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Sample records for biphenyls contamination nevada

  1. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Angermann, Jeffrey E; Fellers, Gary M; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-10-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas sigma toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains. PMID:12371500

  5. Infecundity and consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, B M; Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Sever, L E; Vena, J E

    2001-01-01

    Biologic capacity for reproduction, or fecundity, may be threatened by environmental contaminants, especially compounds capable of disrupting endocrine pathways. Telephone interviews that focused on reproductive events were conducted with female members of the New York State Angler Cohort Study who became pregnant between 1991 and 1993 and who reported known time to pregnancy (N = 895; 73%). Consumption of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Lake Ontario sportfish and other factors were ascertained in 1991. The authors classified the women as follows: (a) fecund (time to pregnancy < or =12 cycles; n = 723); (b) having resolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles; n = 81); or (c) having unresolved infecundity (time to pregnancy > 12 cycles without pregnancy; n = 94). Adjusted odds ratios for duration of fish consumption for both resolved and unresolved infecundity were elevated (1.46 and 1.19, respectively), although confidence intervals included unity. Frequency of recent fish consumption was associated with an increased risk for select categories, although confidence intervals included one.

  6. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  7. Biphenyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Biphenyl ; CASRN 92 - 52 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development . Sections I ( H

  8. Biodegradation of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by a Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated coal mine soil.

    PubMed

    Nam, In-Hyun; Chon, Chul-Min; Jung, Ka-Young; Kim, Jae-Gon

    2014-07-01

    The biphenyl-degrading strain, Pseudomonas sp. KM-04, was isolated from polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil sample obtained from the vicinity of a former coal mine. We herein report that strain KM-04 can use biphenyl as a sole carbon source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its corresponding metabolic intermediates. Incubation of KM-04 with autoclaved mining-contaminated soil for 10 days in a slurry system reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 98.5 % and 82.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, treatment of a mine-soil microcosm with strain KM-04 for 15 days in a composting system under laboratory conditions reduced the levels of biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl by 87.1 % and 68.7 %, respectively. These results suggest that KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and its chlorinated derivatives from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated mining areas.

  9. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, REV 1

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps. CAU 168 consists of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs) in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The CASs contain surface and subsurface debris, impacted soil, and contaminated materials. Site characterization activities were conducted in 2002, and the results are presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for CAU 168 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). Site characterization results indicated that soil at several sites exceeded the clean-up criteria for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and radionuclides. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved the proposed corrective actions specified in the CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The approved corrective actions include no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls.

  11. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community. PMID:26915282

  12. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  13. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 210: Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 210, Storage Areas and Contaminated Material, is identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. This Corrective Action Unit consists of four Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 10, 12, and 15 of the Nevada Test Site. This report documents that the closure activities conducted meet the approved closure standards.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of nursing mothers' milk in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.; Copeland, R.; Tilden, R.

    1981-02-01

    As part of an effort to assess the extent and distribution of PCB contamination in the human population of Michigan, PCB levels in the breast milk of Michigan nursing mothers were investigated. All of the 1057 samples collected from 68 counties contained PCB residues ranging from trace amounts to 5.1 ppm. The mean PCB level was 1.496 ppm. The public health significance of PCB contamination in human populations and the implications of PCB contamination of human milk for current breast-feeding practices are discussed. Several precautionary measures for nursing mothers are recommended.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  17. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  19. [Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil by leguminosae-gramineae intercropping: a field trial].

    PubMed

    Tu, Chen; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong-Ming; Pan, Cheng; Sun, Xiang-Hui; Li, Zhen-Gao

    2010-12-01

    Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soil by leguminosae (alfalfa) and gramineae (ryegrass and tall fescue) was studied in a field trial. All planted treatments had significantly higher PCBs removal efficiency compared with those of unplanted control after 270 days of in-situ phytoremediation. Alfalfa monoculture received the highest removal efficiency of soil PCBs by 59.6%. Analysis of PCBs congeners composition showed that the percentage of di-chlorinated biphenyl decreased in all planted treatments. Alfalfa produced the maximum biomass among the 3 plants. Total PCBs concentration in alfalfa roots reached 355.1 microg/kg, which was significantly higher than those in ryegrass and tall fescue. The phytoextraction efficiency of different treatment was in order of alfalfa > alfalfa-ryegrass-tall fescue > alfalfa-ryegrass > ryegrass > alfalfa-tall fescue > tall fescue. The results suggest that alfalfa may be an ideal candidate for the phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil. PMID:21360900

  20. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  1. Behaviour of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminating soil near Zadar.

    PubMed

    Kobasić, Vedranka Hodak; Picer, Mladen; Picer, Nena; Sraka, Mario; Kovac, Tatjana

    2006-09-01

    This study analysed PCB-contaminated natural soil excavated from an area adjacent to an electrical transformer station in Zadar, Croatia. For one year, PCB concentrations were measured in the soil and leachate water under natural climatic conditions. After 12 months, a negligible quantity of Aroclor 1248 (0.024% in average) and a total of seven key PCB congeners (IUPAC No: PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180) were leached through the soils into water collected under lysimeters (0.032% in average). Although the amounts of leached PCBs were relatively small, their range 2 microg L(-1) to 15 microg L(-1) substantially exceeds the maximal allowed concentration of total PCBs in fishponds which is 1 ng L(-1). Soil samples were taken on two occasions from three depths from each lysimeter. The distribution of total PCBs as Aroclor 1248 equivalents and seven individual PCB congeners was determined within soil layers before and after planting seeds. In all soil plots the content of total seven PCBs and some individual PCB congeners in the surface soil layers significantly decreased. The total content of the seven PCB congeners in the surface soil layer of all soil plots decreased between 19.0% (soil plot 2) and 47.6% (soil plot 1) and in the middle soil layer between 8.1% (soil plot 4) and 37.4% (soil plot 1). PCB-28 and PCB-52 showed the highest percent of removal in all soil plots after 12 months of the experiment. The most important mechanism of removal of "lighter" congeners may be evaporation from the soil surface. Generally, our results showed that the PCBs accumulated in the deepest level of the soil, probably due to vertical transport and decreased evaporation. Some of the PCB content was lost to their degradation in the rhizosphere of the plants growing on the analysed soil plots. PMID:17121001

  2. [Application prospect about bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil with immobilized microorganism technique: a review].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin-Xing; Su, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui-Bo; Shen, Chao-Feng; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-06-01

    As one type of the persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are tremendously harmful to organisms. These compounds are easily absorbed onto soil particles and able to accumulate in soil after they are released into the environment. Bioremediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils has become a research hotspot in recent years, and immobilized microorganism technique has high developing and applying value because of its unique advantages in environmental remediation. This paper reviewed the chief remediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils and then analyzed the characteristics of immobilized microorganism technique and its research progress in remediation of organic polluted soil. Finally, the feasibility and problems of this technique in remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil were also discussed.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  5. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  6. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO), as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3%) and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3%) were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph) and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P < 0.001) linear inverse relationship between depletion yields and degree of chlorination was observed in both augmented and control microcosms in the absence of SO; conversely, this negative correlation was not evident in SO-amended microcosms where the additive inhibited the biodegradation of low chlorinated congeners. The presence of SO, in fact, resulted in lower abundances of both biphenyl-degrading bacteria and bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB-contaminated

  7. Summary of data concerning radiological contamination at well PM-2, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.M.; Locke, G.L.

    1997-02-01

    Analysis of water from well Pahute Mesa No. 2 (PM-2), on Pahute Mesa in the extreme northwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, indicated tritium concentrations above background levels in August 1993. A coordinated investigation of the tritium occurrence in well PM-2 was undertaken by the Hydrologic Resources Management Program of the US Department of Energy. Geologic and hydrologic properties of the hydrogeologic units were characterized using existing information. Soil around the well and water quality in the well were characterized during the investigation. The purpose of this report is to present existing information and results from a coordinated investigation of tritium occurrence. The objectives of the overall investigation include: (1) determination of the type and concentration of contamination; (2) identification of the source and mechanism of contamination; (3) estimation of the extent of radiological contamination; (4) initiation of appropriate monitoring of the contamination; and (5) reporting of investigation results. Compiled and tabulated data of the area are presented. The report also includes characterization of geology, soil, hydrology, and water quality data.

  8. Corticosterone stress response in tree swallows nesting near polychlorinated biphenyl- and dioxin-contaminated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franceschini, M.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Reed, J.M.; Romero, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assayed baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations from adult female and nestling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from New England, USA, sites with different levels of contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Corticosterone was compared over 2 years from a highly contaminated PCB site along the Housatonic River (Berkshire County, MA, USA), a midrange contaminated site upstream, and a reference site. Adult females (n = 29), sampled only in 2003, showed an inverted-U association with PCBs, with higher stress-induced corticosterone with midrange contamination than at the high-contamination site. In nestlings, stress-induced corticosterone was highest for the highly contaminated site compared with the other sites in 2003 (n = 53, 29 nests), with no difference among sites in 2004 (n = 93, 27 nests). In 2004, we began testing mechanisms underlying these changes in nestlings at the high- and low-PCB sites. Corticosterone response to dexamethasone injection (used to test negative feedback) was not different between sites, but stress-induced corticosterone was reduced at the contaminated site after adrenocorticotropin hormone injection (used to test adrenal responsiveness), suggesting an inhibited ability to mount a stress response. We also compared nestlings from a stretch of the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA, heavily contaminated with TCDD (n = 80, 43 nests) with nestlings from an upstream site that had lower levels of TCDD and the Berkshire County reference site. Although there were no stress-induced differences, baseline corticosterone was lower at the higher TCDD site than at the reference site. Altogether these findings suggest that tree swallows chronically exposed to high PCB and TCDD levels exhibit altered baseline and stress-induced corticosterone responses, but the patterns of alteration might not be predictable. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  10. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  11. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schoeters, Greet; Hoogenboom, Ron

    2006-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentrations of these contaminants in food and feed is needed. Eggs from free-range chicken are increasingly becoming an important part of the diet. These eggs have a higher risk of being contaminated with increased levels of dioxins and DL-PCB than barn or cage eggs. Ingestion of soil particles from environmentally contaminated areas may contribute to elevated dioxin levels in free-range chicken eggs. Available data show that current soil levels of dioxins and DL-PCB in residential and agricultural areas in Europe often appear to be too high to produce free-range eggs with dioxin levels below the current limit values in the EU. On the other hand, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations in eggs from free-range chicken are not necessarily above the limit values. Contamination levels in soil should be kept low and should be controlled in areas with free foraging chicken although all modifying factors that influence uptake of dioxins and PCB from the environment and transfer into eggs are yet not well understood.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  13. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction tehnology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ear...

  14. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ...

  15. Molecular diagnostics and chemical analysis for assessing biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Layton, A C; Lajoie, C A; Easter, J P; Jernigan, R; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    1994-11-01

    The microbial populations in PCB-contaminated electric power substation capacitor bank soil (TVA soil) and from another PCB-contaminated site (New England soil) were compared to determine their potential to degrade PCB. Known biphenyl operon genes were used as gene probes in colony hybridizations and in dot blots of DNA extracted from the soil to monitor the presence of PCB-degrading organisms in the soils. The microbial populations in the two soils differed in that the population in New England soil was enriched by the addition of 1000 p.p.m. 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) whereas the population in the TVA capacitor bank soil was not affected. PCB degradative activity in the New England soil was indicated by a 50% PCB disappearance (gas chromatography), accumulation of chlorobenzoates (HPLC), and 14CO2 evolution from 14C-2CB. The PCB-degrading bacteria in the New England soil could be identified by their positive hybridization to the bph gene probes, their ability to produce the yellow meta-cleavage product from 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl (2,3-DHB), and the degradation of specific PCB congeners by individual isolates in resting cell assays. Although the TVA capacitor bank soil lacked effective PCB-degrading populations, addition of a PCB-degrading organism and 10,000 p.p.m. biphenyl resulted in a > 50% reduction of PCB levels. Molecular characterization of soil microbial populations in laboratory scale treatments is expected to be valuable in the design of process monitoring and performance verification approaches for full scale bioremediation. PMID:7765670

  16. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites.

  17. Demography of short-tailed shrew populations living on polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Rudy; Bowman, Lanna

    2003-06-01

    In ecological risk assessment, a key necessity is to understand how contaminants known to have negative impact on laboratory mammals affect the population demography of mammals living in their natural environment. We examined the demography of six local populations of the short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) living in eastern deciduous forest palustrine habitat along the Housatonic River (MA, USA) on soils contaminated with a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (1.5-38.3 ppm). The objective of the study was to assess whether PCBs adversely affect the population demography of these small mammals living in their natural environment. Blarina were selected for study because they would be expected to readily bioaccumulate PCBs from the soil. Populations were intensively live trapped on 1-ha grids from spring to autumn 2001. There was no relationship between any demographic parameter and PCB soil concentrations. Densities were high (usually exceeding 20/ha, and on two grids exceeded 60/ha in summer); survival was good (typically 60-75% per 30 d); and sex ratio, reproduction rates, growth rates, and body mass were within the ranges reported in the literature. Thus, these shrew populations showed no detectable impact on their population demography from living on PCB-contaminated sites. PMID:12785599

  18. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  19. Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Bradford, David F; Stanley, Kerri; McConnell, Laura L; Tallent-Halsell, Nita G; Nash, Maliha S; Simonich, Staci M

    2010-05-01

    Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA have been implicated as adversely affecting amphibians and fish, yet little is known about the distributions of contaminants within the mountains, particularly at high elevation. The hypothesis that contaminant concentrations in a high-elevation portion of the Sierra Nevada decrease with distance from the adjacent San Joaquin Valley was tested. Air, sediment, and tadpoles were sampled twice at 28 water bodies in 14 dispersed areas in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (2,785-3,375 m elevation; 43-82 km from Valley edge). Up to 15 chemicals were detected frequently in sediment and tadpoles, including current- and historic-use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Only beta-endosulfan was found frequently in air. Concentrations of all chemicals detected were very low, averaging in the parts-per-billion range or less in sediment and tadpoles, and on the order of 10 pg/m3 for beta-endosulfan in air. Principal components analysis indicated that chemical compositions were generally similar among sites, suggesting that chemical transport patterns were likewise similar among sites. In contrast, transport processes did not appear to strongly influence concentration differences among sites, because variation in concentrations among nearby sites was high relative to sites far from each other. Moreover, a general relationship for concentrations as a function of distance from the valley was not evident across chemical, medium, and time. Nevertheless, concentrations for some chemical/medium/time combinations showed significant negative relationships with metrics for distance from the Valley. However, the magnitude of these distance effects among high-elevation sites was small relative to differences found in other studies between the valley edge and the nearest high-elevation sites.

  20. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  1. Cancer Mortality Following Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination of a Guam Village

    PubMed Central

    Badowski, Grazyna; Bordallo, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Beginning more than 10 years after the release of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the favored fishing grounds of Merizo village, an increase in the proportional cancer mortality rate was observed among residents of the village. This increased rate continued for approximately 20 years after which it returned to near island-wide Guam levels. Although the temporal association between PCB contamination of the environment of this village and an increase in cancer mortality is intriguing, it does not necessarily demonstrate a cause and effect relationship. Objective To investigate a possible temporal relationship between PCB contamination of the Cocos Lagoon and cancer deaths in the adjoining village of Merizo. Methods Data utilized in the study included deaths recorded by the Guam Cancer Registry (years 2000 to 2007) and data collected from original death certificates (years 1968–1999). To check whether there was a significant difference in the proportion of deaths due to cancer in Merizo compared with the rest of Guam, deaths were grouped in four 10-year periods, 1968–1977, 1978–1987, 1988–1997, and 1998–2007, and the Pearson Chi-Square test was calculated for each period separately Results While the number of new cancer cases recorded in the village of Merizo were insufficient in number to draw a statistically significant conclusion when single year incidence rates were compared to the rest of the island, a proportional mortality study showed a distinct increase for the village of Merizo compared to other villages for the period 1978–1997. Conclusion While it is not possible to conclude with certainty that PCB contamination of the Cocos Lagoon was responsible for the observed increase in the proportion of cancer deaths in Merizo village beginning during the 10-year period 1978–1987, that increase and the subsequent decrease as PCB levels also decreased presents the possibility that these trends may be related. PMID:22235158

  2. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  3. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-yi; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-hua; Zhang, Qin

    2011-02-15

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO(2) under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO(2) is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO(2). The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO(2) in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  4. Biochemical and toxicopathic biomarkers assessed in smallmouth bass recovered from a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M J; Cacela, D; Beltman, D; Teh, S J; Okihiro, M S; Hinton, D E; Denslow, N; Zelikoff, J T

    2003-01-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were collected to quantify the nature and prevalence of biomarker responses, including biochemical indices, toxicopathic lesions and general health indices, among fish collected from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated and nearby uncontaminated reaches of the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, USA. Blood and tissue samples (gill, liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, thyroid and gonads) were collected and preserved at necropsy for biochemical and histological analyses. The body condition factor and liver somatic index were significantly lower in fish collected from the downstream, contaminated site. Plasma vitellogenin was not detected in male fish collected from either site. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and liver and spleen superoxide dismutase activity were significantly depressed in fish collected from the downstream site. Significant toxicopathic lesions such as glycogen depletion, enhanced macrophage aggregates, hepatic foci of cellular alteration (i.e. preneoplastic lesions) and neoplasia were also detected in the liver of fish collected from the downstream site. This study indicates that many of the biochemical and histopathological biomarker responses were associated with liver and body tissue PCB concentrations. Taken together, the biomarkers of exposure and effect strongly suggest that fish within the downstream site are adversely affected by PCBs and other chemical stressors. PMID:14602522

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota, September 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, wherease PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2 to 4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppM, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppM. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

  6. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  7. Immunotoxicology: environmental contamination by polybrominated biphenyls and immune dysfunction among residents of the State of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bekesi, J.G.; Roboz, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Mason, P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1973, inadvertent contamination occurred in a special farm feed supplement for lactating cows. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were used in place of magnesium oxide resulting in serious harm to farm animals, including cattle, chickens, geese, ducks. Farm families, accustomed to eating their own products, were most heavily exposed. To study the impact of PBBs, 336 adult Michigan farm residents, 117 general consumers for comparison, 75 dairy farm residents in Wisconsin, who had not eaten PBB-contaminated food, were examined, as were 79 healthy subjects in New York City. Abnormalities in the Michigan groups included hypergammaglobulinemia, exaggerated hypersensitive response to streptococci, significant decrease in absolute numbers and percentage of T and B-lymphocytes, and increased number of lymphocytes with no detectable surface markers (''null cells''). Significant reduction of in vitro immune function was noted in 20-25% of the Michigan farm residents who had eaten food containing PBB. The decreased immune function detected among the PBB-exposed farm residents tended to affect families as a unit and was independent of exposed individuals' age or sex, pointing against the possibility of genetic predisposition.

  8. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    PubMed

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  9. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    PubMed

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as

  11. Biodegradation of biphenyl and removal of 2-chlorobiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. KM-04 isolated from PCBs-contaminated mine impacted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to remediate the PCBs contaminated mine soil using microcosm study. For that, the naturally occurring microorganisms are stimulated and enriched in soil itself by supplementing biphenyl as well as benzoic acid. As a result the biphenyl degrading organisms are induced to degrade the PCBs contamination. From the stimulated soil, the biphenyl degrading organisms are isolated and degraded metabolites are elucidated. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil in a coal mine-impacted area, and identification of bacteria was done by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene analysis. The growth of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 using biphenyl as the sole carbon source was investigated by culturing in 100-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 10 ml sterilized MSM and 10 μg/ml biphenyl, and the ability of KM-04 to remove biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from mine soil was investigated. Metabolite formation was confirmed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric analysis. Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 uses biphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, and resting cells convert biphenyl to its metabolic intermediates, including dihydroxybiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid, and benzoic acid. Incubation of real soil collected from abandoned mine areas with resting cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 10 days resulted in the 98.5 % of biphenyl and 82.3 % of 2-chlorobiphenyl in a slurry system. The ability of the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 to bioremediate biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl from abandoned mine soil was examined using soil microcosm studies under laboratory conditions. Treatment of mine soil with the Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 for 15 days resulted in 87.1 % reduction in biphenyl and 68.7 % in 2-chlorobiphenyl contents. The results suggest that Pseudomonas sp. strain KM-04 is a potential candidate for the biological removal of biphenyl and chlorinated derivatives

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  13. Global contamination of coplanar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in the market fishes from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Souichi; Tokusawa, Hidekazu; Nakao, Teruyuki; Aozasa, Osamu; Miyata, Hideaki; Alaee, Mehran

    2008-08-01

    Polybrominated chlorinated biphenyls (PXBs, X=Br, Cl) are a group of environmental contaminants that have not been studied previously. The introduction of the second halogen to the biphenyl backbone increases the number of possible congeners to more than 9000. Only a limited number of PXBs are commercially available. In order to determine the occurrence of these compounds in environmental matrices, an isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS method for determination of five co-planar polybrominated/chlorinated biphenyls (Co-PXBs) in biota was developed. The method detection limit for these compounds ranged between 0.05 and 0.5 pg/g for 4'-monobromo-3,3',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3',4',5'-tribromo-3,4-dichlorobiphenyl, respectively. Concentrations of five co-planar polybrominated and chlorinated biphenyls in eighteen different fish fillets from Japanese markets ranged between 4 and 46 pg/g wet weight for mink whale and young yellow-tail fish. These values are substantially lower than those reported for Co-PCBs; however, it should be noted that due to the unavailability of standards, identification and quantification of all the isomers was not possible.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of paints containing polycyclic- and Naphthol AS-type pigments.

    PubMed

    Anezaki, Katsunori; Kannan, Narayanan; Nakano, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    This study reports the concentrations and congener partners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially available paints. Polycyclic-type pigments containing dioxazine violet (pigment violet (PV) 23, PV37) and diketopyrrolopyrrole (PR254, PR255) were found to contain PCB-56, PCB-77, PCB-40, PCB-5, and PCB-12, and PCB-6, PCB-13, and PCB-15, respectively, as major congeners. Dioxazine violet is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from o-dichlorobenzene, which is used as a solvent during synthesis, and diketopyrrolopyrrole is contaminated with by-products during synthesis from p-chlorobenzonitrile. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PV23 or PV37 was 0.050-29 mg/kg, and toxic equivalency (TEQ) values ranged 1.1-160 pg-TEQ/g. The concentration of PCBs in paint containing PR254 or PR255 was 0.0019-2.4 mg/kg. Naphthol AS is an azo-type pigment, and PCB-52 was detected in paint containing pigment red (PR) 9 with 2,5-dichloroaniline as its source. PCB-146, PCB-149, and PCB-153 were identified from paint containing PR112 produced from 2,4,5-trichloroaniline, as major congeners. These congeners have chlorine positions similar to aniline, indicating that these congeners are by-products obtained during the synthesis of pigments. The concentrations of PCBs in paints containing PR9 and PR112 were 0.0042-0.43 and 0.0044-3.8 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding TEQ for PR112 was 0.0039-8.6 pg-TEQ/g.

  15. European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): avian model and monitor of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination at a Superfund site in southern Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Arenal, Christine A; Halbrook, Richard S; Woodruff, MaryJo

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in avian species were evaluated at a Superfund site located at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (IL, USA). European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were monitored at nest boxes constructed at each of two study and two reference sites. During the breeding season, starling productivity and adult provisioning behavior were monitored. At 15 d after hatch, chicks and adults were collected for contaminant and biomarker analyses. Chicks and adults were necropsied. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured in liver tissue, and polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1254) and 34 chlorinated biphenyl (CB) congener concentrations were measured in carcasses. Polychlorinated biphenyl and CB concentrations also were measured in eggs that failed to hatch. Mean Aroclor 1254 and quantified CB concentrations were greater (p < 0.001) in eggs that failed to hatch, 15-d-old chicks, and adults collected from PCB-contaminated sites (hereafter PCB sites) compared to those collected from reference sites. The EROD activity was greater (p = 0.005) in 15-d-old chicks, but not adults (p = 0.972), collected from PCB sites compared to those collected from reference sites. No differences were found among study and reference sites in number of eggs laid or percent of eggs hatched; however, reduced nest provisioning behavior and decreased chick survival were observed at PCB sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations measured in samples collected from the PCB sites are similar to concentrations previously associated with adverse effects in avian species. Other avian species utilizing these sites also may be exposed to PCBs with associated adverse effects. This study demonstrates that starling nestlings are good biological monitors of local contamination and continued monitoring may provide useful data for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed remediation. PMID:14768872

  16. Spatial Patterns of Atmospherically Deposited Organic Contaminants at High Elevation in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as adversely affecting amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at high elevation. We tested the hypothe...

  17. Spatial Patterns of Atmospherically Deposited Organic Contaminants at High Elevation in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospherically deposited contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources such as amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at...

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  19. Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community.

    PubMed

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Berglund, Marika; Löfman, Owe; Wingren, Gun

    2012-09-01

    Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR=0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 166 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 166 consists of the following CASs: (1) CAS 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) CAS 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 166 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007).

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a PCB-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Mary Beth; Prouzová, Petra; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomás; Nagle, David P; Fletcher, John S

    2006-04-01

    The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. Culturable PCB degraders were associated with every plant species examined in both the rhizosphere and root zone, which was defined as the bulk soil in which the plant was rooted. Significantly higher numbers of PCB degraders (2.7- to 56.7-fold-higher means) were detected in the root zones of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) and goat willow (Salix caprea) than in the root zones of other plants or non-root-containing soil in certain seasons and at certain soil depths. The majority of culturable PCB degraders throughout the site and the majority of culturable PCB degraders associated with plants were identified as members of the genus Rhodococcus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Other taxa of PCB-degrading bacteria included members of the genera Luteibacter and Williamsia, which have not previously been shown to include PCB degraders. PCB degradation assays revealed that some isolates from the site have broad congener specificities; these isolates included one Rhodococcus strain that exhibited degradation abilities similar to those of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Isolates with broad congener specificity were widespread at the site, including in the biostimulated root zone of willow. The apparent association of certain plant species with increased abundance of indigenous PCB degraders, including organisms with outstanding degradation abilities, throughout the root zone supports the notion that biostimulation through rhizoremediation is a promising strategy for enhancing PCB degradation in situ.

  2. DISTRIBUTIONS OF AIRBORNE AGRICULTURAL CONTAMINANTS RELATIVE TO AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN SIERRA NEVADA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sierra Nevada mountain range lies adjacent to one of the heaviest pesticide use areas in the USA, the Central Valley of California. Because of this proximity, concern has arisen that agricultural pesticides, in addition to other contaminants, are adversely affecting the natur...

  3. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Griffith, Michael B; Mills, Marc; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph; McCormick, Frank; Brenner, Richard; Zeller, Craig

    2015-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological processes to contain, destroy, and/or reduce the bioavailability or toxicity of in-place contaminants. These naturally occurring processes are monitored to ensure that management and recovery are progressing as expected. One approach frequently used to evaluate the recovery of contaminated sediments and associated biota is the assessment of contaminant tissue levels, or body burden concentrations, in top trophic level fish. In the present study, aquatic invertebrates were examined as an indicator of recent exposure to PCBs. The approach aimed to determine whether invertebrates collected using artificial substrates (i.e., Hester-Dendy samplers) could be used to discriminate among contaminated sites through the analyses of PCBs in whole homogenates of macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates were sorted, preserved, and analyzed for total PCBs (t-PCBs), by summing 107 PCB congeners. Macroinvertebrate body burden concentrations showed similar trends to sediment t-PCB concentrations at the sites sampled. The results indicate that macroinvertebrates can be used to assess sediment contamination among sites that have different PCB contamination levels.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2012-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 is located in Areas 7, 8, and 10 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 550, Smoky Contamination Area, comprises 19 corrective action sites (CASs). Based on process knowledge of the releases associated with the nuclear tests and radiological survey information about the location and shape of the resulting contamination plumes, it was determined that some of the CAS releases are co-located and will be investigated as study groups. This document describes the planned investigation of the following CASs (by study group): (1) Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test - CAS 08-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T-2C; (2) Study Group 2, Safety Experiments - CAS 08-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-8B - CAS 08-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T-8A - CAS 08-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site T-8C; (3) Study Group 3, Washes - Potential stormwater migration of contaminants from CASs; (4) Study Group 4, Debris - CAS 08-01-01, Storage Tank - CAS 08-22-05, Drum - CAS 08-22-07, Drum - CAS 08-22-08, Drums (3) - CAS 08-22-09, Drum - CAS 08-24-03, Battery - CAS 08-24-04, Battery - CAS 08-24-07, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-24-08, Batteries (3) - CAS 08-26-01, Lead Bricks (200) - CAS 10-22-17, Buckets (3) - CAS 10-22-18, Gas Block/Drum - CAS 10-22-19, Drum; Stains - CAS 10-22-20, Drum - CAS 10-24-10, Battery. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each study group. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed

  5. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Perini, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea), which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea), is a chronically polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential

  6. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Quero, Grazia Marina; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Perini, Laura; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea), which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea), is a chronically polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential

  7. Quality of Nevada's aquifers and their susceptibility to contamination, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency introduced a rule to protect the quality of ground water in areas other than source-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground-water areas (OSGWA) are areas that are not currently but could eventually be used as a source of drinking water. To help determine whether a well is in an OSGWA, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection needs statewide information on the susceptibility and vulnerability of Nevada's aquifer systems to contamination. This report presents an evaluation of the quality of ground water and susceptibility of Nevada's aquifer systems to anthropogenic contamination. Chemical tracers and statistical methods were used to assess the susceptibility of aquifer systems in Nevada. Chemical tracers included nitrate, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), dissolved gases, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Ground-water samples were collected from 133 wells during August 2002 through October 2003. Logistic regression was done to estimate the probability of detecting nitrate above concentrations typically found in undeveloped areas. Nitrate is one of the most common anthropogenic contaminants that degrades ground-water quality, is commonly measured and is persistent, except in reducing conditions. These characteristics make nitrate a good indicator of aquifer susceptibility. Water-quality data for 5,528 wells were compiled into a database. The area around each well was characterized using information on explanatory variables that could be related to nitrate concentrations. Data also were used to characterize the quality of ground water in Nevada, including dissolved solids, nitrate, pesticide, and VOC concentrations.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals.

  10. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

    2009-02-03

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

  12. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method, developed ...

  13. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in plant foliage: translocation or volatilization from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Gaggi, C.

    1985-11-01

    Physical properties such as water solubility, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constant suggest that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) can easily reach the troposphere as vapor. The potential of plant foliar tissues to take up PCB's as vapor has probably been underrated in some of the previous works. Nevertheless recently it was reported that the level of PCB's found in the foliage is mainly due to vapor transport from the soil, rather than to translocation through the plant. This research has been planned to assess the influence of translocation on the concentration of PCB's in the foliage of different plant species.

  15. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Yu, Mei; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Yi

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and logK(OW) (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. PMID:19062142

  16. Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Because prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related contaminants has been associated with reduced birth weight, neonatal behavioral anomalies, and poorer recognition memory in infants born to women who have consumed Lake Michigan sports fish, 236 children, previously evaluated for PCB-related deficits in infancy, were assessed at 4 years of age. Prenatal exposure (indicated by umbilical cord serum PCB level) predicted poorer short-term memory function on both verbal and quantitative tests in a dose-dependent fashion. These effects cannot be attributed to a broad range of potential confounding variables, the impact of which was evaluated statistically. Although much larger quantities of PCBs are transferred postnatally via lactation than prenatally across the placenta, exposure from nursing was unrelated to cognitive performance. The data demonstrate the continuation of a toxic impact received in utero and observed initially during infancy on a dimension of cognitive functioning fundamental to learning.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Remediation Progress Toward Closure of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Robert Boehlecke

    2011-03-03

    The Environmental Restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office assess the environmental impacts that resulted from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests conducted from 1951 to 1992 on the Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range (which includes the Tonopah Test Range). The goal is to protect public health and the environment through investigations and corrective actions. The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), established in 1996 between the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense, serves as the cleanup agreement for the Environmental Restoration activities and provides the framework for identifying, prioritizing, investigating, remediating, and monitoring contaminated sites. This agreement satisfies the corrective action requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To ensure efficiency in managing these corrective actions, the sites are grouped according to location, physical and geological characteristics, and/or contaminants. These groups, called corrective action units, are prioritized based on potential risk to workers and the public, available technology, future land use, agency and stakeholder concerns, and other criteria. Environmental Restoration activities include: Industrial Sites, Soils, and Underground Test Area. Nearly 15 years have passed since the FFACO was established, and during this time, more than 3,000 sites have been identified as requiring investigation or corrective actions. To date, approximately 1,945 sites have been investigated and closed through no further action, clean closure, or closure in place. Another 985 sites are currently being investigated or are in the remediation phase, leaving approximately 80 contaminated sites yet to be addressed.

  18. Application of microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide in the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from soil contaminated by capacitor oil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Rong; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil, using microwave (MW)-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO2), was examined under different conditions. The effects of different types of MnO2 added as oxidant, as well as the initial amount of water, MnO2, and sulphuric acid solution, were also investigated. The removal efficiencies for dichlorobiphenyls, trichlorobiphenyls, tetrachlorobiphenyls, pentachlorobiphenyls, hexachloro-biphenyls, heptachlorobiphenyls, and octachlorobiphenyls were approximately 95.9%, 82.5%, 52.0%, 71.6%, 62.5%, 28.6%, and 16.1%, respectively, by 800 W MW irradiation for 45 min with the assistance of 0.1 g delta-MnO2 and 0.2 mL water in 1.0 g severely PCB-contaminated soil (sigma PCB = 1560.82 mg/kg); meanwhile, the concentrations of Mn2+ ions detected were from 10.6 +/- 1.9 mg/kg at 0 min to 108.2 +/- 7.8 mg/kg after 45 min MW irradiation, indicating that MnO2 acted as not only a MW absorber but also an oxidizer. Removal efficiencies of PCBs from contaminated soil increased with increasing the amounts of water and MnO2 added. The type of MnO2 also affected the removal of PCBs, following an order of delta-MnO2 > alpha-MnO2 > beta-MnO2. The addition of low concentration of sulphuric acid (such as 1.0 mol/L) solution was favourable for the removal of low chloro-substituted PCBs, but the addition of more than 1.0 mol/L sulphuric acid reduced the removal of all PCBs. The pronounced removal of PCBs from contaminated soil in a short treatment time indicates that MW irradiation with the assistance of MnO2 is an efficient and promising technology for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-02-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 529 consists of one Corrective Action Site (25-23-17). For the purpose of this investigation, the Corrective Action Site has been divided into nine parcels based on the separate and distinct releases. A conceptual site model was developed for each parcel to address the translocation of contaminants from each release. The results of this investigation will be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  20. Summary of data concerning radiological contamination at well PM-2, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Locke, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of water collected during August and September 1993 from well PM-2, on Pahute Mesa at\\x11the Nevada Test Site, indicated tritium concentrations of\\x1121,000 Bq/L at 610 m below land surface. The Schooner event (U-20u) was detonated in 1968 approximately 270 meterssoutheast of well PM-2 at a working depth of 108.2 meters. The crater created by the Schooner event was about 129.8 meters in radius and\\x1163.4 meters in depth. Geologic and hydrologic properties of the stratigraphic units are summarized from historical data. The soil around the well and water in the well were analyzed for radionuclides and water in the well was also analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic (volatile and semivolatile) substances. Close agreement between tritium analyses of water from well PM-2, at different times and at the same depths, confirms the elevated levels of tritium. The highest tritium values in the borehole were at 610 meters below land surface-above the shallowest perforations at 765 meters below land surface. These values were only slightly higher than values found at greater depth in the well.

  1. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  2. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K.; Jacobs, S.; Torsella, J.

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  3. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume.

  4. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  5. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Hines, James E

    2012-08-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi=0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi=0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  6. Spatial patterns of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains, California, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California have been implicated as a factor adversely affecting biological resources like amphibians and fish, yet the distributions of contaminants within the mountains are poorly known, particularly at high elevation. we evaluated contaminan...

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  8. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant. PMID:27392626

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  11. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) outmigrating through a contaminated urban estuary: dynamics and application.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P; Ylitalo, Gina M; Sommers, Frank C; Boyd, Daryle T

    2010-01-01

    A field study was conducted to examine bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for hatchery-raised and naturally reared (wild) ocean-type juvenile chinook salmon outmigrating through the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW), a contaminated urban estuary in Seattle, WA, USA. These results show differences in bioaccumulation of PCBs over time and space in this estuary, which may also occur for any contaminant that is distributed heterogeneously in this system. Highly mobile, outmigrating salmon accumulated approximately 3-5 times more PCBs on the east side of the LDW than fish on the west side, which is supported by an almost identical difference in mean sediment concentrations. The tPCB concentration data suggest that for most of the spring and early summer, juvenile chinook were likely segregated between the east and west side of the LDW, but may have crossed the channel later in the year as larger fish. Additionally, we used biota-sediment accumulation factors to assess the relative degree of bioaccumulation and explore these factors as potential metrics for predicting adverse sediment concentrations. These results highlight the importance of time and space in sampling design for a highly mobile species in a heterogeneous estuary. PMID:19685184

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  13. Encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in Ba(2+)-alginate to form coated micro-beads and their application to the pre-concentration/elimination of dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Fugetsu, Bunshi; Satoh, Shuya; Iles, Alexander; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Nishi, Norio; Watari, Fumio

    2004-07-01

    We report preliminary data on the first use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for the pre-concentration/elimination of dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and biphenyl from contaminated water.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190, Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended January 2007). Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the following four corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge • 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall • 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System • 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 190 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from March 21 through June 26, 2007. All CAI activities were conducted as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 190 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs.

  15. Reproductive ecology of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with high levels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.P.; Secord, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    Tree swallows(Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB-contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. Related work has shown that PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994, reproductive success at PCB-contaminated sites was significantly impaired relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely due to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. In 1995, reproductive output was normal, but higher than expected rates of abandonment and supernormal clutches persisted. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Given the levels of contamination in this population, the success of most Hudson River tree swallows reinforces the importance of understanding interspecific differences in the effects of contaminants.

  16. Tritium contamination at EG&G/EM in North Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, C.V.; Arent, L.J.

    1996-06-01

    The tritium contamination discovered at the EG&G Energy Measurements (EG&G/EM) facility in North Las Vegas, Nevada, on 20 April 1995, could have been averted by good health physics practices and/or adequate management oversight. Scandium tritide (ScT{sub 3}) targets were installed for use in sealed tube neutron generators at EG&G/EM. In addition, EG&G/EM was also storing zirconium tritide (ZrT{sub 3}) and titanium tritide (TiT{sub 3}) foils. Since the targets were classified as sealed sources, the appropriate administrative and engineering control measures such as relocating targets/sources, air monitoring, bioassay, waste stream management, labeling/posting and training were not implemented. In all there were six unreported incidents of tritium contamination from March 1994 to July 1995. Swipe surveys revealed areas exceeding the action level of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} by up to three orders of magnitude. After reclassifying the targets as unsealed sources, a bioassay program was instituted, and the results were higher than expected for three employees. The doses assigned to the three individuals working in the contaminated area were 35, 58, and 61 mrem committed effective dose equivalent. Though the doses were low, the decontamination costs were in excess of $350,000.00. An investigation, was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office to analyze the events that led to the tritium contamination and recommend actions to prevent recurrence. Event and causal factor charting, Project Evaluation Tree (PET) analysis techniques, and root cause analysis, were used to evaluate management systems, causal sequences, and systems factors contributing to the tritium release.

  17. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. PMID:25950836

  18. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed.

  19. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 μg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 μg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure. PMID:22247699

  20. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  1. Mobilization Of Polonium-210 In Naturally-Contaminated Groundwater, Churchill County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, R. L.; Stillings, L. L.; Cutler, N.

    2009-12-01

    Polonium-210 activities in groundwater rarely exceed about 40 mBq/L because it strongly binds to sediments. The recent discovery of natural 210Po at levels ranging from below 1 to 6,300±280 mBq/L in 62 drinking-water wells in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada, led to a geochemical investigation of the processes responsible for its mobilization from the aquifer sediments. The source of the 210Po is radioactive decay of uranium in sediments transported into the valley by erosion of granitic rocks in the Sierra Nevada during the Pleistocene. There is little spatial or depth variability in 210Pb activity in study-area sediments (average 35 Bq/kg) and detailed analysis at a contaminated well indicates mobilization of <0.5 percent of the 210Po in the sediments would account for all of the 210Po in the well water. Elevated 210Po activities (>200 mBq/L) are associated with anoxic water (DO <0.1 mg/L) with high pH (commonly >9.0). Investigations in the 1980s by William Burnett and colleagues of naturally-contaminated wells in Florida showed that 210Po was mobilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria and remained in solution as long as sulfides did not accumulate above certain levels. Similarly, δ34SSO4 values in Lahontan Valley indicate that significant sulfate reduction has occurred in wells containing >200 mBq/L of 210Po, but sulfide is not accumulating and its concentrations are low (<0.03 mg/L) in 25 of 28 of those wells. In our working hypothesis, mobilization of 210Po in Lahontan Valley is linked to reduction of Mn oxides by sulfide in an anaerobic sulfur cycle (Figure 1). Such a sulfur cycle is consistent with the high pH, less than predicted δ18OSO4 values, low sulfide concentrations, and presence of elemental sulfur in the water. Results from the Nevada and Florida investigations suggest that 210Po contamination may be more widespread than previously recognized, occurring in groundwater near uranium-mine operations and other uranium containing sediments when

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E F; Brix, K A; Deres, D A; Hwang, S A; Bush, B; Lambert, G; Tarbell, A

    1996-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health is performing an investigation of Mohawk men, women, and infants who live at the Akwesasne Reserve along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec Three large industrial facilities bordering the Akwesasne Reserve have seriously contaminated the soil and the sediments and fish of the adjacent St. Lawrence River with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The main study goals are to investigate the associations among the consumption of locally caught fish, residential exposure, body burdens of PCBs, and liver enzyme induction. Contamination with PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and other chemicals has been documented in locally caught fish, ducks, and other wildlife. The contamination of fish and wildlife is a major concern of the Mohawk people, since their tradition and culture emphasize the interdependence of man and his environment and because many residents formerly depended heavily on local fish and waterfowl for food. The focus of this research from 1986-1992 was on nursing women and infants. The major purpose of the current project is to determine if there are associations between dietary, residential, and occupational exposures to PCBs and DDE and individual body burdens in Mohawk men, specifically the husbands, partners, fathers, brothers, or other male relatives of the women in our other studies. In other fish-eating populations, adult men have tended to demonstrate higher PCB and DDE body burdens than women and children. Exposure estimates based on the reported consumption of locally caught fish and wildlife and residential histories will be correlated with the specific pattern of PCB congeners found in serum, thereby establishing a direct relationship between two potential sources of exposure and body burdens. Liver function will be examined through the caffeine breath test (CBT), a sensitive, noninvasive

  3. Radionuclides in bats using a contaminated pond on the Nevada National Security Site, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Ronald W.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-01-03

    In this study, perched groundwater percolating through radionuclide contamination in the E Tunnel Complex on the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site, emerges and is stored in a series of ponds making it available to wildlife, including bats. Since many bat species using the ponds are considered sensitive or protected/regulated and little information is available on dose to bats from radioactive water sources, bats were sampled to determine if the dose they were receiving exceeded the United States Department of Energy dose limit of 1.0E-3 Gy/day. Radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment, and flying insects were also measuredmore » as input parameters to the dose rate model and to examine trophic level relationships. The RESRAD-Biota model was used to calculate dose rates to bats using different screening levels. Efficacy of RESRAD-Biota and suggested improvements are discussed. Finally, dose to bats foraging and drinking at these ponds is well below the dose limit set to protect terrestrial biota populations.« less

  4. Radionuclides in bats using a contaminated pond on the Nevada National Security Site, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Ronald W.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-01-03

    In this study, perched groundwater percolating through radionuclide contamination in the E Tunnel Complex on the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site, emerges and is stored in a series of ponds making it available to wildlife, including bats. Since many bat species using the ponds are considered sensitive or protected/regulated and little information is available on dose to bats from radioactive water sources, bats were sampled to determine if the dose they were receiving exceeded the United States Department of Energy dose limit of 1.0E-3 Gy/day. Radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment, and flying insects were also measured as input parameters to the dose rate model and to examine trophic level relationships. The RESRAD-Biota model was used to calculate dose rates to bats using different screening levels. Efficacy of RESRAD-Biota and suggested improvements are discussed. Finally, dose to bats foraging and drinking at these ponds is well below the dose limit set to protect terrestrial biota populations.

  5. Radionuclides in bats using a contaminated pond on the Nevada National Security Site, USA.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ronald W; Hall, Derek B; Greger, Paul D

    2014-03-01

    Perched groundwater percolating through radionuclide contamination in the E Tunnel Complex on the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site, emerges and is stored in a series of ponds making it available to wildlife, including bats. Since many bat species using the ponds are considered sensitive or protected/regulated and little information is available on dose to bats from radioactive water sources, bats were sampled to determine if the dose they were receiving exceeded the United States Department of Energy dose limit of 1.0E-3 Gy/day. Radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment, and flying insects were also measured as input parameters to the dose rate model and to examine trophic level relationships. The RESRAD-Biota model was used to calculate dose rates to bats using different screening levels. Efficacy of RESRAD-Biota and suggested improvements are discussed. Dose to bats foraging and drinking at these ponds is well below the dose limit set to protect terrestrial biota populations. PMID:24389555

  6. Radionuclides in bats using a contaminated pond on the Nevada National Security Site, USA.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ronald W; Hall, Derek B; Greger, Paul D

    2014-03-01

    Perched groundwater percolating through radionuclide contamination in the E Tunnel Complex on the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site, emerges and is stored in a series of ponds making it available to wildlife, including bats. Since many bat species using the ponds are considered sensitive or protected/regulated and little information is available on dose to bats from radioactive water sources, bats were sampled to determine if the dose they were receiving exceeded the United States Department of Energy dose limit of 1.0E-3 Gy/day. Radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment, and flying insects were also measured as input parameters to the dose rate model and to examine trophic level relationships. The RESRAD-Biota model was used to calculate dose rates to bats using different screening levels. Efficacy of RESRAD-Biota and suggested improvements are discussed. Dose to bats foraging and drinking at these ponds is well below the dose limit set to protect terrestrial biota populations.

  7. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  8. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  9. Patterns of contamination among vascular plants exposed to local sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Canadian Arctic and Subarctic.

    PubMed

    Dawn Pier, M; Zeeb, Barbara A; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2002-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were examined in 1043 Arctic vascular plant specimens comprising 31 genera and the soils they grew in. The samples were collected at 61 abandoned military and Coast Guard sites across the Canadian Arctic and Subarctic and in nine remote background locations. Genus-specific differences in PCB uptake, partitioning of PCBs among different plant tissues, and congener-specific uptake of PCBs were examined. Mean PCB concentrations and plant vs. soil regression relationships were significantly different among genera. The highest concentrations were found in Poa and Luzula and the lowest mean concentration was found in Betula. Among the genera examined, PCB concentrations in the genus Luzula exhibited the greatest increase relative to increasing soil PCB concentrations. Bioaccumulation factors were not fixed within a single genus or species, but decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that at higher levels of exposure accumulation of PCBs may be kinetically limited by redistribution processes within the plant. The accumulation of specific congeners was related to the primary mode of exposure and the octanol-air partition coefficient (K(oa)) of the congener. In plants exposed mainly to atmospheric PCBs, uptake increased with increasing K(oa), as has been reported elsewhere. By contrast, there was a negative correlation between accumulation and K(oa) in plants that were mainly exposed through direct contact with contaminated soil. Only congeners 132/153 were found at concentrations greater than predicted from their K(oa). The presence of these congeners in plants is proposed as the explanation for their predominance in terrestrial animal tissues.

  10. Evaluation of technologies for volume reduction of plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, C.; Jacobson, R.L.; Miller, F.L.; Shaulis, L.K.

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear testing at and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) resulted in plutonium (Pu) contamination of the soil over an area of several thousands of acres. The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential of five different processes to reduce the volume of Pu-contaminated soil from three different areas, namely Areas 11, 13, and 52. Volume reduction was to be accomplished by concentrating the Pu into a small but highly contaminated soil fraction, thereby greatly reducing the volume of soil requiring disposal. The processes tested were proposed by Paramag Corp. (PARAMAG), Advanced Processing Technologies Inc. (APT), Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (LESAT), Nuclear Remediation Technologies (NRT), and Scientific Ecology Group (SEG). Because of time and budgetary restraints, the NRT and SEG processes were tested with soil from Area 11 only. These processes typically included a preliminary soil conditioning step (e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), followed by a more advanced process designed to separate Pu from the soil, based on physiochemical properties of Pu compounds (e.g., magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity). Analysis of the soil indicates that a substantial fraction of the total Pu contamination is typically confined in a relatively narrow and small particle size range. Processes which were able to separate this highly contaminated soil fraction (using physical methods, e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), from the rest of the soil achieved volume (mass) reductions on the order of 70%. The advanced, more complex processes tested did not enhance volume reduction. The primary reason why processes that rely on the dependence of settling velocity on density differences failed was the very fine grain size of the Pu-rich particles.

  11. Approaches to Quantify Potential Contaminant Transport in the Lower Carbonate Aquifer from Underground Nuclear Testing at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada - 12434

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert W.; Birdie, Tiraz; Wilborn, Bill; Mukhopadhyay, Bimal

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative modeling of the potential for contaminant transport from sources associated with underground nuclear testing at Yucca Flat is an important part of the strategy to develop closure plans for the residual contamination. At Yucca Flat, the most significant groundwater resource that could potentially be impacted is the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA), a regionally extensive aquifer that supplies a significant portion of the water demand at the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site. Developing and testing reasonable models of groundwater flow in this aquifer is an important precursor to performing subsequent contaminant transport modeling used to forecast contaminant boundaries at Yucca Flat that are used to identify potential use restriction and regulatory boundaries. A model of groundwater flow in the LCA at Yucca Flat has been developed. Uncertainty in this model, as well as other transport and source uncertainties, is being evaluated as part of the Underground Testing Area closure process. Several alternative flow models of the LCA in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU have been developed. These flow models are used in conjunction with contaminant transport models and source term models and models of contaminant transport from underground nuclear tests conducted in the overlying unsaturated and saturated alluvial and volcanic tuff rocks to evaluate possible contaminant migration in the LCA for the next 1,000 years. Assuming the flow and transport models are found adequate by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, the models will undergo a peer review. If the model is approved by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, it will be used to identify use restriction and regulatory boundaries at the start of the Corrective Action Decision Document Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. These initial boundaries may be revised at the time of the Closure Report phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. (authors)

  12. Seasonal and geographical variations in levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in Polish butter fat used as an indicator of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Roszko, M; Obiedziński, M W; Szymczyk, K; Rzepkowska, M; Szterk, A; Jędrzejczak, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variation/geographical distribution of environmental concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across Poland using butter fat as an indicator of the contaminants. The average concentration of six indicator PCBs determined in the studied samples was 1500 pg g(-1) fat. The average concentration of 12 dioxin-like PCBs expressed as lower-bound dioxin-equivalent toxicity was 0.684 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. The average total concentration of 14 investigated PBDE congeners was 105 pg g(-1) fat. Statistically significant concentration differences between summer and winter samples were found. The results of this study indicate also a significant geographical diversification of butter contamination reflecting regional differences in environmental contamination. The seasonal variation of PBDE profiles evidences transformation of PBDE within the environment.

  13. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  14. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 2002, Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  15. Contaminant levels in sediments and asteroids (Asterias rubens L., Echinodermata) from the Belgian coast and Scheldt estuary: polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Danis, B; Wantier, P; Dutrieux, S; Flammang, R; Dubois, Ph; Warnau, M

    2004-10-15

    The Southern Bight of the North Sea is particularly exposed to anthropogenic contamination, due to heavy urbanisation and industrialisation of its catchment area. The present work focuses on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and metal contamination of the marine environment along and off the Belgian coast. Its objectives were to compare the concentrations of seven PCB congeners and four heavy metals in the sediments (a repository for anthropogenic contaminants) and in the asteroid Asterias rubens (a recognized bioindicator species). Nineteen sampling stations were considered between the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary and the southern limit of the Belgian coast (asteroids were found in 10 out of the 19 stations). PCB and metal concentrations measured in sediments and asteroids were in the range of values reported in previous studies. Stations under direct influence of the Scheldt were the most impacted by the considered contaminants. Metal concentrations varied according to the grain-size fraction considered. In asteroids, PCBs and metals were found to be selectively distributed among body compartments, and pyloric caeca were found to most efficiently discriminate between sampling stations contamination levels. PCB and metal analysis of sediments provided a physicochemical evaluation of the contamination, whereas analysis of asteroids introduced a biological dimension to the approach by taking into account bioavailability of the contaminants.

  16. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Hoeffner

    2003-12-31

    The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  18. Influence of contamination by organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls on the breeding of the spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mauro; González, Luis M; Oria, Javier; Sánchez, Roberto; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    We evaluated temporal and regional trends of organochlorine (OC) pesticide (including polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]) levels in eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) collected in Spain between 1972 and 2003. Levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs varied significantly (p = 0.022) among regions (central, western, and Doñana), being higher in Doñana than in the central and western populations (DDE: 1.64 +/- 5.56, 0.816 +/- 1.70, and 1.1 +/- 2.66 microg/g, respectively; PCBs: 1.189 +/- 5.0, 0.517 +/- 1.55, and 0.578 +/- 1.75 microg/g, respectively). Levels of DDE decreased with time, but a significant interaction was observed between region and time. In Doñana, egg volume and breadth as well as Ratcliffe Index were significantly lower after DDT use (p = 0.0018) than during the pre-DDT period (p = 0.0018); eggs were significantly smaller overall than in the other two regions (p = 0.04) and were smaller when DDE levels increased, even when controlling for regional differences (p = 0.04). Productivity in Doñana was significantly lower than in the other regions (p < 0.001). Clutch size in Doñana varied according to DDE concentrations (p = 0.01), with the highest DDE concentrations found in clutches consisting of one egg. When considering eggs with DDE levels greater than 3.5 microg/g, a significant effect of DDE on fertility was found (p = 0.03). Clutches with DDE levels greater than 4.0 microg/g had a higher probability of hatching failure (p = 0.07) and produced fewer fledglings (p = 0.03). If we consider 3.5 microg/g as the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level, the proportion of sampled clutches that exceeded that level in Doñana (29%) was significantly higher than in other regions (p < 0.001). These eggs showed a mean percentage of thinning of 16.72%. Contamination by OCs, mainly DDE, could explain, at least in part, the low productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagles in Doñana. PMID:18348639

  19. Methylmercury oxidative degradation potentials in contaminated and pristine sediments of the Carson River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Dowdle, P.; Connell, T.; Barkay, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediments from mercury-contaminated and uncontaminated reaches of the Carson River, Nevada, were assayed for sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, denitrification, and monomethylmercury (MeHg) degradation. Demethylation of [14C]MeHg was detected at all sites as indicated by the formation of 14CO2 and 14CH4. Oxidative demethylation was indicated by the formation of 14CO2 and was present at significant levels in all samples. Oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios (i.e., 14CO2/14CH4 ratios) generally ranged from 4.0 in surface layers to as low as 0.5 at depth. Production of 14CO2 was most pronounced at sediment surfaces which were zones of active denitrification and sulfate reduction but was also significant within zones of methanogenesis. In a core taken from an uncontaminated site having a high proportion of oxidized, coarse-grain sediments, sulfate reduction and methanogenic activity levels were very low and 14CO2 accounted for 98% of the product formed from [14C]MeHg. There was no apparent relationship between the degree of mercury contamination of the sediments and the occurrence of oxidative demethylation. However, sediments from Fort Churchill, the most contaminated site, were most active in terms of demethylation potentials. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate resulted in significantly depressed oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios, but overall demethylation rates of inhibited and uninhibited samples were comparable. Addition of sulfate to sediment slurries stimulated production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeHg, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid blocked production of 14CH4. These results reveal the importance of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in oxidative demethylation of MeHg in anoxic environments.

  20. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550: Smoky Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 550 includes 19 corrective action sites (CASs), which consist of one weapons-related atmospheric test (Smoky), three safety experiments (Ceres, Oberon, Titania), and 15 debris sites (Table ES-1). The CASs were sorted into the following study groups based on release potential and technical similarities: • Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test • Study Group 2, Safety Experiments • Study Group 3, Washes • Study Group 4, Debris The purpose of this document is to provide justification and documentation supporting the conclusion that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 550 based on implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-1. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed between August 2012 and October 2013 as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The approach for the CAI was to investigate and make data quality objective (DQO) decisions based on the types of releases present. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 550 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  4. Risk assessment in a federal regulatory agency: an assessment of risk associated with the human consumption of some species of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed Central

    Cordle, F; Locke, R; Springer, J

    1982-01-01

    The problem of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) became a national concern in 1971 when several accidental contaminations of foods were reported. Extensive efforts were undertaken by FDA to reduce the residues of PCBs in food. However, the PCB levels in several species of fresh-water fish have raised concern about the PCB residues from environmental contamination, and it is this concern which has prompted a reassessment of the human risk involved from consumption of such fish. The human epidemiology and animal toxicity of PCB exposure are reviewed, as well as risk assessment in general. Specific examples to risk assessment involving extrapolation of animal data to humans, based on several levels of human exposure to PCBs in fish, are presented. PMID:6814904

  5. Bottom sediment as a source of organic contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Cranor, Walter L.; Schroeder, Vickie L.; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities' flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however, partitioning between the sediment and the overlying water could result in the sediment acting as a secondary contaminant source. Locating the chemical plumes may be important to understanding possible chemical stressors to aquatic organisms. Passive sampling devices (SPMDs and POCIS) were suspended in LVB at depths of 3.0, 4.7, and 6.7 (lake bottom) meters in June of 2008 to determine the vertical distribution of SOCs in the water column. A custom sediment probe was used to also bury the samplers in the sediment at depths of 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm. The greatest number of detections in samplers buried in the sediment was at the 0–10 cm depth. Concentrations of many hydrophobic SOCs were twice as high at the sediment–water interface than in the mid and upper water column. Many SOCs related to wastewater effluents, including fragrances, insect repellants, sun block agents, and phosphate flame retardants, were found at highest concentrations in the middle and upper water column. There was evidence to suggest that the water infiltrated into the sediment had a different chemical composition than the rest of the water column and could be a potential risk exposure to bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms.

  6. Estimation of uncertainty in the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil in Brighton, UK.

    PubMed

    Zhou, John L; Siddiqui, Ertan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2014-11-01

    The heterogeneity of environmental samples is increasingly recognised, yet rarely examined in organic contamination investigations. In this study soil samples from an ex-landfill site in Brighton, UK were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination by using a balanced sampling protocol. The analytical technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was found to be fit for purpose by the use of duplicate samples and the statistical analysis of variances, as well as of certified reference materials. The sampling uncertainty was found to significantly overweigh the analytical uncertainty, by a factor of 3 and 6 for PCBs and PAHs, respectively. The soil samples showed a general trend of PCB concentration that was under the recommended target level of 20 ng/g dry weight. It is possible that one site alongside the main road may exceed the 20 ng/g target level, after taking into consideration the overall measurement uncertainty (70.8%). The PAH contamination was more severe, with seven sites potentially exceeding the effect-range medium concentrations. The soil samples with relatively high PCB and PAH concentrations were all taken from the grass verge, which also had the highest soil organic carbon content. The measurement uncertainty which was largely due to sampling can be reduced by sampling at a high resolution spacing of 17 m, which is recommended in future field investigations of soil organic contamination.

  7. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  8. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama).

    PubMed

    Chuiko, Grigorii M; Tillitt, Donald E; Zajicek, James L; Flerov, Boris A; Stepanova, Vera M; Zhelnin, Yuri Y; Podgornaya, Vera A

    2007-03-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 microg/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark's condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers. PMID:17097718

  9. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuiko, Grigorii M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Zajicek, James L.; Flerov, Boris A.; Stepanova, Vera M.; Zhelnin, Yuri Y.; Podgornaya, Vera A.

    2007-01-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 μg/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark’s condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers.

  10. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: Relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuiko, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Flerov, B.A.; Stepanova, V.M.; Zhelnin, Y.Y.; Podgornaya, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 ??g/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark's condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical contamination of the Rybinsk Reservoir, northwest Russia: relationship between liver polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content and health indicators in bream (Abramis brama).

    PubMed

    Chuiko, Grigorii M; Tillitt, Donald E; Zajicek, James L; Flerov, Boris A; Stepanova, Vera M; Zhelnin, Yuri Y; Podgornaya, Vera A

    2007-03-01

    The Rybinsk Reservoir (Russia) is the largest artificial waterbody in Europe (4550 km2) and provides drinking water for population of the cities located along the coast line. Industrialization in Cherepovets at the northeastern portion of the reservoir, including one of the largest metallurgical facilities in Europe, has resulted in chemical contamination of the reservoir. The extent of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in bream liver, a common fish species, taken from six locations in the Rybinsk Reservoir and Volga River, and biochemical and morphometric biomarkers of fish health were investigated. Liver PCB concentrations ranged from non-detected to 3.4 microg/g wet wt of liver, with the greatest concentrations found in fish taken near the industrialized area in Sheksna Reach of Rybinsk Reservoir. The source of the bream contamination is the PCB pollution of bottom organisms and sediments conditioned with industrialization facilities of Cherepovets. The patterns of the PCB congeners in the livers of bream taken near Cherepovets were similar at all of the stations that were sampled around the reservoir and Volga River. Among the common fish health biomarkers used only liver total ChE activity and liver-somatic index in bream near Cherepovets can reflect environmental pollution. Other morphometric (FCF, Clark's condition factors, and spleen-somatic index) and biochemical (protein content and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain) biomarkers related with fish health varied among locations, but were not correlated to the concentrations of PCBs in the bream livers.

  12. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Di Toro, Sara; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background The biotreatability of actual-site polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soils is often limited by their poor content of autochthonous pollutant-degrading microorganisms. In such cases, inoculation might be the solution for a successful bioremediation. Some pure and mixed cultures of characterized PCB degrading bacteria have been tested to this purpose. However, several failures have been recorded mostly due to the inability of inoculated microbes to compete with autochthonous microflora and to face the toxicity and the scarcity of nutrients occurring in the contaminated biotope. Complex microbial systems, such as compost or sludge, normally consisting of a large variety of robust microorganisms and essential nutrients, would have better chances to succeed in colonizing degraded contaminated soils. However, such sources of microorganisms have been poorly applied in soil bioremediation and in particular in the biotreatment of soil with PCBs. Thus, in this study the effects of Enzyveba, i.e. a consortium of non-adapted microorganisms developed from composted material, on the slurry- and solid-phase aerobic bioremediation of an actual-site, aged PCB-contaminated soil were studied. Results A slow and only partial biodegradation of low-chlorinated biphenyls, along with a moderate depletion of initial soil ecotoxicity, were observed in the not-inoculated reactors. Enzyveba significantly increased the availability and the persistence of aerobic PCB- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading cultivable bacteria in the bioreactors, in particular during the earlier phase of treatment. It also markedly enhanced PCB-biodegradation rate and extent (from 50 to 100%) as well as the final soil detoxification, in particular under slurry-phase conditions. Taken together, data obtained suggest that Enzyveba enhanced the biotreatability of the selected soil by providing exogenous bacteria and fungi able to remove inhibitory or toxic intermediates of PCB biodegradation and

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 34: Area 3 Contaminated Waste Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, March 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-03-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 34 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 34 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located within the Area 3 Compound at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the vicinity of the Mud Plant Facility in Yucca Valley. Historically, CAS 03-09-07, Mud Pit, was used for disposal of excess mud from washing drilling equipment from 1968 to 1974, at which time it began to be used for excess mud disposal (currently inactive); CAS 03-44-01, Chromium Contamination Spill, was used to store additives used in the formulation of drilling mud from the early 1960s to the mid-1990s; CAS 03-47-02, Area 3 Mud Plant Pond, was used as a freshwater storage reservoir for the mud plant as well as supplied water for a number of activities including the mixing of mud, the rinsing and cleaning of tanks, and various washdowns from the 1960s through 1990s; and CAS 03-09-06, Mud Disposal Crater, was created in 1962 by an underground nuclear detonation (i.e., Chinchilla test) and was used to mix and store mud, dispose of receiving waste from the mud plant floor drains and excess drilling mud, and clean/flush mix tanks through the mid-1990s. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to identify potentially contaminated ground soil at each of the four CASs and determine the quantity, nature, and extent of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs). The investigation will include systematic and biased surface and subsurface soil and mud sampling using hand-auguring and direct-push techniques; visual, video, and/or electromagnetic surveys of pipes; field screening for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides; and laboratory

  14. Maternal transfer of contaminants: case study of the excretion of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Bargar, T A; Scott, G I; Cobb, G P

    2001-01-01

    Reported avian maternal transfer rates of organochlorine contaminants range from 1% to as much as 20% of maternal body burdens. However, to our knowledge, no investigation of factors governing maternal transfer has been reported. Here, we report an investigation of maternal transfer of 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 156), 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 189), and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). Two experiments were performed to evaluate individual chemical excretion into eggs when hens were injected with each chemical individually (experiment one) or with a mixture of all four chemicals (experiment two). Each hen was injected subcutaneously every 4 d during a 21-d period with 100 microliters of the dosing solution during both experiments. The mass of each chemical excreted into the egg was compared among eggs and with the mass injected into hens to determine the influence of chemical structure (experiment one) and interaction (experiment two) on maternal transfer of those chemicals into eggs. Maternal transfer of PCBs was inversely related to congener chlorination. The congener mass in eggs, as a percentage of the mass injected into hens, was 0.42% for PCB 189, 0.54% for PCB 156, and 0.61% for PCB 105. In experiment two, absolute excretion of only PCB 189 and alpha-endosulfan into eggs was affected by the presence of other chemicals. Excretion of PCB 189 (0.51%) and alpha-endosulfan (0.03%) increased and decreased, respectively, compared with when they were individually injected into hens during experiment one. Lastly, much less of the more metabolically susceptible endosulfan (0.04-0.12% of the mass injected) was excreted into the egg relative to PCBs, despite being injected into the hens at concentrations comparable with those of PCBs, suggesting, at least in avian species, lower maternal transfer of more metabolically susceptible

  15. Gender-related decrease in raven`s progressive matrices scores in children prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.L.; Lai, T.J.; Chen, S.J.; Hsu, C.C.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and industrial mixtures that have been widely used throughout the world. PCBs have long environmental half lives and bioconcentrate, therefore contaminating soil, water, wild life, and human tissues. Typical human exposures come from environmental contamination of food supply, especially fresh water fish and meat, and occupational exposures. In certain uses, PCBs can partially oxidize and themselves become contaminated by extremely toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Two episodes of intoxication with heat-degraded PCBs have occurred, in Japan and Taiwan respectively. In 1979, over 2000 persons in Taiwan were intoxicated by heat-degraded PCBs that had contaminated their cooking oil. Kaneclor 500 (a Japanese PCB mixture) contained in the heating pipe was used as the heat transmitter. Leakage of the pipe introduced PCBs and heat-degraded products such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs) into the rice oil. Exposed victims developed chloracne, hyperpigmentation, peripheral neuropathy, and other signs and symptoms which were later called Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil disease{close_quotes}) in Taiwan. These symptoms were caused not only by PCBs but by their heat degraded products, PCDFs. PCBs, PCDFs and PCDDs also can cross the placenta to affect the fetus and cause significant neurodevelopmental toxicity. Raven`s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Standarized Progressive Matrices (SPM) test spatial rather than verbal capabilities in children. These test are useful for determining whether prenatal exposure to PCBs/PCDFs cause differential effects on boys and girls. This paper reports results of CPM and SPM from age six to nine year in Yu-Cheng children and their matched controls. Cognative deficits up to 9 years of age were detected n children with prenatal exposure to PCBs and PCDFs, and boys were more affected than girls. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Risk-based screening analysis of ground water contaminated by radionuclides introduced at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in the southwestern part of Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962 and ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. This concern prompted this examination of the potential health risk to these individuals from drinking the contaminated ground water either at a location on the NTS (assuming loss of institutional control after 100 y) or at one offsite (considering groundwater migration). For the purpose of this assessment, a representative mix of the radionuclides of importance and their concentrations in ground water beneath the NTS were identified from measurements of radionuclide concentrations in groundwater samples-of-opportunity collected at the NTS. Transport of radionuclide-contaminated ground water offsite was evaluated using a travel-time-transport approach. At both locations of interest, potential human-health risk was calculated for an individual ingesting radionuclide-contaminated ground water over the course of a 70-y lifetime. Uncertainties about human physiological attributes, as well as about estimates of physical detriment per unit of radioactive material, were quantified and incorporated into the estimates of risk. The maximum potential excess lifetime risk of cancer mortality estimated for an individual at the offsite location ranges from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, and at the onsite location ranges from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}2}. Both the offsite and the onsite estimates of risk are dominated by the lifetime doses from tritium. For the assessment of radionuclides in ground water, the critical uncertainty is their concentration today under the entire NTS.

  17. Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Zhang, Congkai; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Liang, Fang; Chen, Xincai; Zhu, Youfeng; Lin, Qi; Chen, Yingxu

    2009-12-30

    The crude recycling of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) is now creating soil pollution problems with organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study aimed to compare the phytoremediation potential of four plant species (rice, alfalfa, ryegrass and tall fescue) for PCBs contaminated soil from Taizhou city, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in China. In addition, the enhanced effects of randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on PCBs phytoremediation potential were evaluated. Higher PCBs removal percentages of 25.6-28.5% in rhizosphere soil were observed after 120 days, compared with those of the non-rhizosphere (10.4-16.9%) and unplanted controls (7.3%). The average PCBs removal percentages of four plant species increased from 26.9% to 37.1% in the rhizosphere soil with addition of RAMEB. Meanwhile, relatively high microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity were detected in planted soils and a stimulatory effect by RAMEB addition was found. The present study indicated that all the plant candidates were feasible for phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil from the e-waste recycling area, and tall fescue with RAMEB amendment seemed as a promising remediation strategy. High PCBs removal percentage was due to the increased PCBs bioavailability as well as biostimulation of microbial communities after plantation and RAMEB addition.

  18. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course.

  19. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  1. Bottom Sediment as a Source of Organic Contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities’ flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however,...

  2. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-08-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of recommended corrective action alternatives (CAAs) to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU)168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 25 and 26 at the NTS in Nevada, CAU 168 is comprised of twelve Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Review of data collected during the corrective action investigation, as well as consideration of current and future operations in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS, led the way to the development of three CAAs for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Close in Place with Administrative Controls. As a result of this evaluation, a combination of all three CAAs is recommended for this CAU. Alternative 1 was the preferred CAA for three CASs, Alternative 2 was the preferred CAA for six CASs (and nearly all of one other CAS), and Alternative 3 was the preferred CAA for two CASs (and a portion of one other CAS) to complete the closure at the CAU 168 sites. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and elimination of potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at CAU 168.

  5. Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Skaare, J U; Skjerve, E; Løken, K B; Eggesbø, M

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 423 breast milk samples from women living in Norway. Various predictors for the contaminant levels were also investigated. The samples were collected in six counties, representing South, Central and North Norway in 2002-2006. Initial results showed significantly lower levels of OCPs in breast milk from ethnic Norwegians (N=377) compared to ethnic non-Norwegians (N=46). Median concentrations (range) of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH and oxychlordane in breast milk of the Norwegian women, all parities included, were 103 (34-450), 41 (5.4-492), 11 (3.6-24), 4.7 (0.9-37) and 2.8 (0.5-16) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Results indicated that sum of 18 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH are good predictors for monitoring of PCB, DDT and HCH levels in Norwegian breast milk. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that age was strongly associated with increasing OC levels (P<0.001), whereas parity was associated with decreasing OC levels (P<0.001). Smoking was associated with higher levels of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH. The models explained from 17 to 35% of the variance. Median levels of OCs in the present Norwegian primparaes seemed to be 29-62% lower than corresponding results found in a Norwegian study from 2000-2002.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169. PMID:27565309

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to present the corrective action alternatives (CAAs) evaluated for CAU 547, provide justification for selection of the recommended alternative, and describe the plan for implementing the selected alternative. Corrective Action Unit 547 consists of the following three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; and(3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly. The gas sampling assemblies consist of inactive process piping, equipment, and instrumentation that were left in place after completion of underground safety experiments. The purpose of these safety experiments was to confirm that a nuclear explosion would not occur in the case of an accidental detonation of the high-explosive component of the device. The gas sampling assemblies allowed for the direct sampling of the gases and particulates produced by the safety experiments. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 is located in Area 2 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and is associated with the Mullet safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U2ag on October 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 03-99-19 is located in Area 3 of the NNSS and is associated with the Tejon safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U3cg on May 17, 1963. Corrective Action Site 09-99-06 is located in Area 9 of the NNSS and is associated with the Player safety experiment conducted in emplacement borehole U9cc on August 27, 1964. The CAU 547 CASs were investigated in accordance with the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAU 547. Existing radiological survey data and historical knowledge of

  9. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary.

  10. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by using a combination of ryegrass, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang; Peng, Fang; Wan, Yun; Liao, Min-Hong

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the influences of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus caledoniun L. and/or epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) on phytoremediation of a PCB-contaminated soil by ryegrass grown for 180d. Planting ryegrass, ryegrass inoculated with earthworms, ryegrass inoculated with AMF, and ryegrass co-inoculated with AMF and earthworms decreased significantly initial soil PCB contents by 58.4%, 62.6%, 74.3%, and 79.5%, respectively. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased the yield of plants, and the accumulation of PCBs in ryegrass. However, PCB uptake by ryegrass accounted for a negligible portion of soil PCB removal. The number of soil PCB-degrading populations increased when ryegrass was inoculated with AMF and/or earthworms. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of ryegrass for soil contaminated with PCBs.

  11. Accumulation of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1242 from contaminated detritus and water by the saltmarsh detritivore, Uca pugnax

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, A.C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-09-01

    The uptake of Aroclor 1242 from ingested detritus and in contaminated water is compared in the fiddler crab. Analysis was by gas chromatography. Results show that uptake from water was about one-half that of the uptake from PCB-laden (85 ng/g dry wt) detritus after 34 days. Respiration and egestion rates may not be the only factors controlling accumulation and concentration. The concentration of PCBs in detritus may have a major effect. (JMT)

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC uncertainty

  13. Numerical Simulation of Potential Groundwater Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Oil Shale in the Nevada Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybarski, S.; Pohll, G.; Pohlmann, K.; Plume, R.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has become an increasingly popular method for extraction of oil and natural gas from tight formations. Concerns have been raised over a number of environmental risks associated with fracking, including contamination of groundwater by fracking fluids, upwelling of deep subsurface brines, and methane migration. Given the potentially long time scale for contaminant transport associated with hydraulic fracturing, numerical modeling remains the best practice for risk assessment. Oil shale in the Humboldt basin of northeastern Nevada has now become a target for hydraulic fracturing operations. Analysis of regional and shallow groundwater flow is used to assess several potential migration pathways specific to the geology and hydrogeology of this basin. The model domain in all simulations is defined by the geologic structure of the basin as determined by deep oil and gas well bores and formation outcrops. Vertical transport of gaseous methane along a density gradient is simulated in TOUGH2, while fluid transport along faults and/or hydraulic fractures and lateral flow through more permeable units adjacent to the targeted shale are modeled in FEFLOW. Sensitivity analysis considers basin, fault, and hydraulic fracturing parameters, and results highlight key processes that control fracking fluid and methane migration and time scales under which it might occur.

  14. Resistivity Profiling for Mapping Gravel Layers That May Control Contaminant Migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  15. ABSTRACT: CONTAMINANT TRAVEL TIMES FROM THE NEVADA TEST SITE TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN: SENSITIVITY TO POROSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Karl F. Pohlmann; Jianting Zhu; Jenny B. Chapman; Charles E. Russell; Rosemary W. H. Carroll; David S. Shafer

    2008-09-05

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  16. Contaminant Travel Times From the Nevada Test Site to Yucca Mountain: Sensitivity to Porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlmann, K. F.; Zhu, J.; Chapman, J. B.; Russell, C. E.; Carroll, R. W.; Shafer, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the time frame for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  17. Potential contaminant transport in the regional Carbonate Aquifer beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John; King, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the proposed US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The repository is to be a mine, sited approximately 300 m below the crest of the mountain, in a sequence of variably welded and fractured mid-Miocene rhylolite tuffs, in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. Beneath the proposed repository, at a depth of 2 km, is a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks that contain the highly transmissive Lower Carbonate Aquifer. In the area of Yucca Mountain the Carbonate Aquifer integrates groundwater flow from north of the mountain, through the Amargosa Valley, through the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek in Death Valley, California where the groundwater discharges in a set of large springs. Data that describe the Carbonate Aquifer suggest a concept for flow through the aquifer, and based upon the conceptual model, a one-layer numerical model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow in the Carbonate Aquifer. Advective transport analyses suggest that the predicted travel time of a particle from Yucca Mountain to Death Valley through the Carbonate Aquifer might be as short as 100 years to as long 2,000 years, depending upon the porosity.

  18. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 contaminated waste dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-06-28

    This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  19. Mercury contamination in bank swallows and double-crested cormorants from the Carson River, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.; Brewer, R.; Peterson, S.C.; Mach, C.

    1995-12-31

    An ecological risk assessment was performed in conjunction with a remedial investigation at the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) in northwestern Nevada. Large quantities of mercury used in the processing of gold and silver during mining operations in the mid to late 1800s are distributed throughout the Carson River ecosystem. Previous investigations indicated elevated levels of mercury in soil, sediment, water, and the aquatic food chain. Bird exposure to mercury was determined by measuring total mercury and monomethyl mercury in blood and feather samples from 15 unfledged double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and in blood, feather, and liver samples from 18 juvenile bank swallows (Riparia riparia) at both the CRMS and uncontaminated background locations. Monomethyl mercury accounted for 90 to 98% of the total mercury in the samples. Total mercury concentrations in bird tissues collected at the CRMS were significantly higher than at background locations. Average total mercury concentrations (wet weight) for the swallow blood, liver, and feather samples collected at the CRMS were 2.63, 3.96, and 2.01 mg/kg, respectively; compared with 0.74, 1,03, and 1.84 mg/kg, respectively at the background area. Average total mercury concentrations for cormorant samples collected at the CRMS were 17.07 mg/kg for blood, and 105.1 1 mg/kg for feathers. Cormorant samples collected at the background location had average total mercury concentrations of 0.49 mg/kg for blood and 8.99 mg/kg for feathers. Results are compared with published residue-effects levels to evaluate avian risks.

  20. Addendum for the Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2007-05-01

    This document, which makes changes to Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--077, Revision 0 (June 2006), was prepared to address review comments on this final document provided by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 4, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made for the two plates inserted in the back of the document: • Plate 4: Disregard the repeat of legend text ‘Drill Hole Name’ and ‘Drill Hole Location’ in the lower left corner of the map. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-16-1 location (white dot on the lower left side of the map) is not color-coded because no water level has been determined. The well location is included for reference. • Plate 6: The symbol at the ER-12-1 location (upper left corner of the map), a yellow dot, represents the lower water level elevation. The higher water level elevation, represented by a red dot, was overprinted.

  1. BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION BY COPLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN TRACE LEVEL HIGH RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (HRGC/HRMS) ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  2. Integration of genotoxicity and population genetic analyses in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) exposed to radionuclide contamination at the Nevada Test Site, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodorakis, Christopher W.; Bickham, John W.; Lamb, Trip; Medica, Philip A.; Lyne, T. Barrett

    2001-01-01

    We examined effects of radionuclide exposure at two atomic blast sites on kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, USA, using genotoxicity and population genetic analyses. We assessed chromosome damage by micronucleus and flow cytometric assays and genetic variation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses. The RAPD analysis showed no population structure, but mtDNA exhibited differentiation among and within populations. Genotoxicity effects were not observed when all individuals were analyzed. However, individuals with mtDNA haplotypes unique to the contaminated sites had greater chromosomal damage than contaminated-site individuals with haplotypes shared with reference sites. When interpopulation comparisons used individuals with unique haplotypes, one contaminated site had greater levels of chromosome damage than one or both of the reference sites. We hypothesize that shared-haplotype individuals are potential migrants and that unique-haplotype individuals are potential long-term residents. A parsimony approach was used to estimate the minimum number of migration events necessary to explain the haplotype distributions on a phylogenetic tree. The observed predominance of migration events into the contaminated sites supported our migration hypothesis. We conclude the atomic blast sites are ecological sinks and that immigration masks the genotoxic effects of radiation on the resident populations.

  3. Integration of genotoxicity and population genetic analyses in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) exposed to radionuclide contamination at the Nevada Test Site, USA.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, C W; Bickham, J W; Lamb, T; Medica, P A; Lyne, T B

    2001-02-01

    We examined effects of radionuclide exposure at two atomic blast sites on kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami) at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, USA, using genotoxicity and population genetic analyses. We assessed chromosome damage by micronucleus and flow cytometric assays and genetic variation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses. The RAPD analysis showed no population structure, but mtDNA exhibited differentiation among and within populations. Genotoxicity effects were not observed when all individuals were analyzed. However, individuals with mtDNA haplotypes unique to the contaminated sites had greater chromosomal damage than contaminated-site individuals with haplotypes shared with reference sites. When interpopulation comparisons used individuals with unique haplotypes, one contaminated site had greater levels of chromosome damage than one or both of the reference sites. We hypothesize that shared-haplotype individuals are potential migrants and that unique-haplotye individuals are potential long-term residents. A parsimony approach was used to estimate the minimum number of migration events necessary to explain the haplotype distributions on a phylogenetic tree. The observed predominance of migration events into the contaminated sites supported our migration hypothesis. We conclude the atomic blast sites are ecological sinks and that immigration masks the genotoxic effects of radiation on the resident populations.

  4. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Cabble , Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  5. Annotated bibliography of literature relating to wind transport of plutonium-contaminated soils at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.

    1993-12-01

    During the period from 1954 through 1963, a number of tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to determine the safety of nuclear devices with respect to storage, handling, transport, and accidents. These tests were referred to as ``safety shots.`` ``Safety`` in this context meant ``safety against fission reaction.`` The safety tests were comprised of chemical high explosive detonations with components of nuclear devices. The conduct of these tests resulted in the dispersion of plutonium, and some americium over areas ranging from several tens to several hundreds of hectares. Of the various locations used for safety tests, the site referred to as ``Plutonium Valley`` was subject to a significant amount of plutonium contamination. Plutonium Valley is located in Area 11 on the eastern boundary of the NTS at an elevation of about 1036 m (3400 ft). Plutonium Valley was the location of four safety tests (A,B,C, and D) conducted during 1956. A major environmental, health, and safety concern is the potential for inhalation of Pu{sup 239,240} by humans as a result of airborne dust containing Pu particles. Thus, the wind transport of Pu{sup 239,240} particles has been the subject of considerable research. This annotated bibliography was created as a reference guide to assist in the better understanding of the environmental characteristics of Plutonium Valley, the safety tests performed there, the processes and variables involved with the wind transport of dust, and as an overview of proposed clean-up procedures.

  6. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  7. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

    2009-09-10

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  8. Contamination status and possibility of toxic effects of co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in large japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido and Aomori.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Fujita, Shoichi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Contamination levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) were measured in the entire body of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) collected from Hokkaido (Ishikari and Rankoshi) and Aomori prefecture (Takko) in Japan. Higher concentrations of PCBs including Co-PCBs, were observed in the mice collected from Ishikari than those from Rankoshi. The concentration of PAHs in the soil from Ishikari was also higher than that in the other sampling sites. The findings suggest that Ishikari is the most polluted area, probably because of human activities, depending on the population distribution. However, the observed contaminant levels were extremely lower compared to those in previous studies. The ratio of testis weight to body weight (TW/BW) was the lowest in the mice collected from Ishikari, which is the area contaminated with PAHs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). However, the serum testosterone levels of mice from the Ishikari area were higher than those from the non-contaminated other areas although no significant differences. Previous studies have shown that a low-level exposure to dioxin related compounds (DRCs) disturbances in sexual function, resulting in the production of testosterone. This study showed that POPs exposure is one of the possibility of the high testosterone concentration in the mice of the Ishikari area in addition to a cause of biological and environmental factors such as habitat density, age, temperatures and/or food riches. PMID:25282952

  9. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB) could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri-) PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L −1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments. PMID:25875180

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 117 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 26-41-01, Pluto Disassembly Facility, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 117 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 117 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From May 2008 through February 2009, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117, Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to determine COCs for CAU 117. Assessment of the data generated from closure activities indicated that the final action levels were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reported as total Aroclor and

  11. Mercury Contamination and Bioaccumulation Associated with Historical Gold Mining in the Bear and Yuba River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpers, C. N.; Hunerlach, M. P.; Hothem, R. L.; May, J. T.; Taylor, H. E.; DeWild, J. F.; Olson, M. L.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.

    2001-12-01

    Extensive use of mercury in the mining and recovery of gold during the late 19th and early 20th centuries has led to widespread mercury contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California. The watersheds of the Bear and Yuba Rivers were selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey and other federal, state, and local agencies on the basis of (1) results of previous studies of bioaccumulation, (2) observations of visible elemental mercury at numerous mine sites and in river sediments, and (3) extensive historical mining on federal lands and adjacent private lands. Of 53 unfiltered water samples analyzed for total recoverable mercury (Hg-T), 17 samples (32 percent) had concentrations in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aquatic-life criterion of 50 nanograms per liter (ng/L). Water flowing from two separate tunnels in one mining district had Hg-T concentrations greater than 100,000 ng/L, exceeding the EPA drinking-water standard of 2,000 ng/L. Monthly sampling of the Bear River near its mouth revealed monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered water samples greater than 0.4 ng/L during July-August 1999 and January 2000. Game fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in the food chain and to examine the potential risk for humans and wildlife. Of 141 fish fillet samples of black basses (Micropterus spp.), sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus and Lepomis cyanellus), black crappie (Poxomis nigromaculatus), channel catfish (Ictularus punctatus), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) analyzed for Hg-T, 52 percent exceeded the EPA criterion of 0.3 parts per million (ppm), wet basis. Eighty-nine percent of the bass had Hg-T greater than 0.3 ppm total mercury. Based on these data, three counties issued a public health notification recommending limited consumption of game fish from the Bear and Yuba watersheds

  12. Aerobic biodegradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls by Arctic soil microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W; Westerberg, K; Cullen, W R; Reimer, K J

    1997-01-01

    We examined the degradation of biphenyl and the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1221 by indigenous Arctic soil microorganisms to assess both the response of the soil microflora to PCB pollution and the potential of the microflora for bioremediation. In soil slurries, Arctic soil microflora and temperate-soil microflora had similar potentials to mineralize [14C]biphenyl. Mineralization began sooner and was more extensive in slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils than in slurries of uncontaminated Arctic soils. The maximum mineralization rates at 30 and 7 degrees C were typically 1.2 to 1.4 and 0.52 to 1.0 mg of biphenyl g of dry soil-1 day-1, respectively. Slurries of PCB-contaminated Arctic soils degraded Aroclor 1221 more extensively at 30 degrees C (71 to 76% removal) than at 7 degrees C (14 to 40% removal). We isolated from Arctic soils organisms that were capable of psychrotolerant (growing at 7 to 30 degrees C) or psychrophilic (growing at 7 to 15 degrees C) growth on biphenyl. Two psychrotolerant isolates extensively degraded Aroclor 1221 at 7 degrees C (54 to 60% removal). The soil microflora and psychrotolerant isolates degraded all mono-, most di-, and some trichlorobiphenyl congeners. The results suggest that PCB pollution selected for biphenyl-mineralizing microorganisms in Arctic soils. While low temperatures severely limited Aroclor 1221 removal in slurries of Arctic soils, results with pure cultures suggest that more effective PCB biodegradation is possible under appropriate conditions. PMID:9292988

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 566 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-99-20, EMAD Compound, located within Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 566 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 566 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From October 2010 through May 2011, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 566: EMAD Compound, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) to determine COCs for CAU 566. Assessment of the data from collected soil samples, and from radiological and visual surveys of the site, indicates the FALs were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and radioactivity. Corrective actions were implemented to remove the following: • Radiologically contaminated soil assumed greater than FAL at two locations • Radiologically contaminated soil assumed greater than FAL with

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-05-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. Corrective Action Unit 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, received sanitary effluent from four buildings within the Test Cell ''C'' Facility from the mid-1960s through approximately 1996. The Test Cell ''C'' Facility was used to develop nuclear propulsion technology by conducting nuclear test reactor studies. Based on the site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, herbicides, gamma emitting radionuclides, isotopic plutonium, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90. A detailed conceptual site model is presented in Section 3.0 and Appendix A of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The conceptual model serves as the basis for the sampling strategy. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  15. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  16. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eleanor M; Trumble, Stephen J; Subedi, Bikram; Sanders, Rebel; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Lipid-rich matrices are often sinks for lipophilic contaminants, such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Typically methods for contaminant extraction and cleanup for lipid-rich matrices require multiple cleanup steps; however, a selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) technique requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs. Typically used as an aging technique in cetaceans, layers or laminae that comprise the earplug are thought to be associated with annual or semiannual migration and feeding patterns. Whale earplugs (earwax) represent a unique matrix capable of recording and archiving whales' lifetime contaminant profiles. This study reports the first analytical method developed for identifying and quantifying lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a whale earplug including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The analytical method was developed using SPLE to extract contaminants from ∼0.25 to 0.5g aliquots of each lamina of sectioned earplug. The SPLE was optimized for cleanup adsorbents (basic alumina, silica gel, and Florisil(®)), adsorbent to sample ratio, and adsorbent order. In the optimized SPLE method, the earwax homogenate was placed within the extraction cell on top of basic alumina (5g), silica gel (15g), and Florisil(®) (10g) and the target analytes were extracted from the homogenate using 1:1 (v/v) dichloromethane:hexane. POPs were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization and electron impact ionization. The average percent recoveries for the POPs were 91% (±6% relative standard deviation), while limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.00057 to 0.96ngg(-1

  17. Application of a food chain model to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the lobster and winter flounder food chains in New Bedford Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J.P. Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site a model of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lobster and winter flounder food chains was developed. This model successfully reproduces tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorobiphenyl concentrations observed at all levels of the food chain and across the 2 order of magnitude concentration gradient in the system. The model indicated that PCB concentrations in the flounder and, to a lesser extent, in the lobster are derived from the sediment. Dietary uptake exceeds uptake across the gill for all four homologues and becomes the dominant route at the higher chlorinated homologues. The assimilation efficiency of ingested PCB apparently declines from relatively high values for tri-chlorobiphenyl to relatively low values for hexachlorobiphenyl. Differences in observed lobster and flounder PCB concentrations appear to be due to differences in the importance of the benthic component of the food chains of these animals and differences in whole body lipid content.

  18. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and the UGTA corrective action strategy is provided in Section 1.5. The FFACO (1996) corrective action process for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97 was initiated with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 2000a). The CAIP included a review of existing data on the CAU and proposed a set of data collection activities to collect additional characterization data. These recommendations were based on a value of information analysis (VOIA) (IT, 1999), which evaluated the value of different possible data collection activities, with respect to reduction in uncertainty of the contaminant boundary, through simplified transport modeling. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAIP identifies a three-step model development process to evaluate the impact of underground nuclear testing on groundwater to determine a contaminant boundary (DOE/NV, 2000a). The three steps are as follows: (1) Data compilation and analysis that provides the necessary modeling data that is

  19. Sierra Nevada

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the Sierra Nevada mountains near the California-Nevada border were acquired on August 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 3472. On the left is ... 2000 - Sierra Nevada mountains near the California-Nevada border. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations, and step-out sampling to define the extent of

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  2. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-05-03

    The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  4. Toxicity of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in Domestic and laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Damstra, T; Jurgelski, W; Posner, H S; Vouk, V B; Bernheim, N J; Guthrie, J; Luster, M; Falk, H L

    1982-01-01

    The composition, environmental fate, and effects of the polybrominated biphenyls (Firemaster BP-6 or FF-1) involved in the accidental contamination of cattle feed in Michigan in 1973 are reviewed. Toxic effects referred to in this report are limited to those occurring in domestic and laboratory animals and include general toxicity, neurobehavioral toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. The absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination of these polybrominated biphenyls are discussed along with the interactions with other chemicals and drugs. PMID:6282577

  5. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  6. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  7. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  8. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of the risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and metal contaminants in sediments in UK estuaries and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Manuel Nicolaus, E E; Law, Robin J; Wright, Serena R; Lyons, Brett P

    2015-06-15

    The environmental risks of 22 contaminants, comprising 6 metals, 10 PAHs and 6 PCB congeners occurring in UK estuaries and coastal waters were assessed as single substances. Sediment samples were taken within 12 nautical miles of the English and Welsh coastlines between 1999 and 2011. The measured environmental concentrations were compared to quality standards including ERL, ERM and EAC, all of which have been established internationally. Out of a total of 38,031 individual samples analysed, 42.6% and 7.7% exceeded the ERL/EAC and ERM values, respectively. The highest Risk Characterisation Ratios (RCRs) for metals, PAHs and PCBs were observed for copper, fluorene and CB118 (2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). In general, the highest concentrations of PAHs and PCBs were observed in 2011 in the Lower Medway indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. This study suggests that re-suspension of contaminants banned over 20years ago is still an ongoing issue.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in king mackerel caught off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil: Occurrence, contaminant profile, biological parameters and human intake.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Daniele A; Yogui, Gilvan T

    2016-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDTs are ubiquitous worldwide. Their lipophilic nature facilitates accumulation in fish tissues. This study investigated 182 PCB congeners and 14 organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes, heptachlor and mirex) in muscle and liver of king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla) caught off the northeastern coast of Brazil. Concentration of PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes in muscle averaged 31.5, 4.70 and 0.15ngg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Mean levels of the same contaminants in liver were 145, 18.7 and 1.11ngg(-1) dw, respectively. HCHs, heptachlor and mirex were not detected in the samples. The metabolite p,p'-DDE dominated the composition of DDTs in both muscle and liver. However, a clear shift was observed in the proportions of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD when comparing both tissues, suggesting metabolism in the liver. The PCBs profile revealed a depletion in mono- through tetra-CBs and an enrichment in penta- through deca-CBs. Biological parameters such as sex, maturity stage, age, body weight and total length did not influence contaminant levels in tissues. Dietary risk assessment indicated that S. cavalla from the northeastern coast of Brazil does not pose a health risk for humans. PMID:27392580

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  14. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny; Pohlmann, Karl F.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Rhodococcus sp. WB1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Shen, Alin

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored. PMID:27738025

  16. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination and Salt Efflorescence Associated With Decorative Landscaping Rocks, Las Vegas, Nevada: The Need for Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozek, S. A.; Buck, B. J.; Brock, A. L.

    2004-12-01

    Las Vegas, Nevada is one of the fastest growing cities in the United States. Faced with water restrictions, decorative rock xeroscaping has become a very popular form of landscaping. Currently, there are no regulations controlling the geochemistry of the decorative rocks that can be used for these purposes. In this study, we examined three sites containing two different decorative rock products. The landscaping rocks, underlying soil, and surface salt crusts were analyzed to determine their mineralogy and chemistry. Methods of analysis include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), thin section analysis, and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). Preliminary results indicate the presence of halite (NaCl), bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2 4H2O), a hydrated magnesium sulfate, and possibly copper sulfate and copper chloride mineral phases in the surface salt crusts. Both copper minerals are regarded as hazardous substances by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); these agencies have established minimum exposure limits for human contact with these substances. Copper sulfate and copper chloride are not naturally occurring minerals in the soils of the Las Vegas Valley, and analyses indicate that their formation may be attributed to the mineralogy of the decorative landscaping rocks. Further testing is needed to characterize this potential health hazard; however the preliminary results of this study demonstrate the need for regulations controlling the geochemistry of decorative rocks used for urban landscaping.

  18. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.; Welch, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year-old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21 percent; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70 percent. Nursing (Mothers' milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  19. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21%; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70%. Nursing (Mothers milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  1. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2000-07-01

    The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks site Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135 will be closed by unrestricted release decontamination and verification survey, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU includes one Corrective Action Site (CAS). The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine-Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999 discussed in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (DOE/NV,1999a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples that exceeded the preliminary action levels are polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Unrestricted release decontamination and verification involves removal of concrete and the cement-lined pump sump from the vault. After verification that the contamination has been removed, the vault will be repaired with concrete, as necessary. The radiological- and chemical-contaminated pump sump and concrete removed from the vault would be disposed of at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. The vault interior will be field surveyed following removal of contaminated material to verify that unrestricted release criteria have been achieved.

  3. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2007-09-01

    This report documents transport data and data analyses for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97. The purpose of the data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU transport model. Specific task objectives were as follows: • Identify and compile currently available transport parameter data and supporting information that may be relevant to the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. • Assess the level of quality of the data and associated documentation. • Analyze the data to derive expected values and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability. The scope of this document includes the compilation and assessment of data and information relevant to transport parameters for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU subsurface within the context of unclassified source-term contamination. Data types of interest include mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, matrix and effective porosity, dispersivity, matrix diffusion, matrix and fracture sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport parameters.

  4. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  5. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  6. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-09-26

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting a closure recommendation for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29 Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU contains six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, Oil Spills; 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); and 29-44-01, Fuel Spill, located within Areas 12, 18, and 29 on the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action or closure in place for CASs within CAU 394. Throughout late 2002 and early to mid 2003, closure activities were performed as set forth in the CAU 394 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan. The closure activities identified the nature and extent of contaminants of potential concern at the CASs, and provided sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Soil in CASs 18-25-02 and 18-25-03 containing polychlorinated biphenyls exceeding the action levels established by the Nevada Administrative Code were removed for proper disposal. The soil remaining in these CASs containing petroleum hydrocarbons exceeding the action level were closed in place with use restrictions. Corrective Action Sites 18-25-04 required no further corrective action; closure in place is required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03, and 29-44-01; and use restrictions are required at CASs 12-25-04, 18-25-01, 18-25-02, 18-25-03 and 29-44-01. In summary, no corrective action plan is required for CAU 394.

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  9. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  14. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  15. OCCURRENCE OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, POLYBROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYBROMINATED DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the present study is to determine the concentrations and compositions of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as contaminants in the commercial polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) mixt...

  16. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  17. Workforce: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In Nevada, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare occupations will see growth of 47 percent. Teachers will be in demand: over 1,100 new primary and secondary educators will need to be hired each year. Managers will see their ranks swell by 44 percent, with…

  18. Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

  19. Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms eluted from three sediments, one contaminated with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and two contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, were compared for their ability to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture Firemaster. These microorganisms were incubated with reduced anaerobic mineral medium and noncontaminated sediment amended with Firemaster. Firemaster averages six bromines per biphenyl molecule; four of the bromines are substituted in the meta or para position. The inocula from all three sources were able to debrominate the meta and para positions. Microorganisms from the Pine River (St. Louis, Mich.) contaminated with Firemaster, the Hudson River (Hudson Falls, N.Y.) contaminated with Aroclor 1242, and Silver Lake (Pittsfield, Mass.) contaminated with Aroclor 1260 removed 32, 12, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks of incubation. This suggests that previous environmental exposure to PBBs enhances the debromination capability of the sediment microbial community through selection for different strains of microorganisms. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines per biphenyl molecule during a 32-week incubation period, resulting in a mixture potentially more accessible to aerobic degradation processes. No ortho bromine removal was observed. However, when Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms that had been repeatedly transferred on a pyruvate medium amended with Aroclor 1242, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks of incubation and additional debromination products, including 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected.

  20. A Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Clark, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-09-01

    A new, revised three-dimensional (3-D) hydrostratigraphic framework model for Frenchman Flat was completed in 2004. The area of interest includes Frenchman Flat, a former nuclear testing area at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. Internal and external reviews of an earlier (Phase I) Frenchman Flat model recommended additional data collection to address uncertainties. Subsequently, additional data were collected for this Phase II initiative, including five new drill holes and a 3-D seismic survey.

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  2. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. PMID:12117297

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective actions. Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the following three corrective action sites (CASs) in Area 12 of the NTS: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Site 12-06-09 consists of a muckpile and debris located on the hillside in front of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnels on the eastern slopes of Rainier Mesa in Area 12. The muckpile includes mining debris (muck) and debris generated during the excavation and construction of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-08-02, CWD, consists of a muckpile and debris and is located on the hillside in front of the re-entry tunnel for K-Tunnel. For the purpose of this investigation CAS 12-28-01 is defined as debris ejected by containment failures during the Des Moines and Platte Tests and the associated contamination that is not covered in the two muckpile CASs. This site consists of debris scattered south of the I-, J-, and K-Tunnel muckpiles and extends down the hillside, across the valley, and onto the adjacent hillside to the south. In addition, the site will cover the potential contamination associated with ''ventings'' along the fault, fractures, and various boreholes on the mesa top and face. One conceptual site model was developed for all three CASs to address possible contamination migration pathways associated with CAU 309. The data quality objective (DQO

  4. Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Statement was prepared to give one information about polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,408 hazardous waste sites as the most serious in the nation. PBBs have been found that at least eight of the sites on the NPL.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, April 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-04-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 271 consists of 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) including: thirteen Septic Systems (25-04-01, 25-04-03, 25-04-04, 25-04-08, 25-04-09, 25-04-10, 25-04-11, 26-04-01, 26-04-02, 26-05-03, 26-05-04, 26-05-05, and 27-05-02), one Contaminated Water Reservoir (26-03-01), and one Radioactive Leachfield (26-05-01). The CASs addressed by CAU 271 are located at Guard Station 500, the Reactor Control Point (RCP), Bare Reactor Experiment - Nevada Tower, and Engine Test State-1 (ETS-1) facilities in Area 25; the Port Gaston and Project Pluto facilities in Area 26; and the Baker Site in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1 958 and 1973, the RCP and ETS-1 facilities supported the development and testing of nuclear reactors for space propulsion as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The Project Pluto facilities supported nuclear reactor testing for use as a ramjet propulsion system between 1961 and 1964, followed by similar use for other projects through the early 1980s. The Baker Site facilities were constructed in the 1960s to serve as the staging point where the manufactured components of nuclear devices were assembled, disassembled, and modified. The scope of the investigation strategy at these sites will involve biased and random soil sampling in leachfields using excavation (with drilling as a contingency), collection of soil samples underlying the base of proximal and distal ends of septic tanks and distal ends of distribution structures, defining the lateral and vertical extent of contamination through discrete field and possible stepout location sampling, collection system line

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  7. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily contaminated, with a range from 0.2 to 159 micrograms PCBs per cm2 of surface. Considerable amounts of PCBs were detected on the palms of the hands of the workers (2-28 microgram/cm2 of skin surface). In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently exposed and workers exposed only in the past. In groups of workers who were homogeneous as regards work area and job, the PCB concentrations in the blood were closely correlated with the length of actual occupational exposure to these compounds. These findings led to the conclusion that absorption of PCBs in these workers had occurred mainly through the skin, therefore industrial preventive surveillance must take this route of exposure into account. Since blood PCB concentrations appear to be correlated with the length of exposure, PCB determination on whole blood may be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure to PCBs. PMID:6781529

  8. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

  9. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  10. Current shot noise characteristics in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kalsoom, Ambreen; Song, Siyu; Li, Guiqin

    2014-09-01

    Current shot noise characteristics, away from their average current, in biphenyl diamine and biphenyl dithiol devices are investigated. The relations among the shot noise and the applied bias, the coupling factors, as well as the alligator clips are revealed. The regular change of the shot noise in biphenyl diamine device and irregular change of the shot noise in biphenyl dithiol device are shown as the coupling strength change from full coupling to weak coupling. It is found that the shot noise suppression in biphenyl diamine device is enhanced at the higher bias. The large differences of the shot noise suppression in the biphenyl dithiol device are revealed.

  11. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  12. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U

    2012-12-01

    Phytoremediation-plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater-is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 335: Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 335, Area 6 Injection Well and Drain Pit, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 335 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CAU is located in the Well 3 Yard in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. Historical records indicate that the Drain Pit (CAS 06-23-03) received effluent from truck-washing; the Drums/Oil Waste/Spill (CAS 06-20-01) consisted of four 55-gallon drums containing material removed from the Cased Hole; and the Cased Hole (CAS 06-20-02) was used for disposal of used motor oil, wastewater, and debris. These drums were transported to the Area 5 Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site in July 1991; therefore, they are no longer on site and further investigation or remediation efforts are not required. Consequently, CAS 06-20-01 will be closed with no further action and details of this decision will be described in the Closure Report for this CAU. Any spills that may have been associated with this CAS will be investigated and addressed under CAS 06-20-02. Field investigation efforts will be focused on the two remaining CASs. The scope of the investigation will center around identifying any contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) and, if present, determining the vertical and lateral extent of contamination. The COPCs for the Drain Pit include: total volatile/ semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline-and diesel-range organics), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides. The COPCs for the Cased Hole include: total volatile/ semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics only), and total Resource Conservation an d

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, August 2002)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-08-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Offices's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 127 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 127 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of 12 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located at Test Cell C; the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility; the X-Tunnel in Area 25; the Pluto Disassembly Facility; the Pluto Check Station; and the Port Gaston Training Facility in Area 26. These CASs include: CAS 25-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank (AST); CAS 25-02-02, Underground Storage Tank (UST); CAS 25-23-11, Contaminated Materials; CAS 25-12-01, Boiler; CAS 25-01-06, AST; CAS 25-01-07, AST; CAS 25-02-13, UST; CAS 26- 01-01, Filter Tank (Rad) and Piping; CAS 26-01-02, Filter Tank (Rad); CAS 26-99-01, Radioactively Contaminated Filters; CAS 26-02-01, UST; CAS 26-23-01, Contaminated Liquids Spreader. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for CAU 127 include radionuclides, metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Additionally, beryllium may be present at some locations. The sources of potential releases are varied, but releases of contaminated liquids may have occurred and may have migrated into and impacted soil below and surrounding storage vessels at some of the CASs. Also, at several CASs, asbestos-containing materials may be present on the aboveground structures and may be friable. Exposure pathways are limited to ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact (adsorption) of soils/sediments or liquids, or inhalation of contaminants by site workers due to disturbance of

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department Of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-02-24

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 266 consists of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-09 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 266. Corrective Action Unit 266 is located southwest of Building 3124 which is located southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Operations within Building 3124 from 1962 through the early 1990s resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations, various laboratories including a high-level radioactivity environmental sample handling laboratory, and possibly the Treatability Test Facility. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include radionuclides, oil/diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act characteristic volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and metals. Samples will also be analyzed for radionuclides and polychlorinated biphenyls not

  17. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model area and the non

  18. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive confining

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-08-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation

  20. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4,4′-dibromo- (CAS No. 92-86-4); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1790 - Polybrominated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...′-(Biphenyl, 2-bromo- (CAS No. 2052-07-5); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 3-bromo- (CAS No. 2113-57-7); 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 2,2′, 3,3′, 4,4′, 5,5′, 6,6′-decabromo- (CAS No. 13654-09-6); Nonabromobiphenyl (CAS No. 27753-52-2... 1,1′-(Biphenyl, 4-bromo- (CAS No. 92-66-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  4. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  5. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    PubMed

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  6. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    PubMed

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. PMID:25733205

  7. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  8. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  9. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  10. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  11. Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.; Leatherland, J.F.; Woo, P.T.K.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  13. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  14. Chemical contamination of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary as a result of the attack on the World Trade Center: analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in mussels and sediment.

    PubMed

    Lauenstein, G G; Kimbrough, K L

    2007-03-01

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in a massive plume of dust and smoke that blanketed lower Manhattan and part of the Hudson-Raritan Estuary (HRE). The NOAA National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program has long-term monitoring sites in the area and thus had an opportunity to assess the effect of the WTC attack on PAH and PCB contamination of the surrounding estuary. Seven additional sites were added in the Upper HRE to attain higher sampling resolution for comparison with regularly sampled Mussel Watch Project HRE sites. Elevated background levels of PCBs and PAHs in mussel tissue and sediments were high enough before the WTC attack that concentrations were not measurably changed by WTC derived contaminant input.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  16. Dioxygenation of the Biphenyl Dioxygenation Product

    PubMed Central

    Overwin, Heike; González, Myriam; Méndez, Valentina; Seeger, Michael; Wray, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Two biphenyl dioxygenases (BphAs) were shown to catalyze dioxygenation of biphenyldienediol in the nonoxidized ring to form the respective symmetrical biphenyl-bis-dienediol. This novel metabolite served as a growth substrate for both BphA source strains. Its catabolism through the upper bph pathway of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was analyzed. PMID:22504819

  17. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial.

  18. Bacterial metabolism of hydroxylated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Higson, F K; Focht, D D

    1989-01-01

    Isolates able to grow on 3- or 4-hydroxybiphenyl (HB) as the sole carbon source were obtained by enrichment culture. The 3-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH12 used an NADPH-dependent monooxygenase restricted to 3- and 3,3'-HBs to introduce an ortho-hydroxyl. The 4-HB degrader Pseudomonas sp. strain FH23 used either a mono- or dioxygenase to generate a 2,3-diphenolic substitution pattern which allowed meta-fission of the aromatic ring. By using 3-chlorocatechol to inhibit catechol dioxygenase activity, it was found that 2- and 3-HBs were converted by FH23 to 2,3-HB, whereas biphenyl and 4-HB were attacked by dioxygenation. 4-HB was metabolized to 2,3,4'-trihydroxybiphenyl. Neither organism attacked chlorinated HBs. The degradation of 3- and 4-HBs by these strains is therefore analogous to the metabolism of biphenyl, 2-HB, and naphthalene in the requirement for 2,3-catechol formation. PMID:2729993

  19. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  20. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero.

  1. Reductive dehalogenation of polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms from sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are stable industrial chemicals that consist of complex mixtures considered to be highly recalcitrant to biological degradation in the environment. Reductive dehalogenation is the only known biodegradation process for the more highly halogenated PCB and PBB mixtures. Studies were undertaken to: (1) examine in situ reductive debromination in sediments of the Pine River Reservoir, (2) compare the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated and PBB-contaminated sediments to debrominate the commercial PBB mixture, Firemaster, (3) examine factors which might enhance reductive dehalogenation in sediments, (4) evaluate the role of sediment for dechlorinating microorganisms. Sediments in the heavily contaminated region of the Pine River have undergone little or no debromination. Anaerobic microorganisms previously shown to dechlorinate PCB mixtures were unable to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 in the presence of Pine River sediments located close to the PBB manufacturing site. Microorganisms downstream of the heaviest contamination were able to debrominate Firemaster. Microorganisms from the Pine River (contaminated with Firemaster), Hudson River (contaminated with Aroclor 1242) and Silver Lake (contaminated with Aroclor 1260), removed 32%, 12%, and 3% of the meta plus para bromines, respectively, after 32 weeks. The Pine River inoculum removed an average of 1.25 bromines from the biphenyl molecule. When Firemaster was incubated with Hudson River microorganisms, 17% of the meta and para bromines were removed after 16 weeks, and additional debromination products, 2-bromobiphenyl and biphenyl, were detected suggesting ortho debromination. A PCB enrichment culture was established using pyruvate as an electron donor and Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. Three Michigan surface soils, Pine River sediments, and ashed sediment supported reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Hudson River microorganisms.

  2. Temporal and spatial variation of atmospherically deposited organic contaminants at high elevation in Yosemite National Park, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Bradford, David F; Stanley, Kerri A; Tallent, Nita G; Sparling, Donald W; Nash, Maliha S; Knapp, Roland A; McConnell, Laura L; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2013-03-01

    Contaminants used at low elevation, such as pesticides on crops, can be transported tens of kilometers and deposited in adjacent mountains in many parts of the world. Atmospherically deposited organic contaminants in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA, have exceeded some thresholds of concern, but the spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants in the mountains are not well known. The authors sampled shallow-water sediment and tadpoles (Pseudacris sierra) for pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls in four high-elevation sites in Yosemite National Park in the central Sierra Nevada twice during the summers of 2006, 2007, and 2008. Both historic- and current-use pesticides showed a striking pattern of lower concentrations in both sediment and tadpoles in Yosemite than was observed previously in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks in the southern Sierra Nevada. By contrast, PAH concentrations in sediment were generally greater in Yosemite than in Sequoia-Kings Canyon. The authors suggest that pesticide concentrations tend to be greater in Sequoia-Kings Canyon because of a longer air flow path over agricultural lands for this park along with greater pesticide use near this park. Concentrations for DDT-related compounds in some sediment samples exceeded guidelines or critical thresholds in both parks. A general pattern of difference between Yosemite and Sequoia-Kings Canyon was not evident for total tadpole cholinesterase activity, an indicator of harmful exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Variability of chemical concentrations among sites, between sampling periods within each year, and among years, contributed significantly to total variation, although the relative contributions differed between sediment and tadpoles.

  3. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  4. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  5. EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM MARINE SEDIMENTS AND TISSUES USING MICROWAVE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we compared microwave solvent extraction (MSE) to conventional methods for extracting organic contaminants from marine sediments and tissues with high and varying moisture content. The organic contaminants measured were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chl...

  6. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls: new trends and promises.

    PubMed

    Aken, Benoit Van; Correa, Paola A; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2010-04-15

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environment-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. To overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs.

  7. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  8. Reductive microbial dechlorination of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyls in soil using a sediment-free inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Barton, J.W.; Evans, B.S.; Reeves, M.E.

    1996-05-01

    In laboratory experiments, unagitated soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated (PCBs) sediments from the Hudson River were used to anaerobically dechlorinate PCBs. The onset of dechlorination activity was accelerated by the addition of certain organic acids (pyruvate and maleate) and single congeners (2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl). Dechlorination was observed under several working conditions after 19 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution. Best results showed a drop in average chlorine content from 4.3 to 3.6 chlorines per biphenyl due to a loss of m-chlorines. Soil used for these experiments was obtained from a PCB-contaminated (weathered Aroclor 1248) site at an electric power substation. Dechlorination was observed with no sediment particles or other matrix being added. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-09-01

    concentrations exceeding the FALs. • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination above the FAL was identified in the surface and/or shallow subsurface soils at the outfall and around Catch Basin 2, and in soils contained within the catch basins and the manhole at CAS 25-60-03. A corrective action of close in place with a soil removal action and use restriction (UR) was completed at CAS 25-60-03. The PCB-contaminated soils were removed from the outfall area and around Catch Basin 2, and disposed of at a Nevada Test Site landfill as part of a removal action. The catch basins and the manhole were sealed shut by filling them with grout. The end of the outfall pipe was plugged using grout, covered with soil, and the area was regraded. A UR was applied to the entire stormwater system at CAS 25-60-03, which includes the three catch basins, manhole, and associated piping. No further action is the corrective action for CASs 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01. The liquids in the test holes at CAS 06-99-09 were removed for disposal and the features were filled with grout as a best management practice. The drainage pipe between the vehicle washdown pad and the drainage pit at CAS 25-64-01 was sealed at each end as a best management practice. The corrective actions were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. They were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The corrective actions meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site and will reduce potential exposure pathways to the contaminated media to an acceptable level at CAU 556. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office provides the following recommendations: • Maintain a UR for the entire stormwater drainage system (i.e., three catch basins, one manhole, and associated piping) at CAS 25-60-03. • No further corrective action for CAU 556. • A Notice of

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Low Impact Soil Sites' and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Closure activities were conducted from February through April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996; as amended February 2008) and Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 107 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2009). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS AND TISSUE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica typically inhabit estuaries and coastal areas that are increasingly contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Oysters may bioaccumulate large quantities of metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB...

  15. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, June 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-06-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located near Area 3 on the TTR approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 409 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site; CAS TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1); CAS TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit (referred to as Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2). This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 409. The CADD/CR have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed in November 2000. Analysis of the data generated from these investigation activities indicates preliminary action levels were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, TCLP semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (except arsenic), TCLP RCRA metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, isotopic uranium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides (except thorium-234) for any of the soil samples collected. Concentrations of arsenic were detected above the preliminary action level in all samples; however, the concentrations are considered representative of ambient conditions at the site. Thorium-234 was tentatively identified in one sample; however, the concentration is considered no greater than background. The NNSA/NV's final determination is that CAU 409 shows no evidence of soil

  18. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-07-20

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  20. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 165: Areas 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, and 3) (January 2002, Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2002-01-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 165 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 165 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well; CAS 25-51-02, Dry Well; CAS 25-59-01, Septic System; CAS 26-59-01, Septic System; CAS 25-07-06, Train Decontamination Area; CAS 25-07-07, Vehicle Washdown; CAS 26-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Station; and CAS 25-47-01, Reservoir and French Drain. All eight CASs are located in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Six of these CASs are located in Area 25 facilities and two CASs are located in Area 26 facilities. The eight CASs at CAU 165 consist of dry wells, septic systems, decontamination pads, and a reservoir. The six CASs in Area 25 are associated with the Nuclear Rocket Development Station that operated from 1958 to 1973. The two CASs in Area 26 are associated with facilities constructed for Project Pluto, a series of nuclear reactor tests conducted between 1961 to 1964 to develop a nuclear-powered ramjet engine. Based on site history, the scope of this plan will be a two-phased approach to investigate the possible presence of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The Phase I analytical program for most CASs will include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radionuclides. If laboratory data obtained from the Phase I investigation indicates the presence of contaminants of concern, the process will continue with a Phase II investigation to define the extent of contamination. Based on the results of

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (includes ROTC No. 1, date 01/25/1999)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-07-29

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 254 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 254 was used between 1963 through 1973 for the decontamination of test-car hardware and tooling used in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program. The CAS is composed of a fenced area measuring approximately 119 feet by 158 feet that includes Building 3126, an associated aboveground storage tank, a potential underground storage area, two concrete decontamination pads, a generator, two sumps, and a storage yard. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that decontamination activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) onto building surfaces, down building drains to associated leachfields, and to soils associated with two concrete decontamination pads located outside the building. Therefore, the scope of the corrective action field investigation will involve soil sampling at biased and random locations in the yard using a direct-push method, scanning and static radiological surveys, and laboratory analyses of all soil/building samples. Historical information provided by former NTS employees indicates that solvents and degreasers may have been used in the decontamination processes; therefore, potential COCs include volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, asbestos, gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium, uranium, and strontium-90. The results of this

  3. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  4. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and environmental biotransformation products on aquatic nitrification.

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G S; Shiaris, M P; Beck, W; Held, S

    1982-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on nitrification were examined for pure cultures and natural reservoir samples. PCBs at concentrations greater than 10 microgram liter-1 inhibited nitrification, principally ammonium oxidation, in one of two natural reservoir environments. However, this inhibition could not be reproduced in pure high-cell-density cultures or in previously contaminated reservoir waters. A PCB environmental biotransformation product, p-chlorophenylglyoxylic acid, and p-chloromandelic acid had no effect on nitrification. PMID:6805434

  5. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from capacitors and pressure-sensitive paper by vacuum thermal recycling.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Hiroshi; Hosomi, Masaaki; Kanbe, Hiromi; Melber, Albrecht; Bruckamp, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new vacuum thermal recycling (VTR) method for treating discarded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated capacitors and pressure-sensitive paper. Based on results demonstrating an exceptionally high PCB separation efficiency and recovery ratio from capacitors containing high-concentration PCBs, i.e. > 99.9%, respectively, the presented VTR method is verified to effectively remove PCBs. In addition, associated safety aspects of the employed procedure were confirmed.

  6. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment: sources, fate, and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem has accumulated, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are, today, increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  8. Ground Watering of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    USGS

    2006-10-12

    Water is a precious commodity, especially in the arid southwest region of the US, where there is a limited supply of both surface water and ground water. Ground water has a variety of uses (such as agricultural, commercial, and domestic) in the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California. The DVRFS, an area of about 100,000 square kilometers, contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent this complex system the US Geological Survey (USGS) simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with US Department of Energy (DOE) projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the Nation's proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, Don; Fellers, Gary M.

    2002-01-01

    1. 1. Barred owls fed at a sub-maintenance (SM) level had significantly (P < 0.01) longer meal to pellet intervals (MPI)/g eaten/kg body weight (BW) than those fed at an above maintenance (AM) level; MPI/g per kg for owls fed at a maintenance (M) level was intermediate but significantly (P < 0.01) different from both SM and AM. 2. 2. During SM feeding, MPI/g per kg gradually increased. 3. 3. The proportion of a meal occurring in a pellet was less in ?hungry? owls whether losing weight (SM) or gaining (AM) as compared to owls maintaining their normal body weight (M). 4. 4. SM fed owls appear to be able to increase digestion time as well as thoroughness of digestion.

  10. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  11. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2013-08-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment.

  12. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  13. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Special Nevada report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-23

    This report is submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to Section 6 of the Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 1986. It contains an analysis and evaluation of the effects on public health and safety resulting from DOD and Department of Energy (DOE) military and defense-related uses on withdrawn public lands in the State of Nevada and in airspace overlying the State. This report describes the cumulative impacts of those activities on public and private property in Nevada and on plants, fish and wildlife, cultural, historic, scientific, recreational, wilderness and other resources of the public lands of Nevada. An analysis and evaluation of possible measures to mitigate the cumulative effects of the withdrawal of lands and the use of airspace in Nevada for defense-related purposes was conducted, and those considered practical are listed.

  20. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  1. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  2. Chronic toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna Straus

    SciTech Connect

    Gersich, F.M.; Bartlett, E.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Milazzo, D.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final test rule (1985) for biphenyl on the authority of Section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Contained within this rule was the requirement for generating chronic daphnid toxicity data for biphenyl. Biphenyl is used primarily to produce dye carriers, heat-transfer fluids and alkylated biphenyls. The acute toxicity of biphenyl to Daphnia magna has been reported. The 48-hr LC50 values were 4.7 and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. To date, the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to fish and aquatic invertebrates has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of biphenyl to D. magna. The daphnid chronic toxicity test is designed to estimate the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC). The MATC is defined as the concentration falling between the highest concentration showing no effect and the next higher concentration showing a toxic effect when compared to the controls.

  3. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  4. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  5. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  6. [EVALUATION OF MIGRATION ABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE "SOIL-PLANT" AND "SOIL-EARTHWORMS"].

    PubMed

    Baeva, Yu I; Chernykh, N A

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes. There was shown the possibility of the use of earthworms as a highly sensitive bio-indicators in monitoring for soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants, even at low concentrations. PMID:27430062

  7. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls on sediment

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, K.D.; Wildman, N.J.; Tai, H.

    1983-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are common environmental contaminants which were freely employed for many years in numerous industrial applications but whose use has now been regulated. Many analytical schemes for monitoring these materials in environmental samples have been developed over the last decades, however, PCBs remain difficult analytical subjects. Most protocols rely on a combination of wet chemical pre-analytical isolation and purification whose complexity depends on the sample matrix. The time required for these manipulations may greatly hamper efforts directed towards emergency cleanup of accidental or illicit contamination of the environment. Thus, a clear need exists for methods which will allow rapid analysis of relatively intransigent samples for PCB contamination. Preliminary experiments directed to assessing the use of pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in determining PCB contamination of soils and sediments are reported. In these experiments pyrolytic desorption at 1000/sup 0/C during 10 sec was used to completely replace more lengthy wet chemical manipulations.

  8. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophil apoptosis, actin cytoskelton, and oxidative state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, L.I.; Passino-Reader, D. R.; Meier, P.G.; Omann, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been proposed as a biomarker for environmental contaminant effects. In this work, we test the hypothesis that in vitro assays of apoptosis are sensitive indicators of immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and mercury on human neutrophils. Apoptosis, necrosis, and viability as well as the related indicators F-actin levels, and active thiol state were measured in purified human neutrophils after treatment with contaminants. Effective concentrations observed were 0.3 μM (60 μg/L) mercury, 750 μg/L Aroclor 1254, and 50 μM (14,500 μg/L) hexachlorocylcohexanes. Concentrations of contaminants that induced apoptosis also decreased cellular F-actin levels. Active thiols were altered by mercury, but not organochlorines. Comparison of these data with levels of contaminants reported to be threats to human health indicate neutrophil apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of mercury toxicity.

  9. [EVALUATION OF MIGRATION ABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE "SOIL-PLANT" AND "SOIL-EARTHWORMS"].

    PubMed

    Baeva, Yu I; Chernykh, N A

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes. There was shown the possibility of the use of earthworms as a highly sensitive bio-indicators in monitoring for soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants, even at low concentrations.

  10. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  11. BIOLUMINESCENCE INHIBITION ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF HYDROXYLATED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    PubMed Central

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C. Mark; Dikici, Emre; Pasini, Patrizia; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are an important class of contaminants that mainly originate from polychlorinated biphenyl metabolism. They may conceivably be as dangerous and persistent as the parent compounds; most prominently, OH-PCBs are endocrine disruptors. Due to increasing evidence of the presence of OH-PCBs in the environment and in living organisms, including humans, and of their toxicity, methods of detection for OH-PCBs are needed in the environmental and medical fields. Herein we describe the development and optimization of a protein+based inhibition assay for the quantification of OH-PCBs. Specifically, the photoprotein aequorin was utilized for the detection of OH-PCBs. We hypothesized that OH-PCBs interact with aequorin and we established that OH-PCBs actually inhibit the bioluminescence of aequorin in a dose-dependent manner. We took advantage of this phenomenon to develop an assay that is capable of detecting a wide variety of OH-PCBs with a range of detection limits, the best detection limit being 11 nM for the compound 2-hydroxy-2',3,4',5',6-pentachorobiphenyl. The viability of this system for the screening of OH-PCBs in spiked biological and environmental samples was also established. We envision the implementation of this novel bioluminescence inhibition assay as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for monitoring OH-PCBs. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge this is the first time aequorin has been employed to detect an analyte by the inhibition of its bioluminescence reaction. Hence, this strategy may prove to be a general approach for the development of a new generation of protein-based inhibition assays. PMID:22908962

  12. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  13. MOBILIZATION OF PAHS AND PCBS FROM IN-PLACE CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS DURING SIMULATED RESUSPENSION EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particle entrainment simulator was used to experimentally produce representative estuarine resuspension conditions to investigate the resulting transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the overlying water column. Contaminants ...

  14. Nevada National Security Site Groundwater Program

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    From 1951 to 1992, the Unites States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below or within the water table - the very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from underground testing has never been detected on public land, the DOE was committed to developing an advanced, reliable monitoring network that ensures the long-term protection of the public. An intensive groundwater investigation program was launched in 1989.

  15. Nevada National Security Site Groundwater Program

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-25

    From 1951 to 1992, the Unites States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below or within the water table - the very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from underground testing has never been detected on public land, the DOE was committed to developing an advanced, reliable monitoring network that ensures the long-term protection of the public. An intensive groundwater investigation program was launched in 1989.

  16. Deep resistivity structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Wallin, Erin L.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian - Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large fault

  17. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackie M. Williams; Erin L. Wallin; Brian D. Rodriguez; Charles R. Lindsay; and Jay A. Sampson

    2007-08-15

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006), located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in

  18. Deep Resistivity Structure of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch, Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Erin L. Wallin; and Jackie M. Williams.

    2006-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area adjacent to a nuclear test. Ground water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in that area. The primary purpose was to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (late Devonian – Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) in the Yucca Flat area. The MT and AMT data have been released in separate USGS Open File Reports. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology beneath each station. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit are generally well determined in the upper 5 km. Inferences can be made regarding the presence of the Lower Clastic Confining Unit at depths below 5 km. Large

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    SciTech Connect

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria

  20. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  1. Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center: a review of technical information support provided to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Pfuderer, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center (NAEIC) was established in January 1972 to serve the needs of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by identifying, collecting, analyzing, and disseminating technical information relevant to NAEG programs. Since its inception, the NAEIC has been active in providing specialized information support to NAEG staff in the following research areas: (1) environmental aspects of the transuranics; (2) historic literature (pre-1962) on plutonium and uranium; (3) cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land; (4) bioenvironmental aspects of europium and rhodium; (5) NAEG contractor reports; and (6) uptake of radioactivity by food crops.

  2. Nevada`s geothermal developments the interactive poster

    SciTech Connect

    De Rocher, T.; Bandt, L.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, geothermal developments in Nevada are reported in text, map, and video format. Interactive computer graphics coupled with a three-dimensional map of Nevada are used here for the first time as both a teaching and promotional tool. This paper describes the design and construction of the first interactive map of Nevada`s Geothermal Developments. The purpose of the poster is to provide a {open_quotes}hands-on{close_quotes} learning environment for teachers and students in Nevada. Nevada presently generates approximately 210 megawatts (MWe) of electric power from twelve operating plants at ten sites, enough electricity for about 200,000 households. Nevada`s geothermal developments also include a variety of direct-use (non-electric) projects such as residential, commercial and industrial space heating. Together, these developments make Nevada number one, on a per capita basis, in the United States for geothermal energy utilization. To better understand where geothermal developments occur, and why they are important, a visual display of the major projects has been prepared by the Nevada Section of the Geothermal Resources Council. The poster will be augmented with a 35mm slide presentation that traces the origins of modern development from prehistoric applications by indigenous Native Americans to modern uses that began during the 1980`s. Features include Nevada`s first geothermal electric power plant at Wabuska, in Lyon County, and the 60 MWe Dixie Valley power plant, the largest in the State. The photo display includes direct use applications in the mining, aquaculture, and agriculture industries, as well as home heating examples. Engineering developments specific to Nevada include {open_quotes}air-cooled{close_quotes} binary geothermal power plants, which use no potable water. Economic and environmental issues associated with geothermal developments are also illustrated.

  3. Validation Analysis of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman; H. Bekhit; B. Lyles; K. Pohlmann

    2006-09-30

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site undergoing environmental restoration. The CNTA is located about 95 km northeast of Tonopah, Nevada, and 175 km southwest of Ely, Nevada (Figure 1.1). It was the site of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (DOE's predecessor agency) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site [NTS]) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless underground nuclear test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton (DOE, 2000). A three-dimensional flow and transport model was created for the CNTA site (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and determined acceptable by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for predicting contaminant boundaries for the site.

  4. History of Nevada Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 150 years Nevada has gone from a largely vacant desert that Americans dreaded to cross, to one of the fastest growing states in the nation. In between, it was a cowboy and mining state with a broken State government that opted for liberal marriage, divorce laws and legalized gambling to help pay...

  5. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  6. NEVADA GEOSPATICAL DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nevada Geospatial Data Browser was developed by the Landscape Ecology Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Las Vegas, NV) with the assistance and collaboration of the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID) and Lockheed-Martin Environmental Services Office (Las Vegas,...

  7. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Chen, Zhaojing; Ren, Daiwei; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund and London Island, Svalbard, the Arctic. Total PCB concentrations (∑25PCBs) varied from 0.57 to 2.52 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in soil, 0.30 to 1.16 ng g(-1) dw in plants and 0.56 to 0.98 ng g(-1) dw in reindeer dung. The non-Aroclor congener of CB-11 was predominant in most samples compared to other congeners, accounting for 16.0±9.8% to the ∑25PCBs. The ∑13PBDEs concentrations were 1.7-416, 36.7-495 and 28.1-104 pg g(-1) dw in soil, plants and reindeer dung, respectively. The signature of enantioselective biotransformation was observed in all samples for chiral CB-95, whereas in parts of samples for other chiral PCBs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in six plant species varied within individual contaminant congeners and plant species, with BAFs less than 1 for ∑PCBs and higher than 1 for ∑PBDEs. BAF values decreased with increasing soil concentrations, suggesting that high background levels in soil restricted the accumulation of these contaminants by plants. PMID:25697952

  10. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  12. Degradation and total mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls in natural sediment and mixed bacterial culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, H L; Sayler, G S

    1983-01-01

    Mixed bacterial cultures obtained from polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated river sediments are capable of degrading monohalogenated biphenyls under simulated natural conditions. Culture conditions include river water as supportive medium and mixed bacterial cultures obtained from river sediments. Degradation occurs when the substrates are supplied as the sole carbon source or when added together with glucose. The degradation rates of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorobiphenyl, at 30 micrograms ml-1, were 1.1, 1.6, and 2.0 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Monobrominated biphenyls, including 2-, 3-, and 4-bromobiphenyl, were degraded at rates of 2.3, 4.2, and 1.4 micrograms ml-1 day-1, respectively. Metabolites, including halogenated benzoates, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. By using chlorophenyl ring-labeled monochlorobiphenyls as substrates, total mineralization (defined as CO2 production from the chlorophenyl ring) was observed for 4-chlorobiphenyl but not for 2-chlorobiphenyl. Rates of total mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl (at 39 to 385 micrograms ml-1 levels) were dependent on substrate concentration, whereas variation of cell number in the range of 10(5) to 10(7) cells ml-1 had no significant effects. Simulated sunlight enhanced the rate of mineralization by ca. 400%. PMID:6639021

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  14. Toxicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®).

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Renu; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) are toxic contaminants which are produced in the environment by biological or abiotic oxidation of PCBs. The toxicity of a suite of 23 mono-hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs and 12 parent PCBs was determined using the bacterial bioluminescent assay Microtox(®). All HO-PCBs tested exhibited higher toxicity than the corresponding parent PCB, with effect concentration 50 % (EC50) ranging from 0.07 to 133 mg L(-1). The highest toxicities were recorded with 4-hydroxylated derivatives of di-chlorinated biphenyls (EC50 = 0.07-0.36 mg L(-1)) and 2-hydroxylated derivatives of tri-chlorinated biphenyls carrying a chlorine substituent on the phenolic ring (EC50 = 0.34-0.48 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of HO-PCBs generally decreased when the degree of chlorination increased. Consistently with this observation, a significant positive correlation was measured between toxicity (measured by EC50) and octanol-water partition coefficient (pK ow) for the HO-PCBs under study (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.74), which may be explained by the lower solubility and bioavailability generally associated with higher hydrophobicity. This study is the first one which assessed the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and HO-PCBs using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®), showing an inverse correlation between toxicity and hydrophobicity. PMID:27411941

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  16. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  17. A case study of a chemical spill: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): 1. History, distribution, and surface translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Russell J.; Cherry, John A.; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    1982-06-01

    Between 6,800 and 21,000 1 of transformer oil containing polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) and chlorobenzenes were spilled when an underground pipe broke at a transformer manufacturing plant in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods were developed to examine the surface and subsurface distribution of the contaminants. Contrary to initial expectations, large quantities of PCBs were found to have migrated both vertically and horizontally at the site. Polychlorinated biphenyls at concentrations of approximately 1000 mg/kg moved downward through granular fill and 9 m of fractured Regina clay. Contaminant migration along the interface of the clay and the upper unit of permeable granular fill probably accounts for the extensive lateral movement. It is argued that because of the low organic content of the geological units at the site (generally 0.9%) and the hydrophobicity of chlorinated organics like PCBs, contaminants at many locations exist in three phases: a dissolved aqueous phase, an adsorbed phase, and an oily liquid phase. Movement of the oily liquid seems to be the most likely explanation for the migration of large quantities of PCBs downward through fractures in the clay and laterally through the granular fill.

  18. Establishment of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enrichment culture with predominantly meta dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, P J; Mohn, W W; Quensen, J F; Tiedje, J M; Boyd, S A

    1992-01-01

    Enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating microorganisms from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River, N.Y., was attempted. The enrichment strategy was to use pyruvate as the electron donor and dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. The enrichment medium also contained non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments, which were required for the PCB-dechlorinating activity. An enrichment culture (that had stable PCBT-dechlorinating activity over nine serial transfers during 1 year) was established under these conditions; however, the rate of dechlorination did not increase after the second serial transfer. Dechlorination occurred primarily from the meta positions of the biphenyl molecule. Hydrogen could be substituted for pyruvate as the electron donor with equal activity, but when acetate was used as the electron donor a delay in dechlorination was observed. Sulfate and bromethane sulfonate inhibited dechlorination activity. The pyruvate-Aroclor 1242 enrichment also dechlorinated Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260; the extent of chlorine removed was the greatest for Aroclor 1254. For comparison, nonautoclaved non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments used in the assay also dechlorinated Aroclors, but only after 12 to 16 weeks of incubation. This suggests that PCB-dechlorinating organisms were also present in these sediments but in numbers lower than those in the enrichment culture. PMID:1444423

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC-1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538, Spill Sites, located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 538 are located within Areas 2, 3, 6, 12, and 23 of the NTS. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation for the absence of contamination or that the closure objectives have been met for each CAS within CAU 538.

  20. Status of the Sierra Nevada: the Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erman, Don C.; ,

    1997-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada ecosystem project was requested by Congress in the Conference Report for Interior and related Agencies 1993 Appropriation Act, which authorized funds for a scientific review of the remaining old growth in the national forests of the Sierra Nevada in California, and for a study of the entire Sierra Nevada ecosystem by an independent panel of scientists, with expertise in diverse areas related to this issue. This CD-ROM is a digital version of the set of reports titled 'Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project, final report to Congress' published in paper form by the Centers for Water and Wildland Resources of the University of California, Davis.

  1. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  4. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  5. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch; Donald Sweetkind; Bethany L. Burton; Erin L. Wallin

    2009-02-10

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  6. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Atmospherically Deposited Organic Contaminants at High Elevation in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospherically deposited organic contaminants in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA, have exceeded some thresholds of concern, but the spatial and temporal distributions of contaminants in the mountains are not well known. The present study evaluated (1) whether the...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  11. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  12. Comparing Polychaete Bioaccumulation and Passive Sampler Uptake to Assess the Effect of Sediment Resuspension on Contaminant Bioavailability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from resettled sediments following remedial dredging is suspected of contributing to elevated organism tissue concentrations at contaminated sites. However, little data exists to evaluate whether increases in bioavaila...

  13. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A NON-MIGRATORY MARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS ACROSS A STRONG GRADIENT OF PCB CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to contaminated sites exhibit heritable resistance to some of the toxic effects of early life-stage exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This evolved tolerance provides evidence of strong selection by PCB...

  14. Reactive Fe/Pd Bimetallic Systems-Impregnated Adsorptive Activated Carbon For The Environmental Risk Management Of Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of sediments and groundwater contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons remains a scientific and technical challenge. In order to overcome the short-comings of remediation strategies f...

  15. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  16. Accumulation and efflux of polychlorinated biphenyls in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shen; Fang, Jun; Turner, Kendrick B; Daunert, Sylvia; Wei, Yinan

    2012-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that have been associated with numerous adverse health effects in human and animals. Hydroxylated PCBs (HPCBs) are the product of the oxidative metabolism of PCBs. The presence of hydroxyl groups in HPCBs makes these compounds more hydrophilic than the parent PCBs. One of the best approaches to break down and remove these contaminants is bioremediation; an environmentally friendly process that uses microorganisms to degrade hazardous chemicals into non-toxic ones. In this study, we investigated the cellular accumulation and toxicity of selected PCBs and HPCBs in Gram-negative bacteria, using Escherichia coli as a model organism. We found that none of the five PCBs tested were toxic to E. coli, presumably due to their limited bioavailability. Nevertheless, different HPCBs tested showed different levels of toxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the primary multidrug efflux system in E. coli, AcrAB-TolC, facilitated the efflux of HPCBs out of the cell. Since AcrAB-TolC is constitutively expressed in E. coli and is conserved in all sequenced Gram-negative bacterial genomes, our results suggest that the efflux activities of multidrug resistant pumps may affect the accumulation and degradation of PCBs in Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  18. Charge-carrier transport in smectic mesophases of biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Akira; Haruyama, Akihide; Kurotaki, Kensuke; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2007-10-01

    The charge-transport properties of ω ,ω'-alkylalkoxylbiphenyls, one of the simplest calamitic (rodlike) liquid crystals exhibiting smectic mesophases, were investigated using the time-of-flight experiments. A mobility of ˜10-3 cm2/V s was determined for holes in both smectic B (SmB) and smectic E (SmE) phases. This high electronic mobility, comparable to the highest mobilities in amorphous organic semiconductors, indicates that the self-organization of such simple molecules including small aromatic compounds is quite effective in enhancing the charge transport in organic materials. The mobilities of both smectic mesophases, however, depend on temperatures, which is not the case for other typical smectic liquid crystals reported previously. Interestingly, the mobility in the SmE phase exhibits a Poole-Frenkel type of field dependence. Detailed experimental studies have shown that this field dependence is not due to the trapping effect of carriers caused by chemical contaminants or structural defects such as domain boundaries and dislocation, but arises from the widely distributed density of states with a distribution width of 0.11-0.13 eV for the SmE phase, as estimated based on a two-dimensional Gaussian disorder model. The phase-specific carrier transport in biphenyls may provide us with unique insights leading to a more complete understanding of the charge carrier transport in the mesophase materials.

  19. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Al Wickline

    2007-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 553 are located within Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the following CASs: •19-99-01, Mud Spill •19-99-11, Mud Spill •20-09-09, Mud Spill •20-99-03, Mud Spill The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 553 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were or will be performed: •Review the current site conditions including the concentration and extent of contamination. •Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. •Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. •Document the Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 553 to be issued by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  1. Magnetotelluric Data, Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Lindsey, Charles R.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), stations for that research. In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations, located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work was done to help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal was to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU). The UCCU is comprised of late Devonian to Mississippian siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale. The UCCU underlies the Yucca Flat area and extends westward towards Shoshone Mountain, southward to Buckboard Mesa, and northward to Rainier Mesa. Late in 2005 we collected another 14 MT stations in Mid Valley and in northern Yucca Flat basin. That work was done to better determine the extent and thickness of the UCCU near

  2. Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hogan, Karen A.; Cai, Christine; Rieth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the human health hazards of biphenyl exposure. Objectives: We review key findings and scientific issues regarding expected human health effects of biphenyl. Methods: Scientific literature from 1926 through September 2012 was critically evaluated to identify potential human health hazards associated with biphenyl exposure. Key issues related to the carcinogenicity and noncancer health hazards of biphenyl were examined based on evidence from experimental animal bioassays and mechanistic studies. Discussion: Systematic consideration of experimental animal studies of oral biphenyl exposure took into account the variety of study designs (e.g., study sizes, exposure levels, and exposure durations) to reconcile differing reported results. The available mechanistic and toxicokinetic evidence supports the hypothesis that male rat urinary bladder tumors arise through urinary bladder calculi formation but is insufficient to hypothesize a mode of action for liver tumors in female mice. Biphenyl and its metabolites may induce genetic damage, but a role for genotoxicity in biphenyl-induced carcinogenicity has not been established. Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. Citation: Li Z, Hogan KA, Cai C, Rieth S. 2016. Human health effects of biphenyl: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 124:703–712; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509730 PMID:26529796

  3. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  4. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish. PMID:25945423

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises the five corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on October 20, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 374.

  6. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  8. Canine serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): a pilot study to evaluate the use of animal sentinels in environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, R.J.; Steele, G.K.; Harris, A.E.; Donahue, J.F.; Ing, R.T.

    1988-05-01

    To evaluate the potential for using domestic animals in the surveillance of environmental exposures, we collected serum samples for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis from nine dogs in Monroe County, Indiana, where people had been shown to have been exposed to PCBs. Nine dogs in Atlanta, Georgia, served as comparisons. Results indicated that canine serum PCB levels in contaminated areas (median = 3.0 ppb) tend to be greater than those in uncontaminated areas (median = 1.7 ppb (p = .06, Mann-Whitney U test)). This finding suggests that pet dogs may serve as sentinels of human exposure to environmental PCB contamination.

  9. Technical Basis for Also Using Health-Risk Assessment to Establish Contaminant Boundaries for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Tompson, A F

    2003-12-29

    This technical basis document serves two purposes. First, it provides a detailed discussion of the rationale and procedures suitable for deriving a risk-based contaminant boundary that will protect public health unambiguously, along with examples that are intended as illustrative only to facilitate understanding. Second, it explains the benefits of using such information as the framework for fostering risk communication to educate, inform, and enlighten, and importantly, to fully disclose the goals and structure of contaminant boundaries. To determine a contaminant boundary within a CAU, standards or criteria must be adopted that establish whether groundwater is safe or unsafe for public (and worker) use. For purposes of this discussion, drinking water consumption is considered the pathway of exposure. However, in practice, a realistic land-use scenario must be described and agreed upon before a prospective, realistic risk-based calculation is performed. Otherwise, it will not be clear whether consumption of drinking water is a even appropriate. For example, the future land use that is defined may not even permit access to the contaminated water (e.g., denial of use by law and stewardship; or a lack of accessibility), and in that situation there would be no exposure and no potential health consequences. Taking into consideration that consumption of the groundwater is feasible, the groundwater is deemed unsafe if it contains radionuclide contamination that exceeds the criteria that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers in establishing regulatory standards for drinking water contaminants, including radionuclides generally (i.e., a target range for lifetime excess-cancer risk that is not to exceed 10{sup -4} [1/10,000] and ideally is less than 10{sup -6} [1/1,000,000]) (see EPA, 2000a). Thus, the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for substances in drinking water are considered to be health-protective and generally are derived on the basis

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  12. Supplemental Investigation Plan for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). After reviewing all of the existing FFACO URs, the 12 URs addressed in this Supplemental Investigation Plan (SIP) could not be evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as sufficient information about the contamination at each site was not available. This document presents the plan for conducting field investigations to obtain the needed information. This SIP includes URs from Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 326, 339, 358, 452, 454, 464, and 1010, located in Areas 2, 6, 12, 19, 25, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada; and CAU 403, located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 165 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  14. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. CAU 543 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven CASs: {sm_bullet} CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad {sm_bullet} CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield {sm_bullet} CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping From January 24, 2005 through April 14, 2005, CAU 543 site characterization activities were conducted, and are reported in Appendix A of the CAU 543 Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005). The recommended corrective action as stated in the approved CADD is No Further Action for five of the CAU 543 CASs, and Closure In Place for the remaining two CASs.

  16. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA NHEERL-WED scientists, in collaboration with staff from EPA Region 9, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Nevada Natural Heritage Program, the USDA Forest Service, and the USDI Bureau of Land Management have ...

  17. Nevada Underserved Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Rourke; Jason Marcks

    2004-07-06

    Nevada Underserved Science Education Program (NUSEP) is a project to examine the effect of implementing new and innovative Earth and space science education curriculum in Nevada schools. The project provided professional development opportunities and educational materials for teachers participating in the program.

  18. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.T.; Cruden, D.L.; Haddock, J.D.; Zylstra, G.J.; Brand, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls that do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  19. Potential for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biodegradation in Sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that pose risks to human and environmental health. In this study, we evaluated the PCB biodegradation of sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), a PCB-contaminated site (average PCB concentration = 12,570 ng/g d.w.). PCB congener profiles and bacterial community structure in a core sediment sample (4.57 m long) were characterized. Analysis of vertical PCB congener profile patterns in sediment and pore water strongly suggest that in situ dechlorination occurred in sediments. However, 16S rRNA genes from putative PCB-dechlorinating Chloroflexi were relatively more abundant in upper 2 m sediments, as were genes indicative of aerobic biodegradation potential (i.e. biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA)). Characterization of the bacterial community by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and comparison of these with sediment and pore water PCB congener profiles with the Mantel test revealed a statistical correlation (p<0.001). Sequences classified as Acinetobacter and Acidovorax were highly abundant in deep sediments. Overall, our results suggest that PCB dechlorination has already occurred, and that IHSC sediments have the potential for further aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation. PMID:24764649

  20. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil. PMID:25246731

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots'' from the concrete vault, and the drilling

  2. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; Gérard, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, R Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain.

  3. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  4. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  5. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls: influence on birthweight and gestation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Lawrence, C.E.; Hwang, H.L.; Paulson, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    Fifty-one infants born to women employed at two capacitor manufacturing facilities with a history of high exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had a mean birthweight of 153 grams less than that of 337 infants born to women who had worked in low-exposure areas (90 per cent confidence interval, -286 to -20 g); mean gestational age was 6.6 days shorter in the high-exposure infants (90 per cent CI, -10.3 to -2.9 days). After adjusting for gestational age, the difference in birthweight was markedly reduced, indicating that the observed reduction in birthweight was due mainly to shortening of gestational age in the high-exposure group.

  7. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  8. Nevada GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    Nevada holds the largest amount of untapped geothermal resources in the U.S., with apotential of 2,500 to 3,700 megawatts of electricity (MWe). (1 MWe powers approximately 1,000 homes.) Wells and springs exist over the entire state, offering extensive opportunities for development of low- and high-temperature resources for direct use or power generation. As U.S. Senator Harry Reid said at the inauguration of GeoPowering the West (see reverse), "This modest investment by the Federal government...

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 409: Other Waste Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-10-05

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 409 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 409 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-53-001-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.1; TA-53-002-TAB2, Septic Sludge Disposal Pit No.2; and RG-24-001-RGCR, Battery Dump Site. The Septic Sludge Disposal Pits are located near Bunker Two, close to Area 3, on the Tonopah Test Range. The Battery Dump Site is located at the abandoned Cactus Repeater Station on Cactus Peak. The Cactus Repeater Station was a remote, battery-powered, signal repeater station. The two Septic Sludge Disposal Pits were suspected to be used through the late 1980s as disposal sites for sludge from septic tanks located in Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern are the same for the disposal pits and include: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) as gasoline- and diesel-range organics, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and radionuclides (including plutonium and depleted uranium). The Battery Dump Site consists of discarded lead-acid batteries and associated construction debris, placing the site in a Housekeeping Category and, consequently, no contaminants are expected to be encountered during the cleanup process. The corrective action the at this CAU will include collection of discarded batteries and construction debris at the Battery Dump Site for proper disposal and recycling, along with photographic documentation as the process progresses. The corrective action for the remaining CASs involves the collection of background radiological data through borings drilled at

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. PMID:26807987

  11. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units is listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) which was agreed to by the state of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). CAU 543 sites are located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. All Area 15 CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, which operated from 1963 to 1981 and was used to support animal experiments involving the uptake of radionuclides. Each of the Area 15 CASs, except CAS 15-23-01, is associated with the disposal of waste effluent from Building 15-06, which was the primary location of the various tests and experiments conducted onsite. Waste effluent disposal from Building 15-06 involved piping, sumps, outfalls, a septic tank with leachfield, underground storage tanks, and an aboveground storage tank (AST). CAS 15-23-01 was associated with decontamination activities of farm equipment potentially contaminated with radiological constituents, pesticides, and herbicides. While the building structures were removed before the investigation took place, all the original tanks, sumps, piping, and concrete building pads remain in place. The Area 6 CAS is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, a facility which operated from 1971 to 2001 and was used to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, clothing, and other materials that had become contaminated during nuclear testing activities. The CAS includes the effluent collection and distribution systems for Buildings

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: correlation of sensory and motor nerve conduction, neurologic symptoms, and blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, quaterphenyls, and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.C.; Tang, S.Y.; Miyata, H.; Kashimoto, T.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, K.J.; Tung, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    In 1979 in Taiwan, more than 2000 people were poisoned with rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). One hundred ten patients were studied within one year of the exposure. The blood PCB levels were 39.3 +/- 16.6 ppb. The blood levels of the PCB derivatives, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQ) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), were 8.6 +/- 4.8 and 0.076 +/- 0.038 ppb, respectively. Both the sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the patients were significantly lower than the control. Abnormal slowing of sensory NCV was found in 43.6% and abnormal slowing of motor NCV was seen in 21.8%. Patients who had higher PCQ blood levels has significantly slower median nerve sensory NCV than those with lower PCQ levels. Patients with higher PCB blood levels had significantly slower peroneal nerve motor NCV than those with lower PCB levels.

  13. Ground-Water Modeling of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Blainey, J.B.; San Juan, C. A.; Laczniak, R.J.; Hill, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California covers an area of about 100,000 square kilometers and contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent the complex system, the U.S. Geological Survey simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with U.S. Department of Energy projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  14. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (External Review Draft) (September 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of biphenyl that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the New York/New Jersey Harbor.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Du, Songyan; Xiao, Baohua; Fennell, Donna E

    2011-04-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor (also known as the Hudson River Estuary) is heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising in part from inputs from the Upper Hudson River, which is a Superfund site containing historical PCB contamination, and also due to inputs from the New York City metropolitan area. The Contamination Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) measured PCBs and other contaminants in ambient water samples collected throughout the Harbor region during 1998-2001. In order to investigate the sources of PCBs to the NY/NJ Harbor, this data base of PCB concentrations was analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This analysis resolved seven factors that are thought to be associated with sources such as the Upper Hudson River, storm water runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs), and wastewater effluents. The PMF model also produced a factor that appears to be related to sites contaminated with Aroclor 1260. To the extent that the NY/NJ Harbor is typical of urbanized estuaries throughout the United States, these results suggest that storm water runoff is probably a significant source of PCBs to surface waters in urban areas. PMID:21421250

  17. Chiral source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Hudson River estuary atmosphere and food web.

    PubMed

    Asher, Brian J; Wong, Charles S; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2007-09-01

    The New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary is subject to significant contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from numerous sources, including the historically contaminated Upper Hudson River, stormwater runoff and sewer overflows, and atmospheric deposition from PCBs originating from the surrounding urban area. However, the relative importance of these sources to the estuary's food web is not fully understood. Sources of PCBs to the estuary were apportioned using chiral signatures of PCBs in air, water, total suspended matter, phytoplankton, and sediment. PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were racemic in the atmosphere of the estuary. However, the other phases contained nonracemic PCB 95 and to a lesser extent PCB 149. Thus, the predominant atmospheric source of these congeners is likely unweathered local pollution and not volatilization from the estuary. The similarity in chiral signatures in the other phases is consistent with dynamic contaminant exchange among them. Chiral signatures in the dissolved phase and total suspended matter were correlated with Upper Hudson discharge, suggesting thatthe delivery of nonracemic contaminated sediment from the Upper Hudson, not the atmosphere, controls phytoplankton uptake of some PCBs. Thus, measures to control PCB contamination in the Upper Hudson should be effective in reducing loadings to the estuary's aquatic ecosystem. PMID:17937297

  18. Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Information from images of Railroad Valley, Nevada captured on August 17,2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer(ASTER) may provide a powerful tool for monitoring crop health and maintenance procedures.

    These images cover an area of north central Nevada. The top image shows irrigated fields, with healthy vegetation in red. The middle image highlights the amount of vegetation. The color code shows highest vegetation content in red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple and the lowest in black. The final image is a thermal infrared channel, with warmer temperatures in white and colder in black.

    In the thermal image, the northernmost and westernmost fields are markedly colder on their northwest areas, even though no differences are seen in the visible image or the second, Vegetation Index image. This can be attributed to the presence of excess water, which can lead to crop damage.

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)is an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). The instrument is being used to obtain detailed maps of land surface temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. The Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms are part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, whose goal is to obtain a better understanding of the interactions between the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

  19. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  20. Implications of Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles Immobilized on Adsorptive Activated Carbon for the Remediation of Groundwater and Sediment Contaminated with PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to respond to the current limitations and challenges in remediating groundwater and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have recently developed a new strategy, integration of the physical adsorption of PCBs with their electrochemical dechlori...

  1. Using SPMDs To Assess Natural Recovery Of PCB-Contaminated Sediments In Lake Hartwell, SC: I. A Field Test Of New In-Situ Deployment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from the field testing of some innovative sampling methods developed to evaluate risk management strategies for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments are presented. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were combined with novel deployment methods to quan...

  2. Resuspension of Polychlorinated BiPhenyl-contaminated Field Sediment: Release to the Water Column and Determination of Site-Specific Kdoc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive...

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0 with ROTC No. 1 and ROTC No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  4. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic. PMID:21863827

  5. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  6. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  7. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic.

  8. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  9. Nevada`s role in the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeth, T.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the promise of hydrogen and its possible applications, barriers to its development, the role that the Nevada Test Site could play if it were made more available to public and private institutions for research, and the ``clean city`` concept being developed jointly with California, Utah, and Nevada. This concept would create a ``clean corridor`` along the route from Salt Lake City through Reno to Sacramento, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and back to Salt Lake City.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 565: Stored Samples, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred; McCall, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 565 is located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 565 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS) listed--CAS 26-99-04, Ground Zero Soil Samples. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend closure of CAU 565. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating closure objectives and selecting the appropriate corrective action. The results of the field investigation will support closure and waste management decisions that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 1, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was utilized to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate closure for CAU 565. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to this CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 565 includes the following activities: (1) Remove stored samples, shelves, and debris from the interior of Building 26-2106. (2) Perform field screening on stored samples, shelves, and debris. (3) Dispose of stored samples, shelves, and debris. (4) Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management purposes. (5) Conduct radiological surveys of Building 26-2106 in accordance with the requirements in the ''NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual'' to determine if there is residual radiological contamination that would prevent the release of the building for unrestricted use. This

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  12. ENGINEERING ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the increased need for Superfund decision-makers to have a working knowledge of the remedial capabilities available to treat soil and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the Superfund Engineering Forum has identified remediation of PCB-contamin...

  13. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  14. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is located in Areas 6 and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 546 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: •06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area •09-20-01, Injection Well These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 8, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process has been used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 546.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 560 is located in Areas 3 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 560 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 03-51-01, Leach Pit • 06-04-02, Septic Tank • 06-05-03, Leach Pit • 06-05-04, Leach Bed • 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System • 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond • 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 22, 2008, by representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 560.

  17. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackie M. Williams; Jay A. Sampson; Brian D. Rodriguez; and Theodore H. Asch.

    2006-11-03

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas. Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near or within the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site, including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology, and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) from the Yucca Flat area and west towards

  18. Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Landscape Regions of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a rule to protect ground water in areas other than source-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWAs) are aquifers that are not currently but could eventually be used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor vehicle waste. If the injection well is in a ground-water protection area or an OSGWA, well owners must either close the well or apply for a permit. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection will evaluate site-specific information and determine if the aquifer associated with a permit application is susceptible to contamination. A basic part of evaluating OSGWAs is characterizing the hydrogeology of aquifer systems including the lithology, hydrologic properties, soil permeability, and faulting, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination. Detailed studies that evaluate ground-water susceptibility are not practical in a largely unpopulated State like Nevada. However, existing and new information could be extrapolated to other areas of the State if there is an objective framework to transfer the information. The concept of hydrologic landscape regions, which identify areas with similar hydrologic characteristics, provides this framework. This report describes the hydrogeology and hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada. Consolidated rocks that form mountain ranges and unconsolidated sediments that fill the basins between the ranges are grouped into hydrogeologic units having similar lithology and assumed to have similar hydrologic properties. Consolidated rocks and unconsolidated sediments are the two major hydrogeologic units and comprise 51 and 49 percent of the State, respectively. Consolidated rocks are subdivided into 8 hydrogeologic units. In approximate order of decreasing horizontal hydraulic conductivity, consolidated-rock hydrogeologic

  19. Inputs of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Animal nutrition constitutes an important issue for the animal production industry. Products intended for animal feed may contain undesirable substances which could endanger animal health or, because of their presence in livestock products, human health or the environment. In this sense, several incidents related with the presence of persistent organic pollutants, particularly with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have happen in food and feed additives. Animal feed and feed components are challenging matrices for the determination of residues and contaminants. The variability of these matrices is enormous. It ranges from relatively simple ones like those based on wheat to all kinds of by-products from agro and food industry, such as cereal oils. Firstly, this article reviews and addresses the extraction efficiency of ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and focused ultrasonic solvent extraction (FUSE) for determining selected PCBs in animal feed and ingredients. Detection of these pollutants was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electron capture detection (ECD); tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used as confirmatory technique. Recoveries ranged from 70% to 98% by UASE and from 75% to 106% by FUSE with estimated quantification limits between 0.11 and 0.3 μg/kg in feeds and ingredients and between 0.2 and 0.75 μg/kg in fats. Once the method was optimised, it was applied to 18 feed samples as well as 16 ingredients. PCBs were detected in almost all the selected samples. As expected, the samples of animal origin as shell powder and fish oil showed the highest concentrations of 56 and 29 ng/g, which are equivalent to toxicological concentrations of 123 and 18 ng WHO-TEQDL-PCBs/kg, respectively. Feeds and ingredients from vegetable origin ranged from non-detected to 7.1 μg/kg. PCB 77 and 169 were the discriminant congeners in the selected samples of feed and ingredients. Samples showed that the pattern of PCBs depends on the sources of

  20. JARBIDGE WILDERNESS, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coats, Robert R.; Marks, L.Y.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mines and mineral study of the Jarbridge Wilderness, Nevada was made. A demonstrated resource of barite consisting of an estimated 90,000 tons of rock averaging 90 percent BaSO//4 was identified and is exposed in prospects in the southern part of the wilderness. Similar amounts of barite may occur in the same area and might be discovered by additional exploration. This area has a substantiated potential for barite. To the west, a much larger area is classed as having problem potential for barite resources. The northwest part of the wilderness has a probable potential for gold and silver resources in veins that extend into the area from the nearby Jarbidge mining district. No energy-resource potential was identified in the course of this study.

  1. Nevada Environmental Studies Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The Nevada Environmental Studies Plan (NESP) presents the ESA team`s overall program of investigations of environmental conditions and activities related to potential impacts of studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its program for developing Yucca Mt., Nevada, as the national high level nuclear waste (HLW) repository. The environmental studies specifically entail investigations of terrestrial ecology, soils and geomorphology, hydrology and water quality, archaeology and cultural resources, meteorology and air quality, noise, visual resources and reclamation planning. The NESP is a program of nine primary projects, described in this Plan. The nine projects of the program are distributed over three years. NESP`88-`89 is the first phase, covering the fiscal year (FY) July 1, 1988--June 30, 1989. The first phase is focused on program planning; preparation of various documents related to identifying impacts of past DOE activities and associated reclamation costs; review of DOE documents on environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental baseline conditions of the site. NESP`89-`90 is the second phase of the program, covering activities during FY`89-`90. The primary activities include continuing environmental baseline investigations; oversight of DOE activities including regulatory compliance assessments, field monitoring of DOE activities; development of disturbance, impact and reclamation models; and reclamation planning. NESP`90-`91 is the third phase of the program. The primary foci include continuing environmental monitoring of DOE activities and reclamation planning. Each of the phases is described in this Executive Summary. NESP`88-`89 is described in detail in the second part of the Study Plan. 86 refs., 20 tabs.

  2. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  3. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  4. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    PubMed

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  5. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  6. Structures of cyano-biphenyl liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Yuan-Chao; Tsang, Tung; Rahimzadeh, E.; Yin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of p-alkyl- p'-cyano- bicyclohexanes, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H10)(C6H10) CN (n-CCH), and p-alkyl- p'-cyano- biphenyls, C(n)H(2n+1) (C6H4)(C6H4) CN (n-CBP), were studied. It is convenient to use an x ray image intensification device to search for symmetric x ray diffraction patterns. Despite the similarities in molecular structures of these compounds, very different crystal structures were found. For the smectic phase of 2CCH, the structure is close to rhombohedral with threefold symmetry. In contrast, the structure is close to hexagonal close-packed with two molecules per unit cell for 4CCH. Since intermolecular forces may be quite weak for these liquid crystals systems, it appears that crystal structures change considerably when the alkyl chain length is slightly altered. Different structures were also found in the crystalline phase of n-CBP for n = 6 to 9. For n = 7 to 9, the structures are close to monclinic. The structures are reminiscent of the smectic-A liquid crystal structures with the linear molecules slightly tilted away from the c-axis. In contrast, the structure is quite different for n = 6 with the molecules nearly perpendicular to the c-axis.

  7. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  8. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  9. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2000-05-18

    This document is an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV-582-Rev. 0. This addendum provides the requested documentation that supports the assertion that contamination above levels of concern does not exist in the abandoned sewer lines. This addendum summarizes the results of the manhole investigation conducted during March 2000. Results of the manhole investigation indicate that no changes to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report are necessary and all other sections of the document shall remain unchanged.

  10. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  11. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  12. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  13. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, E.L.; Goodbred, S.L.; May, T.W.; Alvarez, David; Echols, K.R.; Wieser, C.M.; Ruessler, S.; Torres, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17?? and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p< 0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WB < LVB < LVW for metal concentrations and LVB < WB < LVW for biological traits. Respective primary drivers for these separations were Ag, As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn; and TL, GSI, 11kt, and Hct. Canonical correlation analysis using the latter variable sets showed they are significantly associated (p<0.0003); with As, Ba, Hg, and Zn, and TL, 11kt, and Hct being the primary contributors to the association. In conclusion, male carp collected along a contaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this

  14. Patterns of metal composition and biological condition and their association in male common carp across an environmental contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Reynaldo; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik L; Goodbred, Steven L; May, Thomas W; Alvarez, David; Echols, Kathy R; Wieser, Carla M; Ruessler, Shane; Torres, Leticia

    2012-02-01

    There is a contaminant gradient in Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) that is partly driven by municipal and industrial runoff and wastewater inputs via Las Vegas Wash (LVW). Adult male common carp (Cyprinus carpio; 10 fish/site) were collected from LVW, Las Vegas Bay (receiving LVW flow), Overton Arm (OA, upstream reference), and Willow Beach (WB, downstream) in March 2008. Discriminant function analysis was used to describe differences in metal concentrations and biological condition of fish collected from the four study sites, and canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between metal and biological traits. Metal concentrations were determined in whole-body extracts. Of 63 metals screened, those initially used in the statistical analysis were Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn. Biological variables analyzed included total length (TL), Fulton's condition factor, gonadosomatic index (GSI), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma estradiol-17β and 11-ketotestosterone (11kt) concentrations. Analysis of metal composition and biological condition both yielded strong discrimination of fish by site (respective canonical model, p<0.0001). Compared to OA, pairwise Mahalanobis distances between group means were WBcontaminant gradient in LMNRA have distinct, collection site-dependent metal and morpho-physiological profiles that are significantly associated with each other. These associations suggest that fish health and reproductive condition (as measured by the biological variables evaluated in this study) are

  15. Trophic transfer of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls from meiobenthos to bottom-feeding fish

    SciTech Connect

    DiPinto, L.M.; Coull, B.C.

    1997-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the dynamics of the sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) using a benthic-based trophic transfer model (sediments to benthic copepods to juvenile fish). Field-collected benthic copepods were exposed to sublethal levels of PCB in sediments for 96 h. Accumulation of PCB was measured in the copepods, and these contaminated copepods were fed to the juvenile fish predator Leiostomus xanthurus in uncontaminated sediments. After gut clearance, whole fish were homogenized and examined for PCB accumulation. Similar experiments with L. xanthurus in which meals of uncontaminated copepods were fed in PCB-contaminated sediments were conducted to determine the relative roles of contaminated sediments and contaminated copepod prey ingestion to PCB transfer. Total PCB transfer as well as PCB congener group contributions were examined. A total of 30 congeners were grouped according to log K{sub ow} increments and according to chlorine homologue groups. Copepods exposed to PCB-contaminated sediments to 90 {micro}g/g accumulated PCBs to 326 {micro}g/g dry weight. Accumulation of PCB in fish feeding in contaminated sediments was five times higher than that in fish feeding on contaminated prey in uncontaminated sediments (p = 0.0498). In terms of congener patterns, log K{sub ow} grouping provided clearer discrimination between groups. Congener patterns were similar in PCB stock solution, sediments, and copepods and were different in the two fish treatments. K{sub ow} group relative accumulation patterns in fish were mixed. The chlorine homologue groups revealed that the fish preferentially accumulated the tetrachlorinated congeners relative to copepods and sediments.

  16. Effect of sediment remediation on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in tomatoes grown near New Bedford Harbor.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alison C; Altshul, Larisa M; Vorhees, Donna J

    2007-10-01

    Measurements of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations and profiles from produce grown near New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, before, during, and after remediation of PCB-contaminated sediment are presented. Samples of tomatoes collected from locations upwind and downwind relative to harbor contamination are compared with the use of measurements of 47 individual PCB congeners. The PCB concentration in the locally grown tomatoes, as expressed by the sum of congeners, is highest during the period of harbor dredging and drops to its lowest point after remediation, which included dredging and excavation. The downwind location is characterized by higher concentrations of PCBs than the upwind location in every time period. Principal component analysis is used to distinguish both the effect of remediation over time and the effect of cultivation location on the congener profiles. Evidence of the PCB congener profile representing the contaminated harbor sediments is strongest during the dredging period and in the downwind location. These results have important implications for understanding human exposure via the food chain and highlight the importance of considering exposure pathways related to atmospheric transport during remediation of contaminated sediments.

  17. Bayesian model for fate and transport of polychlorinated biphenyl in upper Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, L.J.; Reckhow, K.H.; Wolpert, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Modelers of contaminant fate and transport in surface waters typically rely on literature values when selecting parameter values for mechanistic models. While the expert judgment with which these selections are made is valuable, the information contained in contaminant concentration measurements should not be ignored. In this full-scale Bayesian analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the upper Hudson River, these two sources of information are combined using Bayes` theorem. A simulation model for the fate and transport of the PCBs in the upper Hudson River forms the basis of the likelihood function while the prior density is developed from literature values. The method provides estimates for the anaerobic biodegradation half-life, aerobic biodegradation plus volatilization half-life, contaminated sediment depth, and resuspension velocity of 4,400 d, 3.2 d, 0.32 m, and 0.02 m/yr, respectively. These are significantly different than values obtained with more traditional methods, and are shown to produce better predictions than those methods when used in a cross-validation study.

  18. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  19. Mercury in Tadpoles Collected from Remote Alpine Sites in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians in alpine wetlands of the Sierra Nevada mountains comprise key components of an aquatic-terrestrial food chain, and mercury contamination is a concern because concentrations in fish from this regin exceed thresholds of risk to piscivorous wildlife. Total mercury conc...

  20. 75 FR 71677 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Industrial Sites and Soils Committees of... decontamination, closure, re-use and/or demolition. Purpose of the Soils Committee: The purpose of the Committee is to focus on issues related to soil contamination at the Nevada Test Site including...

  1. 75 FR 64718 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Industrial Sites and Soils Committees of... decontamination, closure, re-use and/or demolition. Purpose of the Soils Committee: The purpose of the Committee is to focus on issues related to soil contamination at the Nevada Test Site including...

  2. 76 FR 5365 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Industrial Sites and Soils Committees of... including decontamination, closure, re-use and/or demolition. Purpose of the Soils Committee: The purpose of the Committee is to focus on issues related to soil contamination at the Nevada National Security...

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): biochemistry, toxicology, and mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Safe, S.

    1984-01-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls are industrial chemical mixtures which have been implicated in numerous human poisonings in Taiwan and Japan (PCBs) and Michigan (PBBs). Moreover, these polyhalogenated biphenyls have been widely detected in the environment including the air, water, fish, wildlife, human adipose tissue, and blood and breast milk. A major problem associated with the analysis and toxicology of this group of chemicals is their chemical complexity (e.g., there are 209 possible PCB isomers and congeners) and the remarkable effects of structure on activity. This article will discuss the effects of structure on the biologic and toxic effects of individual PCB and PBB congeners as well as reconstituted mixtures. The results clearly show that like ''dioxin'' (or 2,3,7,8-TCDD), the PCBs and PBBs elicit their effects through a cytosolic receptor protein which preferentially binds with the toxins which are approximate isostereomers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The evidence for this mechanism of action will be discussed in detail.

  4. Final Characterization Report for Corrective Action Unit 109: Area 2 U-2BU Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 109, Area 2 U-2bu Crater, is an inactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Permit disposal unit located in Area 2 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit has been characterized under the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265 (CFR, 1996). The site characterization was performed under the RCRA Part A Permit Characterization Plan for the U-2bu Subsidence Crater (DOE/NV, 1998c), as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (Liebendorfer, 1998). The primary objective of the site characterization activities was to evaluate the presence, concentration, and extent of any Resource Conservation and Recovery Act contaminants in the crater. Surface soil samples were collected on April 22, 1998, and subsurface soil samples and geotechnical samples were collected from April 27-29, 1998. Soil samples were collected using a hand auger or a piston-type drive hammer to advance a 5-centimeter (2-inch) diameter steel sampling tool into the ground. The permit for the Nevada Test Site requires that Corrective Action Unit 109 be closed under 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265 Subpart G and 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265.310 (CFR, 1996). Analysis of the data collected during the characterization effort indicates that lead was detected in Study Area 1 at 5.7 milligrams per liter, above the regulatory level in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 261.24 of 5.0 milligrams per liter. Except for the lead detection at a single location within the crater, the original Resource Conservation Recovery Act constituents of potential concern determined between the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection during the Data Quality Objectives process (DOE/NV, 1998b) were not found to be present at Corrective Action Unit 109 above regulatory levels of

  5. Libraries in Nevada: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/nevada.html Libraries in Nevada To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Elko Great Basin College Library 1500 College Parkway Elko, NV 89801 775-753- ...

  6. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145: Wells and Storage Holes. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 145 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. One conceptual site model with three release scenario components was developed for the six CASs to address all releases associated with the site. The sites will be investigated based on data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 24, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQOs process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 145.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 563, Septic Systems, is located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 563 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) below: • 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank • 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool • 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks • 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  11. Tissue-specific accumulation and lactational transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants in hooded seals (Cistophora cristata) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence: applications for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Hans; Hammill, Mike O; van Bavel, Bert

    2006-08-01

    Accumulation and mother-pup transfer of halogenated organic contaminants was studied in hooded seal tissues from eastern Canada. Blubber polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total pesticide concentrations were relatively high, possibly due to their high trophic level and demersal feeding habits. Blood plasma showed the lowest contaminant concentrations compared to blubber and liver, possibly due to a lower affinity of these compounds to lipoproteins in blood plasma. Total contaminant body burden correlated well with blubber, liver, and milk contaminants, but not with blood plasma contaminants, indicating that blood plasma might be less suitable to monitor contaminants in hooded seals. Lactational transfer favored less lipophilic contaminants and was associated with relatively high blood plasma PCB and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in females. Despite lactational transfer, females did not show significantly lower blubber contaminant concentrations or burdens than males. This might be caused by their low blubber, and thus contaminant, loss during lactation compared to other species.

  12. Nevada Kids Count Data Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Paula R.

    This Kids Count report provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Nevada. The report is comprised of eight sections: an overview; Nevada's demographic profile; key facts regarding children in the state; Nevada's comparison to the rest of the United States; trends in the state; indicators of child well-being;…

  13. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 is located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 214 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as ''Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas,'' and is comprised of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters {sm_bullet} CAS 11-22-03, Drum {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials {sm_bullet} CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker) {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage {sm_bullet} CAS 25-99-18, Storage Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 11-22-03, 25-34-03, 25-34-04, 25-34-05, 25-99-12, and 25-99-18 is No Further Action. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of the fly ash and surrounding wooden structure at CAS 25-99-12 as a best management practice The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 05-99-01 in CAU 214 is Clean Closure. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with the pesticide dieldrin The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 is Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities included: {sm_bullet} Removing and disposing of soil contaminated with chromium and soil impacted with the pesticides chlordane and heptachlor {sm_bullet} Implementing use restrictions (UR) at both CASs as detailed in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005) {sm_bullet} Posting UR warning signs around CASs 25-23-01 and 25-23-19 on the existing chain link fence

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    and migration behavior (Pohlmann et al., 2000). The second modeling phase (known as a Data Decision Analysis [DDA]) occurred after the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection reviewed the first model and was designed to respond to concerns regarding model uncertainty (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). The third modeling phase updated the original flow and transport model to incorporate the uncertainty identified in the DDA, and focused the model domain on the region of interest to the transport predictions. This third phase culminated in the calculation of contaminant boundaries for the site (Pohll et al., 2003).

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants--occurrence and emission from a landfill station.

    PubMed

    Persson, N Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebühr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-11-01

    Approximately 80,000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10,000-18,000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g sigmaPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. PMID:15899540

  18. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface sediments of Gable Mountain Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Prohammer, L.A.; Neitzel, D.A.; Bean, R.M.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sediments were collected and analyzed to determine the concentration and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Gable Mountain Pond, which is located on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. All samples, with one exception, were found to contain the specific PCB Aroclor 1260, a constituent of the insulating fluid used in electric utility transformers. The highest concentration of PCBs in the pond was found next to the mouth of the inlet pipe. The distribution of PCBs over the pond is consistent with the hypothesis that they entered primarily through the inlet pipe and spread along the length of the pond in a roughly westerly direction. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 ranged from 2 to 148 parts per billion, which is roughly two to four orders of magnitude below the regulated upper concentration limit (50 parts per million) for the disposal of PCB-contaminated waste. 19 res., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Modeling the emission sources for polychlorinated biphenyls in India: implications for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the electronic waste generated in India, toxic wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are dumped in India for recycling purpose. In addition tropical climate facilitates the rapid entry of PCBs to the atmosphere from the contaminated surfaces. Therefore it is important to identify the pathway for atmospheric PCB loading so as to regulate the ongoing release of PCBs. Hence active and passive air sampling of PCBs were conducted along the urban and suburban transects of seven major Indian cities and from the hotspots and rural/background locations in India during 2006-2012. A sinusoidal model could very well describe the diurnal pattern observed in New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, which suggests that concentrations in air are influenced by temperature-dependent air-soil surface exchange processes.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent mayflies from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Schwartz, T.R.; Wiener, J.G.; Lebo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in emergent mayflies (hexagenia bilineata) from a 1250-km reach of the upper mississippi river (umr). Total pcb concentrations (sum of 125 congeners) ranged from 0.21 To 4.1 Mu g/g of dry weight (1.2-29 mu g/g of lipid weight). Concentrations were highest in pools near the twin cities and the quad cities metropolitan areas. Longitudinal movement of pcbs was extensive downstream from the twin cities (175-320 km) but was not apparent downstream from the quad cities. The pcb composition of mayflies was relatively homogeneous throughout most of the river. However, the congener composition in mayflies from two distant locations differed markedly from the other samples and contained a greater abundance of lower molecular weight congeners. Recent pcb discharges from point and nonpoint sources may account for these differences. Emergent mayflies seem to be a useful indicator of pcb contamination of the umr.

  1. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    SciTech Connect

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. )

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  2. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Y. Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  3. The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gilbert

    2004-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in various industrial applications. Research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Poisoning episodes in Asia were initially attributed to PCB-contaminated oil, although subsequent analysis suggested that thermal degradation products of PCBs were responsible for the observed toxicity. Commercial production of PCBs in the United States was banned in 1979. Several agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. Health effects attributable to PCBs include skin and eye irritation. There is no reliable evidence that PCBs in the environment result in either "endocrine disruption" or intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Because PCB exposures from environmental sources do not pose a significant health risk, little benefit to public health can result from continued remediation of PCB sources.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Pastor

    2006-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury act synergistically to reduce rat brain dopamine content in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bemis, J C; Seegal, R F

    1999-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish by pregnant women is associated with decreased birth weight and deficits in cognitive function in their infants and children. These fish contain many known and suspected anthropogenic neurotoxicants, making it difficult to determine which contaminant(s) are responsible for the observed deficits. We have undertaken a series of experiments to determine the relevant toxicants by comparing the neurotoxic effects of two of these contaminants--polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg)--both of which are recognized neurotoxicants. Striatal punches obtained from adult rat brain were exposed to PCBs only, MeHg only, or the two in combination, and tissue and media concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to PCBs only reduced tissue DA and elevated media DA in a dose-dependent fashion. Exposure to MeHg only did not significantly affect either measure. However, when striatal punches were simultaneously exposed to PCBs and MeHg, there were significantly greater decreases in tissue DA concentrations and elevations in media DA than those caused by PCBs only, in the absence of changes in media lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Elevations in both tissue and media 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were also observed. We suggest that the significant interactions between these two toxicants may be due to a common site of action (i.e., toxicant-induced increases in intracellular calcium and changes in second messenger systems) that influences DA function. The synergism between these contaminants suggests that future revisions of fish-consumption guidelines should consider contaminant interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10544155

  6. Estrogenicity of selected biphenyls evaluated using a recombinant yeast assay

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Kraut, D.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Layton, A.C.

    1998-09-01

    The estrogenic activity of biphenyl and 4-hydroxylated derivatives with varied levels of chloro- and/or hydroxyl substitution was measured in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z ({beta}-galactosidase) reporter assay, {beta}-Galactosidase activity was compared with competitive binding to soluble mouse uterine estrogen receptor protein. The comparison of relative potency for biphenyls hydroxylated on one ring and chlorinated on the other ring (n = 5) revealed excellent correlation between the two systems (r{sup 2} = 0.995). However, estrogenicities of biphenyls hydroxylated and chlorinated on the same ring were not in agreement. Although weak ligand binding was demonstrated for these compounds, {beta}-galactosidase activity was not observed. Rather, these compounds were shown to be cytotoxic to yeast. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that both an unhindered phenolic ring and molecular symmetry are structural features associated with estrogenicity.

  7. Breastmilk contaminants and infant behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, J.; Thomas, D.A.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Recent work has shown that certain heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p{prime}-DDE) can affect newborn behavior via transplacental exposure. In this study, a number of fluids were collected from a sample of mothers and infants, with gas liquid chromatography used to determine the levels of environmental contaminants in breastmilk obtained in the first postpartum week. Analysis of the first 15 cases revealed normal concentrations of metals, no detectable traces of PCBs, and detectable levels of heptachlor epoxide and p,p{prime}-DDE in breastmilk. No significant associations were found between metals and infant development, but p,p{prime}-DDE was inversely related to perceptual performance and motor scores at 2-1/2 years. These results suggest that contaminants in human milk may affect infant behavior beyond the newborn period, although prediction from other sources must also be considered.

  8. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. The MT data presented in this report will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. Subsequent interpretation will include a three dimensional (3 D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 309, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 309 is comprised of the three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1-1) listed below: (1) CAS 12-06-09, Muckpile; (2) CAS 12-08-02, Contaminated Waste Dump (CWD); and (3) CAS 12-28-01, I-, J-, and K-Tunnel Debris. Corrective Action Sites 12-06-09 and 12-08-02 will be collectively referred to as muckpiles in this document. Corrective Action Site 12-28-01 will be referred to as the fallout plume because of the extensive lateral area of debris and fallout contamination resulting from the containment failures of the J- and K-Tunnels. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 309: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada.'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 309 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted according to the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004), which provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CADD/CR.

  10. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1953-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified in 13; two contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on 7 properties was not ascertained; and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and 9 are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities; the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontit. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint 9 only 4 of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951, the Majuba Hill mine, the Stalin's Present prospect, and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. Reserves of ore grade are small on all of these properties and probably cannot be developed commercially unless an ore-buying station is set up nearby. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  11. Radioactive deposits of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1954-01-01

    Thirty-five occurrences of radioactive rocks had been reported from Nevada prior to 1952. Twenty-five of these had been investigated by personnel of the U. S. Geological Surveyor of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Of those investigated, uranium minerals were identified at 13 sites; two sites contained a thorium mineral (monazite); the source of radioactivity on nine properties was not ascertained, and one showed no abnormal radioactivity. Of the other reported occurrences, one is said to contain uraniferous hydrocarbons and nine are placers containing thorian monazite. Pitchblende occurs at two localities, the East Walker River area, and the Stalin's Present prospect, where it is sparsely disseminated in tabular bodies cutting granitic rocks. Other uranium minerals found in the state include: carnotite, tyuyamunite, autunite, torbernite, gummite, uranophane, kasolite, and an unidentified mineral which may be dumontite. Monazite is the only thorium mineral of possible economic importance that has been reported. From an economic standpoint, only four of the properties examined showed reserves of uranium ore in 1952; these are: the Green Monster mine, which shipped 5 tons of ore to Marysvale, Utah, during 1951; the Majuba Hill mine; the Stalin's Present prospect; and the West Willys claim in the Washington district. No estimate has been made of thorium reserves and no commercial deposits of thorium are known.

  12. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  13. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10417 - Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10417 Biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (generic) (P-11-338). (a... generically as biphenyl alkyl morpholino ketone (PMN P-11-338) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  17. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  18. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  19. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  20. Land surface cleanup of plutonium at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ebeling, L.L.; Evans, R.B.; Walsh, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers approximately 3300 km{sup 2} of high desert and is located approximately 100 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Soil contaminated by plutonium exists on the NTS and surrounding areas from safety tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s. About 150 curies of contamination have been measured over 1200 hectares of land surface. Most contamination is found in the top 5 cm of soil but may be found deep as 25 cm. The cost of conventional removal and disposal of the full soil volume has been estimated at over $500,000,000. This study is directed toward minimizing the volume of waste which must be further processed and disposed of by precisely controlling soil removal depth. The following soil removal machines were demonstrated at the NTS: (1) a CMI Corporation Model PR-500FL pavement profiler, (2) a CMI Corporation Model Tr-225B trimmer reclaimer, (3) a Caterpillar Model 623 elevating scraper equipped with laser depth control, (4) a Caterpillar Model 14G motor grader equipped with laser depth control, (5) a Caterpillar Model 637 auger scraper, and (6) a XCR Series Guzzler vacuum truck. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Deep Resistivity Structure of Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch; Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Jackie M. Williams; Maryla Deszcz-Pan

    2006-12-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), funded by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. Data stations were located in and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend to the west the hydrogeologic study that was conducted in Yucca Flat in 2003. This work has helped to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale(Bechtel Nevada, 2006)) in the Yucca Flat area and west towards Shoshone Mountain in the south, east of Buckboard Mesa, and onto Rainier Mesa in the north. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology within the region. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit (UCCU) are generally characterized in the upper 5 km. The interpretation is not well determined where conductive TCU overlies conductive Chainman Shale, where resistive Eleana Formation overlies resistive LCA units, or where resistive VTA rock overlies units of the Eleana Formation. The nature of the

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  3. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel; Trapp, Stefan; Klanova, Jana

    2009-02-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K(OW). A negative correlation between BCF and log K(OW) was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K(OA).

  4. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Great Lakes fish, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengchih; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Milligan, Michael S; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M

    2012-11-15

    Temporal trend analysis of the latest Great Lake Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program (GLFMSP) data showed statistically significant decreases in persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) contaminant (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane and its metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor) concentrations in Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan lake trout over the period of 1999 to 2009. In contrast, for most contaminants, no statistically significant concentration trends were found in top predator fish in Lakes Superior and Erie during the same period. For Lakes Huron, Ontario, and Michigan 5.0 ± 2.6% average annual concentration decreases were found for PCBs, DDTs, dieldrin, and other organochlorine pesticides (OCs) decreased at a faster rate, ranging from 10 ± 4.3% to 20 ± 7.1% per year. For these three lakes, with the exception of PCBs, these current decreases are greater than were shown by an earlier trend analysis that estimated an annual contaminant decrease of about 2-5% for the period of 1980 to 2003. For Lakes Superior and Erie, the finding of no statistically significant trend is in agreement with previously reported results for these lakes.

  5. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for each of the eight CASs within CAU 151. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from September 12 through November 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 151 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Additional confirmation sampling was performed on December 9, 2005; January 10, 2006; and February 13, 2006. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at two of the eight CASs in CAU 151 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 151 revealed the following: (1) Soils at CASs 02-05-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, 12-47-01, 18-03-01, 18-99-09, and Lagoons B through G of CAS 12-03-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. (2) Lagoon A of CAS 12-03-01 has arsenic above FALs in shallow subsurface soils. (3) One of the two tanks of CAS 12-04-01, System No.1, has polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclor-1254), trichloroethane, and cesium-137 above FALs in the sludge. Both CAS 12-04-01, System No.1 tanks contain

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 372 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 10, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; Desert Research Institute, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 372.

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well. This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of tetrachloroethene contamination at concentrations greater than the action level established at the time of the initial investigation. Although total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level was present at the site, no hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 preliminary remediation goals established at the time of the initial investigation.

  9. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r = .42) and PBBs (r = .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  10. The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to cord serum correlations for both PCBs (r . .42) and PBBs (r . .81). Correlations between maternal serum and milk levels were similar. Higher PBB correlations were probably due to greater reliability in the measurement of PBB levels in serum and milk.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.P.; Werner, M.B.; Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of recent trends in the distribution of PCBs in water, sediment and fish of the Hudson River, New York. Results of various monitoring programs conducted since 1977 are presented. Elimination of direct discharge, dredging and disposal of contaminated sediments, and stabilization of banks have resulted in reduced levels in sediments and biota. The implications for commercial and recreational fishing interests are discussed. 41 references.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 537: Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Envirornmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 537 is identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 as Waste Sites. CAU 537 is located in Areas 3 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-23-06, Bucket; Yellow Tagged Bags; and CAS 19-19-01, Trash Pit. CAU