals a temporal trend, with an 8-fold increase from the early 1940s to the peak value in the 1970s. The level in 2002 is comparable to the concentration in the 1940s, when PCBs were introduced into the market. The time trend of PCBs associated with the particulate fraction closely follows the trend found in the dissolved fraction, but the absolute values are a factor of 10 lower. In addition to changing emissions, fluctuations in the PCB record were explained by variabilty in convective transport and postdepositional processes such as surface melting. Concentrations of PCBs are in agreement with data from seasonal snow samples in the Alps, but are a factor of 100 higher than concentrations measured in the Arctic. Contrasting time trends and congener patterns between the Alpine and Arctic region indicate the importance of atmospheric transport and postdepositional effects.

  16. STM excitation of individual biphenyl molecules on Si(1 0 0) surface: DIET or DIEF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranney, M.; Mayne, A. J.; Laikhtman, A.; Comtet, G.; Dujardin, G.

    2005-11-01

    We have studied the excitation of individual biphenyl molecules adsorbed on Si(1 0 0)-(2 × 1) surface by using a scanning tunnelling microscope in ultra-high vacuum at room-temperature. Exciting these molecules in their unstable state with a voltage pulse can stabilise them. We have investigated in detail this transformation in order to determine the reaction mechanisms induced by the pulse: is it due to an electronic excitation or is it an effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample during the pulse? It is quite difficult to distinguish between the dynamics induced by electronic transition (DIET) and the dynamics induced by electric field (DIEF): when increasing the number and the energy of electrons for electronic excitation (DIET), the electric field under the tip can be strong enough to induce reaction by lowering the energy barrier (DIEF). By using a program to compute the electric field in three dimensions, we conclude that the transformation of the unstable configuration into the stable one is due to an electronic excitation.

  17. Expanded analyses of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in U.S. freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Schmmtt, C.; Schwartz, T.; Zajicek, J.; Peterman, P.

    1995-12-31

    The National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP), administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service from 1967 to 1993, documented the decline of organochlorine chemical residue concentrations in freshwater fish inhabiting large US rivers and the Great Lakes. Among the residues that decreased significantly were those of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total concentrations of which declined most substantially in fish from the most heavily contaminated US waterways--primarily industrialized rivers of the Northeast and Midwest, and the Great Lakes. Despite declining concentrations of total PCBs, the environmental risks associated with PCBs in fish remain a concern. Samples collected in 1988 from 26 NCBP sites with historically elevated PCB concentrations were therefore analyzed for individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Total PCB concentrations in these samples were 0.37 (Columbia R.) to 4.6 (L. Ontario) {micro}g/g. Multivariate statistical analyses indicated that the composition of PCB mixtures in fish from the Mississippi and Ohio rivers most closely resembled commercial formulations, and those from Lake Superior the least. On the basis of toxicity, as represented by total 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (dioxin)-equivalent concentrations computed using individual congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors, fish from the Great Lakes pose the greatest risk; dioxin-equivalent concentrations were highest in samples from Lakes Ontario and Michigan, due primarily to the comparatively high concentrations of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl in these samples.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about 1/60 of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCB in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and three sets of co-eluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. Our results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  19. Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

  20. Crystal Structure and Density Functional Theory Studies of Toxic Quinone Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Ambati, Jyothirmai; Parkin, Sean; Rankin, Stephen E.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are readily metabolized via hydroxylated metabolites to reactive PCB quinones. Although these PCB metabolites elicit biochemical changes by mechanisms involving cellular target molecules, such as the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and toxicity by interacting with enzymes like topoisomerases, only few PCB quinones have been synthesized and their conformational properties investigated. Similar to the parent compounds, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of PCB quinones may therefore be important to assess their fate and risk. To address this gap in our knowledge, the gas phase molecular structure of a series of PCB quinones was predicted using HF/3-21G, B3LYP/6-31G** and UB3LYP/6-311G** calculations and compared to the respective solid state structure. All three methods overestimated the Cl-C bond length, but otherwise provided a reasonable approximation of the solid state bond angles and bond lengths. Overall, the UB3LYP/6-311G** level of theory yielded the best approximation of the molecular structure of PCB quinones in the solid state. Chlorine addition at the ortho position of both rings was found to increase the dihedral angle of the resulting quinone compound, which may have important implications for their interaction with cellular targets and, thus, their toxicity. PMID:21824639