Miller, Thomas H
Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.
ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık
Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808
Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Mainerova, Barbora
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. PMID:27445475
Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard
Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in bipolar disorder, either in manic or depressive episodes, although these symptoms do not always meet criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. In addition to anxiety symptoms, bipolar disorder frequently presents with co-morbid axis I conditions, with anxiety disorders being the most common co-morbidity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between bipolar disorder and anxiety. Available data on the efficacy of treatments for bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety disorders are also reviewed. Existing guidelines do recognize that co-morbid anxiety has a negative impact on the course and outcome of bipolar disorder; however, there have been very few double-blind, controlled trials examining the treatment response of patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring anxiety disorders. There is some positive evidence for quetiapine, olanzapine in combination with fluoxetine or lithium, and lamotrigine with lithium, and negative evidence for risperidone. Other therapies used for bipolar disorder, including several mood stabilizers, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, have been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms, but specific data for their effects in patients with anxiety symptoms co-morbid with bipolar disorder are not available. The co-occurrence of anxiety and bipolar disorder has implications for diagnosis, clinical outcome, treatment and prognosis. Careful screening for co-morbid anxiety symptoms and disorders is warranted when diagnosing and treating patients with bipolar disorder.
Guo, Jeff J; Keck, Paul E; Li, Hong; Patel, Nick C
This study assessed costs among patients with bipolar disorder for treatment related to bipolar disorder and to comorbid conditions. Risk factors associated with costs were also assessed. Data (January 1998 to December 2002) were from a seven-state Medicaid managed care claims database for 13,471 patients who had received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, most of whom received medications. Each medical claims cost was adjusted by the medical component of the Consumer Price Index as the dollar value in 2002. In a Poisson regression analysis, treatment costs per enrollment month were regressed on patient's age, gender, medications, and clinical comorbidities. Bipolar disorder treatment accounted for 30% of costs and comorbid disorders for 70%. Key cost components were inpatient care (35%), outpatient care (16%), prescriptions (13%), and physician encounters (11%). Patients with bipolar disorder received a variety of medications: lithium, 13%; anticonvulsants, 35%; second-generation antipsychotics, 24%; first-generation antipsychotics, 22%; and antidepressants, 42%. Compared with the costs for patients receiving antidepressants alone or no medication, the high costs for bipolar disorder treatment and overall treatment were associated with use of second-generation antipsychotics (rate ratio [RR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-1.86 and RR=1.26, CI=1.18-1.34, respectively) and use of anticonvulsants (RR=1.37, CI=1.26-1.48 and RR=1.06, CI=1.00-1.12). Higher costs were significantly associated with key comorbidities, such as drug abuse (RR=1.58, CI=1.47-1.70), cerebral-vascular disease (RR=1.72, CI=1.51-1.94), ischemic heart disease (RR=1.47, CI=1.30-1.66), and hypertension (RR=1.44, CI=1.33-1.56). Cost-containment efforts may need to manage or prevent key comorbidities among patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use and treatment outcomes and hospital services.
Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.
Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...
Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...
Smith, Daniel J; Griffiths, Emily; Kelly, Mark; Hood, Kerry; Craddock, Nick; Simpson, Sharon A
Bipolar disorder is complex and can be difficult to diagnose. It is often misdiagnosed as recurrent major depressive disorder. We had three main aims. To estimate the proportion of primary care patients with a working diagnosis of unipolar depression who satisfy DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. To test two screening instruments for bipolar disorder (the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS)) within a primary care sample. To assess whether individuals with major depressive disorder with subthreshold manic symptoms differ from those individuals with major depressive disorder but with no or little history of manic symptoms in terms of clinical course, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Two-phase screening study in primary care. Three estimates of the prevalence of undiagnosed bipolar disorder were obtained: 21.6%, 9.6% and 3.3%. The HCL-32 and BSDS questionnaires had quite low positive predictive values (50.0 and 30.1% respectively). Participants with major depressive disorder and with a history of subthreshold manic symptoms differed from those participants with no or little history of manic symptoms on several clinical features and on measures of both psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Between 3.3 and 21.6% of primary care patients with unipolar depression may have an undiagnosed bipolar disorder. The HCL-32 and BSDS screening questionnaires may be more useful for detecting broader definitions of bipolar disorder than DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder. Subdiagnostic features of bipolar disorder are relatively common in primary care patients with unipolar depression and are associated with a more morbid course of illness. Future classifications of recurrent depression should include dimensional measures of bipolar symptoms.
Wooderson, Sarah C.; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart
Background Testosterone influences well-being, mood and cognition and may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Aim To examine testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Method We examined baseline total testosterone levels and current depression scores in male and female patients with bipolar disorder and mild to moderate depression and healthy controls. Results A significant interaction between diagnosis and gender was observed (F(2,97)=9.791, P=0.002). Testosterone levels were significantly lower for male patients with bipolar disorder compared with male controls (P=0.001). Women with bipolar disorder had significantly higher testosterone levels than female controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Disturbances in testosterone levels may represent an important neurobiological abnormality in bipolar disorder and may differ by gender. If these findings are confirmed, the use of gender appropriate treatment strategies for the normalisation of testosterone levels in bipolar disorder depression should be further explored. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703738
Latalova, Klara; Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Sedlackova, Zuzana
Prejudicial beliefs, emotions, and behaviours cause discrimination against people labeled as mentally ill. This stigmatization is sometimes internalized by the patients, leading to self-stigmatization. Specific features and impacts of stigmatization and self-stigmatization in patients with bipolar illness are the subjects of this review. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "stigma", "self-stigma" psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment". Key articles listed in reference lists were searched. Considerable recent evidence indicates that bipolar patients and their families are stigmatized, and that this stigmatization affects their quality of life as well as social functioning. The severity of stigmatization in bipolar disorder is greater than that in people with depression. There is also evidence of self-stigmatization which further decreases the quality of life. Stigmatization and self-stigmatization were shown to be one of the barriers that delay or prevent effective treatment, and thus exert adverse effects on the outcomes of bipolar disorder. Stigma affects the experience of illness as well as social functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. The impact of stigma on the lives and treatment outcomes of patients with bipolar disorder mandates intensive effort of mental health research and policy to address this problem. Much has been done against the stigmatization of the mentally ill. But the fight against stigma remains a fundamental objective of health programs for mental health.
Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, María; Goikolea, José Manuel; Benabarre, Antonio; Comes, Mercè
The co-occurrence of personality and bipolar disorders is quite common. Bipolar patients with personality disorders have been described as having poorer outcome than 'pure' bipolar patients. However, from a combined-approach point of view, a little has been done to improve the course of these patients. Psychoeducation has shown its efficacy in the prevention of relapses in the bipolar population but, to date, no data is available on its efficacy in the management of bipolar patients with personality disorders. The present study shows a subanalysis from a single-blind randomized prospective clinical trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in bipolar I patients. Bipolar patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for any personality disorder were randomized to either psychoeducational treatment or a non-structured intervention. There were 22 patients in the control group and 15 in the psychoeducation group. All patients received naturalistic pharmacological treatment as well. The follow-up phase comprised 2 years where all patients continued receiving naturalistic treatment without psychological intervention and were assessed monthly for several outcome measures. At the end of the follow-up phase (2 years), a 100% of control group patients fulfilled criteria for recurrence versus a 67% in the psychoeducation group (p < 0.005). Patients included in the psychoeducation group had a higher time-to-relapse and a significantly lower mean number of total, manic and depressive relapses. No significant differences regarding the number of patients who required hospitalization were found but the mean duration of days spent in the hospitalization room was significantly higher for the patients included in the control group. Psychoeducation may be a useful intervention for bipolar patients with comorbid personality disorders. Further studies should address the efficacy of specifically tailored interventions for this common type of patients.
Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…
Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fagiolini, Andrea; Frank, Ellen; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Cheng, Yu; Curet, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Gildengers, Ariel G; Goldstein, Tina; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Houck, Patricia R; Stofko, Mary G; Thase, Michael E; Thompson, Wesley K; Turkin, Scott R; Kupfer, David J
Introduction We developed models of Specialized Care for Bipolar Disorder (SCBD) and a psychosocial treatment [Enhanced Clinical Intervention (ECI)] that is delivered in combination with SCBD. We investigated whether SCBD and ECI + SCBD are able to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for young and elderly individuals, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder. Method Subjects were 463 individuals with bipolar disorder, type I, II, or not otherwise specified, or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, randomly assigned to SCBD or ECI + SCBD and followed longitudinally for a period of one to three years at four clinical sites. Results Both treatment groups significantly improved over time, with no significant differences based on age, race, or place of residence, except for significantly greater improvement among elderly versus adult subjects. Improvement in quality of life was greater in the ECI + SCBD group. Of the 299 participants who were symptomatic at study entry, 213 achieved recovery within 24 months, during which 86 of the 213 subjects developed a new episode. No significant difference was found for race, place of residence, or age between the participants who experienced a recurrence and those who did not. However, the adolescent patients were less likely than the adult and elderly patients to experience a recurrence. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of SCBD and the additional benefit of ECI independent of age, race, or place of residence. It also demonstrated that new mood episodes are frequent in individuals with bipolar disorder who achieve recovery and are likely to occur in spite of specialized, guideline-based treatments. PMID:19500091
Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan
Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.
Holder, Sarah D
Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Penttilä, Jani; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Ringuenet, Damien; Wessa, Michèle; Houenou, Josselin; Gallarda, Thierry; Bellivier, Frank; Galinowski, André; Bruguière, Pascale; Pinabel, François; Leboyer, Marion; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Duchesnay, Edouard; Artiges, Eric; Mangin, Jean-François; Cachia, Arnaud
Analysis of cortical folding may provide insight into neurodevelopment deviations, which, in turn, can predispose to depression that responds particularly poorly to medications. We hypothesized that patients with treatment-resistant depression would exhibit measurable alterations in cortical folding. We computed hemispheric global sulcal indices (g-SIs) in T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained from 76 patients and 70 healthy controls. We separately searched for anatomic deviations in patients with bipolar disorder (16 patients with treatment-resistant depression, 25 with euthymia) and unipolar depression (35 patients with treatment-resistant depression). Compared with healthy controls, both groups of patients with treatment-resistant depression exhibited reduced g-SIs: in the right hemisphere among patients with bipolar disorder and in both hemispheres among those with unipolar depression. Patients with euthymic bipolar disorder did not differ significantly from depressed patients or healthy controls. Among patients with bipolar disorder who were taking lithium, we found positive correlations between current lithium dose and g-SIs in both hemispheres. We cannot estimate the extent to which the observed g-SI reductions are linked to treatment resistance and to what extent they are state-dependent. Furthermore, we cannot disentangle the impact of medications from that of the affective disorder. Finally, there is interindividual variation and overlap of g-SIs among patients and healthy controls that need to be considered when interpreting our results. Reduced global cortical folding surface appears to be characteristic of patients with treatment-resistant depression, either unipolar or bipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, treatment with lithium may modify cortical folding surface.
Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard
Traditionally, functional impairment has received little attention in bipolar disorder, despite the fact that many patients experience significant impairments in daily life. In the last decade, research has changed its focus from clinical remission to functional recovery in bipolar patients as a priority. A literature review of this topic will allow us provide an overview of the relevance of functional impairment as well as the potential factors that can predict or contribute to low functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment approaches should consider not only euthymia as a goal but also cognitive and functional improvement of patients with such a complex disorder. Functional remediation and psychoeducation among psychological interventions may help to enhance functioning. The combination of cognitive enhancers and cognitive/functional remediation programs may help in improving cognitive and functional impairments. Early interventions are essential to prevent cognitive deficits and disability.
... clear cause for the periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bipolar Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...
Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma
The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.
Pini, Stefano; Maser, Jack D; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Muti, Matteo; Gesi, Camilla; Cassano, Giovanni B
The authors investigated frequency, clinical correlates and onset temporal relationship of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Subjects were 189 patients whose diagnoses were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version. Twenty-four patients (12.7%) met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime SAD; of these, 19 (10.1% of entire sample) had SAD within the last month. Significantly more bipolar patients with comorbid SAD also had substance use disorders compared to those without. On the HSCL-90, levels of interpersonal sensitivity, obsessiveness, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation were significantly higher in bipolar patients with SAD than in those without. Bipolar patients with comorbid SAD recalled separation anxiety problems (school refusal) more frequently during childhood than those without. Lifetime SAD comorbidity was associated with an earlier age at onset of syndromal bipolar disorder. Pre-existing OCD tended to delay the onset of bipolarity. Social anxiety disorder comorbidity is not rare among patients with bipolar disorder and is likely to affect age of onset and phenomenology of bipolar disorder. These findings may influence treatment planning and the possibility of discovering a pathophysiological relationship between SAD and bipolarity.
Stafford, N; Colom, F
This article reviews psychological therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder, in particular psychoeducation, and how the inclusion of four fundamental principles - patient/therapist communication, flow of information, patient involvement and a trusting relationship - can improve patient outcomes. The content of this article is based on the proceedings of a 1-day standalone symposium in November 2011 exploring how to establish a bipolar clinic within the context of existing services in the UK's National Health Service. Certain psychological interventions have emerged as beneficial add-on treatments to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder and are associated with greater stabilisation of symptoms, fewer relapses and longer time to relapse. Psychoeducation is a simple approach to support prevention of future episodes by delivering behavioural training to improve illness insight, early symptom identification and development of coping strategies. Empowering patients to actively participate in their treatment provides independence, counteracts the current disconnect of therapist and patient, and increases awareness and understanding of the challenges of living with and treating bipolar disorder. Psychoeducation enables patients to understand bipolar disorder, get actively involved in therapy planning, and be aware of methods for episode prevention, therefore effectively contributing to improved treatment outcomes and patient quality of life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bobes, Julio; Sáiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Manuel Montes, José; Mostaza, José; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Vieta, Eduard
Patients with bipolar disorder have much higher physical morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. In addition to a higher mortality rate from suicide, these patients also have a higher prevalence of physical disorders. The aim of this consensus, promoted by the Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry in collaboration with the General Practitioners' Societies, was to establish practical recommendations on procedures for detection, prevention and intervention in the somatic diseases that coexist with bipolar disorder in order to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. The Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry designated a scientific committee that selected 32 expert psychiatrists and 10 experts from other medical specialties. Working groups were formed for each specialty for the purpose of adapting the guidelines applied in the general population to patients with bipolar disorder. A systematic review of medical comorbidity and mortality in these patients was carried out and two multidisciplinary consensus meetings were held. The literature review revealed an increased risk of hypertension, obesity, smoking, pulmonary diseases, migraine and HIV infection among patients with bipolar disorder. There was also evidence of higher mortality rates from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and infections, as well as from suicide. The expert group reached a consensus on a series of basic measures to detect medical comorbidity applicable to the monitoring of these patients. The resulting recommendations will be accepted and disseminated by the promoting societies. The recommendations generated by the Spanish Consensus on the Physical Health of Patients with Bipolar disorder include the most important aspects for the improvement of the psychosocial functioning, quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría and Sociedad Española de
Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients) is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED). The Bipolar Spectrum (BS) remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis. PMID:21489298
Practical strategies are available for primary care physicians to monitor psychiatric and medical outcomes as well as treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Current depressive symptoms can be assessed with tools like the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire or Beck Depression Inventory. Lifetime presence or absence of manic or hypomanic symptoms can be assessed using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). These measures can be completed quickly by patients prior to appointments. Sensitivity of such ratings, particularly the MDQ, can be increased by having a significant other also rate the patient. Clinicians should also screen mood disorder patients for psychiatric comorbidities that are common in this population such as anxiety and substance use disorders. While patients with bipolar disorder may commonly be nonadherent with prescribed medication regimens, strategies that can help include having frank discussions with the patient, selecting medication collaboratively, adding psychotherapy with a psychoeducation element, monitoring appointment-keeping, using patient self-reports of medication-taking, enlisting the aid of significant others, and measuring plasma drug levels. Medical monitoring is needed to assess the safety and tolerability of psychotropic medications. All of the approved medications for bipolar disorder have at least 1 boxed warning for serious side effects, but are also associated with other common management-limiting side effects such as sedation, tremor, unsteadiness, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, weight gain, and metabolic problems. Routine monitoring is particularly needed for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders, which lead to high rates of medical morbidity and mortality in patients with bipolar disorder. Monitoring protocols such as the one recommended by the American Diabetes Association for patients taking second-generation antipsychotics can be used for regular assessment
Bozikas, Vasilis P; Kosmidis, Mary H; Tonia, Thomy; Garyfallos, George; Focas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios
The purpose of the present study was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of remitted patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 19 patients (8 men) with bipolar disorder I, currently remitted, and 22 (9 men) healthy controls, matched on age, education, and gender, on a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons, the Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT). Residual manic symptoms were evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and residual depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients with bipolar disorder performed worse than the healthy group on the PHAT, but this difference was not statistically significant. Performance on the PHAT did not significantly correlate with age of onset and duration of illness, or with residual manic or depressive symptoms measured by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons, in bipolar disorder does not seem to be deficient at least during remission, suggesting that this high-order cognitive function may not be considered a trait deficit of the disorder.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir
Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232
Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W
To review the evidence for treating anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. A literature search from 1950 to week 1 of August 2009 was conducted via OVID and the National Institutes of Health's clinical trials online databases. Search terms included anxiety, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and treatment. Reference lists of identified articles were also searched. Fourteen treatment studies that included patients with bipolar disorder with either a syndrome-defined anxiety disorder or nonspecific anxiety were selected. Sample size, bipolar disorder subtype, comorbid anxiety disorders, baseline anxiety, treatment interventions, and outcome measurements were extracted. The majority of studies focus on treating anxiety disorders and nonspecific anxiety occurring during bipolar mood episodes. Studies of syndrome-defined anxiety disorders reveal that risperidone monotherapy did not separate from placebo and that olanzapine was superior to lamotrigine when used to augment lithium treatment. A study using open-label divalproex sodium and an uncontrolled study of group cognitive-behavioral therapy both suggest some benefit from these treatments in patients with bipolar disorder with panic disorder. Studies of nonspecific anxiety reveal some benefit for divalproex, quetiapine, olanzapine, and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Weaker evidence supports the use of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, and observational studies suggest potential efficacy for gabapentin and valproate. Nonspecific anxiety symptoms occurring during a mood episode improve with treatment of the mood disturbance, though divalproex may be the mood stabilizer of choice for anxious patients with bipolar disorder. Given their reduced risk for manic induction and episode cycling, psychotherapy, benzodiazepines, and certain atypical antipsychotics
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...
Goffin, Kathryn C; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Holtzman, Jessica N; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Ketter, Terence A
Suicide attempts are common in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and consistently associated with female gender and certain unfavorable BD illness characteristics. Findings vary, however, regarding effects of BD illness subtype and yet other illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates. We explored the effects of demographics and BD illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates in patients stratified by BD illness subtype (i.e., with bipolar I disorder (BDI) versus bipolar II disorder (BDII)). Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Rates of prior suicide attempt were compared in patients with and without diverse demographic and BD illness characteristics stratified by BD subtype. Among 494 BD outpatients (mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years; 58.3% female; 48.6% BDI, 51.4% BDII), overall prior suicide attempt rates in were similar in BDI versus BDII patients, but approximately twice as high in BDI (but not BDII) patients with compared to without lifetime eating disorder, and in BDII (but not BDI) patients with compared to without childhood BD onset. In contrast, current threshold-level suicidal ideation and lifetime alcohol use disorder robustly but less asymmetrically increased prior suicide attempt risk across BD subtypes. American tertiary bipolar disorder clinic referral sample, cross-sectional design. Further studies are needed to assess the extent to which varying clinical characteristics of samples of patients with BDI and BDII could yield varying prior suicide attempt rates in patients with BDI versus BDII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Kelli E; Applegate, Katherine; Portenier, Dana; McVay, Megan A
As many as 3% of bariatric surgery candidates are diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. 1) To describe differences between patients with bipolar spectrum disorders who are approved and not approved for surgery by the mental health evaluator and 2) to examine surgical outcomes of patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Academic medical center, United States. A retrospective record review was conducted of consecutive patients who applied for bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2009. Patients diagnosed with bipolar spectrum disorders who were approved for surgery (n = 42) were compared with patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were not approved (n = 31) and to matched control surgical patients without a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n = 29) on a variety of characteristics and surgical outcomes. Of bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder who applied for surgery, 57% were approved by the psychologist and 48% ultimately had surgery. Patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were approved for surgery were less likely to have had a previous psychiatric hospitalization than those who were not approved for surgery. Bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder were less likely to attend follow-up care appointments 2 or more years postsurgery compared to matched patients without bipolar disorder. Among patients with available data, those with a bipolar spectrum disorder and matched patients had similar weight loss at 12 months (n = 21 for bipolar; n = 24 for matched controls) and at 2 or more years (mean = 51 mo; n = 11 for bipolar; n = 20 for matched controls). Patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder have a high rate of delay/denial for bariatric surgery based on the psychosocial evaluation and are less likely to attend medical follow-up care 2 or more years postsurgery. Carefully screened patients with bipolar disorder who engage in long-term follow-up care may benefit from bariatric
Knowles, Rebecca; Tai, Sara; Jones, Steven H; Highfield, Julie; Morriss, Richard; Bentall, Richard P
Changes in beliefs about the self are a central feature of bipolar disorder, with grandiose self-belief common in mania and low self-esteem evident in periods of depression. We investigated whether unstable self-esteem is a characteristic of bipolar disorder in remission. We compared 18 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder in remission, 16 patients with unipolar disorder in remission, and 19 healthy controls. The primary measure was a diary kept for one week and completed twice each day, measuring self-esteem and positive and negative affect. We also administered Winters and Neale's (J Abnorm Psychol 1985; 94: 282-290) implicit measure of attributional style. Whereas mean levels of self-esteem and affect were not abnormal in the remitted bipolar patients, the bipolar patients showed strong fluctuations in these processes. In common with the unipolar patients, they also showed a pessimistic attributional style on the Pragmatic Inference Task (PIT). Instability of self-esteem and affect is present in bipolar patients, even when their symptoms are in remission, and has previously been found in people at genetic risk of the disorder. It may be a marker of vulnerability to the disorder.
Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro
In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Cartier, Consuelo; Cheniaux, Elie; Novis, Fernanda; Silveira, Luciana Angélica; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Batista, Washington Adolfo; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression--Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies.
Krüger, Stephanie; Frasnelli, Johannes; Bräunig, Peter; Hummel, Thomas
Objective Some patients with bipolar disorder experience mood episodes following emotional life events, whereas others do not. There is evidence that orbitofrontal hypoactivity may be related to this, because the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in the regulation of emotional and behavioural responses to external events. The close anatomical and functional connection between the orbitofrontal cortex and olfactory processing suggests that patients with bipolar disorder and heightened emotional reactivity may exhibit altered olfactory function compared with patients with bipolar disorder who do not exhibit this sensitivity. Methods In this pilot study, olfactory function was assessed in patients with bipolar disorder and a history of event-triggered episodes (n = 7) and in patients with bipolar disorder without such a history (n = 9) at the Department of Psychiatry and the Taste and Smell Clinic of the University of Dresden, Germany. Each patient's bipolar disorder was in remission at study entry, and they were on monotherapy with mood stabilizers. Assessment included olfactory event-related potentials (ERP) and psychophysical tests for odour threshold, odour identification and olfactory quality discrimination. Results Odour thresholds were lower in patients with bipolar disorder and event-triggered episodes compared with the other patient group. In addition, patients with event-triggered episodes exhibited shorter N1 peak latencies of the olfactory ERP. Conclusions Our findings indicate disinhibition of orbitofrontal areas involved in the processing of emotional events in a subset of patients with bipolar illness. PMID:16862244
In clinical practice, overt aggressive behaviour is frequently observed in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It can be dangerous and complicates patient care. Nevertheless, it has not been adequately studied as a phenomenon that is separate from other symptoms such as agitation. The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical context, and clinical management of aggression in patients with bipolar disorder. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2008 using the combination of key words 'aggression' or 'violence' with 'bipolar disorder'. For the treatment searches, generic names of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics were used in combination with key words 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression'. No language constraint was applied. Articles dealing with children and adolescents were not included. Acutely ill hospitalised bipolar patients have a higher risk for aggression than other inpatients. In a population survey, the prevalence of aggressive behaviour after age 15 years was 0.66% in persons without lifetime psychiatric disorder, but 25.34% in bipolar I disorder. Comorbidity with personality disorders and substance use disorders is frequent, and it elevates the risk of aggression in bipolar patients. Impulsive aggression appears to be the most frequent subtype observed in bipolar patients. Clinical management of aggression combines pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. A major problem with the evidence is that aggression is frequently reported only as one of the items contributing to the total score on a scale or a subscale. This makes it impossible to ascertain specifically aggressive behaviour. Large controlled head-to-head randomised controlled studies comparing treatments for aggressive behaviour in bipolar disorder are not yet available. There is some evidence favouring divalproex, but it is not particularly strong .We do not know if there are any efficacy
Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu
In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.
Santosa, Claudia M; Strong, Connie M; Nowakowska, Cecylia; Wang, Po W; Rennicke, Courtney M; Ketter, Terence A
Associations between eminent creativity and bipolar disorders have been reported, but there are few data relating non-eminent creativity to bipolar disorders in clinical samples. We assessed non-eminent creativity in euthymic bipolar (BP) and unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, creative discipline controls (CC), and healthy controls (HC). 49 BP, 25 MDD, 32 CC, and 47 HC (all euthymic) completed four creativity measures yielding six parameters: the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS-Total, and two subscales, BWAS-Dislike and BWAS-Like), the Adjective Check List Creative Personality Scale (ACL-CPS), and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural (TTCT-F) and Verbal (TTCT-V) versions. Mean scores on these instruments were compared across groups. BP and CC (but not MDD) compared to HC scored significantly higher on BWAS-Total (45% and 48% higher, respectively) and BWAS-Dislike (90% and 88% higher, respectively), but not on BWAS-Like. CC compared to MDD scored significantly higher (12% higher) on TTCT-F. For all other comparisons, creativity scores did not differ significantly between groups. We found BP and CC (but not MDD) had similarly enhanced creativity on the BWAS-Total (driven by an increase on the BWAS-Dislike) compared to HC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of enhanced creativity and how it relates to clinical (e.g. temperament, mood, and medication status) and preclinical (e.g. visual and affective processing substrates) parameters.
Forsthoff, A; Born, C; Grunze, H
Despite many advances in making the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, five to twelve years lie between the first affective episode and the introduction of an effective treatment. However, it is estimated that approximately only one-fourth of the patients with bipolar disorder are recognized as such at all. Clinical experience plays an important role in the diagnosis. Manias are often the cause for the first treatment with drugs, but the daily lives of patients with bipolar depression are often clearly more negatively affected. The acute therapy of bipolar depression is more complicated than that of mania and the difficult long-term treatment is always associated with a high suicide risk. A long-term therapy of bipolar disorders is not only meaningful for the prevention of new disease episodes, but also because it has a positive effect on comorbidities.
De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Giannini, Francesca; Jaén Moreno, Maria Jose; Moreno Díaz, Maria Josè; Medina León, Antonio; Segura-García, Cristina
Religiousness and spirituality (R/S) are often neglected features among psychiatric patients but important both for quality of life and coping strategies for mental disorders. In patients affected by bipolar disorder (BD), R/S can sometimes be confused with symptoms related to the psychiatric disorder. This study aimed to perform a clinical review of the relationship between R/S and BD. Data sources included Medline (OvidSP), CINAHL (Ebsco), EMBASE (Ovid), PsychINFO (Ebsco), Angeline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effects, searching for pertinent Keywords: 'religiousness', 'spirituality' and 'bipolar disorder'. Nine works were found but only five used homogeneous samples with BD patients. R/S were important when facing symptoms and relapses in the lifeworld. These beliefs influenced the relationship with psychiatrists and spiritual figures of reference. R/S play a role as a psychosocial variable in the course of BD. However, the hypothesis that the R/S factor can be relevant both in terms of providing a protective effect as well as a provocative element in depressive or hypomanic phases was not fully supported at the moment.
Nery, Fabiano G; Hatch, John P; Glahn, David C; Nicoletti, Mark A; Monkul, E Serap; Najt, Pablo; Fonseca, Manoela; Bowden, Charles L; Cloninger, C Robert; Soares, Jair C
Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy-three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n=10; anxiety disorders; n=23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n=21; no comorbidity, n=19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size, specifically in the analysis of the subgroups. However, our results suggest that bipolar patients exhibit a different personality structure than healthy individuals and that presence of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar disorder is associated with specific personality traits. These findings suggest that personality, at least to some extent, mediates the comorbidity phenomena in bipolar disorder.
Nery, Fabiano G.; Hatch, John P.; Glahn, David C.; Nicoletti, Mark A.; Monkul, E. Serap; Najt, Pablo; Fonseca, Manoela; Bowden, Charles L.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Soares, Jair C.
Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n = 10; anxiety disorders; n = 23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n = 21; no comorbidity, n = 19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size, specifically in the analysis of the subgroups. However, our results suggest that bipolar patients exhibit a different personality structure than healthy individuals and that presence of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar disorder is associated with specific personality traits. These findings suggest that personality, at least to some extent, mediates the comorbidity phenomena in bipolar disorder. PMID:17675066
Carter, Julia M; Arentsen, Timothy J; Cordova, Matthew J; Ruzek, Josef; Reiser, Robert; Suppes, Trisha; Ostacher, Michael J
Suicide risk increases for those with Bipolar Disorder or PTSD, however little research has focused on risk for co-occurring Bipolar Disorder and PTSD. The aim of this article was to evaluate increased suicide risk in co-occurring disorders, and differences in suicide risk for patients with Bipolar I versus Bipolar II. This study evaluated suicide risk in patients with co-occurring PTSD and Bipolar Disorder (n = 3,158), using the MADRS and Suicide Questionnaire. Those with history of PTSD had significantly higher suicidal ideation than those without (U = 1063375.00, p < .0001). Those with Bipolar I had higher risk than those with Bipolar II. Patients with Bipolar I and PTSD were at higher risk for suicidal ideation, implying the importance of diagnosis and risk assessment.
Hoertnagl, Christine Maria; Oberheinricher, Stefan; Hofer, Alex
Overview on the current knowledge regarding social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder. Selective literature research on deficits in social cognition intrinsic to bipolar disorder, their occurrence and effects. Deficits in social cognition are considered to be core features of bipolar disorder. They are apparent during acute episodes of the disorder, endure when patients are in remission and have a significant negative impact on the patients' psychosocial outcomes. It is important to consider deficits in social cognition as an integral part of a treatment approach to achieve mental stabilization in patients with bipolar disorder.
Granek, Leeat; Danan, Dor; Bersudsky, Yuly; Osher, Yamima
Patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by an unusually high divorce rate. As such, the purpose of the present study was to uncover information relating specifically to the impact of bipolar disorder on patients and spouses individually, and on the marital relationship from the perspectives of both patients and spouses. Eleven patients with bipolar disorder and ten spouses were interviewed separately about the impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their marital relationship. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The impact of bipolar disorder for spouses included self-sacrifice, caregiving burden, emotional impact, and a sense of personal evolution. The impact of bipolar disorder on patients included an emotional impact, responsibility for self-care, and struggling socially and developmentally. When comparing patient and spouse perspectives on the impact of the disorder, neither the patient nor the spouse was able to accurately assess the impact of the disorder on their partner's lives. The impact of bipolar disorder on the relationship included volatility in the relationship, strengthening the relationship, weakening the relationship, and family planning. The research indicated that patients and partners alike struggle with the tremendous impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their relationships. Given the high rates of divorce and volatility in these relationships, healthcare professionals can provide (or refer to) emotional and practical support both to patients and spouses on their own, and as a couple in their clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kazour, F; Awaida, C; Souaiby, L; Richa, S
Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users. Over a period of 13 months, we recruited the patients admitted to HPC for bipolar disorder according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. These patients were screened for substance abuse/dependence and were accordingly divided into 2 groups: cannabis users and cannabis non-users. Both groups were interviewed by a medical student and asked to answer the following questionnaires: the MINI DSM-IV, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for evaluating manic episodes, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for evaluating depressive episodes, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) to assess psychotic symptoms associated to the bipolar disorder, and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) for evaluating the importance of cannabis consumption. The study's exclusion criteria were the following: diagnosis of a confusional state, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, dementia, age less than 18 years old or superior to 85 years old, and non-cooperation. Among the 100 bipolar patients included in the study, 27 (27 %) were cannabis users. Eight of these 27 patients were first admitted to HPC for substance abuse and then included in the study after a bipolar disorder was diagnosed according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. Cannabis use was found to be more prevalent in young males with a mean age of 20.3 years old at the first contact with the substance
García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana
Abstract Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187
Paholpak, Suchat; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pattanakumjorn, Wasana; Kanokvut, Roongsang; Wongsuriyadech, Wiroj; Srisurapanont, Manit
Background The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD) comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD), being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR). Methods The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals) between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S), CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BPS-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3%) had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5%) of the 424 participants had a current AD while 38 (9%) had a substance use disorder (SUD). The univariate analysis revealed 13 significant risks for current AD comorbidity, which the multivariate analysis narrowed to age at first diagnosis of BD (odds ratio =0.95, P<0.01), family history of SUD (odds ratio =2.18, P=0.02), and having a higher current MADRS score (odds ratio =1.11, P<0.01). Conclusion A diagnosis of AD comorbid with BD is suggested by early-age onset of BD together with a higher MADRS score and a family history of SUD. The likelihood of AD comorbidity decreases by 5% with each passing year; early-age onset of BD is a risk while later age onset is protective. Our
Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy
The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders. To compare the levels of psychosocial morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed with semi-structured interviews. We compared 307 patients with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder but without bipolar disorder and 236 patients with bipolar disorder but without borderline personality disorder. The patients with borderline personality disorder less frequently were college graduates, were diagnosed with more comorbid disorders, more frequently had a history of substance use disorder, reported more suicidal ideation at the time of the evaluation, more frequently had attempted suicide, reported poorer social functioning and were rated lower on the Global Assessment of Functioning. There was no difference between the two patient groups in history of admission to psychiatric hospital or time missed from work during the past 5 years. The level of psychosocial morbidity associated with borderline personality disorder was as great as (or greater than) that experienced by patients with bipolar disorder. From a public health perspective, efforts to improve the detection and treatment of borderline personality disorder might be as important as efforts to improve the recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Cerimele, Joseph M; Bauer, Amy M; Fortney, John C; Bauer, Mark S
To summarize the current literature on epidemiology, clinical correlates, and treatment of individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a focused, time-sensitive review called "rapid review" in November 2015, using keyword searches (including keywords bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, and others) in PubMed for studies of adults with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Results were sorted and systematically searched. An article was excluded if it did not describe adult patients with co-occurring PTSD and bipolar disorder or did not report original data on epidemiology, clinical correlates, or treatment. Information on study characteristics including population studied and key findings were extracted onto a data collection tool. Thirty-two articles were included. Over two-thirds of articles reported epidemiology of co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD among individuals with bipolar disorder ranged from 4% to 40%, with women and those with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder experiencing higher prevalence of PTSD. Prevalence of bipolar disorder among individuals with PTSD ranged from 6% to 55%. Baseline PTSD or bipolar disorder was associated with incidence of the other illness. Individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD experienced high symptom burden and low quality of life. No studies evaluated prospective treatment of patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Bipolar disorder and PTSD commonly co-occur and result in greater symptom burden than either condition alone. Few published treatment strategies exist for patients with both conditions.
Rangappa, Sushma Bilichodu; Munivenkatappa, Shashidhara; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jain, Sanjeev; Reddy, Y C Janardhan
Many long-term follow-up studies suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is highly recurrent and that depressive episodes are commoner than hypomania/manic episodes. However, some studies from tropical countries including India suggest that the patients experience a greater proportion of manic episodes than depressive episodes. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of BD type 1 (BD I) in a sample of hospitalized Indian subjects. We examined the clinical course of 285 BD I subjects with at least 5 years of illness using standard life charting method. These subjects were hospitalized between October 2010 and October 2012. The predominant polarity (having at least two-thirds of their lifetime episodes at one polarity) was mania (79%). Unipolar mania (≥ 3 mania episodes and no episodes of depression) was observed in 48% of the subjects. The frequency of rapid cycling course was noted in 2.5% of the subjects. Predominant manic polarity group had the illness onset mostly with a manic episode (88.9%) and the predominant depressive polarity group with a depressive episode (73.8%). Mania was the predominant polarity with a high rate of unipolar mania and a majority of the subjects had greater number of manic episodes than depressive/mixed episodes. The onset polarity determined the predominant polarity during the course of illness. Predominantly, mania course could have significant implications in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
Misra, Sahana; Ganzini, Linda
Experts have debated the influence of mental illness on decision-making capacity. This paper reviews concepts of decision-making capacity and existing research on the influence of mental illness on capacity to consent to research. We propose how bipolar disorder, especially mania, may have an effect on consent capacity. The current conceptualization of capacity utilizes legal standards of 'choice', 'understanding', 'appreciation' and 'rational reasoning', as well as voluntarism, or the assurance that the patient is free to agree or to decline to participate in research. Studies of patients with schizophrenia suggest impaired cognition influences 'understanding' and is more important than severity of psychosis in affecting decision-making abilities. There are no studies of sources and extent of impairment to consent to research among manic patients. Mania may influence a patient's understanding of the research protocol, but also alter the patient's views, values and level of insight, thus impairing decision-making abilities at the 'appreciation' standard even when the patient understands the relevant information. Mania may impact freedom to decide, yet paradoxically, manic patients may be less influenced by others and less vulnerable to coercion, undue influence and undue incentives compared to patients without mental illness. We suggest that in patients with mood disorders, the legal standard of appreciation be thoroughly probed during the consent procedure. Studies of the effect of mania and depression on consent capacity and voluntarism are needed in order to develop processes that increase safeguards in the informed consent process.
Joe, Soohyun; Joo, Yeonho
Bipolar patients often experience subjective symptoms even if they do not have active psychotic symptoms in their euthymic state. Most studies about subjective symptoms are conducted in schizophrenia, and there are few studies involving bipolar patients. We examined the nature of the subjective symptoms of bipolar patients in their euthymic state, and we also compared it to that of schizophrenia and normal control. Thirty bipolar patients, 25 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 normal control subjects were included. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (K-FBF) and the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL90-R). Euthymic state was confirmed by assessing objective psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). K-FBF score was significantly higher in bipolar patients than in normal controls, but similar to that in schizophrenia patients (F=5.86, p=0.004, R2=2033.6). In contrast, SCL90-R scores did not differ significantly among the three groups. Euthymic bipolar patients experience subjective symptoms that are more confined to cognitive domain. This finding supports the hypothesis that subtle cognitive impairments persists in euthymic bipolar patients. PMID:18303193
Kim, Sung Hwa; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang
The ability to accurately perceive dominance in the social hierarchy is important for successful social interactions. However, little is known about dominance perception of emotional stimuli in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of social dominance in patients with bipolar I disorder in response to six facial emotional expressions. Participants included 35 euthymic patients and 45 healthy controls. Bipolar patients showed a lower perception of social dominance based on anger, disgust, fear, and neutral facial emotional expressions compared to healthy controls. A negative correlation was observed between motivation to pursue goals or residual manic symptoms and perceived dominance of negative facial emotions such as anger, disgust, and fear in bipolar patients. These results suggest that bipolar patients have an altered perception of social dominance that might result in poor interpersonal functioning. Training of appropriate dominance perception using various emotional stimuli may be helpful in improving social relationships for individuals with bipolar disorder.
Hughes, Tom; Cardno, Alastair; West, Robert; Marino-Francis, Federica; Featherstone, Imogen; Rolling, Keeley; Locker, Alice; McLintock, Kate; House, Allan
Bipolar disorder is not uncommon, is associated with high disability and risk of suicide, often presents with depression, and can go unrecognised. To determine the prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder among those prescribed antidepressants for depressive or anxiety disorder in UK primary care; whether those with unrecognised bipolar disorder have more severe depression than those who do not; and the accuracy of a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), in this setting. Observational primary care study of patients on the lists of 21 general practices in West Yorkshire aged 16-40 years and prescribed antidepressant medication. Participants were recruited using primary care databases, interviewed using a diagnostic interview, and completed the screening questionnaire and rating scales of symptoms and quality of life. The prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder was 7.3%. Adjusting for differences between the sample and a national database gives a prevalence of 10.0%. Those with unrecognised bipolar disorder were younger and had greater lifetime depression. The predictive value of the MDQ was poor. Among people aged 16-40 years prescribed antidepressants in primary care for depression or anxiety, there is a substantial proportion with unrecognised bipolar disorder. When seeing patients with depression or anxiety disorder, particularly when they are young or not doing well, clinicians should review the life history for evidence of unrecognised bipolar disorder. Some clinicians might find the MDQ to be a useful supplement to non-standardised questioning. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Hughes, Tom; Cardno, Alastair; West, Robert; Marino-Francis, Federica; Featherstone, Imogen; Rolling, Keeley; Locker, Alice; McLintock, Kate; House, Allan
Background Bipolar disorder is not uncommon, is associated with high disability and risk of suicide, often presents with depression, and can go unrecognised. Aim To determine the prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder among those prescribed antidepressants for depressive or anxiety disorder in UK primary care; whether those with unrecognised bipolar disorder have more severe depression than those who do not; and the accuracy of a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), in this setting. Design and setting Observational primary care study of patients on the lists of 21 general practices in West Yorkshire aged 16–40 years and prescribed antidepressant medication. Method Participants were recruited using primary care databases, interviewed using a diagnostic interview, and completed the screening questionnaire and rating scales of symptoms and quality of life. Results The prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder was 7.3%. Adjusting for differences between the sample and a national database gives a prevalence of 10.0%. Those with unrecognised bipolar disorder were younger and had greater lifetime depression. The predictive value of the MDQ was poor. Conclusion Among people aged 16–40 years prescribed antidepressants in primary care for depression or anxiety, there is a substantial proportion with unrecognised bipolar disorder. When seeing patients with depression or anxiety disorder, particularly when they are young or not doing well, clinicians should review the life history for evidence of unrecognised bipolar disorder. Some clinicians might find the MDQ to be a useful supplement to non-standardised questioning. PMID:26740604
Olsson, Sara K.; Samuelsson, Martin; Saetre, Peter; Lindström, Leif; Jönsson, Erik G.; Nordin, Conny; Engberg, Göran; Erhardt, Sophie; Landén, Mikael
Background Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). This astrocyte-derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive function. We measured the levels of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers to investigate the putative involvement of KYNA in bipolar disorder. Methods We obtained CSF by lumbar puncture from 23 healthy men and 31 euthymic men with bipolar disorder. We analyzed the samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Patients with bipolar disorder had increased levels of KYNA in their CSF compared with healthy volunteers (1.71 nM, standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.13 v. 1.13 nM, SEM 0.09; p = 0.002. The levels of KYNA were positively correlated with age among bipolar patients but not healthy volunteers. Limitations The influence of ongoing drug treatment among patients cannot be ruled out. We conducted our study during the euthymic phase of the disease. Conclusion Brain KYNA levels are increased in euthymic men with bipolar disorder. In addition, KYNA levels increased with age in these patients. These findings indicate shared mechanisms between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Elevated levels of brain KYNA may provide further insight to the pathophysiology and progression of bipolar disorder. PMID:20420770
Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph W; Hellemann, Gerhard; Frye, Mark A; Sugar, Catherine A; McElroy, Susan L; Nolen, Willem A; Grunze, Heinz; Leverich, Gabriele S; Keck, Paul E; Zermeno, Melanie; Post, Robert M; Suppes, Trisha
The authors assessed gender differences in the proportion of clinical visits spent depressed, manic, or euthymic in patients with bipolar disorder. Data were analyzed from 711 patients with bipolar I or II disorder who were followed prospectively over 7 years (13,191 visits). The main outcome measures were the presence of symptoms of depression or of hypomania or mania, measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using three separate repeated-measures regressions with a logistic link function to model the probability that an individual was depressed, manic, or euthymic. The models controlled for bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis, rapid cycling, age, time in the study, comorbid anxiety disorders, and comorbid substance use disorders. In approximately half of visits, patients had depressive, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly greater for women than for men. This was accounted for by higher rates in women of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders, each of which was associated with increased rates of depression. All patient groups showed an increase in number of euthymic visits and a decrease in number of visits with depressive and manic symptoms with increased time in study. Bipolar patients spend a substantial proportion of their time ill. Significant gender differences exist, with women spending a greater proportion of their visits in the depressive pole. This finding appears to be related to the corresponding differences in rates of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders.
Passos, Ives C; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de A; Colpo, Gabriela D; Zeni, Cristian P; Quevedo, Joao; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Zunta-Soares, Giovanna; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio
To assess clinical outcomes associated with the presence of a lifetime history of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder in subjects with bipolar disorder. This cross-sectional study of 284 subjects with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) assessed the association between lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV) and clinical characteristics. Participants were included from January 2006 to June 2009. We assessed age at onset, number of mood episodes, presence of rapid cycling, first drug use, suicide attempts, hospitalizations, functional impairment, and quality of life. Diagnostic, clinical, and functional assessments were carried out using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, patient edition (SCID-I/P), the Functioning Assessment Short Test, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. The number of manic episodes as assessed by SCID-I/P was the primary outcome. The prevalence of lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was 19.7% (56 subjects). Subjects with bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder had an accelerated course of illness, with a lower age at onset of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .009) and earlier initiation of illicit drug use (P = .008). In addition, they were more likely to be younger when they received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (P = .036) and had a higher number of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .01). Quality of life was worse in all domains among subjects who presented the comorbidity, and rates of functional impairment were higher. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with increased morbidity and accelerated illness progression among subjects with bipolar disorder. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Clark, Crystal T.; Klein, Autumn M.; Perel, James M.; Helsel, Joseph; Wisner, Katherine L.
Objective Little information is available on the need for dosage changes for lamotrigine in pregnant women with bipolar disorder. The authors present new data on serial serum levels of lamotrigine in pregnant patients on lamotrigine monotherapy. They also review the epilepsy literature on use of lamotrigine during pregnancy. Method Lamotrigine serum samples were obtained from eight mother-infant pairs at different time points during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Results All of the women were taking lamotrigine throughout pregnancy. Serum-level-to-dose ratios were lower during pregnancy than the postpartum period. Lamotrigine was taken once daily in doses ranging from 100 mg to 300 mg. Three patients had an increase of 50 mg to their daily dose across pregnancy. The change in serum lamotrigine levels in the postpartum period ranged from a 30% decrease to a 640% increase compared with the first level obtained during pregnancy. Level-to-dose ratios obtained within 4 weeks after delivery reflected a mean level 402% greater than the baseline level during gestation. Compared with the third trimester, lamotrigine serum concentration increased an average of 154% within 5 weeks after delivery. The most dramatic increase in lamotrigine serum level early after delivery occurred at 1.5 weeks. The mean infant cord level was 66% of the maternal serum level at delivery. The mean breast-fed infant serum level was 32.5% of the maternal serum levels. Conclusions The pattern of lamotrigine changes during pregnancy in these women with bipolar disorder was consistent with that described in the epilepsy literature. PMID:24185239
Mertens, Jerome; Wang, Qiu-Wen; Kim, Yongsung; Yu, Diana X; Pham, Son; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Yi; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E; Zhang, Jian; Soltani, Sheila; Eames, Tameji; Schafer, Simon T; Boyer, Leah; Marchetto, Maria C; Nurnberger, John I; Calabrese, Joseph R; Ødegaard, Ketil J; McCarthy, Michael J; Zandi, Peter P; Alda, Martin; Alba, Martin; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mi, Shuangli; Brennand, Kristen J; Kelsoe, John R; Gage, Fred H; Yao, Jun
Bipolar disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by intermittent episodes of mania and depression; without treatment, 15% of patients commit suicide. Hence, it has been ranked by the World Health Organization as a top disorder of morbidity and lost productivity. Previous neuropathological studies have revealed a series of alterations in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder or animal models, such as reduced glial cell number in the prefrontal cortex of patients, upregulated activities of the protein kinase A and C pathways and changes in neurotransmission. However, the roles and causation of these changes in bipolar disorder have been too complex to exactly determine the pathology of the disease. Furthermore, although some patients show remarkable improvement with lithium treatment for yet unknown reasons, others are refractory to lithium treatment. Therefore, developing an accurate and powerful biological model for bipolar disorder has been a challenge. The introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC) technology has provided a new approach. Here we have developed an iPSC model for human bipolar disorder and investigated the cellular phenotypes of hippocampal dentate gyrus-like neurons derived from iPSCs of patients with bipolar disorder. Guided by RNA sequencing expression profiling, we have detected mitochondrial abnormalities in young neurons from patients with bipolar disorder by using mitochondrial assays; in addition, using both patch-clamp recording and somatic Ca(2+) imaging, we have observed hyperactive action-potential firing. This hyperexcitability phenotype of young neurons in bipolar disorder was selectively reversed by lithium treatment only in neurons derived from patients who also responded to lithium treatment. Therefore, hyperexcitability is one early endophenotype of bipolar disorder, and our model of iPSCs in this disease might be useful in developing new therapies and drugs aimed at its clinical
Mertens, Jerome; Wang, Qiu-Wen; Kim, Yongsung; Yu, Diana X.; Pham, Son; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Yi; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E.; Zhang, Jian; Soltani, Sheila; Eames, Tameji; Schafer, Simon T.; Boyer, Leah; Marchetto, Maria C.; Nurnberger, John I.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; McCarthy, Michael J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Alda, Martin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Mi, Shuangli; Brennand, Kristen J.; Kelsoe, John R.; Gage, Fred H.; Yao, Jun
Bipolar disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by intermittent episodes of mania and depression; without treatment, 15% of patients commit suicide1. Hence, it has been ranked by the World Health Organization as a top disorder of morbidity and lost productivity2. Previous neuropathological studies have revealed a series of alterations in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder or animal models3, such as reduced glial cell number in the prefrontal cortex of patients4, upregulated activities of the protein kinase A and C pathways5–7 and changes in neurotransmission8–11. However, the roles and causation of these changes in bipolar disorder have been too complex to exactly determine the pathology of the disease. Furthermore, although some patients show remarkable improvement with lithium treatment for yet unknown reasons, others are refractory to lithium treatment. Therefore, developing an accurate and powerful biological model for bipolar disorder has been a challenge. The introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC) technology has provided a new approach. Here we have developed an iPSC model for human bipolar disorder and investigated the cellular phenotypes of hippocampal dentate gyrus-like neurons derived from iPSCs of patients with bipolar disorder. Guided by RNA sequencing expression profiling, we have detected mitochondrial abnormalities in young neurons from patients with bipolar disorder by using mitochondrial assays; in addition, using both patch-clamp recording and somatic Ca2+ imaging, we have observed hyperactive action-potential firing. This hyperexcitability phenotype of young neurons in bipolar disorder was selectively reversed by lithium treatment only in neurons derived from patients who also responded to lithium treatment. Therefore, hyperexcitability is one early endophenotype of bipolar disorder, and our model of iPSCs in this disease might be useful in developing new therapies and drugs aimed at its
Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Yw; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Del Zompo, Maria; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Girish; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W; Lund, Anne Hvenegaard; Misiak, Blazej; Monteith, Scott; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nakanotani, Takako; Nielsen, René E; O'Donovan, Claire; Okamura, Yasushi; Osher, Yamima; Piotrowski, Patryk; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Sawchuk, Brett; Schwartz, Elon; Scippa, Ângela M; Slaney, Claire; Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Suominen, Kirsi; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Tam, Peter; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Vieta, Eduard; Vinberg, Maj; Viswanath, Biju; Volkert, Julia; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael
There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder who use the Internet is about the same as the general public. Other information sources remain important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects aged ≥18 years from the National Health Research Institute database in the year 2005. Subjects with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2005 were identified. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chronic liver disease were also defined. We compared the prevalence and associated factors of chronic liver disease between patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. We also compared the incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder (13.9%) was 2.68 times higher than that of the general population (5.8%) in 2005. The average annual incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder from 2006 to 2010 was also higher than that of the general population (2.95% vs. 1.73%; risk ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.01). Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease than those in the general population, and younger patients with bipolar disorder have a much higher prevalence and incidence than those in the general population. Male sex, second-generation antipsychotic or antidepressant use, and hyperlipidemia were associated factors for chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bauer, Rita; Gottfriedsen, Grit-Urte; Binder, Harald; Dobmeier, Matthias; Cording, Clemens; Hajak, Göran; Spiessl, Hermann
Thirty-two problem-oriented interviews with caregivers of patients with bipolar affective disorders were analyzed using content analysis. The 722 statements of caregivers about their experiences of subjective burden because of the illness of their family members were summarized in 49 global statements and correlated by factor analysis to 10 types of burden. In particular, patients' noncompliance as well as the helplessness of the caregivers in interaction with the (changing) depressive and manic symptoms of the ill family members emerged as serious burdens on the caregivers. Whereas female caregivers suffered more from problems regarding quality of relationship with the patient, male caregivers experienced more constraints on their own autonomy, uncertainty concerning their judgment of patients' capacity, and uncertainty because of the changing symptoms of illness. The findings of this study highlight that an appreciation of caregivers' own consternation and information about how best to handle the (uncooperative) behavior of the patient should be taken into account in psychoeducational groups as well as in the daily work routine of professionals. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Swaminathan, Shanker; Koller, Daniel L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Xuei, Xiaoling; Niculescu, Alexander B; Nurnberger, John I
Bipolar disorder co-occurs with a number of disorders with externalizing features. The aim of this study is to determine whether Bipolar I (BPI) subjects with comorbid externalizing disorders and a subgroup with externalizing symptoms prior to age 15 have different clinical features than those without externalizing disorders and whether these could be attributed to specific genetic variations. A large cohort (N=2505) of Bipolar I subjects was analyzed. Course of illness parameters were compared between an Externalizing Group, an Early-Onset Subgroup and a Non-Externalizing Group in the Discovery sample (N=1268). Findings were validated using an independent set of 1237 BPI subjects (Validation sample). Genetic analyses were carried out. Subjects in the Externalizing Group (and Early-Onset Subgroup) tended to have a more severe clinical course, even in areas specifically related to mood disorder such as cycling frequency and rapid mood switching. Regression analysis showed that the differences are not completely explainable by substance use. Genetic analyses identified nominally associated SNPs; calcium channel genes were not enriched in the gene variants identified. Validation in independent samples is needed to confirm the genetic findings in the present study. Our findings support the presence of an externalizing disorder subphenotype within BPI with greater severity of mood disorder and possible specific genetic features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj
Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that
Lin, Herng-Ching; Xirasagar, Sudha; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Huang, Chung-Chien; Chen, Chao-Hung
Associations of hepatitis C virus infection with Alzheimer's disease have not been studied among higher risk, bipolar disorder patients. This population-based case-control study investigated the risks of hepatitis C virus infection among Alzheimer's disease patients with bipolar disorder in the years preceding their Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. We used 2000-2013 data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Among patients with bipolar disorder, 73 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (cases), who were compared with 365 individuals with bipolar disorder but without Alzheimer's disease (randomly selected controls matched on sex, age, and index year with cases). Prior claims (before the diagnosis year/index year for controls) were screened for a diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. Conditional logistic regression models were used for analysis. We found that 23 (31.51%) and 60 (16.44%) patients with bipolar disease were identified with a hepatitis C diagnosis among those with and without Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Compared to controls, patients with Alzheimer's disease showed 2.31-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.28-4.16) increased risk of hepatitis C infections adjusted for demographics and socio-economic status. Findings suggest an association of Alzheimer's disease with a preceding diagnosis of hepatitis C infection among patients with bipolar disorder. Findings may suggest a need for increased awareness of and appropriate surveillance for Alzheimer's disease in patients with bipolar disorder diagnosed with hepatitis C infection.
Døssing, Marianne; Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Svejstrup, Stinna Rzepa; Sørensen, Vegard Venås; Straarup, Krista Nielsen; Hansen, Tia B
Emerging research suggests that low self-compassion may be linked to psychopathology and in particular depressive symptoms. To further elucidate this topic, the present study investigated self-compassion in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Thirty remitted BD patients were compared to thirty age- and sex matched controls on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The BD patients also completed the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI-10) and further reported their illness history on a survey sheet. The BD patients were found to have significantly lower self-compassion than controls. In addition, self-compassion correlated positively and significantly with life-satisfaction but no significant correlations with functional impairment, internalized stigma or frequency of past affective episodes were found. The small sample size entailed reduced statistical power. By suggesting that self-compassion is reduced and possibly linked to life-satisfaction in BD, the findings highlight a potential vulnerability meriting further investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal
Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.
Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Fagiolini, Andrea; Pitman, Roger; McNally, Richard J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Miyahara, Sachicko; Sachs, Gary S; Perlman, Carol; Ghaemi, S Nassir; Thase, Michael E; Otto, Michael W
We examined the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following indirect exposure to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in a cohort at high risk for adverse trauma-related sequelae as a result of having bipolar disorder. Subjects (N = 137) were participants in the ongoing, naturalistic, longitudinal study Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) prior to September 11, 2001. The present study examined prospectively collected pre-event information about bipolar disorder and other potential predictors of PTSD, along with assessment of the level of indirect trauma exposure (i.e., via media) and peritraumatic distress in the aftermath of September 11, and their association with 9/11-related, new-onset PTSD as assessed by a self-report measure, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Posttrauma assessments were completed a mean +/- SD of 430.6 +/- 78.7 days (range, 0.5-1.5 years) after September 11. Twenty percent (N = 27) of patients reported development of new-onset PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks. Rates of PTSD were significantly associated with the presence of a hypomanic, manic, or mixed mood state at the time of trauma (chi(2) = 4.25; p < .05); 62% of patients in these states developed PTSD. Mania/hypomania remained a significant predictor of PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks after controlling for peritraumatic exposure and distress variables, suggestive of a substantial increase in risk compared with those in recovery (OR = 17; 95% CI = 2.6 to 115.6; p = .0034). Rates of persistent new-onset PTSD among bipolar patients were elevated in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Our findings suggest that the presence of a manic state may be the most critical risk factor for adverse sequelae following indirect traumatic exposure in bipolar individuals.
Samalin, Ludovic; Bellivier, Frank; Giordana, Bruno; Yon, Liova; Milhiet, Vanessa; El-Hage, Wissam; Courtet, Philippe; Hacques, Evguenia; Bedira, Nabil; Dillenschneider, Anne; Llorca, Pierre Michel
Euthymic bipolar patients are often impacted by residual symptoms (RSs) that increase the risk of relapse or low functioning. We aimed to identify the perceptions of RSs, barriers to management, and service needs in euthymic bipolar patients. A qualitative methodology (focus group) was used. The interviews were investigated using a semistructured guide, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Twenty-three bipolar patients expressed concern about several RSs, such as emotional dysregulation, circadian rhythm disruption, cognitive impairment, low self-esteem, and physical symptoms. They reported concern about the impact of RSs on their functioning and about the need for more systematic assessment of RSs during interepisode visits. Selection bias may have occurred because the recruitment was limited to France and there may be cultural differences in the perceptions of RSs. Bipolar patients experienced bipolar disorder as a chronic disorder because they frequently continued to suffer from RSs associated with a functional impact.
Weinstock, Lauren M.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Solomon, David A.; Miller, Ivan W.
Within a sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD; n = 69), the authors examined (a) diagnostic differences in family functioning at acute episode, (b) diagnostic differences in family functioning at episode recovery, (c) within-group changes in family functioning from acute episode to…
Sajatovic, Martha; DiBiasi, Faith; Legacy, Susan N
Introduction Antipsychotics are recommended as first-line therapy for acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder; however, published literature suggests their real-world use remains limited. Understanding attitudes toward these medications may help identify barriers and inform personalized therapy. This literature review evaluated patient and clinician attitudes toward the use of antipsychotics for treating bipolar disorder. Materials and methods A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews identified English language articles published between January 1, 2000, and June 15, 2016, that reported attitudinal data from patients, health care professionals, or caregivers; treatment decision-making; or patient characteristics that predicted antipsychotic use for bipolar disorder. Results were analyzed descriptively. Results Of the 209 references identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. These articles provided attitudinal information from 1,418 patients with bipolar disorder and 1,282 treating clinicians. Patients’ attitudes toward antipsychotics were generally positive. Longer duration of clinical stability was associated with positive attitudes. Implementation of psychoeducational and adherence enhancement strategies could improve patient attitudes. Limited data suggest clinicians’ perceptions of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability may have the greatest impact on their prescribing patterns. Because the current real-world evidence base is inadequate, clinician attitudes may reflect a relative lack of experience using antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusion Although data are very limited, perceived tolerability and efficacy concerns shape both patient and clinician attitudes toward use of antipsychotic drugs in bipolar disorder. Additional studies are warranted.
Eddahby, S; Kadri, N; Moussaoui, D
Fasting during the Ramadan month is a cornerstone of Islam. Several disorders of the chronobiological rhythms occur during this month and impact on mood. Through this paper the authors provide a literature review of the impact of fasting on patients with bipolar disorders. A literature review using Mesh keywords through Medline database. From 1970 to 2011, articles in French and English were selected. Circadian rhythm refers to the approximately 24-hour cycles that are generated by an organism. Most physiological systems demonstrate circadian variations. Many hormones and other metabolisms, such as gastric pH, insulin, glucose, calcium and plasmatic gastrine, have been shown to exhibit circadian oscillation. The role of social rhythm in behaviors and its influence on circadian rhythms in humans is now obvious. It has been shown that the lack of concentration and irritability increased continuously during Ramadan month and reached its peak at the end of the month. Mood and vigilance are significantly decreased during the fasting month. Several authors have stated that the course of bipolar illness may be affected by the changes in social rhythm that occur during Ramadan (fasting month). Studies which have been devoted to this topic are sparse. Kadri et al., in 2000, studied 20 bipolar patients during the fasting month of Ramadan of 1417 (Hegirian calendar, corresponding to January 1997). Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was made according to ICD-10 criteria. Patients were assessed during the week before Ramadan, the second and the fourth weeks of the fasting month and the first week after its end, with the Hamilton Depression and Bech-Rafaelsen scales. The plasma concentration of lithium was also assessed. The main finding of the study was that 45% of the patients relapsed, 70% during the second week, and the remaining patients at the end of Ramadan. These relapses were not related to plasma concentration of lithium. Most of the relapses were manic (71
Kurdal, Ebru; Tanriverdi, Derya; Savas, Haluk Asuman
Bipolar disorder has adverse effects on the lives of the individuals and the people around them and causes disability due to impaired social and occupational functioning, risk of suicide, and frequent relapses. This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychoeducation on the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 80 patients were assigned to either the experimental (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). The data were collected using a questionnaire form, and the Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire. The experimental group scored significantly higher on the functioning levels (emotional functioning, intellectual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relations, relations with friends, participating in social activities, daily activities and recreational activities, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation) (p < .05) compared with the control group after psychoeducation. Psychoeducation has become considerably effective in increasing the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder.
Sarısoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Omer Faruk; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Oztürk, Arif; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Kocamanoğlu, Birsen; Böke, Omer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat
This study was intended to investigate temperament and character traits in bipolar disorder patients with or without a history of attempted suicide. One hundred nineteen patients diagnosed with euthymic bipolar disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and with no accompanying Axis I and II comorbidity, and 103 healthy controls were included. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I and II disorders were used to exclude Axis I and II comorbidity. Temperament and character traits of bipolar patients with a history attempted suicide (25.2%, n = 30) or without (74.8%, n = 89) and of the healthy volunteers were determined using the Temperament and Character Inventory. The association between current suicide ideation and temperament and character traits was also examined. Bipolar patients with or without a history of attempted suicide had higher harm avoidance (HA) scores compared with the healthy controls. Persistence scores of bipolar patients with no history of attempted suicide were lower than those of the healthy controls. Self-directedness (SD) scores of the bipolar patients with a history of attempted suicide were lower than those of patients with no such history. Self-transcendence scores of bipolar patients with no history of attempted suicide were lower than those of both the healthy controls and of those patients with a history of attempted suicide. A positive correlation was determined between current suicidal ideation scale scores and HA, and a negative correlation between SD and cooperativeness was determined. High harm avoidance may be a temperament trait specific to bipolar disorder patients. However, it may not be correlated with attempted suicide in such patients. These may have low persistence, high SD and low self-transcendence temperament and character traits that protect against attempted suicide. Harm avoidance, SD
Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio
Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.
BERKOL, Tonguç Demir; YARGIÇ, İlhan; ÖZYILDIRIM, İlker; YAZICI, Olcay
Introduction The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity in bipolar patients and to investigate the influence of this comorbidity on the clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD). Method A total of 135 patients with BD type I and II and BD not otherwise specified were included in this study. First, the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (ADHD scale) was administered to all patients, and all of the patients were also interviewed for the diagnosis. Patients who were diagnosed as having ADHD comorbidity (n=23) on the basis of DSM-IV and those who were not diagnosed to have ADHD comorbidity (n=32) were compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Results Twenty-three of 135 patients (17%) were found to have ADHD comorbidity. In the ADHD comorbidity group, the level of education and the number of suicide attempts were higher (p=.011 and .043, respectively). Although not significant, subthreshold depressive symptoms in interepisodic periods, the lifetime history of antidepressant use and the total number of lifetime depressive episodes tended to be more frequent in bipolar disorder with ADHD comorbidity group than in the control group. Conclusion Bipolar disorder has a frequent comorbidity with ADHD, and contrary to expectations, it might be related to the depressive aspect, rather than the manic aspect, of bipolar disorder. Early diagnosis of ADHD comorbidity in bipolar patients might help to prevent serious risk factors.
Inoue, Takeshi; Inagaki, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Toshifumi; Shirakawa, Osamu
For patients with a major depressive episode, early differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and subsequent appropriate treatment are critical. This study, conducted in clinical settings in Japan, examined patients with a major depressive episode to investigate the prevalence and predictors of bipolar disorders. A total of 448 patients with a major depressive episode were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine the presence of mood episodes and psychiatric comorbidities. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder was based on the collected information according to the DSM-IV-TR. Of the 448 patients with a major depressive episode, 114 patients (25.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Multivariate logistic regression identified five predictors that were significantly correlated with bipolar disorder: antidepressant-related switch to mania/hypomania, mixed depression, two or more previous mood episodes within the past year, early age at the onset of a major depressive episode (<25 years), and a history of suicide attempts. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis based on the multivariate logistic regression of the five predictors was 0.849. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder in patients was already conclusively confirmed by long illness observations but was not confirmed by a prospective study. In patients with a major depressive episode, the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, which exhibit similar depressive symptoms, is essential. Several predictors identified in the present study may be useful in supporting a differential diagnosis of these disorders in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Graff, Fiona S.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Weiss, Roger D.
Objective Bipolar and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Integrated treatment for these disorders has been shown to be effective at reducing substance use, but no study has examined attrition from dual diagnosis group therapy. The current study identified baseline demographic and clinical characteristics that predict treatment dropout among patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Method Using binary and multivariate analyses, baseline data were analyzed as part of a randomized controlled trial of integrated group therapy for bipolar and substance use disorders. Results Cigarette smoking, recent mood episode, and lack of a college education were strong predictors of dropout after controlling for demographic and substance use variables. Conclusions Given the strength of smoking as a predictor of dropout as well as the high rate of smoking among this population, a greater focus on the relationship between smoking and bipolar disorder is warranted. PMID:18162331
Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N
Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes.
Ozyildirim, I; Cakir, S; Yazici, O
In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical features and response patterns to the long-term prophylaxis of bipolar patients with or without psychotic features. The life charts of patients with bipolar I disorder were evaluated. Two hundred and eighty-one patients who suffer with bipolar disorder for at least 4 years and who had at least three mood episodes were included to the study. The patients whose all episodes are psychotic (psychotic group) and the patients who never experienced psychotic episode (non-psychotic group) were assigned as comparison groups. The clinical features and the response to long-term prophylaxis were compared across the groups. The psychotic group consists of 43 patients; non-psychotic group consists of 54 patients. The history of bipolar disorder among the first-degree relatives was remarkably more prevalent in non-psychotic group (p=0.032). The predominance of manic/hypomanic episodes was significantly higher in psychotic group than non-psychotic group; and the rate of depressive episodes were higher in non-psychotic group than psychotic group (p=0.013). Episodes were more severe (p<0.001) and hospitalization rates were higher (p=0.023) in psychotic group. The response to lithium monotherapy was better in non-psychotic group (p<0.001). The well identified psychotic subtype of bipolar patients may give important predictions about long term course and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea
Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255
Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Ociskova, Marie; Sedlackova, Zuzana
Despite pharmacological treatment of bipolar affective disorder has many advantages; only drug treatment remains insufficiently beneficial to many patients. The combination of pharmacotherapy and internet psychoeducation seems to be the effective way how to improve remission. Internet-based therapy programs offer an exclusive chance for large underserved parts of the population to make evidence-based treatment without the need of full-time therapist. Our goal was to create a psychoeducational program for patients suffering from bipolar disorder that can be used in Czech Republic. There were identified studies through Web of Science, PUBMED, and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews were used in development of comprehensive internet psychoeducational program for patients with bipolar disorder. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", and "internet psychoeducation". The search was performed with no language or time restrictions. The internet psychoeducational program was developed in accordance to the data from the literature review. The aim of the Internet psychoeducational program of the Department of Psychiatry University Hospital in Olomouc is to familiarize patients with the fundamental nature of bipolar affective disorder, the character and principles of pharmacotherapy, the recognition of the warning signs of relapse, inappropriate and stressful stereotypes in communication within families, and finally the practice of social skills. Information from studies can help to prepare comprehensive psychoeducational program for bipolar patients.
The needs and expectations of patients with bipolar disorder who require hospitalisation are not known to most professionals. A high degree of patient satisfaction, however, is known to improve outcome and adherence to a medication or psychotherapy regimen. In this article, bipolar patients' needs and expectations with respect to hospital treatment are presented. It will become obvious, that the gap between wishful thinking and reality is still wide. Possible improvement strategies to narrow this gap are discussed.
Salehi, Bahman; Khoz, Sara; Sadeghi, Bahman; Amanat, Manouchehr; Salehi, Mona
The purpose of this research is genealogy examination of three generation of bipolar mood disorder Type I patients. Patients selected using Poisson sampling method from 100 patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I, referring to a psychiatric center of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran. Examine issues such as physical ailments, psychological review of living and deceased family members of each patient, drawn family pedigree using pedigree chart, check the relationship of the different pattern of the autosomal dominant and recessive disease, sex-linked dominant and recessive and linked to Y chromosome have been performed on patients. Different methods used in this study are pedigree chart and young mania rating scale and SPSS and Pearson's correlation test for analyzing the data collected. Among the studied inheritance patterns, the most common inheritance pattern was autosomal recessive. There was a significant relationship between age, number of generation, and inheritance patterns with physical ailments in families of patients with bipolar mood disorder (P < 0.05), but there was no significant association with mental illness (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between generation and skin, gastrointestinal, ovarian, lung, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), hyperlipidemia, cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease in patients with bipolar affective disorder Type I (P < 0.05). The results showed that autosomal recessive was the most pattern of inheritance and there is a significant relationship between generation and some physical disorders in patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I.
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326
Hamilton, Jane E; Passos, Ives C; de Azevedo Cardoso, Taiane; Jansen, Karen; Allen, Melissa; Begley, Charles E; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio
Even with treatment, approximately one-third of patients with bipolar disorder relapse into depression or mania within 1 year. Unfavorable clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder include increased rates of psychiatric hospitalization and functional impairment. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of psychiatric hospital readmission in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of psychiatric readmission within 30 days, 90 days and 1 year of discharge among patients with bipolar disorder using a conceptual model adapted from Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. In this retrospective study, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted in a sample of 2443 adult patients with bipolar disorder who were consecutively admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in the United States from 1 January to 31 December 2013. In the multivariate models, several enabling and need factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of readmission across all time periods examined, including being uninsured, having ⩾3 psychiatric hospitalizations and having a lower Global Assessment of Functioning score. Additional factors associated with psychiatric readmission within 30 and 90 days of discharge included patient homelessness. Patient race/ethnicity, bipolar disorder type or a current manic episode did not significantly predict readmission across all time periods examined; however, patients who were male were more likely to readmit within 1 year. The 30-day and 1-year multivariate models showed the best model fit. Our study found enabling and need factors to be the strongest predictors of psychiatric readmission, suggesting that the prevention of psychiatric readmission for patients with bipolar disorder at safety-net hospitals may be best achieved by developing and implementing innovative transitional care initiatives that address the issues
Lee, Kyung-Sang; Park, Young-Min
Objective The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is suggested to be a marker of serotonin system function. This study explored the LDAEP of multiple mood statuses (depression, mania, and euthymia) and its clinical implication in bipolar disorder patients. Methods A total of 89 subjects, comprising 35 patients with bipolar disorder, 32 patients with schizophrenia, and 22 healthy controls were evaluated. The bipolar disorder cases comprised 10 depressed patients, 15 patients with mania, and 10 euthymic patients. The N1/P2 peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured at 5 stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the slope of the linear regression. Both cortical and source LDAEP values were calculated. Results LDAEP varied according to mood statuses, and was significantly stronger in cases of euthymia, depression, and mania. Cortical LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar depression than in schizophrenia, stronger in healthy controls than in schizophrenia patients, and stronger in healthy controls than in patients with bipolar mania. Source LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia, bipolar depression, and bipolar mania compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar euthymia than in bipolar mania. Psychotic features weakened the source LDAEP relative to nonpsychotic features. The severity of the depressive symptom was negatively correlated with source LDAEP. Conclusion These findings suggest that the serotonin activity of patients with bipolar disorder may vary according to mood status. A longitudinal follow-up study should be pursued using drug-naive subjects. PMID:22993531
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.
Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.
Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…
Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.
Objective Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Methods Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N=610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N=1591), and Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type (N=1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N=10065) using logistic regression. Results Among smokers (N=6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR=2.5; p<0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR=1.3; p=0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR=1.2; p=0.02). Conclusions Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. PMID:26467098
Schulte, P F J; Brand, H S
A bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by recurrent occurrences of manic, depressive or mixed episodes, separated by shorter or longer relatively symptom-free periods. In the Netherlands, the incidence of bipolar disorders is 1.9%. Bipolar disorders are usually treated with a combination of psycho-education, self-management and pharmacotherapy. Both the bipolar disorder and the drugs for treating this disorder have negative effects on oral health. Patients have, among other things, an increased risk of caries, xerostomia, taste abnormalities and bruxism. Extensive instruction in oral hygiene, supported frequently by professional oral health care, is therefore essential. Considering the possible interaction among different kinds of drugs, NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consulting the patient's psychiatrist.
Willert, Anna; Mohnke, Sebastian; Erk, Susanne; Schnell, Knut; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Quinlivan, Esther; Schreiter, Stefanie; Spengler, Stephanie; Herold, Dorrit; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Romund, Lydia; Garbusow, Maria; Lett, Tristram; Stamm, Thomas; Adli, Mazda; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Walter, Henrik
Behavioral deficits in the Theory of Mind (ToM) have been robustly demonstrated in bipolar disorder. These deficits may represent an intermediate phenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was: (i) to investigate alterations in neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, and (ii) to examine whether similar effects are present in unaffected relatives of patients with bipolar disorder suggesting that ToM functional activation may be, in part, due to genetic risk for the disease. A total of 24 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, 21 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 81 healthy controls completed a ToM task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed reduced bilateral activation of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and diminished functional fronto-temporoparietal connectivity in patients compared to controls. Relatives tended towards intermediate temporoparietal activity and functional coupling with medial prefrontal areas. There was also evidence for a potentially compensatory enhanced recruitment of the right middle temporal gyrus and stronger connectivity between this region and the medial prefrontal cortex in relatives. These findings provide further evidence of altered neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Further, our findings in relatives lend support to the idea that altered ToM processing may act as an intermediate phenotype of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jabben, Nienke; Arts, Baer; Jongen, Ellen M M; Smulders, Fren T Y; van Os, Jim; Krabbendam, Lydia
Research in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder is scarce and has provided mixed findings, possibly due to differences in current mood state. It is unclear whether alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes are only related to the depressive mood states of bipolar patients or also represent a vulnerability marker for the development of future (depressive) episodes. This was investigated in the current study. Both implicit (attentional bias for emotional words) and explicit (dysfunctional attitudes and personality characteristics) measures of cognitive processes and attitudes were assessed in 77 bipolar patients with varying levels of depressive symptoms (depressed=17, euthymic n=60), their healthy first-degree relatives (n=39) and a healthy control group (n=61). Analyses of variance were used to investigate differences between groups. Mildly depressed patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated an attentional bias away from positive emotional words and showed increased dysfunctional attitudes and higher levels of neuroticism. Euthymic patients were largely comparable to healthy controls and only differed from controls in higher levels of neuroticism. Relatives were similar to controls on all measures, although they significantly differed from bipolar patients in displaying less neuroticism and more extraversion. No firm conclusions regarding causality can be drawn from the associations that were found between cognitive processes and attitudes and the evolution of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. Alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar patients appear to be mostly related to the expression of mood symptomatology rather than to the vulnerability for bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Velartova, Hana
Provide an overview of how bipolar disorder affects cognitive function in patients. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles indexed by the combinations of MESH term or key word "bipolar disorder" with the following terms: "cognition", "memory", "neuropsychology", "neuropsychological tests", "lithium", "anticonvulsants", "antipsychotics", and "schizophrenia". Constraints limiting time period of publications or their language were not applied. Reference lists of publications identified by these procedures were hand-searched for additional relevant citations. There is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of bipolar disorder, including the remission phase, particularly in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions. But research on the cognitive functions has yielded inconsistent results over recent years. There is a growing need for clarification regarding the magnitude, clinical relevance and confounding variables of cognitive impairment in bipolar patients. The impact of bipolar illness on cognition can be influenced by age of onset, pharmacological treatments, individual response, familial risk factors, and clinical features. In addition to the mood state, cognitive performance in bipolar patients is influenced by seasonality. Previous optimistic assumptions about the prognosis of bipolar disorder were based on the success of the control of mood symptoms by pharmacotherapy. However, it is now clear that the "remitted" euthymic bipolar patients have distinct impairments of executive function, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning.
Voggt, A; Berger, M; Obermeier, M; Löw, A; Seemueller, F; Riedel, M; Moeller, H J; Zimmermann, R; Kirchberg, F; Von Schacky, C; Severus, E
Affective disorders are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which, at least partly, appears to be independent of psychopharmacological treatments used to manage these disorders. Reduced heart rate variability (SDNN) and a low Omega-3 Index have been shown to be associated with increased risk for death after myocardial infarction. Therefore, we set out to investigate heart rate variability and the Omega-3 Index in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders. We assessed heart rate variability (SDNN) and the Omega-3 Index in 90 euthymic, mostly medicated patients with bipolar disorders (Bipolar-I, Bipolar-II) on stable psychotropic medication, free of significant medical comorbidity and in 62 healthy controls. Heart rate variability was measured from electrocardiography under a standardized 30 minutes resting state condition. Age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and caffeine consumption as potential confounders were also assessed. Heart rate variability (SDNN) was significantly lower in patients with bipolar disorders compared to healthy controls (35.4 msec versus 60.7 msec; P<0.0001), whereas the Omega-3 Index did not differ significantly between the groups (5.2% versus 5.3%). In a linear regression model, only group membership (patients with bipolar disorders versus healthy controls) and age significantly predicted heart rate variability (SDNN). Heart rate variability (SDNN) may provide a useful tool to study the impact of interventions aimed at reducing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders. The difference in SDNN between cases and controls cannot be explained by a difference in the Omega-3 Index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
da Rosa, Maria Inês; Simon, Carla; Grande, Antonio Jose; Barichello, Tatiana; Oses, Jean Pierre; Quevedo, João
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania/hypomania, affecting more than 1% of the world population. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mostly produced and secreted by astrocytes in the CNS that participate in several cellular responses. Previous studies have shown that patients with bipolar disorder had higher peripheral S100B levels than healthy individuals, suggesting a potential role for S100B BD. In this study, a systematic and quantitative meta-analysis of studies S100B serum was performed according to the guidelines PRISMA-statement to confirm the increase of serum S100B in patients with manic bipolar disorder. We included in the meta-analysis two studies that reported the mean and standard deviation of serum S100B 52 patients manic BP and 52 control studies. Our results showed higher levels of S100B peripheral TB patients compared with healthy controls. In this meta-analysis, we found evidence that serum S100B are increased in patients with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, several studies have observed morphological abnormalities in the brains of bipolar disorder patients, changes in the peripheral S100B levels in mood disorders were described, and this protein could be a putative marker for damage to the brain. Thus, in this meta-analysis we have found evidence, based on two studies of 52 patients and 52 healthy controls, that the serum concentrations of S100B are increased in bipolar disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xiao, Lin; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Peiyun; Sun, Xiaojia
This study aimed to identify the relationship between cognitive function and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in the remission stage, by adopting disease-specific instruments. The remission stage was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMS). One hundred euthymic bipolar patients and 115 healthy controls completed the "cognitive complaints in bipolar disorder rating assessment"(COBRA), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), and "Brief version of Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder" (Bref QOL.BD), which were used to assess the subjective cognitive function, objective cognitive function, and QOL, respectively. Compared to the healthy controls, the patient group had significantly lower total scores on both MoCA and Brief QOL.BD, and higher total score of COBRA. After controlling the influence of mood symptoms (HAMD and BRMS), both objective (MoCA) and subjective (COBRA) cognitive function could predict QOL significantly when entered either separately or simultaneously into hierarchical multiple regression models. When entered simultaneously, cognitive function explained 21% of the variance in QOL. The findings indicated that both objective and subjective cognitive function could influence QOL in euthymic bipolar patients, so continuous cognitive-improving interventions could help euthymic bipolar patients improve their QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar
Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917
McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Winham, Stacey J; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Bobo, William V; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Mori, Nicole; Seymour, Lisa R; Bond, David J; Frye, Mark A
To determine prevalence rates and clinical correlates of current DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). Prevalence rates of current DSM-5- and DSM-IV-defined binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in 1092 patients with BP. Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with five proxy measures of BP illness severity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Twenty-seven percent of patients had a current DSM-5 eating disorder: 12% had BED, 15% had BN, and 0.2% had AN. Rates of DSM-5-defined BED and BN were higher than clinical diagnosis rates and rates of DSM-IV-defined BED and BN. Compared with BP patients without an eating disorder, BP patients with a DSM-5 eating disorder were younger and more likely to be women; had an earlier age of onset of BP; had higher EDDS composite scores and higher degrees of suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; and had a higher mean BMI, higher rate of obesity, and higher CIRS total scores. In a logistic regression model controlling for previously identified correlates of an eating disorder, younger age, female gender, and higher BMI remained significantly associated with an eating disorder. The EDDS has not been validated in BP patients. DSM-5-defined BED and BN are common in BP patients, possibly more common than DSM-IV-defined BED and BN, and associated with greater psychiatric and general medical illness burden. Further studies assessing DSM-5 eating disorders in people with BP are greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shan, Gan Wei; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd; Omar, Marhanis Salihah
Lithium has been the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder. In recent years, the use of lithium seems to be diminished although it is well tolerated among the bipolar disorder patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of lithium as well as to determine factors associated with lithium response among patient with bipolar disorder. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia which included 47 bipolar disorder patients that were prescribed with lithium maintenance therapy in the time frame of January 2009 until December 2013. Of all the baseline characteristics tested, only psychotic feature differentiated lithium monotherapy group and combination therapy group significantly (χ(2)=4.732, p=0.03). When compared to period before lithium maintenance, all outcome measures (i.e. annual relapse rate, proportion time spent ill and duration of mood episode) showed significant improvement after lithium maintenance in both treatment groups. Lithium discontinuation only occurred in five cases of adverse effects. Predominant depressive mood episode before lithium maintenance (OR=0.159, p=0.033) and first euthymic interval after lithium maintenance (OR=1.109, p=0.047) significantly predicted lithium response. Lithium significantly reduced the frequency and time spent in relapse in patients with bipolar disorder. Predominant depressive mood polarity before lithium maintenance and longer first euthymic interval after lithium maintenance had been identified to predict lithium response significantly.
Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by a chronic and fluctuating course of illness. Although nonadherence to pharmacotherapy is a frequent problem in the disorder, few studies have systematically explored psychosocial factors related to treatment discontinuation. Previous research with depressed patients receiving psychotherapy has suggested that…
García de la Orden, Lucía; García Carretero, Rafael
Bipolar disorder is one of the most common, severe and persistent mental disorders. The evaluation of all data and variables related to bipolar disorder is a difficult task, because there is no clear agreement on what should be included in this category. One of the traditional treatments for this disease is the lithium metal that is administered in the form of lithium salt. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic window and there is a significant risk of complications arising from its use, mainly neurological and renal. In the case presented, the preparation of a care plan is described for a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder who suffered a complication with lithium treatment. To do this, it was decided to use a standardized care plan and later completed it with diagnostic, objectives and interventions to the specific needs of the patient, aimed at achieving optimal levels of independence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Cerna, Monika; Mainerova, Barbora; Sandoval, Aneta
Bipolar affective disorder runs a natural course of frequent relapses and recurrences. Despite significant strides in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, most bipolar patients cannot be treated only by drugs. The limitations of using medication alone in symptomatic, relapse prevention, and satisfaction/quality of life terms have long prompted interest in wider forms of management. One of the promising way how to enhance remission seems to be combination of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment", "family therapy", "individual therapy", "group therapy", and "psychoeducation". The search was performed by repeated use of the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. This article is a review with conclusions concerned with psychoeducation in bipolar disorder. Randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, individual, group and family psychoeducation show that these approaches augment stabilizing effect of pharmacotherapy. Patients and their families should be educated about bipolar disorder, triggers, warning signs, mood relapse, suicidal ideation, and the effectiveness of early intervention to reduce complications. Psychosocial approaches are important therapeutic strategies for reducing relapse and rehospitalization in bipolar disorder.
Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah M; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald M; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N
Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N = 610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N = 1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N = 10065) using logistic regression. Among smokers (N = 6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR = 2.5; P < 0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR = 1.3; P = 0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR = 1.2; P = 0.02). Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Douki, S; Nacef, F; Triki, T; Dalery, J
Bipolar disorders are one of the most potentially severe psychiatric disorders, implying a high degree of morbidity and incapacity for patients. Indeed, the World Health Organization in 1996 ranked them as the sixth most disabling condition worldwide. Major advances have been achieved in their understanding and management. However, too many patients do not yet benefit from them. As a matter of fact, bipolar disorders are still underestimated and under-recognized, being too often misdiagnosed with major depression or schizophrenia; the DSM-IV acknowledges the trend of clinicians to overdiagnose schizophrenia (rather than bipolar disorder), especially in ethnic groups and young people. Indeed, cultural factors may impact the symptomatology and the course of the disease. In particular, it has been shown by many authors that schizophrenia-like features are more likely to be found in southern countries. Similarly, the same authors have reported more manic than depressive episodes during the course of bipolar disorder. We aimed at comparing individuals with bipolar disorder living in two distinct geographic and cultural environments, namely France and Tunisia. Our study included two samples of 40 patients each, natives from the country, who were admitted during 2007 to the hospitals of Razi (Tunis, Tunisia) and Le Vinatier (Lyon, France) and suffering from a bipolar disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. The French sample was constituted by all the patients meeting the inclusion criteria and the Tunisian one was selected by matching the patients by gender and duration of the disorder. Our results were consistent with the existing literature, showing many similarities and some marked differences such as a greater rate of manic episodes in the onset and during the course of the illness as well. The main result was the type of the first episode: mania in three quarter cases in Tunisia and depressive in the same proportion in France. The same figures applied to the
Bharadwaj, Vineet; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha
Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used quite frequently among the bipolar patients in developing countries, very little data are available with regard to its effectiveness from the developing countries. Aim: A retrospective case note review was carried out of bipolar disorder patients who were given ECT. Materials and Methods: Details of demographic and clinical profile, indications for ECT, response patterns, adverse effects, etc. were recorded. Results: Among all the patients who received ECT, 18% were diagnosed to have bipolar disorder. ECT was administered most commonly for mania with psychotic symptoms, followed by severe depression with psychotic symptoms. Comorbid physical problems were seen in many patients. Nearly 90% of patients in both the subgroups showed more than 50% response (based on reduction in the standardized rating scales) with ECT. Few patients (22%) reported some kind of side effects. Conclusions: ECT is useful in the management of acute phase of mania and depression. PMID:22556436
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate ...
Feier, Gustavo; Valvassori, Samira S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Búrigo, Márcio; Streck, Emilio L; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João
Bipolar disorder is a severe, recurrent, and often chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Creatine kinase is an important enzyme, particularly for cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, such as neurons, and is a potential marker of brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatine kinase levels between bipolar disorder patients, in the various phases (depressive, manic, and euthymic), and healthy volunteers. Forty-eight bipolar patients were recruited: 18 in the euthymic phase; 17 in the manic phase; and 13 in the depressive phase. The control group comprised 41 healthy volunteers. The phases of bipolar disorder were defined as follows: euthymic-not meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode and scoring < 8 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS); manic-scoring < 7 on the HDRS and > 7 on the YMRS; depressive-scoring > 7 on the HDRS and < 7 on the YMRS. Patients in mixed phases were excluded. Blood samples were collected from all participants. Creatine kinase levels were higher in the manic patients than in the controls. However, we observed no significant difference between euthymic and depressive patients in terms of the creatine kinase level. Our results suggest that the clinical differences among the depressive, manic, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder are paralleled by contrasting levels of creatine kinase. However, further studies are needed in order to understand the state-dependent differences observed in serum creatine kinase activity.
Wysokiński, Adam; Szczepocka, Ewa
There are no studies comparing platelet parameters platelet parameters (platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR)) between patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine and compare differences in PLT, MPV and P-LCR in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, naturalistic study of 2377 patients (schizophrenia n=1243; unipolar depression n=791; bipolar disorder n=343, including bipolar depression n=259 and mania n=84). There were significant differences for PLT, MPV and P-LCR values between study groups. A significant percentage of patients with bipolar disorder had abnormal (too low or too high) number of platelets. Negative correlation between PLT and age was found in all study groups and positive correlation between age and MPV and P-LCR was found in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mileva, Viktoria R; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Milev, Roumen
Many people with mental illness experience stigma that has impacted their lives. In this study, we validated the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences (ISE) as a tool to help quantify the stigma experienced by patients with bipolar disorder and its impact on their lives. The ISE has two components, ie, the Stigma Experiences Scale (SES) and the Stigma Impact Scale (SIS), which were administered to a population of Argentinean patients with bipolar disorder. We characterized the differences between these two populations using the SES and SIS. Finally, we compared SES and SIS scores with those in a population of Canadian patients with bipolar disorder. The SES and SIS scales were administered to tertiary care patients with bipolar I and II disorder in Argentina (n = 178) and Canada (n = 214). In this study, we validated both SES (Kuder-Richardson coefficient of reliability, 0.78) and SIS (Cronbach's alpha, 0.91) scales in a population of Argentinean patients with bipolar disorder. There were no significant differences in stigma between patients with bipolar I or II disorder on SES or SIS. However, over 50% of all respondents believed that the average person is afraid of those with mental illnesses, that stigma associated with mental illness has affected their quality of life, and that their self-esteem has suffered due to stigma. In comparison with the Canadian population, Argentinean participants scored lower on both the SES and SIS, which may be due to cultural differences or to differences in population characteristics. Stigma associated with mental illness is serious and pervasive. If we are to find successful strategies to mitigate stigma, it is first important to understand how patients perceive such stigma. The ISE is a valuable tool which allows us to do this with high reliability among cultures.
Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama
Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms. PMID:28250566
Partonen, T; Lönnqvist, J
In patients with bipolar disorder, admissions for manic and depressive episodes frequently display a seasonal pattern. We examined this variation and compared the patterns with the seasonal admission rates for schizophrenia. Patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register of in-patient admissions to all psychiatric hospitals during the years 1969-91. They were included in the analysis if the first admission had occurred before 30 years of age. A total of 295 bipolar patients were found, and a sample of 295 schizophrenic patients was randomly selected for comparison. There was no seasonal variation among all hospital admissions for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. However, the first admission for a depressive compared with a manic episode of bipolar disorder occurred significantly more often in the autumn (33% v. 21% respectively). The peak difference occurred during the week after the autumnal equinox in September. Our findings suggest that there is no seasonal variation in bipolar disorder, although in some patients the clinical course might be influenced by the autumn, as far as the likelihood of a first admission for depression is concerned.
Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Severus, E; Bauer, M
In the past, preventive measures for psychoses have focused mainly on schizophrenic disorders. Bipolar disorders are often diagnosed and treated with a significant delay. The expansion of preventive measures for bipolar disorders aims at minimizing the substantial negative consequences associated with the disease. Some of the shared aspects of prevention in psychoses and bipolar disorders are that the first symptoms commonly appear during adolescence and early adulthood and that there is a symptomatic overlap between the disorders. To improve efforts to seek early help, public information about mental illness, low threshold services as well as cooperation between adult, child and adolescent psychiatry are needed for this target group. One differences is that psychotic symptoms play a minor role in bipolar disorders. Specific biological markers, such as disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythm and clinical characteristics, such as substance use and behavioral problems in childhood and youth supplement (subsyndromal) clinical symptoms in a multifactorial risk model. Besides severity and frequency of symptoms, specific periodic course patterns are crucial. Strategies of early intervention require a careful consideration of risks and benefits. Two aims should be distinguished: the improvement of current symptomatology and the prevention of conversion to bipolar disorder. Currently, studies evaluating risks and benefits of such interventions are first conducted. Expertise and resources for early recognition of psychoses and bipolar disorders should be pooled. Common standards are the basis for advancement and implementation of preventive strategies for bipolar disorders.
Sapir, Ran; Zohar, Ada H; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, Rh; Osher, Yamima
Bipolar disorder may be associated with a hypersensitive behavioral approach system and therefore to increased reward sensitivity. The objective of this study is to explore the interrelationships between bipolar disorder, behavioral addictions, and personality/temperament traits in a group of euthymic outpatients with bipolar I disorder and in a group of comparison subjects. Fifty clinically stable patients and 50 comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and the Behavioral Addiction Scale. The patient group scored significantly higher than comparison subjects for two benign behavioral addictions (music, shopping) as well as for smoking. Comparison subjects scored higher on two harmful behavioral addictions (drugs, alcohol). Novelty Seeking was positively correlated with harmful addictions, and Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with harmful addictions, in both groups. The hypersensitive behavioral approach system model of bipolar disorder would predict higher levels of various addictions in bipolar patients as compared to controls. In this study, this was true for three behavioral addictions, whereas controls showed higher levels of behavioral addiction to drugs and alcohol. This may be because the patients in this study are stable, have received considerable psychoeducation, and are relatively adherent to their medication recommendations. Temperament and character traits may play roles both as risk and protective factors regarding behavioral addictions.
Choppin, Sabine; Trost, Wiebke; Dondaine, Thibaut; Millet, Bruno; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Robert, Gabriel; Grandjean, Didier
Research has shown bipolar disorder to be characterized by dysregulation of emotion processing, including biases in facial expression recognition that is most prevalent during depressive and manic states. Very few studies have examined induced emotions when patients are in a euthymic phase, and there has been no research on complex emotions. We therefore set out to test emotional hyperreactivity in response to musical excerpts inducing complex emotions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. We recruited 21 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a euthymic phase and 21 matched healthy controls. Participants first rated their emotional reactivity on two validated self-report scales (ERS and MAThyS). They then rated their music-induced emotions on nine continuous scales. The targeted emotions were wonder, power, melancholy and tension. We used a specific generalized linear mixed model to analyze the behavioral data. We found that participants in the euthymic bipolar group experienced more intense complex negative emotions than controls when the musical excerpts induced wonder. Moreover, patients exhibited greater emotional reactivity in daily life (ERS). Finally, a greater experience of tension while listening to positive music seemed to be mediated by greater emotional reactivity and a deficit in executive functions. The heterogeneity of the BD group in terms of clinical characteristics may have influenced the results. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibit more complex negative emotions than controls in response to positive music. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Escamilla, Michael A; Zavala, Juan M
Bipolar disorder especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions. A number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder.
Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lolich, María; Holtzman, Jessica N; Rago, Carlo M; Vázquez, Gustavo H
In recent years, investigators have begun to consider the possibility of explaining the physiopathology of bipolar disorder from a neuroprogressive perspective. The evidence that supports the feasibility of such an approach is varied, and arises from neuroimaging studies, batteries of neurocognitive evaluations, and tests to identify the specific biomarkers of the disorder. The present article seeks to perform a review of the research that investigates the cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographic revision was performed of articles published between 1990 and 2015. Levels of cognitive performance were explored in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The compiled studies signal the presence of altered cognitive function, even during periods of euthymia. However, there are contradictory results as to whether bipolar disorder presents a degenerative course. New lines of investigation suggest that only a percentage of individuals with bipolar disorder are affected in a progressive manner. It is of paramount importance to perform new longitudinal studies in high-risk populations, so as to validate or refute a neuroprogressive model of cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder.
Çuhadar, Döndü; Çam, M Olcay
This research was conducted as an experiment-control experimental study which aimed to determine the effectiveness of a psychoeducation program prepared to reduce internalized stigmatization. The study included 47 patients (24 experimental, 23 control) who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. At the end of the psychoeducation program, a significant decrease was observed in the total ISSMI mean scores, as well as in the ISSMI subscale mean scores for subscales such as alienation, approval of stereotypes, perceived discrimination and social withdrawal (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that a psychoeducation program designed for internalized stigmatization may have positive effects on the internalized stigmatization levels of patients with bipolar disorder. © 2014.
Palazzo, M Carlotta; Arici, Chiara; Cremaschi, Laura; Cristoffanini, Marta; Dobrea, Cristina; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Altamura, A Carlo
Cognitive impairment may affect patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) beyond the acute episodes, qualifying as a potential endophenotype. However, which cognitive domains are specifically affected in euthymic patients with BD and the potential influence of confounding factors (e.g., age and concomitant pharmacological treatment) are still a matter of debate. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess cognitive performance across specific domains in euthymic bipolar patients, not older than 50 years (to avoid potential age-related bias) versus healthy controls (HCs). A cognitive task battery, including the Wisconsin Card Test, Span Attention Test, Tower of London, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Matrices Scores and N-Back, was administered to 62 subjects (30 bipolar patients and 32 matched HCs) and differences between the groups analyzed. Bipolar patients performed significantly worse than HCs in the Span Forward task, in the expression of Verbal Fluency Test (Category) and in the N-Back task (all p<.05), with marginal differences between BD I and BD II patients. The present study pointed out significant differences in terms of cognitive performance between euthymic bipolar patients and HCs, supporting the notion that specific cognitive functions may remain impaired even after the resolution of the acute episodes in subjects suffering from BD. Future studies on larger samples are warranted to confirm the present results and further explore potential differences in cognitive impairment across specific bipolar subtypes.
Bumb, J M; Enning, F; Mueller, J K; van der List, Till; Rohleder, C; Findeisen, P; Noelte, I; Schwarz, E; Leweke, F M
Melatonin, which plays an important role for regulation of circadian rhythms and the sleep/wake cycle has been linked to the pathophysiology of major depressive and bipolar disorder. Here we investigated melatonin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of depression and bipolar patients to elucidate potential differences and commonalities in melatonin alterations across the two disorders. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, CSF and serum melatonin levels were measured in 108 subjects (27 healthy volunteers, 44 depressed and 37 bipolar patients). Covariate adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to investigate group differences in melatonin levels. In CSF, melatonin levels were significantly decreased in bipolar (P<0.001), but not major depressive disorder. In serum, we observed a significant melatonin decrease in major depressive (P=0.003), but not bipolar disorder. No associations were found between serum and CSF melatonin levels or between melatonin and measures of symptom severity or sleep disruptions in either condition. This study suggests the presence of differential, body fluid specific alterations of melatonin levels in bipolar and major depressive disorder. Further, longitudinal studies are required to explore the disease phase dependency of melatonin alterations and to mechanistically explore the causes and consequences of site-specific alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Kinrys, Gustavo
Patients with bipolar disorder frequently continue to experience residual anxiety and insomnia between mood episodes. In real-world practice, patients increasingly self-prescribe alternative medicines. We reviewed case reports, open-label, and placebo-controlled trials investigating the use of herbal medicines to treat anxiety and insomnia, and discussed their potential applications for bipolar disorder. Eleven herbal medicines that have been studied in human subjects are included in this review. Mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effects, and drug-drug interactions are discussed. Based on currently available evidence, valerian seems to be the most promising candidate for insomnia and anxiety in bipolar disorder. Adjunctive herbal medicines may have the potential to alleviate these symptoms and improve the outcomes of standard treatment, despite limited evidence. Physicians need to have a more in-depth understanding of the evidence of benefits, risks, and drug interactions of alternative treatments. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Isgren, Anniella; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Ekman, Carl Johan; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Landén, Mikael
Inflammation has been linked to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder based on studies of inflammation markers, such as cytokine concentrations, in plasma and serum samples from cases and controls. However, peripheral measurements of cytokines do not readily translate to immunological activity in the brain. The aim of the present study was to study brain immune and inflammatory activity. To this end, we analyzed cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid from 121 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 age and sex matched control subjects. Concentrations of 11 different cytokines were determined using immunoassays. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls. The other cytokines measured were only detectable in part of the sample. IL-8 concentrations were positively associated to lithium- and antipsychotic treatment. The findings might reflect immune aberrations in bipolar disorder, or be due to the effects of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
HARMANCI, Hatice; ÇAM ÇELİKEL, Feryal; ETİKAN, İlker
Introduction The co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in affective disorder patients is considerably high. The aims of the present study were to search for the frequency and impact of ADHD co-occurrence on the clinical features of affective disorders and to examine the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and ADHD. Methods In total, 100 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), 100 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 100 healthy controls (HC) were included. All diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Self-Report Scale (ASRS); Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS); and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were applied to all participants. Results The percentage of BD patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of current ADHD was 48% compared with the percentage of MDD patients and HCC subjects, i.e., 25% and 12%, respectively. ADHD was significantly more frequent in bipolar adults than in not only HC but also depressive patients. In the BD group, patients with a comorbid ADHD diagnosis had significantly more suicidal history than those without ADHD. The scores of the temperament traits, namely depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious, were significantly higher in subjects with ADHD in all groups, including in HC. Conclusion The most important findings of the present study were the observations that (1) the frequency of ADHD is considerably high among bipolar patients; (2) the frequency of suicide attempts is high in the bipolar patient group with comorbid ADHD; and (3) depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments are significantly associated with ADHD comorbidity in bipolar and depressive patients as well as in HC. The high comorbidity and chronic course of ADHD and its possible negative influence on the course of both disorders increase the importance of screening for adult
Newman, Cory F.
Bipolar disorder exacts a terrible toll on its sufferers owing to the repeated, severe disruptions in the patients' lives, the discomfort and uncertainties of being on rigorous, ongoing pharmacotherapy regimens, the emotional difficulties inherent in experiencing depression and mania, and the fear of a deteriorating course. Patients with bipolar…
Navarro, Santiago; Rodríguez, Fernando; Acosta, Francisco J; García-Bello, Miguel
Nonadherence is an important and highly prevalent issue in bipolar disorder, which may have serious consequences. Surprisingly, few studies have been carried out in patients with clinical stability to explore risk factors for nonadherence. Adherence was assessed in 76 bipolar disorder patients with clinical stability using objective and subjective methods, both with a cross-sectional approach and a 3-year retrospective period. Possible associations between nonadherence and sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related, psychopathological, psychological-subjective and result variables were also assessed. 36.8% of patients were nonadherent. These patients showed greater concerns about medicines, worse functionality, a greater number of episodes and depressive episodes, higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, present and/or past substance use or abuse and a history of depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms. A multivariate analysis revealed that concern about medicines, present and/or past substance use or abuse and psychiatric comorbidities were independently associated with nonadherence. Nonadherence is a frequent phenomenon in bipolar disorder, even in patients with clinical stability. Clinicians should assess patients’ beliefs and attitudes towards medicines and help them reevaluate those issues with a more realistic perspective. Clinicians should also take actions to prevent substance use or abuse. Identification of nonadherence risk profile in bipolar disorder patients in clinical stability, adds complementary information to the identified risk profile in acute phases of the disease.
Borowiecka-Karpiuk, Joanna; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Jaeschke, Rafal
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the burden level of spouses of patients in the symptomatic remission state of the major depressive disorder (MDD; 60 patients) or bipolar disorder (BD; 65 patients) and coping styles. The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire was used to assess the burden magnitude. Coping styles were evaluated by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation. Information concerning patients' clinical histories, a marriages characteristics and sociodemographic data were obtained from a structured clinical interview. There were significant levels of the perceived burden in spouses of patients with either BD or MDD. In both groups the burden level was significantly higher for spouses with worse appraisal of the marital adjustment and functioning. A positive correlation between higher perceived level of burden and emotion-focused coping style was found in both groups. For the problem-oriented coping style a negative correlation with the perceived burden level was found in the BD group only. The quality of'current sexual satisfaction' was significantly lower among the spouses of BD patients. The sense of illness-driven deterioration of the quality of their sexual lives implied higher level of total and objective burden of spouses in the MDD sample. This was not the case among the spouses of patients diagnosed with BD. Spouses of patients with affective disorders should be offered with opportunities of training in more effective methods of coping (including problem-solving methods) with an illness of a family member, in order to decrease the level of burden.
Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C
Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p < .05. Schizophrenia was associated with significantly lower educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.
The treatment of patients suffering from bipolar disorders is a public healthcare challenge. While the clinical profile of these disorders remains complex, it has clearly evolved over the last few years. The healthcare provision has consequently expanded, particularly with regard to psychoeducational programmes. In this context, the FondaMental Foundation is an example of collaborative work acting for the benefit of the patient.
Delgado, V.B.; Kapczinski, F.; Chaves, M.L.F.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment. PMID:22714812
Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Gamma, Alex; Young, Allan H
Major depressive disorder, the most common psychiatric illness, is often chronic and a major cause of disability. Many patients with major depressive episodes who have an underlying but unrecognized bipolar disorder receive pharmacologic treatment with ineffective regimens that do not include mood stabilizers. To determine the frequency of bipolar disorder symptoms in patients seeking treatment for a major depressive episode. Multicenter, multinational, transcultural, cross-sectional, diagnostic study. The study arose from the initiative Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE). Community and hospital psychiatry departments. Participants included 5635 adults with an ongoing major depressive episode. The frequency of bipolar disorder was determined by applying both DSM-IV-TR criteria and previously described bipolarity specifier criteria. Variables associated with bipolarity were assessed using logistic regression. A total of 903 patients fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disorder (16.0%; 95% confidence interval, 15.1%-17.0%), whereas 2647 (47.0%; 95% confidence interval, 45.7%-48.3%) met the bipolarity specifier criteria. Using both definitions, significant associations (odds ratio > 2; P < .001) with bipolarity were observed for family history of mania/hypomania and multiple past mood episodes. The bipolarity specifier additionally identified significant associations for manic/hypomanic states during antidepressant therapy, current mixed mood symptoms, and comorbid substance use disorder. The bipolar-specifier criteria in comparison with DSM-IV-TR criteria were valid and identified an additional 31% of patients with major depressive episodes who scored positive on the bipolarity criteria. Family history, illness course, and clinical status, in addition to DSM-IV-TR criteria, may provide useful information for physicians when assessing evidence of bipolarity in patients with major depressive episodes. Such an assessment is
Amerio, Andrea; Tonna, Matteo; Odone, Anna; Stubbs, Brendon; Ghaemi, S Nassir
Partly due to the overlap of symptom groupings in DSM, psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the key nosological question about this condition - whether they are two distinct disorders or a subtype of one of the disorders - remains unresolved. In order to help address this unanswered question, we updated our recent systematic review, searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to specifically investigate the heredity in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 8 relevant papers, the majority of which found that, compared to non-BD-OCD patients, BD-OCD patients were more likely to have a family history for mood disorders and less likely to have a family history for OCD. These results support the view that the majority of cases of comorbid BD-OCD are, in fact, BD cases. If confirmed in larger, more focused studies, this conclusion would have important nosological and clinical implications.
AMERIO, Andrea; TONNA, Matteo; ODONE, Anna; STUBBS, Brendon; GHAEMI, S. Nassir
Summary Partly due to the overlap of symptom groupings in DSM, psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the key nosological question about this condition – whether they are two distinct disorders or a subtype of one of the disorders – remains unresolved. In order to help address this unanswered question, we updated our recent systematic review, searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to specifically investigate the heredity in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 8 relevant papers, the majority of which found that, compared to non-BD-OCD patients, BD-OCD patients were more likely to have a family history for mood disorders and less likely to have a family history for OCD. These results support the view that the majority of cases of comorbid BD-OCD are, in fact, BD cases. If confirmed in larger, more focused studies, this conclusion would have important nosological and clinical implications. PMID:26977128
Godard, Julie; Grondin, Simon; Baruch, Philippe; Lafleur, Martin F
Previous studies have revealed psychosocial and cognitive impairments in patients during depression. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) differ in psychosocial and neurocognitive profiles. A second aim was to examine whether cognitive impairments are homogeneous among depressed patients. Patients with MDD (n=16) and BD (n=14) were enrolled during a major depressive episode. About half of them had comorbidities, including personality, substance use, and anxiety disorders. Information was collected about symptomatology and psychosocial functioning, whereas an exhaustive neuropsychological battery was administered to assess cognition. During a depressive episode, MDD and BD patients had global psychosocial dysfunction, characterized by occupational and relational impairments. A cognitive slowing was also observed, as well as deficits related to alertness, spontaneous flexibility, sustained and divided attention. Moreover, severity of depression and cognitive functions were significantly associated with psychosocial functioning. In the case of severe mood disorders, psychosocial and neurocognitive functioning seem similar among MDD and BD patients during a depressive episode. In addition to an altered daily functioning, the neurocognitive profile was heterogeneous with regard to the nature and extent of cognitive deficits. Executive functions, as well as verbal learning and memory, were preserved better than attentional processes.
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.
Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513
Chu, Wen-Jang; Delbello, Melissa P; Jarvis, Kelly B; Norris, Mathew M; Kim, Mi-Jung; Weber, Wade; Lee, Jing-Huei; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M
Although brain lactate levels are typically low and difficult to measure, a few previous investigators have reported that brain lactate levels are elevated in patients with bipolar disorder. The present study investigated the distribution of lactate in bipolar and healthy brains using 2D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging on a 4-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Ratios of the concentration of lactate to N-acetylaspartate, and of lactate to total creatine, were significantly higher in bipolar than in healthy subjects. Lactate signals were primarily localized to the bipolar subjects' caudate and anterior cingulate cortices, components of the frontal-subcortical circuit, suggesting that affective dysregulation may be related to metabolic abnormalities in this network.
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Alzate-Carvajal, Catalina; Zapata-Castañeda, Kevin; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique
Lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. To define lithium therapeutic profile and adverse reactions to its use in patients with bipolar affective disorder in Colombia. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study between January 1 and December 31, 2013, which included patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate in 25 Colombian cities; we evaluated socio-demographic variables, lithium dose, co-medication, drug interactions and adverse reactions. A multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 22.0. The 331 patients had an average age of 44.5 ± 13.9 years; 59.2% were women. The mean dose of lithium was 898 ± 294 mg/day; 22% received doses lower than recommended, and patients had received lithium for 38.0 ± 39.5 months (range: 12-159 months). Lithium levels in blood had been measured only in 13.5% of patients; 71.3% of them had received adjuvant therapy for bipolar disorder with other drugs, especially clozapine (16.6%) and valproic acid (16.6%). The main comorbidities were hypothyroidism (18.1%) and hypertension (12.7%); 390 potentially toxic drug interactions were found, and adverse reactions were reported in 1.2% of patients. A statistically significant association was found between a lower risk of combination therapy and receiving treatment in the cities of Bogotá (OR=0.4, p=0.025), Cartagena (OR=0.3, p=0.015) and Ibagué (OR=0.3, p=0.025). Lithium was generally used at recommended doses and intervals, but a significant percentage of patients received lower doses than those recommended, and it was not possible to compare with lithium levels in blood. Adverse reactions and blood lithium levels reporting should be improved in patients with bipolar disorder in Colombia.
Karaahmet, Elif; Konuk, Numan; Dalkilic, Alican; Saracli, Ozge; Atasoy, Nuray; Kurçer, Mehmet A; Atik, Levent
High comorbidity ratio of bipolar mood disorder (BMD) with Axis I and Axis II diagnoses is reported in the literature. The possible relationship between BMD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in all age groups has been attracting more attention of researchers due to highly overlapping symptoms such as excessive talking, attention deficit, and increased motor activity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ADHD comorbidity in BMD patients and the clinical features of these patients. Of 142 patients, who presented to the Bipolar Disorder Unit of Zonguldak Karaelmas University Research and Application Hospital between the dates of August 1, 2008 and June 31, 2009 and diagnosed with BMD according to DSM-IV criteria consecutively, 118 patients signed informed consent and 90 of them completed the study. They all were in euthymic phase during the study evaluations. A sociodemographical data form, Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADD/ADHD Diagnostic and Evaluation Inventory for Adults, and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinical Version (SCID-I) were applied to all participating patients. A total of 23.3% of all patients met the criteria for A-ADHD diagnosis along BMD. No difference was detected regarding sociodemographical features between the BMD+A-ADHD and the BMD without A-ADHD groups. The BMD+A-ADHD group had at least one extra educational year repetition than the other group and the difference was statistically significant. The BMD starting age in the BMD+A-ADHD group was significantly earlier (p=0.044) and the number of manic episodes was more frequent in the BMD+A-ADHD group (p=0.026) than the BMD without ADHD group. Panic disorder in the BMD+A-ADHD group (p=0.019) and obsessive-compulsive disorder in the BMD+C-ADHD group (p=0.001) were most frequent comorbidities. A-ADHD is a frequent comorbidity in BMD. It is associated with early starting age of BMD, higher number of manic episodes during the course
Cruz, Mario; Pincus, Harold Alan; Welsh, Deborah E; Greenwald, Devra; Lasky, Elaine; Kilbourne, Amy M
Objective Religion and spirituality are important coping strategies in depression but have been rarely studied within the context of bipolar disorder. The present study assessed the association between different forms of religious involvement and the clinical status of individuals treated for bipolar disorder. Methods A cross-sectional observation study of follow-up data from a large cohort study of patients receiving care for bipolar disorder (n = 334) at an urban Veterans Affairs mental health clinic was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between public (frequency of church attendance), private (frequency of prayer/meditation), as well as subjective forms (influence of beliefs on life) of religious involvement and mixed, manic, depressed, and euthymic states when demographic, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and health indicators were controlled. Results Multivariate analyses found significant associations between higher rates of prayer/meditation and participants in a mixed state [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.52, chi square = 9.42, df = 14, p < 0.05], as well as lower rates of prayer/meditation and participants who were euthymic (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.72-0.99, chi square = 4.60, df = 14, p < 0.05). Depression and mania were not associated with religious involvement. Conclusions Compared to patients with bipolar disorder in depressed, manic, or euthymic states, patients in mixed states have more active private religious lives. Providers should assess the religious activities of individuals with bipolar disorder in mixed states and how they may complement/deter ongoing treatment. Future longitudinal studies linking bipolar states, religious activities, and treatment-seeking behaviors are needed. PMID:20148868
Meade, Christina S.; Bevilacqua, Lisa A.; Key, Mary D.
This study examined HIV transmission risk behavior among 63 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and no mood disorder (NMD); half had substance use disorders (SUDs). Patients with BD were more likely than others to report unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners and < 95% adherence to antiretroviral medications. In multivariate models, BD and SUD were independent predictors of both risk behaviors. Participants with poorer medication adherence were more likely to have detectable HIV viral loads and unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners. Patients with BD deserve careful evaluation and HIV prevention services to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors. PMID:22614744
... sex. These problems can damage lives and hurt relationships. Some people with bipolar disorder have trouble keeping ... too much. Sometimes the stress can strain your relationships with other people. Caregivers can miss work or ...
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Jakobsson, Joel; Bjerke, Maria; Sahebi, Sara; Isgren, Anniella; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Olsson, Bob; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael
Background Bipolar disorder is associated with medical comorbidities that have been linked to systemic inflammatory mechanisms. There is, however, limited evidence supporting a role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Here we tested whether microglial activation and associated tissue remodelling processes are related to bipolar disorder by analyzing markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients and healthy controls. Methods Serum was sampled from euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls, and CSF was sampled from a large subset of these individuals. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), YKL-40, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), were measured, and we adjusted comparisons between patients and controls for confounding factors. Results We obtained serum samples from 221 patients and 112 controls and CSF samples from 125 patients and 87 controls. We found increased CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 and increased serum levels of sCD14 and YKL-40 in patients compared with controls; these differences remained after controlling for confounding factors, such as age, sex, smoking, blood–CSF barrier function, acute-phase proteins and body mass index. The CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 correlated with the serum levels, whereas the differences between patients and controls in CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 were independent of serum levels. Limitations The cross-sectional study design precludes conclusions about causality. Conclusion Our results suggest that both neuroinflammatory and systemic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Importantly, markers of immunological processes in the brain were independent of peripheral immunological activity. PMID:25768030
Torres, Ivan J; Mackala, Sylvia A; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Yatham, Lakshmi N
Metacognition, which refers to an individual's ability to assess their own cognitive ability or performance, is poorly understood in bipolar disorder. This study was conducted to evaluate two aspects of metacognitive ability in recently diagnosed patients with bipolar disorder: (a) metacognitive knowledge, pertaining to awareness of one's own general cognitive functioning; and (b) metacognitive experience, referring to awareness of one's cognitive performance on a specific, online cognitive task. Participants consisted of 50 clinically euthymic patients recently diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder who were within three months of resolution of their first manic episode, and a comparison group of 38 demographically similar healthy volunteers. To assess metacognitive knowledge, participants provided a general rating of their estimated cognitive ability prior to completing a neuropsychological battery, and self-ratings were compared to actual ability based on a composite score of overall cognitive functioning. To assess metacognitive experience, subjects provided a postdiction rating of their perceived memory performance after completing a list learning verbal memory test, and self-ratings were compared to actual memory performance. Measures of both relative and absolute accuracy of ratings were obtained. Results indicated that patients showed diminished accuracy in rating their general cognitive ability, implying deficits in metacognitive knowledge. In contrast, patients were accurate in rating their online memory performance, suggesting intact metacognitive experience. Findings suggest that in patients with bipolar disorder, intact task-specific cognitive self-appraisals may fail to generalize to or to modify inaccurate global cognitive self-appraisals. Further research using more comprehensive metacognitive tasks is warranted in bipolar disorder.
Nivoli, A M A; Murru, A; Pacchiarotti, I; Valenti, M; Rosa, A R; Hidalgo, D; Virdis, V; Strejilevich, S; Vieta, E; Colom, F
The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and socio-demographic characteristics between older and younger bipolar outpatients paying special attention to depressive symptoms in a large, naturalistic cohort. Five hundred and ninety-three DSM-IV-TR bipolar outpatients were enrolled. Clinical characteristics were assessed according to DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I). Subjects were categorized into two groups according to current age (older OBD: age > 65 years; younger-YBD: age < 65 years). About 80% of patients were younger (N = 470), and a fifth were older (N = 123), with a mean age of 77.30 years in OBD. Older patients were more likely to be married, not qualified, bipolar II, with depressive polarity of first episode, higher age at illness onset, higher age at first hospitalization. They were more likely to present with depressive predominant polarity, with lifetime history of catatonic, psychotic and melancholic features, age at illness onset >40 years, as well as suffering from more medical comorbidities when compared to younger bipolars. The clinical presentation of bipolar disorder in late life would be defined more frequently by melancholic depressive features and a predominantly depressive polarity. These results suggest that treatment strategies for elderly bipolar patients should focus in the prevention of depressive episodes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kupka, R W; Regeer, E J
Bipolar mood disorders affect 2-4% of the population and have a high rate of recurrence. Manic and depressive episodes can be severe, and despite treatment there are often more residual symptoms and functional impairment between episodes than generally assumed. In recent years some advances have been made in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. However, insight into the neurobiological and genetical aspects of bipolar mood disorders is still limited.
Carbray, M Julie A; McGuinness, Teena
Pediatric bipolar disorder differs from the adult form of the disorder, marked by longer episodes, rapid cycling, prominent irritability, and high rates of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. A careful assessment by families of children's symptoms, including their duration and intensity, helps with accurate diagnosis. After the diagnosis is made and careful psychopharmacological intervention is initiated, psychiatric nursing treatment of children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder should involve child-and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies, family support, and psychoeducation.
Burdick, Katherine E.; Braga, Raphael J; Nnadi, Charles U.; Shaya, Yaniv; Stearns, Walter H.; Malhotra, Anil K.
Objective Patients with bipolar disorder suffer from significant cognitive impairment which contributes directly to functional disability in bipolar patients, yet few studies have targeted these symptoms for treatment and the optimal study design remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole, on cognition in bipolar disorder. Methods 50 DSM-IV stable bipolar I outpatients enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cognitive enhancement trial. Patients completed neurocognitive testing at baseline and at week 8. Symptoms and side effects were monitored weekly. Results Forty-five patients completed the study [Placebo (n=24); Pramipexole (n=21)] and groups were well-matched on demographic and clinical features. Primary cognitive analyses were negative; however, secondary analyses revealed some interesting results which serve to highlight several important methodological issues. Subsyndromal mood symptoms at baseline had a significant influence on the degree of improvement due to active drug, with strictly euthymic patients faring best. In addition, the degree of baseline cognitive impairment was also an important factor in treatment response. Conclusions Although largely interpreted as a negative cognitive enhancement trial, our data suggest a potentially beneficial effect of pramipexole on some aspects of cognition in a subgroup patients with bipolar disorder. These data highlight the importance of rigorous subject selection for cognitive trials in bipolar illness. Future studies will be necessary to determine the possible clinical and functional implications of these results. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ with the identifier: NCT00597896. PMID:22152405
Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi; Ono, Kotaro; Murakoshi, Akiko; Futenma, Kunihiro; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Takeshi
Circadian rhythm dysfunction is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). We focused on circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) as possible predictors for bipolar disorder in patients with remitted mood disorders. One hundred four BD (41 type I and 63 type II) outpatients and 73 age- and sex-matched major depressive disorder (MDD) outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of the disorder, and family history of psychiatric disorders. Severity of mood status was evaluated by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. CRSWD was diagnosed by clinical interview and sleep logs based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition. The rate of CRSWD in BD subjects was significantly higher than that in MDD subjects (33.7% vs 9.6%; P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that comorbid CRSWD (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.24 - 9.07; P = 0.018), two or more previous mood episodes within the past year (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.10 - 11.63; P = 0.035), and antidepressant-related switch to mania/hypomania (OR = 10.01, 95% CI = 1.20 - 83.52; P = 0.033) were significantly associated with BD in patients with remitted mood disorders. CRSWD, as well as other factors, could be diagnostic predictors for BD in patients with remitted mood disorders. Combinations of these factors might be useful for predicting a BD diagnosis among the mood disorders in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sierra, Pilar; Cámara, Rosa; Tobella, Helena; Livianos, Lorenzo
Thyroid disfunction affects negatively emotional stability and worsens the clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. The main stabilizer used in this illness, lithium carbonate has numerous effects on the physiology of the thyroid, with the most significant being the inhibition of thyroid hormone release that may occur at therapeutic levels. These dysfunctions have also been reported most frequently in bipolar patients not undergoing treatment with lithium, and was not completely explained by the effects of this drug. Apart from the numerous medical complications and mood disturbances, the cognitive or perceptual system may also be affected. In fact, the presence of thyroid disease increases the rates of obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder. In severe cases of hypothyroidism, the clinical symptoms and signs can be similar to a melancholic depression or dementia. It is therefore important to know well all these possible complications in daily clinical practice. This review will cover the main thyroid dysfunctions present in bipolar patients, whether ot not produced by treatment with lithium carbonate, and will provide a series of recommendations for clinical management. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Sajatovic, Martha; Valenstein, Marcia; Blow, Frederick; Ganoczy, Dara; Ignacio, Rosalinda
Nonadherence limits the effectiveness of medications among patients with bipolar disorder. This study examined adherence with lithium and anticonvulsant medication among patients with bipolar disorder receiving treatment in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) settings. Patients receiving treatment in the VA for bipolar disorder during federal fiscal year 2003 (FY03) and receiving lithium or anticonvulsant medication were identified (N=44,637) by using the VA's National Psychosis Registry. Medication adherence was assessed by using the medication possession ratio (MPR) for lithium, valproate or divalproex, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine. Patients were categorized into three groups: fully adherent (MPR greater than .80), partially adherent (MPR from more than .50 to .80), and nonadherent (MPR less than or equal to .50). A slight majority of individuals (54.1%) were fully adherent, 24.5% were partially adherent, and 21.4% were nonadherent. Nonadherent individuals were more likely to be younger, unmarried, nonwhite, or homeless or to have diagnoses of a substance use disorder or fewer outpatient psychiatric visits in FY03. Adherence intensity was somewhat lower for valproate, compared with lithium or other anticonvulsants. Individuals given prescriptions for two agents to stabilize mood had better adherence than individuals given prescriptions for a single agent. Unexpectedly, in multivariate analyses adjusting for prior hospitalization, number of outpatient psychiatric visits, and a diagnosis of substance use disorder, poorer adherence was associated with decreased rates of hospitalization. Nearly one in two individuals given prescriptions for lithium or anticonvulsant medication to treat bipolar disorder did not take their medications as prescribed. The effectiveness of bipolar medication treatments is reduced by high rates of nonadherence in clinical settings.
Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Chagas, Vinicius de Saraiva; Castro, Mauro A A; Passos, Ives Cavalcante; Kauer-Sant’Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flavio
Background: Increased inflammatory markers and oxidative stress have been reported in serum among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study is to assess whether biochemical changes in the serum of patients induces neurotoxicity in neuronal cell cultures. Methods: We challenged the retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with the serum of BD patients at early and late stages of illness and assessed neurite density and cell viability as neurotoxic endpoints. Results: Decreased neurite density was found in neurons treated with the serum of patients, mostly patients at late stages of illness. Also, neurons challenged with the serum of late-stage patients showed a significant decrease in cell viability. Conclusions: Our findings showed that the serum of patients with bipolar disorder induced a decrease in neurite density and cell viability in neuronal cultures. PMID:27207915
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel
To compare the physical fitness of inpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder, and 22 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched inpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were included. All participants performed the Eurofit test battery and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. One way analyses of variance with post hoc Scheffe were applied to examine differences. Both patient groups were significantly more physically inactive and had a significantly impaired speed of limb movement, explosive muscle strength and abdominal muscular endurance compared to the healthy controls. No significant differences between the patient groups were found. The results suggest that physical fitness and physical activity participation are similar among inpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia but markedly lower than healthy controls. Chronic inpatients with lower levels of physical activity may particularly benefit from rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical fitness should receive similar attention in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Sedentary patients with a longer duration of illness need additional support in changing lifestyle behaviours. Rehabilitation should not only consider cardio-respiratory fitness but also muscular endurance, muscular strength and balance.
Murray, Bethany; McNew, Brittany
Abstract Purpose This review article provides an overview of the frequency, burden of illness, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) from the perspective of the advanced practice nurses (APNs). Data sources PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: “bipolar disorder and primary care,” restricted to dates 2000 to present; “bipolar disorder and nurse practitioner”; and “bipolar disorder and clinical nurse specialist.” Selected articles were relevant to adult outpatient care in the United States, with a prioritization of articles written by APNs or published in nursing journals. Conclusions BD has a substantial lifetime prevalence in the population at 4%. Because the manic or depressive symptoms of BD tend to be severe and recurrent over a patient's lifetime, the condition is associated with significant burden to the individual, caregivers, and society. Clinician awareness that BD may be present increases the likelihood of successful recognition and appropriate treatment. A number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available for acute and maintenance treatments, with the prospect of achieving reduced symptom burden and increased functioning for many patients. Implications for practice Awareness of the disease burden, diagnostic issues, and management choices in BD has the potential to enhance outcome in substantial proportions of patients. PMID:26172568
McCormick, Ursula; Murray, Bethany; McNew, Brittany
This review article provides an overview of the frequency, burden of illness, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) from the perspective of the advanced practice nurses (APNs). PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: "bipolar disorder and primary care," restricted to dates 2000 to present; "bipolar disorder and nurse practitioner"; and "bipolar disorder and clinical nurse specialist." Selected articles were relevant to adult outpatient care in the United States, with a prioritization of articles written by APNs or published in nursing journals. BD has a substantial lifetime prevalence in the population at 4%. Because the manic or depressive symptoms of BD tend to be severe and recurrent over a patient's lifetime, the condition is associated with significant burden to the individual, caregivers, and society. Clinician awareness that BD may be present increases the likelihood of successful recognition and appropriate treatment. A number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available for acute and maintenance treatments, with the prospect of achieving reduced symptom burden and increased functioning for many patients. Awareness of the disease burden, diagnostic issues, and management choices in BD has the potential to enhance outcome in substantial proportions of patients. ©2015 The Authors. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Goldberg, Joseph F; Perlis, Roy H; Bowden, Charles L; Thase, Michael E; Miklowitz, David J; Marangell, Lauren B; Calabrese, Joseph R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Sachs, Gary S
Little is known about how often bipolar depressive episodes are accompanied by subsyndromal manic symptoms in bipolar I and II disorders. The authors sought to determine the frequency and clinical correlates of manic symptoms during episodes of bipolar depression. From among 4,107 enrollees in the National Institute of Mental Health's Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD), 1,380 individuals met criteria for bipolar I or II depressive syndromes at the time of enrollment and were assessed for concomitant manic symptoms. Illness characteristics were compared in patients with pure bipolar depressed episodes and those with mixed depressive presentations. Two-thirds of the subjects with bipolar depressed episodes had concomitant manic symptoms, most often distractibility, flight of ideas or racing thoughts, and psychomotor agitation. Patients with any mixed features were significantly more likely than those with pure bipolar depressed episodes to have early age at illness onset, rapid cycling in the past year, bipolar I subtype, history of suicide attempts, and more days in the preceding year with irritability or mood elevation. Manic symptoms often accompany bipolar depressive episodes but may easily be overlooked when they appear less prominent than depressive features. Subsyndromal manic symptoms during bipolar I or II depression demarcate a more common, severe, and psychopathologically complex clinical state than pure bipolar depression and merit recognition as a distinct nosologic entity.
Schaefer, Martin; Sarkar, Susanne; Schwarz, Markus; Friebe, Astrid
Immunological and vascular markers may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and mood changes. To test whether the cell adhesion molecule soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may serve as a biomarker for patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorders when compared to a healthy control group, and whether sICAM-1 blood levels change during different mood states. sICAM-1 serum concentrations were compared between 20 healthy controls and 48 patients with affective disorders (unipolar, bipolar II and bipolar I disorder) during different mood states (euthymic mood state, depression or mania). When compared to healthy controls, patients with affective disorders had significantly higher sICAM-1 levels during the euthymic state (p = 0.015). Differences became more pronounced during depression (p = 0.013). When unipolar and bipolar patients were analyzed separately, unipolar patients significantly differed from controls during the euthymic and depressive mood state, while bipolar II patients showed a trend towards higher sICAM-1 levels during depression. Patients with bipolar I disorders had significantly higher sICAM-1 levels during manic states when compared to controls (p = 0.007). sICAM-1 elevation in unipolar and bipolar patients, independent of mood changes, might support the hypothesis of chronic immune activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Hagop; Amore, Mario; Gonda, Xenia; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Perugi, Giulio; Serafini, Gianluca; Telesforo, Ludovica; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
Several studies have demonstrated that bipolar II (BD-II) disorder represents a quite common, distinct form of major mood disorders that should be separated from bipolar I (BD-I) disorder. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess temperament and clinical differences between patients with BD-I and BD-II disorders and to assess whether temperament traits are good predictors of hopelessness in patients with bipolar disorder, a variable highly associated with suicidal behavior and ideation. Participants were 216 consecutive inpatients (97 men and 119 women) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), BD who were admitted to the Sant'Andrea Hospital's psychiatric ward in Rome (Italy). Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego--Autoquestionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Gotland Scale of Male Depression. Patients with BD-II had higher scores on the BHS (9.78 ± 5.37 vs 6.87 ± 4.69; t(143.59) = -3.94; P < .001) than patients with BD-I. Hopelessness was associated with the individual pattern of temperament traits (ie, the relative balance of hyperthymic vs cyclothymic-irritable-anxious-dysthmic). Furthermore, patients with higher hopelessness (compared with those with lower levels of hopelessness) reported more frequently moderate to severe depression (87.1% vs 38.9%; P < .001) and higher MINI suicidal risk. Temperaments are important predictors both of suicide risk and psychopathology and may be used in clinical practice for better delivery of appropriate care to patients with bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proudfoot, Judith G; Parker, Gordon B; Benoit, Megan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Smith, Meg; Gayed, Aimee
Abstract Bipolar disorder is chronic condition involving episodes of both depression and elevated mood, associated with significant disability and high relapse rates. Recent estimates suggest a lifetime prevalence of 5%. Little is known about the subjective experiences of patients after receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and the impact of these experiences on patients' willingness and ability to work with their health professionals to find the most effective combination of treatments and to set up self‐management plans. Objective This paper describes a qualitative study exploring the experiences and difficulties faced by patients after they have received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, as expressed online to expert patients trained to provide informed support. Design Qualitative study. Setting Online communication within a public health service setting. Participants Twenty‐six participants with recently‐diagnosed bipolar disorder communicated online with ‘Informed Supporters’, people who had been managing their bipolar disorder effectively for 2 years or more, as part of an online psycho‐education programme. Results Participants cited unwanted side‐effects of medication, coping with unpleasant symptoms, positive and negative reactions to the diagnosis, identifying early warning signs and triggers of the illness, the loss of a sense of self, uncertainty about their future and stigma as issues of major importance after diagnosis. Conclusions Personal concerns and difficulties following diagnosis can undermine effective treatment, thwart self‐management efforts and interfere with effective functioning. Such data are important for clinicians to take into account when they work in partnership with their patients to fine‐tune treatments and help them set up self‐management plans. PMID:19538647
Stress-vulnerability models are increasingly viewed as plausible explanations of recurrence in severe affective disorders. This has promoted greater interest in the application of evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive therapy, as an adjunct to medication for patients with bipolar disorder. This paper reviews the results from outcome studies of combined treatment approaches. Preliminary findings indicate that cognitive therapy reduces symptoms, enhances social adjustment and functioning and reduces relapses and hospitalizations in patients with bipolar disorder. However, the lack of published data from large scale randomized controlled trials and the absence of an adequate psychological model of manic relapse means that the role of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders will be the subject of intense debate for some time to come.
Objective: To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Method: Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Results: Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Conclusions: Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder. PMID:25664214
Masand, Prakash S; Tracy, Natasha
To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder.
Even, Christian; Richard, Hugues; Thuile, Jacques; Friedman, Serge; Rouillon, Frédéric
We aimed to assess the participation rate and predictive factors of participation in psychoeducation programs for euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. Ninety-five consecutive euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium were recruited in a university department of psychiatry. The participants and nonparticipants in a program of psychoeducation were compared for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics. According to univariate statistics, a younger age, a higher education level, a shorter duration of illness, a better initial knowledge about lithium, and a less external locus of control were predictive of participation in the program. A binary logistic regression model showed that an external locus of control was an independent predictor of participation. Among bipolar patients, the older, the less educated, those who have less knowledge about their treatment, and those with a more external locus of control were less likely to participate in hospital-based psychoeducation programs.
Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Diaconu, Carmen C; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Becker, Tim
We investigated the influence of the age-of-onset (AO) on the association of 45 loci conferring risk for bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia with BP-type-I in a Romanian sample (461 patients, 436 controls). The AO-analysis implicated the EGFR gene, as well as loci in other genes, in the AO variation of BP-type-I and revealed for the first time the link between BP-type-I and risk variants considered specific to schizophrenia (polymorphisms in MMP16/RIPK2 and CNNM2 genes).
Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E.; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W.
Background and Aims Behavioral addictions and bipolar disorders have a certain probability of co-occurrence. While the presence of a manic episode has been defined as an exclusion criterion for gambling disorder, no such exclusion has been formulated for Internet addiction. Methods A clinical sample of 368 treatment seekers presenting with excessive to addictive Internet use was screened for bipolar spectrum disorders using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Psychopathology was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90R and a clinical interview was administered to screen for comorbid disorders. Results Comorbid bipolar disorders were more frequent in patients meeting criteria for Internet addiction (30.9%) than among the excessive users (5.6%). This subgroup showed heightened psychopathological symptoms, including substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. Further differences were found regarding frequency of Internet use regarding social networking sites and online-pornography. Discussion Patients with Internet addiction have a heightened probability for meeting criteria of bipolar disorders. It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the direction of this association but it is recommended to implement screening for bipolar disorders in patients presenting with Internet addiction. Conclusion Similar to gambling disorder, it might prove necessary to subsume bipolar disorders as an exclusion criterion for the future criteria of Internet addiction. PMID:26132914
Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W
Behavioral addictions and bipolar disorders have a certain probability of co-occurrence. While the presence of a manic episode has been defined as an exclusion criterion for gambling disorder, no such exclusion has been formulated for Internet addiction. A clinical sample of 368 treatment seekers presenting with excessive to addictive Internet use was screened for bipolar spectrum disorders using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Psychopathology was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90R and a clinical interview was administered to screen for comorbid disorders. Comorbid bipolar disorders were more frequent in patients meeting criteria for Internet addiction (30.9%) than among the excessive users (5.6%). This subgroup showed heightened psychopathological symptoms, including substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. Further differences were found regarding frequency of Internet use regarding social networking sites and online-pornography. Patients with Internet addiction have a heightened probability for meeting criteria of bipolar disorders. It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the direction of this association but it is recommended to implement screening for bipolar disorders in patients presenting with Internet addiction. Similar to gambling disorder, it might prove necessary to subsume bipolar disorders as an exclusion criterion for the future criteria of Internet addiction.
Gao, Keming; Chan, Philip K.; Verduin, Marcia L.; Kemp, David E.; Tolliver, Bryan K.; Ganocy, Stephen J.; Bilali, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen T.; Findling, Robert L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.
We set out to study independent predictor(s) for lifetime and recent substance use disorder (SUDs) in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder (RCBD). Extensive Clinical Interview and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to ascertain DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses of RCBD, anxiety disorders, and SUDs. Data from patients enrolling into four similar clinical trials were used. Where appropriate, univariate analyses with t-test or Chi-Square were applied. Stepwise logistic regression was used to examine the relationship among predictor variables and lifetime and recent SUDs. Univariate analysis showed that patients with co-occurring anxiety disorders (n=261) had significantly increased rates of lifetime (OR=2.1) and recent (OR=1.9) alcohol dependence as well as lifetime (OR=3.4) and recent (OR=2.5) marijuana dependence compared to those without co-occurring anxiety disorder (n=303). In logistic regression analyses, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was associated with increased risk for lifetime SUDs (OR=2.34), alcohol dependence (OR=1.73), and marijuana dependence (OR=3.36), and recent marijuana dependence (OR=3.28). A history of physical abuse was associated with increased risk for lifetime SUDs (OR=1.71) and recent marijuana dependence (OR=3.47). Earlier onset of first mania/hypomania was associated with increased risk for lifetime SUDs (5% per year) and recent marijuana dependence (12% per year) and later treatment with a mood stabilizer were also associated with increased risk for recent SUDs (8% per year). Positive associations between generalized anxiety disorder, later treatment with a mood stabilizer, and early childhood trauma and history of SUDs suggests that adequate treatment of comorbid anxiety, early treatment with a mood stabilizer, and prevention of childhood trauma may reduce the risk for the development of SUDs in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:20716307
Torres, Imma; Sole, Brisa; Corrales, Montse; Jiménez, Esther; Rotger, Sofia; Serra-Pla, Juan Francisco; Forcada, Irene; Richarte, Vanesa; Mora, Ester; Jacas, Carlos; Gómez, Nuria; Mur, Maria; Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard; Casas, Miquel; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Goikolea, Jose M; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A
Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs). This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs. All patients with BD had been euthymic for at least 6 months. Neuropsychological performance was assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Our results showed that all the clinical groups had poorer performance than the HCs in all the neurocognitive domains except for executive functions. No significant differences were observed between the pBD and BD+ADHD groups in any of the cognitive domains, with these two groups showing greater impairment than the pADHD group in executive functions and visual memory. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the BD+ADHD group showed the same neurocognitive profile as pBD patients, most likely reflecting the same neurobiological basis. On the other hand, the pADHD group showed a more selective moderate impairment in attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha
Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621
Goikolea, José M.; Bonnin, Caterina M.; Sarró, Salvador; Segura, Barbara; Amann, Benedikt L.; Monté, Gemma C.; Moro, Noemi; Fernandez-Corcuera, Paloma; Maristany, Teresa; Salvador, Raymond; Vieta, Eduard; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.
Introduction Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. Methods Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-seven of the cognitively preserved patients, 23 of the cognitively impaired patients and 28 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of the n-back working memory task. Results No clusters of grey or white matter volume difference were found between the two patient groups. During n-back performance, the cognitively impaired patients showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively preserved patients in a circumscribed region in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Both patient groups showed failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients appears from this study to be unrelated to structural brain abnormality, but there was some evidence for an association with altered prefrontal function. PMID:27448153
Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H
It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grunze, Heinz; Schlösser, Sandra; Amann, Benedikt; Walden, Jörg
Although much progress has been made in successfully treating bipolar disorder, there is increasing awareness of the limitations of traditional treatment regimens such as lithium and neuroleptics. The large family of anticonvulsant drugs, however, appears to be capable of providing new treatment options, not only as medication of second choice in patients refractory to treatment, but often as a treatment standard with high efficacy and low incidence of side effects. Besides established mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs are entering the field with promising initial results in the treatment of bipolar patients. Furthermore, bringing to light the mechanisms of action of anticonvulsants and the similarities between anticonvulsants effective in bipolar disorder may also deepen our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the disorder. PMID:22033602
Bipolar disorder is a frequent disorder in the elderly, with a prevalence of 0.1 a 0.4%; a 10% of bipolar patients have mania onset after 50 years old. It has in ageing a more heterogeneous clinical presentation. The manic episodes are less severe, mixed depression is common, as well as confusion and cognitive impairment. A first manic episode in ageing can be secondary to medical illness. Treatment for bipolar disorder in ageing is similar to treatment for young patients. The differences are due to pharmacocinetic changes because of the age, with the comorbidity and with the etiology, if it is a secondary mania. Lithium can be the first choice for treating mania in patients with antecedent of good response and have tolerance to adverse effects, but because of its toxicity and secondary effects other possibilities may be considered: divalproate, cabamazepine, antipsychotics. There are some little studies that show lamotrigine efficacy in bipolar depression in elderly. We need more specific studies about bipolar disorder treatment in aging.
van der Voort, Trijntje Y G; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Meijel, Berno; Goossens, Peter J J; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kupka, Ralph W
Many patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD) experience impairments in daily life. We investigated whether patients with single-episode MDD (MDD-s), recurrent MDD (MDD-r), and BD differ in functional impairments, whether time since last episode (syndromal state, in 4 categories) contributes to impairment, whether this association is moderated by diagnosis, and the role of depressive symptoms. Data were derived from 1,664 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (MDD-s, n = 483; MDD-r, n = 1,063; BD, n = 118), from 2006 into 2009. In additional analyses, 530 healthy controls were included. DSM-IV-TR diagnosis and information about syndromal state were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Psychosocial impairment was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Adjusted associations between diagnosis, syndromal state, impairment, and depression severity were investigated. Syndromal state not being taken into account, patients with BD experienced more functional impairment than patients with MDD-s or with MDD-r, and in all diagnostic groups, impairments decreased with increasing time since last episode. However, impact of syndromal state on functioning showed a different course between diagnostic groups (mean [SD] WHODAS score: current: MDD-s 30.8 [2.8], MDD-r 32.7 [0.9], BD 37.7 [2.1], P = .07; recently remitted: MDD-s 21.7 [3.5], MDD-r 24.0 [1.2], BD 22.1[3.2], P = .7; remitted: MDD-s 10.6 [3.7], MDD-r 21.6 [1.4], BD 19.2 [4.4], P = .02; remitted > 1 year: MDD-s 13.3 [0.6], MDD-r 14.7 [0.5], BD 17.1 [2.2], P = .8). Depression severity accounted for these differences. Moreover, functioning in all remitted patients remained impaired when compared to that in healthy controls. Functional recovery may take up to 1 year after syndromal remission in recurrent depressive and bipolar disorder, mainly due to residual depressive symptoms, emphasizing the
Hirschfeld, R M
Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng
We conducted this nationwide study to examine the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among patients with bipolar disorder in Taiwan. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects who were aged ≥18 years in 2005. Patients with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder were identified. Study participants with one primary or secondary diagnosis of COPD for either ambulatory or inpatient care were also identified. We compared the prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. In addition, we further investigated this cohort from 2006 to 2010 to detect incident cases of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder compared with the general population. The factors associated with COPD among patients with bipolar disorder were also analyzed. The prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was higher than in the general population in 2005 (5.68% vs. 2.88%, odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.67). The average annual incidence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was also higher than in the general population (2.03% vs. 1.03%, risk ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.29) from 2006 to 2010. Some risk factors for COPD such as substance use, obesity, or lifestyle pattern were not available in this study. Patients with bipolar disorder had a higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared with the general population. Higher prevalence of COPD among bipolar patients was associated with increased age, males, hypertension, and second-generation antidepressant use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lim, Chor Hong; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Kanagasundram, Sharmilla; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Mohamed, Zahurin
Although major progress has been achieved in research and development of antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder (BPD), knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder and the action of atypical antipsychotics remains incomplete. The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs)-small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, including genes involved in neuronal function and plasticity-are frequently altered in psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine changes in miRNA expression in bipolar mania patients after treatment with asenapine and risperidone. Using a miRNA microarray, we analyzed miRNA expression in the blood of 10 bipolar mania patients following 12 weeks of treatment with asenapine or risperidone. Selected miRNAs were validated by using real-time PCR. A total of 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed after treatment in the asenapine group, 14 of which were significantly upregulated and the other two significantly downregulated. However, all three differentially expressed miRNAs in the risperidone group were downregulated. MiRNA target gene prediction and gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways associated with immune system response and regulation of programmed cell death and transcription. Our results suggest that candidate miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of action of both antipsychotics in bipolar mania. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Silverstone, P H; Birkett, L
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a slow-release formulation of diltiazem as adjunctive therapy in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PATIENTS: Eight female patients with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were administered diltiazem and monitored for a 6-month period before starting diltiazem and a 6-month period after starting the drug. OUTCOME MEASURES: All patients were seen at least monthly and usually every 2 weeks. The frequency and severity of both depressive and manic episodes were examined during the 6-month period after starting diltiazem, and compared with those during the 6-month period before diltiazem treatment. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency and severity of both manic and depressive episodes in these patients after they started treatment with diltiazem, compared with the period before they started treatment with diltiazem (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of side effects requiring patient withdrawal or of drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The results support previous suggestions that calcium-channel antagonists may be an effective adjunctive treatment in the management of bipolar disorder. Further controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm this small, open-label, retrospective study. PMID:10863888
Farahmand, Zahra; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Amini, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Mosleh; Mohamadzadeh, Azar
Background: Several cognitive domains, including attention, memory, and executive functions are impaired in bipolar disorder. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate two executive functions (working memory and response inhibition) in patients with bipolar I disorder during remission of the symptoms. Patients and Methods: In this case-control design, 30 bipolar I patients (18 to 45 years old) were matched with 30 ones in the control group in terms of age, gender, and education. The patients were selected from Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital (a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences) from May to October 2013. They were evaluated and contrasted using working memory (Spatial Span and Spatial Working Memory (SSP and SWM)) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task (SST)) tests. Results: We used independent t-tests for comparing and contrasting 2 groups on total and sub-scales scores of these 3 tests. In terms of SWM test there was a significant difference in between-group error between the two groups (P = 0.05); there was also a meaningful difference between the strategies used by two groups (P = 0.05). In SSP test, a significant difference appeared between averages of span length of the two groups. In the first and last item delays, there was also a clear difference, but the total error index was not noticeably different. In SST test, the direction error indicator in start-stop trials indicated a major difference, while in successful stops ratio, the case group had a lower ratio. In addition, reaction time to stop signs in bipolar group was meaningfully lower than the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, even during remission phase, executive dysfunction is detectable at least in some areas in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:26251656
Nováková, Marta; Praško, Ján; Látalová, Klára; Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena
Bipolar disorder is a common psychiatric disease characterized by mood disturbances with alternating episodes of mania and depression. Moreover, disturbances in the sleep/wake cycle are prevalent. We tested a hypothesis that the function of the circadian system, which drives the sleep/wake cycle, may differ in patients with bipolar disorder depending on whether they are experiencing an episode of mania or depression. To assess the functional state of the central circadian clock, daily profiles of melatonin levels in saliva were determined. The functional state of the peripheral clocks was assessed by determining daily profiles of Per1 and Nr1d1 clock gene expression in buccal mucosa cells. Sixteen patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode, 22 patients in a depressive episode, and 19 healthy control subjects provided samples at regular intervals during a 24-hour cycle. During episodes of mania, the daily profiles of melatonin differed compared with healthy controls and patients in an episode of depression, mainly due to elevated melatonin levels during the daytime. No difference was found between melatonin profiles of control subjects and patients in depression. The Per1 and Nr1d1 profiles were advanced in patients in mania compared with those in depression. Compared with controls, a trend toward an advance was apparent in the profiles of patients during an episode of mania but not depression. The amplitude of the Nr1d1 expression profile was higher in mania than in depression. The data revealed differences in the functional state of the circadian system in patients with bipolar disorder depending on whether they were experiencing a manic or a depressive episode. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Typaldou, M; Sakkas, D; Oulis, P
Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of clinical and cognitive factors on the psychosocial functioning of patients with bipolar disorder during remission, assessing ToM along with a broad range of basic cognitive functions. Forty-nine patients with bipolar disorder type I in remission and 53 healthy participants were assessed in general intelligence, working memory, attention, speed processing, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. The Faux Pas Recognition Test was used to assess ToM. The two groups were matched for gender, age and education level. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were also administered to the patients. Every-day functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In order to examine the contribution of many factors in psychosocial functioning, we used hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Bipolar patients presented significant impairment compared to healthy participants in all the basic cognitive functions tested with the exception of verbal memory. Moreover, patients had significant poorer performance than healthy controls in overall psyand cognitive ToM but not in affective ToM as measured by Faux Pas. Psychosocial functioning in patient group was
Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Lam, Raymond W.
OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed bipolar II or bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). MAIN MESSAGE: Characterized by elevated mood cycling with depression, BSDs appear to be much more common than previously thought, affecting up to 30% of primary care patients presenting with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Hypomania, the defining feature of bipolar II disorder, is often not detected. Collateral information, semistructured interviews, and brief screening instruments could improve diagnosis. Antidepressants should be used with caution. The newer mood stabilizers or combinations of mood stabilizers might be the treatments of choice in the future. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, as primary providers of mental health care, should try to recognize and treat BSDs more frequently. These disorders are becoming increasingly common in primary care populations. PMID:12053634
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients' education than PVF FAS tests.
Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Vieta, Eduard; Bellivier, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Okasha, Tarek A; El Sheikh, Mona M; El Missiry, Ahmed A; El Missiry, Marwa A; El Serafi, Doha; El Kholy, Suzan; Abdel Aziz, Karim
There is marked interest to research neurocognitive functions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. Consequently we aimed to study cognitive functions in euthymic bipolar patients and factors affecting them. It is a cross sectional case-control study of 60 euthymic bipolar patients and 30 matched healthy controls. They were subjected to: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders, (SCID-I) to ascertain clinical diagnosis, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) to validate euthymia. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for general intellectual abilities, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) for memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for executive functions, Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for attention and impulsivity, and an information sheet gathering patient data. Bipolar patients had statistically significant lower mean IQ scores in all WAIS subscales (p=0.000), significantly lower memory abilities especially digit span and visual memory, higher impulsivity and inattention (p=0.000) but no significant difference in response time by CPT. They displayed significantly lower executive performance on WCST. Patients' years of education correlated positively with IQ. Hospital admission, number, type of episodes and total number of episodes affected memory functions. Hospital admission and number of hypomanic episodes correlated with attention and impulsivity. Previous hospitalization correlated with executive functions. Euthymic bipolar patients exhibit cognitive deficits, which correlated with clinical variables as number, type of episodes and previous hospitalization, this knowledge could help minimize cognitive impairments for future patients. The small sample size, cross sectional design and lack of premorbid cognitive assessment limit generalization of findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Atagün, Murat İlhan; Güntekin, Bahar; Tan, Devran; Tülay, Emine Elif; Başar, Erol
Previous resting-state electroencephalography studies have consistently shown that lithium enhances delta and theta oscillations in default mode networks. Cognitive task based networks differ from resting-state networks and this is the first study to investigate effects of lithium on evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses of patients with bipolar disorder. The study included 16 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder on lithium monotherapy, 22 euthymic medication-free patients with bipolar disorder and 21 healthy participants. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured for each subject's averaged beta responses (14-28 Hz) in the 0-300 ms time window. Auditory simple and oddball paradigm were presented to obtain evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses. There were significant differences in beta oscillatory responses between groups (p=0.010). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed location (p=0.007), laterality X group (p=0.043) and stimulus X location (p=0.013) type effects. Serum lithium levels were correlated with beta responses. The lithium group had higher number of previous episodes, suggesting that patients of the lithium were more severe cases than patients of the medication-free group. Lithium stimulates neuroplastic cascades and beta oscillations become prominent during neuroplastic changes. Excessively enhanced beta oscillatory responses in the lithium-treated patients may be indicative of excessive activation of the neuron groups of the certain cognitive networks and dysfunctional GABAergic modulation during cognitive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.
It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890
Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A
It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum.
Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon
Background In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Methods Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation (“BIPED”) trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. Results The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Conclusions Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. Trial Registration ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu). PMID:26543925
Poole, Ria; Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon
In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation ("BIPED") trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu).
Xue, Hai Bo Haber; Liu, Li; Zhang, Hena; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamás
Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of
Severino, Giovanni; Squassina, Alessio; Costa, Marta; Pisanu, Claudia; Calza, Stefano; Alda, Martin; Del Zompo, Maria; Manchia, Mirko
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a lifelong severe psychiatric condition with high morbidity, disability and excess mortality. The longitudinal clinical trajectory of BD is significantly modified by pharmacological treatment(s), both in acute and in long-term stages. However, a large proportion of BD patients have inadequate response to pharmacological treatments. Pharmacogenomic research may lead to the identification of molecular predictors of treatment response. When integrated with clinical information, pharmacogenomic findings may be used in the future to determine the probability of response/nonresponse to treatment on an individual basis. Here we present a selective review of pharmacogenomic findings in BD. In light of the evidence suggesting a genetic effect of lithium reponse in BD, we focused particularly on the pharmacogenomic literature relevant to this trait. The article contributes a detailed overview of the current status of pharmacogenomics in BD and offers a perspective on the challenges that can hinder its transition to personalized healthcare.
Karling, Pontus; Maripuu, Martin; Wikgren, Mikael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
AIM To study if anxiety, depression and experience of stress are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS A total of 136 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age 49.9 years; 61% women) and 136 controls from the general population (mean age 51.0 years; 60% women) were included in the study. GI symptoms were assessed with The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale-irritable bowel syndrome (GSRS-IBS), level of anxiety and depression with The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress-proneness with Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Over a ten year period, all visits in primary care were retrospectively recorded in order to identify functional GI disorders. RESULTS In subjects with low total HADS-score, there were no significant differences in GI-symptoms between patients and controls (GSRS-IBS 7.0 vs 6.5, P = 0.513). In the patients with bipolar disorder there were significant correlations between all GSRS and HADS subscores for all symptom clusters except for “constipation” and “reflux”. Factors associated to GI symptoms in the patient group were female sex (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.07-5.24) and high HADS-Depression score (adjusted OR = 3.64, 95%CI: 1.07-12.4). These patients had also significantly more visits for IBS than patients with low HADS-Depression scores (29% vs 8%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant differences in consulting behaviour for functional GI disorders between patients and controls (25% vs 17%, P = 0.108). CONCLUSION Female patients and patients with high HADS depression score reported significantly more GI symptoms, whereas patients with low HADS scores did not differ from control subjects. PMID:27784966
Background Evidence suggests that neurotropic infectious agents might be involved in bipolar disorder. So far, few have been written for the association between parasitic infection and bipolar disorder. Filariasis is a parasitic disease acting ruthlessly via mosquitos and affecting more than 120 million people worldwide. We present here, to our knowledge, the first description of a filariasis infected manic bipolar disorder patient fully improved in terms of psychiatric symptoms by anti-heminthic treatment. Case presentation The patient is a 31 years-old man native of Congo. At inclusion, he presented a severe manic episode with dangerous behaviour unresolved by classic treatments. A diagnosis of filariasis bancrofti infection was made after the discovery of a systemic hypereosinophilia. Therefore, a bi-therapy of anthelmintics was conducted allowing a successful improvement with clear reduction of agitation and aggressive behaviours that could not be attributed to a modification of psychotropic treatments or filarial encephalopathy or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Conclusion The ineffectiveness of psychotropic treatment of a manic episode requires the evaluation of co-morbid medical conditions such as infections which can interfere with adequate mood stabilizing medication. Filariasis by inducing chronic inflammation and immunopathologic reactions seems to play a major role in infected affective disorders patients by changing levels of cytokines of the Th1 system or indirectly damaging the brain tissue. The beneficial combination of antihelmintics and mood stabilizers, in this case, could be explained by the potential of such association to downregulate neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity processes. Altogether, these data pinpoint the requirement to explore the parasitic infectious status in case of bipolar disorder patients resistant to classic treatments and originating or living in endemic geographical areas. PMID:23497411
Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Reczyński, Witold; Misztak, Paulina; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Rybakowski, Janusz K
Zinc may be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depressive disorder. However, data on this issue in bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. The aim of the study was to assess zinc concentrations in the blood serum of patients at various phases and stages of bipolar disorder. The study included 129 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I (n=69) or type II (n=60). Fifty-eight were in a depressive episode, 23 in a manic episode and 48 in remission. Fifty healthy volunteers made a control group. Zinc concentration was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum zinc level in patients diagnosed with BD type I in the depressive phase was significantly reduced as compared with mania, remission and healthy subjects. In the BD type II, serum zinc level in hypomania, depression or remission phase was not significantly different from the control group. In the whole group, lower level of zinc in depression compared to remission and control subjects was found during late stage of the illness but not in the early stage. Zinc concentration was not dependent on the severity of manic or depressive symptoms and subtype of depression but correlated positively with the number of manic/hypomanic relapses in the past year. Lack of prospective model, heterogeneity of pharmacological treatment, small number of subgroups presenting specified clinical features. Decreased serum zinc concentration occurs in depression in BD type I and probably in depression in the late stage of BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vancampfort, Davy; Wyckaert, Sabine; Sienaert, Pascal; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Buys, Roselien; Schueremans, Ans; Probst, Michel
The aim of the current study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with bipolar disorder with age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Thirty patients (16 ♂, 40.8±11.6 years) and healthy controls (16 ♂, 40.5±10.8 years) were included. All participants performed a 6-min walk test to assess the functional exercise capacity and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients were screened for psychiatric symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Hypomania Checklist-32. Results demonstrated that patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a significantly poorer functional exercise capacity (590.8±112.6 versus 704.2±94.3m). A backward stepwise regression analyses showed that the level of depression and existing foot or ankle static problems and back pain before the test explained 70.9% of the variance in the distance achieved on the 6-min walk test (functional exercise capacity). The current study demonstrates that foot and back pain appear to be important negative predictors of functional exercise capacity in patients with bipolar disorder. Physical activity interventions delivered by physical therapists may help ameliorate pain symptoms and improve functional exercise capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamazaki, Kei; Maekawa, Motoko; Toyota, Tomoko; Dean, Brian; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Yoshikawa, Takeo
Postmortem brain studies have shown abnormal levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid, in the frontal cortex (particularly the orbitofrontal cortex) of patients with depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder. However, the results from regions in the frontal cortex other than the orbitofrontal cortex are inconsistent. In this study we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder have abnormalities in PUFA levels in the prefrontal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 8]. In postmortem studies, fatty acids in the phospholipids of the prefrontal cortex (BA8) were evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. Specimens were evaluated for patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or major depressive disorder (n=15) and compared with unaffected controls (n=15). In contrast to previous studies, we found no significant differences in the levels of PUFAs or other fatty acids in the prefrontal cortex (BA8) between patients and controls. Subanalysis by sex also showed no significant differences. No significant differences were found in any individual fatty acids between suicide and non-suicide cases. These psychiatric disorders might be characterized by very specific fatty acid compositions in certain areas of the brain, and BA8 might not be involved in abnormalities of PUFA metabolism.
Jacoby, Anne S; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Joaquim, Helena Gp; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Kessing, Lars V
The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is involved in the mechanisms of action of lithium and may play a role in relation to affective states in bipolar disorder. The objectives of the present study were to compare the activity of GSK-3β (measured as levels of phosphorylated GSK-3β [p-GSK-3β]) between patients with bipolar disorder in the euthymic state and healthy control subjects, and to investigate whether GSK-3β activity varies with affective states in patients with bipolar I disorder. In a prospective 6-12-month follow-up study, we investigated state-specific, intraindividual alterations in the activity of GSK-3β in 60 patients with bipolar I disorder with an acute severe manic index episode and in subsequent euthymic, depressive and manic states and compared this with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From baseline to the end of follow-up, blood samples were drawn from the 60 patients during 181 affective states, comprising 60 manic, 11 mixed, 23 depressive, and 87 states of euthymia. A total of 69 blood samples were drawn from 35 healthy control subjects, with two samples from the same subject taken three months apart. In mixed-model analysis, p-GSK-3β was decreased in the euthymic state of subjects with bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects (b=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.96, P=.03). In addition, p-GSK-3β varied with affective states, being increased in depressive (b=1.68, 95% CI: 1.08-2.62, P=.02) and mixed (b=2.07, 95% CI: 1.12-3.84, P=.02) states but not in mania compared with euthymia. The activity of GSK-3β is altered in euthymic bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects and varies with affective states. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sienaert, P; de Fruyt, J
There is a increasing interest in psychosocial treatment strategies for bipolar disorder. An essential ingredient of various psychosocial treatment models is psychoeducation (PE), which can also be used on its own as a psychotherapeutic strategy. To search the literature systematically in order to discover the efficacy of pe for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Medline was searched using mesh-terms 'bipolar disorder', 'psychotherapy' and 'patient education', and the search term 'psychoeducation'. results Thirty-four trials on psychoeducation for bipolar patients were found. The studies showed that pe can widen the patient's knowledge about the disorder and its treatment, and increase compliance and prevent relapse when offered to patients in remission. PE should be part of the standard treatment for patients with bipolar disorder. Further study should reveal in which phase of the disease, for which subgroup of patients and under what circumstances pe can best be offered.
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640
Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Radu, Luiza; Alda, Martin; Rusak, Benjamin
Our goal was to model the temporal dynamics of sleep-wake transitions, represented by transitions between rest and activity obtained from actigraphic data, in patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic state transition approach. We collected actigraphic data for 14 days from 20 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, who had been characterized clinically, demographically, and with respect to their circadian preferences (chronotype). We processed each activity record to generate a series of transitions in both directions between the states of rest (R) and activity (A) and plotted the estimated transition probabilities (pRA and pAR). Each 24-hour period was also divided into a rest phase consisting of the eight consecutive least active hours in each day and an active phase consisting of the 16 consecutive most active hours in each day. We then calculated separate transition probabilities for each of these phases for each participant. We subsequently modeled the rest phase data to find the best fit for rest-activity transitions using maximum likelihood estimation. We also examined the association of transition probabilities with clinical and demographic variables. The best-fit model for rest-activity transitions during the rest phase was a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Of those patients with rapid cycling, 75% had an evening-type chronotype. Patients with bipolar II disorder taking antidepressants had a lower probability of transitioning back to rest than those not on antidepressants [mean ± SD = 0.050 ± 0.006 versus 0.141 ± 0.058, F(1,15) = 3.40, p < 0.05]. The dynamics of transitions between rest and activity in bipolar disorder can be accounted for by a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Patients taking antidepressants had a reduced probability of sustaining and returning to sleep. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Solé, Brisa; Bonnín, C. Mar; Rosa, Adriane R; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard
Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation strategies, adapted from work conducted with traumatic brain injury patients and applied to patients with schizophrenia, also need to be adapted to individuals with bipolar disorders. Early intervention using functional remediation, involves neurocognitive techniques and training, but also psychoeducation on cognition-related issues and problem-solving within an ecological framework. PMID:21687565
Monti, Jaime M
Sleep disturbances predominantly take the form of insomnia in patients with unipolar disorder, while patients with bipolar disorder show a decreased need for sleep. Sleep impairment in these patients is a risk factor for the development of a major depressive episode and suicidal behavior. Administration of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone as augmentation therapy or monotherapy to unipolar and bipolar disorder patients, respectively, has been shown to improve sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Thus, their use by these patients could ameliorate their sleep disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Skibińska, Maria; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna
Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey.
Belzeaux, Raoul; Boyer, Laurent; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Michel, Pierre; Correard, Nadia; Aubin, Valerie; Bellivier, Frank; Bougerol, Thierry; Olie, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Etain, Bruno; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Passerieux, Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Henry, Chantal; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adherence to medication is a major issue in bipolar disorder. Non-planning impulsivity, defined as a lack of future orientation, has been demonstrated to be the main impulsivity domain altered during euthymia in bipolar disorder patients. It was associated with comorbidities. To investigate relationship between adherence to medication and non-planning impulsivity, we included 260 euthymic bipolar patients. Adherence to medication was evaluated by Medication Adherence Rating Scale and non-planning impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale. Univariate analyses and linear regression were used. We conducted also a path analysis to examine whether non-planning impulsivity had direct or indirect effect on adherence, mediated by comorbidities. Adherence to medication was correlated with non-planning impulsivity, even after controlling for potential confounding factors in linear regression analysis (Beta standardized coefficient = 0.156; p = 0.015). Path analysis demonstrated only a direct effect of non-planning impulsivity on adherence to medication, and none indirect effect via substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and adherence to medication was assessed only by self-questionnaire. Higher non-planning impulsivity is associated with low medication adherence, without an indirect effect via comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuai; Ren, Huixun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yanjun; Han, Shuiping; Qiao, Hui; Cheng, Shaoli; Xu, Chang; An, Shucheng; Ju, Bomiao; Yu, Chengyuan; Wang, Chanyuan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Zhenjun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhao, Lijun
Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined serum levels of RPTN in patients with schizophrenia (n = 88) or bipolar disorder (n = 34) and in chronic psychostimulant users (n = 91). We also studied its expression in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that serum RPTN levels were significantly diminished in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or in psychostimulant users, compared with healthy subjects (n = 115) or age-matched controls (n = 92) (p < 0.0001). In CUMS mice, RPTN expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was reduced with progression of the CUMS procedure; the serum RPTN level remained unchanged. Since CUMS is a model for depression and methamphetamine (METH) abuse induced psychosis recapitulates many of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the results from this study may imply that RPTN plays a potential role in emotional and cognitive processing; its decrease in serum may indicate its involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio
Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.
Goldsmith, D R; Rapaport, M H; Miller, B J
Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) have all been associated with aberrant blood cytokine levels; however, neither the pattern of cytokine alterations nor the impact of clinical status have been compared across disorders. We performed a meta-analysis of blood cytokines in acutely and chronically ill patients with these major psychiatric disorders. Articles were identified by searching the PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science, and the reference lists of these studies. Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (40 schizophrenia, 10 bipolar disorder and 18 MDD) for acutely ill patients. Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (18 schizophrenia, 16 bipolar disorder and 12 MDD) for chronically ill patients. Levels of two cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), one soluble cytokine receptor (sIL-2R), and one cytokine receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were significantly increased in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania and MDD compared with controls (P<0.01). Following treatment of the acute illness, IL-6 levels significantly decreased in both schizophrenia and MDD (P<0.01); sIL-2R levels increased in schizophrenia; and IL-1RA levels in bipolar mania decreased. In chronically ill patients, the levels of IL-6 were significantly increased in schizophrenia, euthymic (but not depressed) bipolar disorder and MDD compared with controls (P<0.01). The levels of IL-1β and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both chronic schizophrenia and euthymic bipolar disorder. Overall, there were similarities in the pattern of cytokine alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and MDD during acute and chronic phases of illness, raising the possibility of common underlying pathways for immune dysfunction. Effects of treatment on cytokines were more robust for schizophrenia and MDD, but were more frequently studied than for acute mania. These findings have important implications for our understanding of
Saito, Satoshi; Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Ohmori, Kenichi; Honda, Gyo; Mori, Harunobu; Kato, Kazuko; Kuroda, Jinichi; Aoki, Akiko; Asahi, Haruhiko; Sato, Hayato; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Akiyama, Kazufumi
Patients with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairment that significantly influences their functional outcome. However, it remains unknown whether lithium has a central role in cognition and functional outcome. We examined whether cognition and functional outcome were predicted by demographic and clinical variables, including the response to lithium, in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder. We evaluated 96 lithium-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 196 age- and-gender-matched healthy controls, using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). The patients were also assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and "The Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder" (Alda) scale, which was evaluated as either a continuous measure of the total scale or a dichotomous criterion. Multiple regression analysis revealed two key findings: first, that the premorbid intelligence quotient, age, and number of mood episodes were predictors of the BACS composite score; and, second, that the BACS composite score, negative symptoms, and continuous measure on the total Alda scale (but not its dichotomy) predicted the total SFS score. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to confirm these findings, and additionally revealed that the Alda scale was significantly associated with negative symptoms and also the number of mood episodes, regardless of how it was evaluated. SEM delineated how demographic and clinical variables, cognitive performance, and response to lithium treatment were causally associated with, and converged on, social function. The putative role of the Alda scale for social function warrants further study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lagerberg, T V; Icick, R; Andreassen, O A; Ringen, P A; Etain, B; Aas, M; Henry, C; Bjella, T D; Melle, I; Bellivier, F
Cannabis use disorders (CUD) may influence the course of bipolar disorder (BD), but key confounding factors such as tobacco smoking have not been adequately addressed. This study examined whether CUD was associated with a more severe illness course in tobacco smoking BD patients. A sample of French and Norwegian tobacco smoking patients with BD I and II (N=642) was investigated. DSM-IV diagnoses and other characteristics were obtained through personal interviews using structured questionnaires. The association between CUD and illness course was assessed in regression analyses. In bivariate analyses, CUD was associated with earlier BD onset, higher frequency of manic (in BD I) and depressive episodes and hospitalizations per illness year, and a higher occurrence of psychotic episodes. After controlling for potential confounders, the relationships with earlier BD onset (B=-5.60 95% CI=-7.65 to -3.64), and increased rates of manic episodes (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.23) and hospitalizations (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.85 to 4.64) remained statistically significant. Despite the multivariate approach, differences between the two samples may lead to spurious findings related to hidden confounders. Substance use and mood episode information was collected retrospectively, and potential birth cohort effects could not be controlled for. Studies have found associations between tobacco smoking and poorer outcomes in BD. In this study on tobacco smoking BD patients we report an association between CUD and illness severity, suggesting that CUD exacerbates the disease evolution independently of tobacco smoking. Specific treatment and prevention programs addressing CUD in BD patients are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Kristine Kahr
Previous research indicates that low self-esteem is associated with functional impairment in remitted bipolar disorder patients. The present study aimed to elucidate this area further by exploring the relationship between different self-schemas and key functional outcome domains. The study consisted of 49 remitted bipolar disorders patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version (YSQ-S3) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the schemas Social Isolation, Failure to Achieve, Dependence, Vulnerability to Harm and Illness, Emotional Inhibition, Insufficient Self-Control, and Pessimism accounted for 28% of the variance in functional impairment when controlling for length of remission and subsyndromal depressive symptoms. The WSAS as a self-report scale measures the patients' perception of own functioning and is therefore not an objective measure of functioning. The findings delineate specific psychological vulnerabilities which are likely to be implicated in functional impairment in bipolar disorder and as such warrant further examination in terms of their causal mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The World Health Organization (WHO) clearly states the importance of psychological well-being in the definition of health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". However, in the community, the lives of people with bipolar disorders are often harsh and abusive. Till now, the rate and related information concerning verbal or physical abuse among patients with bipolar disorder at psychiatric outpatient clinics have not been well addressed in Ethiopian settings. Data were collected by interviewing 411 systematically selected participants at outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. For analysis, logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of abuse (verbal/physical) was 37.7%. Having two or more episodes [AOR 1.70, 95% CI (1.06, 2.74)], a history of aggression [AOR 3.06, 95% CI (1.63, 5.75)] and comorbid illness [AOR 2.21, 95% CI (1.25, 3.90)] were significantly associated. The prevalence of reported abuse is high among patients with bipolar disorder, and it is important to remember the rights of patients during treatment.
Calkin, Cynthia; van de Velde, Caroline; Růžičková, Martina; Slaney, Claire; Garnham, Julie; Hajek, Tomas; O’Donovan, Claire; Alda, Martin
Objective Several studies have reported higher prevalence of obesity in patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). To study the relation of elevated body mass index (BMI) in patients with BD more closely, we investigated differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and medical characteristics with respect to BMI, with the hypothesis that BMI is related to prognosis and outcome. Methods We measured the BMI of 276 subjects of a tertiary care sample from the Maritime Bipolar Registry. Subjects were 16 to 83 years old, with psychiatric diagnoses of bipolar I disorder (n = 186), bipolar II disorder (n = 85), and BD not otherwise specified (n = 5). The registry included basic demographic data and details of the clinical presentation. We first examined the variables showing a significant association with BMI; subsequently, we modeled the relationship between BMI and psychiatric outcome using structural equation analysis. Results The prevalence of obesity in our sample was 39.1%. We found higher BMI in subjects with a chronic course (p < 0.001) and longer duration of illness (p = 0.02), lower scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (p = 0.02), and on disability (p = 0.002). Overweight patients had more frequent comorbid subthreshold social (p = 0.02) and generalized anxiety disorders (p = 0.05), diabetes mellitus type II (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p = 0.001). Subjects who achieved complete remission of symptoms on lithium showed significantly lower BMI (p = 0.01). Conclusions Our findings suggest that BMI is associated with the prognosis and outcome of BD. Whether this association is causal remains to be determined. PMID:19689507
Brown, Gregory G; Lee, Jun-Seok; Strigo, Irina A; Caligiuri, Michael P; Meloy, M J; Lohr, James
Controlled trials provide critical tests of hypotheses generated by meta-analyses. Two recent meta-analyses have reported that gray matter volumes of schizophrenia and bipolar I patients differ in the amygdala, hippocampus, or perigenual anterior cingulate. The present magnetic resonance imaging study tested these hypotheses in a cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) design of 17 chronic schizophrenia and 15 chronic bipolar patients and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and duration of illness. Whole brain gray matter volume of both the schizophrenia and bipolar groups was smaller than among healthy control subjects. Regional voxel-wise comparisons showed that gray matter volume was smallest within frontal and temporal regions of both patient groups. Region of interest analyses found moderately large to large differences between schizophrenia and healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus. There were no group differences in the perigenual anterior cingulate. When schizophrenia and bipolar groups were directly compared, the schizophrenia group showed smaller gray matter volumes in right subcortical regions involving the right hippocampus, putamen, and amygdala. The hippocampal and amygdala findings confirm predictions derived from recent meta-analyses. These structural abnormalities may be important factors in the differential manifestations of these two functional psychotic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine
The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Guillaume, S; Courtet, P; Chabannes, J-P; Meynard, J-A; Moreau-Mallet, V
The ECHO study is the first French study directly asking patients with bipolar I disorders on the history and experiences of their disease, their perceptions of care, their sociofamilial relationships, and their expectations regarding what should be done by healthcare professionals and their environment. Three hundred euthymic patients suffering from bipolar disorder I were interviewed using a semi-standardized evaluation through telephone interviews. These patients were selected according to the quota method of nationally representative INSEE 99 to be representative of the French population. Ninety-nine percent of patients consulted at least once for psychological signs before the correct diagnosis was established. The average age at the time of diagnosis was of 30.1 years (± 11.3). The average time between first consultation for psychological symptoms and diagnosis is about 5 years. In 92% of cases, the psychiatrist is the health professional that made the diagnosis; 74% of patients were also followed by a general practitioner. One hundred percent of participants had been hospitalized for manic episodes (criterion for inclusion in the study) and 86% were also hospitalized for depressive symptoms. The experience of hospitalization is positive (feeling of security for 84% of the sample, feelings of being helped for 81% of the sample), although these experiences are also associated with the perception of confinement (52% of the sample). At the time of the interview, 97% of these patients were followed by one or more health professionals. Only 34% of these patients were taking a mood stabilizer (lithium, anticonvulsant or atypical antipsychotic with indications in France for bipolar disorder), while 44% were taking an antidepressant and 38% were taking anxiolytics; 84% of patients had experienced side effects related to their current treatment. Acceptance of the disease is difficult and only 56% of patients personally feel they suffer from bipolar disorders
Dakhlaoui, O; Essafi, I; Haffani, F
Although present classifications (CIM, DSM) have not included the notion of a unipolar disorder to characterise the recurrence of the same type of episode, this concept conserves its pertinence for many people. Unipolar mania, in particular, is a clinical reality in our daily practice, and a predominant form of bipolarity expression. These assertions have led us to question this notion and its nosographical place: is it a subtype, distinguished by certain characteristics, or a particular category in the bipolar disorder? We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and comparative study on medical briefs of patients with type I bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria), who were interned for the first time between 1997 and 2001 in the Psychiatry "E" service of the Razi hospital of Tunis, and were followed up for at least five years. Two groups were identified: Group 1 or "unipolar mania": patients who presented at least two manic episodes without depression, and Group 2: the rest of the sample; and then were compared based on their sociodemographical profile, familial psychiatric antecedents, premorbid temperament, comorbidity and clinical and progressive characteristics. Seventy-two patients were included. The average age was 36. The sex ratio was three men to two women. The first episode was a manic episode in 56.9% of the cases. The average duration of illness progression was 11.6 years. Unipolar mania represented 65.3% of the sample. Between 1997 and 2001, 92% of bipolar patients interned were hospitalised for mania. Concerning recurrences, we observed nine times as many cases of manic episodes as depression. Depressive episodes of light to medium intensity had probably not been well assessed due to the families' tolerance. The high rates of both manic episodes and unipolar mania observed in this study were also found by other authors, showing the differences of bipolarity expression between the West and the other parts of the world, and in particular Africa. There was
Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder. PMID:22738363
Erić, Anamarija Petek; Erić, Ivan; Ćurković, Mario; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Kralik, Kristina; Kovač, Vlatka; Filaković, Pavo
Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk. The specificity of this research is in the assessment of personality features during the acute phase of illness immediately after suicide attempt which resulted in psychiatric inpatient treatment. The study included 119 unrelated Caucasian participants with MDD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (MDD) and BD-severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms (BD-sDE). Both groups of patients with MDD and BD-sDE were divided into the suicide attempters and non-suicidal group. The diagnoses of the severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD; F32.2) and bipolar disorder (BD-sDE; F31.4) were made according to ICD-10 (WHO 1992) diagnostic criteria. Methods of suicide attempts were also assessed according to ICD-10 and a self-report questionnaire, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was applied. The participants who exhibited suicide attempt had significantly higher scores on harm-avoidance (HA) (p<0.001), significantly lower score on persistence (PS) (p=0.037) and lower score, however not statistically significant, on novelty-seeking (NS) (p=0.319) regarding temperament dimensions. In character dimensions, the patients with suicidal attempt had significantly lower scores on self-directedness (SD) (p<0.001) and significantly lower scores on cooperativeness (CO) (p=0.001). Patients who had suicide attempt may have some significantly different personality traits than non-suicidal patients with mood disorders. The combination of
Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 patients with bipolar I disorder, 43 with bipolar II disorder, and 86 randomly selected population-based healthy controls were compared. A number of neuropsychological tests were administered, assessing verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Patients were in a stable phase during testing. Results Patients with bipolar type I and type II were cognitively impaired compared to healthy controls, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two subtypes. The strongest predictor of cognitive impairment within the patient group was current antipsychotic treatment. Conclusions The present study suggests that the type and degree of cognitive dysfunction is similar in bipolar I and II patients. Notably, treatment with antipsychotics - but not a history of psychosis - was associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Given that patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely to be on antipsychotic drugs, this might explain why some previous studies have found that patients with type I bipolar disorder are more cognitively impaired than those with type II. PMID:23758923
Tang, Li-Rong; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Hui; Ma, Xin; Chiu, Helen F K; Correll, Christoph U; Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Ying-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Li, Yan; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Lok, Ka In; Xiang, Yu-Tao
To compare self-reported (SR) and interviewer-rated (IR) oral health between schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. 356 patients with SZ, BP, or MDD underwent assessments of psychopathology, side effects, SR, and IR oral health status. 118 patients (33.1%) reported poor oral health; the corresponding proportion was 36.4% in BP, 34.8% in SZ, and 25.5% in MD (p = .21). SR and IR oral health correlated only modestly (r = 0.17-0.36) in each group. Psychiatric patients need to be assessed for both SR and IR oral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ryu, Vin; Kook, Sodahm; Lee, Su Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Time perception, which plays a fundamental role in decision-making and the evaluation of the environment, is also influenced by emotions. Patients with bipolar disorder have impairments in emotional processing as well as interval timing. We investigated the effects of emotional stimuli on time estimation and reproduction in manic and euthymic bipolar patients compared with healthy controls. We recruited 22 manic bipolar patients, 24 euthymic bipolar patients and 24 healthy controls. Each subject performed time estimation and reproduction tasks using standardized affective pictures that were classified into 4 stimulus groups according to valence and level of arousal and presented for durations of 2, 4, and 6s. We analyzed temporal performance on these tasks using transformed data expressed as a proportion of the target period. The interactions between arousal and valence were different in manic patients compared with euthymic patients and healthy controls in both time estimation and reproduction tasks. Manic patients showed no effect of positive valence low arousal stimuli in the time estimation task compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. In the time reproduction task, the effect of emotional stimuli was reversed in manic patients compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. Significant correlations between the severity of manic symptoms or illness severity and average temporal performance scores were found in manic patients. Our results suggest that altered emotion-related time judgments may be a state-dependent phenomenon observed in manic patients only. This difference in time perception for emotional stimuli may be related to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of the manic state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P M; Vreeker, Annabel; Bouter, Diandra C; Kruiper, Caitlyn; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M
There is evidence that brain structure is abnormal in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium intake appears to ׳normalise׳ global and local brain volumes, but effects of antipsychotic medication on brain volume or cortical thickness are less clear. Here, we aim to disentangle disease-specific brain deviations from those induced by antipsychotic medication and lithium intake using a large homogeneous sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 266 patients and 171 control subjects. Subcortical volumes and global and focal cortical measures (volume, thickness, and surface area) were compared between patients and controls. In patients, the association between lithium and antipsychotic medication intake and global, subcortical and cortical measures was investigated. Patients showed significantly larger lateral and third ventricles, smaller total brain, caudate nucleus, and pallidum volumes and thinner cortex in some small clusters in frontal, parietal and cingulate regions as compared with controls. Lithium-free patients had significantly smaller total brain, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus and accumbens volumes compared to patients on lithium. In patients, use of antipsychotic medication was related to larger third ventricle and smaller hippocampus and supramarginal cortex volume. Patients with bipolar disorder show abnormalities in total brain, subcortical, and ventricle volume, particularly in the nucleus caudate and pallidum. Abnormalities in cortical thickness were scattered and clusters were relatively small. Lithium-free patients showed more pronounced abnormalities as compared with those on lithium. The associations between antipsychotic medication and brain volume are subtle and less pronounced than those of lithium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Thermolia, Chryssa; Bei, Ekaterini S; Petrakis, Euripides G M; Kritsotakis, Vangelis; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Sakkalis, Vangelis
The new movement to personalize treatment plans and improve prediction capabilities is greatly facilitated by intelligent remote patient monitoring and risk prevention. This paper focuses on patients suffering from bipolar disorder, a mental illness characterized by severe mood swings. We exploit the advantages of Semantic Web and Electronic Health Record Technologies to develop a patient monitoring platform to support clinicians. Relying on intelligently filtering of clinical evidence-based information and individual-specific knowledge, we aim to provide recommendations for treatment and monitoring at appropriate time or concluding into alerts for serious shifts in mood and patients' non response to treatment.
Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Minichino, Amedeo; Salviati, Massimo; Fiorentini, Samantha; Tonini, Angelo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; De Michele, Francesco; Caredda, Maria; Biondi, Massimo
Nonmotor functions of the cerebellum are well known. Within this frame, the aim of this study was to compare psychiatric morbidity rates among patients affected by cerebellar diseases or Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-seven patients (27 cerebellar and 20 PD) underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation (psychopathological rating scales and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Psychiatric disorders were slightly more frequent among cerebellar than among PD patients (89% vs. 75%; p = 0.21). Mood disorders were more frequent in the cerebellar than in the PD group (90% vs. 55%; p < 0.01). Among those subjects with no psychiatric history prior to the onset of neurological disease, bipolar spectrum disorders were more frequent within the cerebellar group (p < 0.01). These results confirm high rates of psychiatric disorders among cerebellar patients. The higher frequency of bipolar spectrum presentations found in the cerebellar group may suggest a specific involvement of cortico-cerebellar circuits in the pathophysiology of mood dysregulation.
Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.
Clinicians are less sensitive in considering the diagnosis of mania in children because of the variations in clinical presentation and because of the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. More often than the elated and expansive mood, irritability and significant aggression may be the presenting symptoms in these cases. One such case report is discussed highlighting the clinical aspects of pediatric bipolar disorder. PMID:21938101
Eker, Fatma; Harkın, Sirin
This study examined the effectiveness of a six week psychoeducation program on the adherence of patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder. An experimental study was conducted at a mood disorder outpatient clinic in Zonguldak, Turkiye. Participants were randomly assigned to either intervention (n=35) or control groups (n=36). Both groups were given pre-tests and post-tests to measure their adherence. In the psychoeducation group, the psychoeducation program was provided for 2 h/week for six weeks. In the control group, standard care and information were provided. After six weeks, the psychoeducation program significantly improved patients' adherence. The treatment adherence rate of the patients in the intervention group increased from 40.0% (14 patients on pre-test), to 86.7% (26 patients on post-test). Meanwhile, the treatment adherence rate of the control group was 38.9% (14 patients) for the pre-test, and 24.2% (8 patients) for the post-test. This controlled trial study demonstrated that a six-week psychoeducation program can be a useful intervention to improve adherence in patients undergoing bipolar affective disorder rehabilitation. More comprehensive mental health outcomes need to be undertaken. Further studies exploring a longer term follow-up are also required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delavenne, H; Khoury, J M; Thibaut, F; Garcia, F D
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500-1000. Increased incidences of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, psychotic and behavioral disorders, and sexual disorders have been reported in patients with KS. The aim of this case study was to report a case of a man with untreated KS who was also diagnosed with type II bipolar disorder. This case report raises awareness regarding psychiatric diagnoses that may be associated with such a highly prevalent condition. A 46-year-old man who had previously been diagnosed with an untreated KS was examined in our Psychiatric Department with an acute hypomanic episode. Clinical improvement was observed within 4 days and psychiatric symptoms were resolved in 7 days without use of medication. A psychiatric history of a depressive episode and at least two hypomanic episodes, as well as a family history of two relatives diagnosed with bipolar disorder, strongly suggest that our patient has type II bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder may be a comorbid disorder in patients with KS. Routine screening for mood disorders and appropriate referral and evaluation should be performed. Future genetic research is warranted to explore why some chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., duplications), especially those located on the X chromosome, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may be associated with a bipolar or psychotic disorder in some individuals but not in others.
Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Guimón, José
It has been suggested that the family history of psychotic disorders is useful in defining homogeneous groups of bipolar patients. The plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations have been related to the effect of antipsychotic treatment in psychotic patients. We have studied the influence of a positive family history of psychotic disorders both on the variation of pHVA levels and on the relation between pHVA concentrations and the clinical response to treatment. Clinical status and pHVA levels were assessed in 58 medication free patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine and lithium. Clinical improvement correlated positively with pHVA levels on the 28th day of treatment only in the patients having first degree relatives with psychotic disorders. The pHVA levels did not decrease after 28 days of treatment. Our results reinforce the idea that a positive family history of psychosis in psychotic bipolar disorders may constitute a good basis for sub-grouping these patients.
We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953
Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard
Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.
Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin
The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.
Hoertnagl, Christine M; Biedermann, Falko; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Muehlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Baumgartner, Susanne; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Hofer, Alex
Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in emotion processing that are present during both mood episodes and periods of remission. In this context, most previous studies have investigated facial emotion recognition abilities. In contrast, the current study focused on the perception of prosodic and semantic affect. The present study directly contrasted the perception of prosodic and semantic affect in 58 remitted patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder and 45 healthy volunteers by using 2 subtests of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS) and investigated the relationship of prosodic and semantic affect perception with patients' outcomes. Participants were investigated from June 2011 until May 2013. Patients and controls did not differ regarding the recognition of the vocal emotion while ignoring the affective meaning of test trials (CATS 1), but patients significantly more often misinterpreted sad as happy prosody (P = .039). In addition, patients were impaired in recognizing the affective meaning of test trials while ignoring the vocal emotion (CATS 2; P = .052). Again, they significantly more often misinterpreted a sad affective meaning as a happy one (P = .025). However, the findings on misinterpretations did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. CATS 1 test performance was negatively correlated with depression scores, whereas a positive association was found between performance on both tests and patients' functioning. Patients indicated a significantly lower quality of life (P < .001); however, multiple mediation analysis revealed that this finding was not mediated by differences in prosodic and/or semantic affect perception between the 2 groups. Even during periods of remission, patients with bipolar disorder may be impaired in semantic but not prosodic affect perception. Notably, they may frequently misinterpret sadly expressed emotions as happy ones. Our findings underscore the relevance of these
Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F
Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs
TIĞLI FİLİZER, Arzu; CERİT, Cem; TÜZÜN, Başak; AKER, Ahmet Tamer
Introduction Many studies have demonstrated that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) suffer from significant functional impairment, even during remission periods. This study aimed to assess the levels of overall functioning and specific areas of functioning in remitted patients with BD compared with those in healthy controls. Methods Eighty completely remitted patients with BD and 80 healthy controls were included in the study. The Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire (BDFQ), Young Mania Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were used. Results There were fewer married and employed cohorts in the BD group than in the control group. Compared with healthy controls, patients with BD exhibited a worse functioning in terms of intellectual and sexual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relationships, relationships with friends, and participation in social activities. There was no difference between the groups in terms of emotional functioning, daily activities and hobbies, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation. The total BDFQ scores of patients were lower than those of healthy controls. A better functionality was observed in patients using only a mood stabilizer than in patients using three or more drugs. Conclusion Remarkably, remitted patients with BD tended to perform daily activities well when these activities were not in a social context. Stigma-oriented interpersonal approaches can be particularly beneficial for these patients. PMID:28360789
Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel
Objective Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. Methods We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Results Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. Conclusion The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients. PMID:24851121
Grover, Sandeep; Ghosh, Abhishek; Sarkar, Siddharth; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit
There is limited data on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium and to study the correlates of sexual dysfunction. One hundred clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (Global Assessment for Functioning score of >70, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of ≤7 and Young Mania Rating Scale score of ≤7, and no change in medications at least in the last 3 months) receiving lithium were evaluated on Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and Brief Adherence Rating Scale. The mean age of study sample was 44.3 years. The mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was 1.06 (SD, 1.7) and the mean Young Mania Rating Scale score was 0.1 (SD, 0.5) and the mean Global Assessment for Functioning scale score was 84 (SD, 6.0). The mean duration of lithium use was approximately 119.62 (SD, 99.6) months, and the mean dose of lithium was 799.5 (SD, 251.4) mg/d. Of the 100 patients, approximately one third of the patients (n = 37) were found to have sexual dysfunction as per Arizona Sexual Experience Scale. Compared with those without sexual dysfunction, those with sexual dysfunction were older (t value = 3; P = 0.003). Those with sexual dysfunction had lower level of functioning (Global level of functioning score of 81.7 vs 85.5; t value = 3.2; P = 0.002), higher number of other adverse effects with lithium (total number of other adverse effects, 2.9 vs 1.4; t value = 4.2; P < 0.001), and poor medication compliance. To conclude, the present study suggests that approximately one third of the patients receiving lithium experience sexual dysfunction, and it is associated with poor medication adherence.
Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.
We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To examine the differences of associated characteristics and prescription drug use between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs). Patients with EDs and major depressive episode (MDE) were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics. They were interviewed and completed self-administered measures assessing eating and general psychopathology. The prescribed drugs at the index outpatient visit were recorded. Clinical characteristics and prescription drugs of groups with major depressive disorder (ED-MDD), MDE with lifetime mania (ED-BP I), and MDE with lifetime hypomania (ED-BP II) were compared. Continuous variables between groups were compared using generalized linear regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype for pair-wise comparisons. Multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of age, gender, and ED subtype was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between groups. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with EDs had a current MDE. Among them, 17.2% and 24.2% experienced associated manic and hypomanic episodes, respectively. Bipolar I and II patients displayed significantly poorer weight regulation, more severe impulsivity and emotional lability, and higher rates of co-occurring alcohol use disorders than ED-MDD patients. ED-BP I patients were found to have the lowest IQ, poorest working memory, and the most severe depression, suicidality and functional impairment among all patients. Patients with ED-BP II shared affect and behavioral dysregulations with ED-BP I, but had less severe degrees of cognitive and functional impairments than ED-BP I. Patients with ED-BP I were significantly less likely than those in the ED-MDD and ED-BP II groups to be on antidepressant monotherapy, but a great rate (27%) of ED-BP I individuals taking antidepressant monotherapy had potential risk of mood switch during the course of treatment. Our study identified discriminative features
Gulack, Brian C; Puri, Neil V; Kim, Wun J
To report the first known case of a lithium-exacerbated stutter in a pediatric patient. A 10-year-old male with a history of developmental stuttering, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder was admitted to the psychiatric hospital because of recurrent suicidal ideations and increased physical aggression toward staff at his residential facility. The patient was being treated with lithium at initial dose of 150 mg/day at bedtime for bipolar disorder NOS. When the lithium dose was increased to 900 mg twice daily to better control the bipolar symptoms, his developmental stutter worsened intensely. When the lithium dose was reduced to 600 mg in the morning and 900 mg at night, the stutter returned to baseline. No other medication changes were made during this interval. His serum lithium concentration was 0.62 mEq/L at baseline, 1.24 mEq/L during the height of his exacerbated stutter, and returned to 0.64 mEq/L after dose reduction. To our knowledge, only 1 case of lithium-exacerbated stutter has been reported in the literature, and this was in an adult. The developmental stutter of our pediatric patient worsened when he was treated with higher doses of lithium. He was on stable doses of his other medications during the adjustments to the lithium dose, making it less likely that the stutter was due to one of these medications. However, it is possible that the exacerbation involved an interaction between lithium and one or several of the other medications. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, this case represents a probable adverse drug reaction. Clinicians should be aware that an additional adverse effect of lithium may be an exacerbation of stutter.
Kim, Kyung Ran; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Se Joo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Eun; Jon, Duk-In
Mixed manic/depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder are underdiagnosed because of restrictive diagnostic criteria. Using the broader definition of a mixed episode represented by the Cincinnati criteria, we reevaluated the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized for a manic episode. We also examined the predictive power of previously unrecognized depressive symptoms. Of 520 inpatients with mania, we retrospectively diagnosed 59 (11.3%) as having a probable mixed episode. Compared with the patients with pure mania, the patients with mixed episodes were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric illness, comorbid personality disorder, and a history of suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression revealed that loss of interest, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, and feelings of helplessness had good positive predictive value (>0.7) for mixed episodes. Accurate diagnosis of mixed episodes may require a broadening of diagnostic criteria and emphasis on symptoms such as loss of interest, loss of energy, and feelings of worthlessness and helplessness.
Marrag, I; Hajji, K; Hadj Ammar, M; Zarrouk, L; Kachouri, R; Nasr, M
Bipolar disorder affects many psychosocial and functional aspects, leading to a real social handicap and an alteration in quality of life. To evaluate bipolar patients' quality of life and to identify the risk factors responsible for a deterioration. Our cross-sectional study lasted for four months and included 104 bipolar patients treated at the psychiatry consultation of the university hospital in Mahdia. The data were collected through a questionnaire composed of 52 items exploring the general characteristics of subjects, the clinical and evolutional characteristics of bipolar disorder and providing information on the treatment. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short form) generic scale. A global average score was calculated and it was considered that quality of life was altered if the score was less than 66.7, according to the threshold value of Léan. Moreover, an average score was calculated for each dimension, thus permitting us to identify those most affected. We standardized initial average scores. The assessment of quality of life revealed a global average of 52.2 and an alteration in 78.8% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that all dimensions were affected. The standardization also revealed deterioration in all dimensions, the mental component being particularly more affected than the physical component with respectively estimated scores of 31.7 and 40.5. The analytic approach concerned the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables and the occurrence of an alteration in quality of life. For this effect, a bivariate study displayed a statistically significant correlation between the eight dimensions of the SF-36 and 8 variables. In order to take into account the relationships that link each variable to the others, and to avoid the bias of the bivariate study, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Only 4 variables with discriminating weight emerged from this analysis. According to the
Ishitobi, Makoto; Kawatani, Masao; Asano, Mizuki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Goto, Takashi; Hiratani, Michio; Wada, Yuji
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been linked with the manifestation of catatonia in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by movement disorders and various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorder. We present a patient with ASD and IBGC who developed catatonia presenting with prominent dystonic feature caused by comorbid BD, which was treated effectively with quetiapine. In addition to considering the possibility of neurodegenerative disease, careful psychiatric interventions are important to avoid overlooking treatable catatonia associated with BD in cases of ASD presenting with both prominent dystonic features and apparent fluctuation of the mood state. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Powell, Timothy R; McGuffin, Peter; D'Souza, Ursula M; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Martin, Charlotte; Matthews, Keith; Day, Richard K; Farmer, Anne E; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C
Mood disorders consist of two etiologically related, but distinctly treated illnesses, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). These disorders share similarities in their clinical presentation, and thus show high rates of misdiagnosis. Recent research has revealed significant transcriptional differences within the inflammatory cytokine pathway between MDD patients and controls, and between BPD patients and controls, suggesting this pathway may possess important biomarker properties. This exploratory study attempts to identify disorder-specific transcriptional biomarkers within the inflammatory cytokine pathway, which can distinguish between control subjects, MDD patients and BPD patients. This is achieved using RNA extracted from subject blood and applying synthesized complementary DNA to quantitative PCR arrays containing primers for 87 inflammation-related genes. Initially, we use ANOVA to test for transcriptional differences in a 'discovery cohort' (total n = 90) and then we use t-tests to assess the reliability of any identified transcriptional differences in a 'validation cohort' (total n = 35). The two most robust and reliable biomarkers identified across both the discovery and validation cohort were Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) which was consistently transcribed higher amongst MDD patients relative to controls and BPD patients, and C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) which was consistently more lowly transcribed amongst MDD patients relative to controls. Results detailed here provide preliminary evidence that transcriptional measures within inflammation-related genes might be useful in aiding clinical diagnostic decision-making processes. Future research should aim to replicate findings detailed in this exploratory study in a larger medication-free sample and examine whether identified biomarkers could be used prospectively to aid clinical diagnosis.
Malhi, Gin S; Lagopoulos, Jim; Das, Pritha; Moss, Kirsteen; Berk, Michael; Coulston, Carissa M
emotions and intentions of others, and also may limit appreciation of their own illness and symptoms. Such a deficit in bipolar disorder perhaps impacts upon interpersonal relationships and adversely affects social cognition and clinical functioning. The potential implications of this putative mentalizing compromise in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder are substantial, both for the individual and for understanding the neural substrate of the illness, and therefore warrant further investigation.
Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Longo, Lucia; Polonia, Patrizia
The involvement of phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules, such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, in the pathophysiology of mood disorders is corroborated by a number of recent evidences. Our previous works identified the deletion of PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC β1 enzyme, in 4 out 15 patients affected with schizophrenia, and no deletion both in major depression affected patients and in normal controls. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with bipolar disorder. Deletion of PLCB1 was identified in one female patient.
Jones, Lisa; Scott, Jan; Haque, Sayeed; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jessica; Caesar, Sian; Cooper, Caroline; Forty, Liz; Hyde, Sally; Lyon, Louisa; Greening, Jayne; Sham, Pak; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Jones, Ian; Craddock, Nick
Abnormalities of cognitive style in bipolar disorder are of both clinical and theoretical importance. To compare cognitive style in people with affective disorders and in healthy controls. Self-rated questionnaires were administered to 118 individuals with bipolar I disorder, 265 with unipolar major recurrent depression and 268 healthy controls. Those with affective disorder were also interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and case notes were reviewed. Those with bipolar disorder and those with unipolar depression demonstrated different patterns of cognitive style from controls; negative self-esteem best discriminated between those with affective disorders and controls; measures of cognitive style were substantially affected by current levels of depressive symptomatology; patterns of cognitive style were similar in bipolar and unipolar disorder when current mental state was taken into account. Those with affective disorder significantly differed from controls on measures of cognitive style but there were no differences between unipolar and bipolar disorders when current mental state was taken into account.
Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bertoldo, Alessandra
Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.
Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Bertoldo, Alessandra
Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.
Kupfer, David J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Axelson, David A.; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Stofko, Mary G.; Birmaher, Boris; Houck, Patricia R.; Swartz, Holly A.; Brown, Charlotte; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Thase, Michael E.; Curet, David E.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Turkin, Scott R.; Fagiolini, Andrea; Pollock, Bruce G.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Frank, Ellen
Objective Adolescents, elderly persons, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder are less likely than their middle-aged, white, urban counterparts to be diagnosed, receive adequate treatment, remain in treatment once identified, and have positive outcomes. The Bipolar Disorder Center for Pennsylvanians (BDCP) study was designed to address these disparities. This report highlights the methods used to recruit, screen, and enroll a cohort of difficult-to-recruit individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Study sites included three specialty clinics for bipolar disorder in a university setting and a rural behavioral health clinic. Study operations were standardized, and all study personnel were trained in study procedures. Several strategies were used for recruitment. Results It was possible to introduce the identical assessment and screening protocol in settings regardless of whether they had a history of implementing research protocols. This protocol was also able to be used across the age spectrum, in urban and rural areas, and in a racially diverse cohort of participants. Across the four sites 515 individuals with bipolar disorder were enrolled as a result of these methods (69 African Americans and 446 non–African Americans). Although clinical characteristics at study entry did not differ appreciably between African Americans and non–African Americans, the pathways into treatment differed significantly. Conclusions Rigorous recruitment and assessment procedures can be successfully introduced in different settings and with different patient cohorts, thus facilitating access to high-quality treatment for individuals who frequently do not receive appropriate care for bipolar disorder. PMID:19564218
Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field.
Post, Robert M; Leverich, Gabriele S; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Altshuler, Lori L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Nolen, Willem A
We previously found that compared with Europe more parents of the USA patients were positive for a mood disorder, and that this was associated with early onset bipolar disorder. Here we examine family history of psychiatric illness in more detail across several generations. A total of 968 outpatients (average age 41) with bipolar disorder from four sites in the USA and three in the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated as Europe) gave informed consent and provided detailed demographic and family history information on a patient questionnaire. Family history of psychiatric illness (bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and other illness) was collected for each parent, four grandparents, siblings, and children. Parents of the probands with bipolar disorder from the USA compared with Europe had a significantly higher incidence of both unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, as well as each of the other psychiatric conditions listed above. With a few exceptions, this burden of psychiatric disorders was also significantly greater in the grandparents, siblings, and children of the USA versus European patients. The increased complexity of psychiatric illness and its occurrence over several generations in the families of patients with bipolar disorder from the USA versus Europe could be contributing to the higher incidence of childhood onsets and greater virulence of illness in the USA compared with Europe. These data are convergent with others suggesting increased both genetic and environmental risk in the USA, but require replication in epidemiologically-derived populations with data based on interviews of the family members.
Weinstock, Lauren M; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Wenze, Susan J; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W
Published data suggest that cannabis use is associated with several negative consequences for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), including new manic episode onset, psychosis, and functional disability. Yet much less is known about cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in this population, especially in more acutely symptomatic groups. To evaluate correlates of CUD comorbidity in BD, a retrospective chart review was conducted for 230 adult patients with bipolar I disorder (BDI) who were admitted to a university-affiliated private psychiatric hospital. Using a computer algorithm, a hospital administrator extracted relevant demographic and clinical data from the electronic medical record for analysis. Thirty-six (16%) had a comorbid CUD. CUD comorbidity was significantly associated with younger age, manic/mixed episode polarity, presence of psychotic features, and comorbid nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and other substance use disorders, but was associated with decreased likelihood of anxiety disorder comorbidity. With the exception of manic/mixed polarity and AUD comorbidity, results from multivariate analyses controlling for the presence of other SUDs were consistent with univariate findings. Patients with BD and comorbid CUDs appear to be a complex population with need for enhanced clinical monitoring. Given increasing public acceptance of cannabis use, and the limited availability of evidenced-based interventions targeted toward CUDs in BD, psychoeducation and other treatment development efforts appear to be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weinstock, Lauren M.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Wenze, Susan J.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Miller, Ivan W.
Background Published data suggest that cannabis use is associated with several negative consequences for individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), including new manic episode onset, psychosis, and functional disability. Yet much less is known about cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in this population, especially in more acutely symptomatic groups. Methods To evaluate correlates of CUD comorbidity in BD, a retrospective chart review was conducted for 230 adult patients with bipolar I disorder (BDI) who were admitted to a university-affiliated private psychiatric hospital. Using a computer algorithm, a hospital administrator extracted relevant demographic and clinical data from the electronic medical record for analysis. Results Thirty-six (16%) had a comorbid CUD. CUD comorbidity was significantly associated with younger age, manic/mixed episode polarity, presence of psychotic features, and comorbid nicotine dependence, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and other substance use disorders, but was associated with decreased likelihood of anxiety disorder comorbidity. With the exception of manic/mixed polarity and AUD comorbidity, results from multivariate analyses controlling for the presence of other SUDs were consistent with univariate findings. Conclusion Patients with BD and comorbid CUDs appear to be a complex population with need for enhanced clinical monitoring. Given increasing public acceptance of cannabis use, and the limited availability of evidenced-based interventions targeted toward CUDs in BD, psychoeducation and other treatment development efforts appear to be warranted. PMID:26773991
McDonald, Leah J.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Kolodziej, Monika E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.
In this exploratory analysis, we assessed the effect of drug use among social network members on recovery from drug dependence in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder. Patients (n=57) enrolled in a group therapy study completed assessments over 15 months. Patients with 0–1 drug users in their social networks at intake had few days of drug use during treatment and follow-up, whereas those with ≥ 2 drug users had significantly more days of drug use. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who consistently named multiple drug users in their social networks had a marked increase in drug use over 15 months, while those who never or occasionally named multiple drug users had a small decline in drug use over time. Multiple drug users in social networks of treatment-seeking drug dependent patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder may indicate poor drug use outcomes; efforts to reduce the association with drug users may be useful. This clinical trial has been registered in a public trials registry at clinicaltrials.gov (identifier is NCT00227838). PMID:21314751
Maji, K R; Sood, Mamta; Sagar, Rajesh; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Research in the last two decades has documented a high level of burden in caregivers of bipolar disorder. The present study is aimed at studying family burden among relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Thirty four consecutive hospitalized patients with bipolar affective disorder currently in mania and their relatives were assessed twice: at the time of admission and during follow-up four weeks after discharge. A semi-structured performa designed for the study was completed. Patients were assessed on Young's Mania Rating Scale and relatives were assessed on Family Burden Assessment Scale. More than 90% of family members reported severe subjective (rated by relative) and objective burden (rated by interviewer) at admission; none of them was free of burden. At the time of follow-up, about one quarter (23.5%) and two thirds (64.7%) of family members did not experience any objective and subjective burden respectively; subjective and objective family burden was moderate in about one third (35.3%) and a half (52.9%), respectively. None of the family members reported severe burden subjectively, while the objective burden was rated to be severe in a quarter (23.5%) of family members. The study was limited by the lack of a control group from an outpatient setting as hospitalization increases family burden. Also, the rater at the second assessment was not blind to ratings at the first assessment. Almost all the family members experienced severe burden initially. Even when symptoms subsided, family members continued to experience burden specifically related to finances. burden was significantly higher than subjective burden.
Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643
Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Simonetti, Alessio; Milioni, Mara; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Scatena, Paola; Fensore, Claudio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo
A woman with bipolar disorder I, histrionic personality disorder, and suicidal ideation with repeated suicide attempts, who had been treated for 2 years with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, received a total of 8 bitemporal-biparietal electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Her suicidal ideation and self-harm behavior disappeared immediately after the first session and her psychopathology soon after. This supports the existence of a relatively independent suicidal syndrome and confirms data on its immediate responsiveness to electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy must not be long withheld from patients with such characteristics to reduce unnecessary sufferance and suicidality.
Li, Xian-Bin; Liu, Jin-Tong; Zhu, Xiong-Zhao; Zhang, Liang; Tang, Yi-Lang; Wang, Chuan-Yue
Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has a long-term consequence, a few studies have examined the relationship between childhood trauma and clinical features of bipolar disorder, most in western culture, with no such studies done in Chinese culture. The CTQ-SF was administered to 132 Chinese patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder. Participants also completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q), the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The relationship between childhood trauma and clinical features of bipolar disorder were examined. The internal consistency of CTQ-SF was good (Cronbach׳s α=0.826) and four week test-retest reliability was high (r=0.755). 61.4% of this sample reported physical neglect (PN) in childhood, followed by emotional neglect (EN, 49.6%), sexual abuse (SA, 40.5%), emotional abuse (EA, 26.0%) and physical abuse (PA,13.1%). Significant negative correlations existed between age of onset and EA and EN score (r=-0.178~-0.183, p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between EA, CTQ-SF total score and intrusion and hyper-arousal scores of IES-R (r=0.223~0.309, p<0.05). Similarly, significant positive correlations were found between EN, PN, CTQ-SF total and STAI score (r=0.222~0.425, p<0.05). Data on childhood trauma were derived from a retrospective self-report questionnaire without independent corroboration. A number of potential patients (more severe or chronic patients) was excluded because they were either refused to participate or inappropriate to participate in research. Significant number of subjects in patients with BD reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with age of onset of illness, co morbid PTSD and anxiety symptoms. To study the pathogenesis of childhood trauma on bipolar disorder
Vreeker, A; Boks, M P M; Abramovic, L; Verkooijen, S; van Bergen, A H; Hillegers, M H J; Spijker, A T; Hoencamp, E; Regeer, E J; Riemersma-Van der Lek, R F; Stevens, A W M M; Schulte, P F J; Vonk, R; Hoekstra, R; van Beveren, N J M; Kupka, R W; Brouwer, R M; Bearden, C E; MacCabe, J H; Ophoff, R A
Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relatives have similar lower intellectual and educational performance as that observed in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study investigated intelligence and educational performance in two outpatient samples [494 BD-I patients, 952 schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ) patients], 2231 relatives of BD-I and SCZ patients, 1104 healthy controls and 100 control siblings. Mixed-effects and regression models were used to compare groups on intelligence and educational performance. BD-I patients were more likely to have completed the highest level of education (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.66-2.70) despite having a lower IQ compared to controls (β = -9.09, S.E. = 1.27, p < 0.001). In contrast, SCZ patients showed both a lower IQ (β = -15.31, S.E. = 0.86, p < 0.001) and lower educational levels compared to controls. Siblings of both patient groups had significantly lower IQ than control siblings, but did not differ on educational performance. IQ scores did not differ between BD-I parents and SCZ parents, but BD-I parents had completed higher educational levels. Although BD-I patients had a lower IQ than controls, they were more likely to have completed the highest level of education. This contrasts with SCZ patients, who showed both intellectual and educational deficits compared to healthy controls. Since relatives of BD-I patients did not demonstrate superior educational performance, our data suggest that high educational performance may be a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder patients.
Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos
Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets. PMID:23554570
Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos
Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%-5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.
Pan, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Liu, Shi-Kai
Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have affect recognition deficits. Whether affect recognition deficits constitute a state or trait marker of BD has great etiopathological significance. The current study aims to explore the interrelationships between affect recognition and basic neurocognitive functions for patients with BD across different mood states, using the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy-2, Taiwanese version (DANVA-2-TW) as the index measure for affect recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining affect recognition deficits of BPD across mood states in the Han Chinese population. Twenty-nine manic patients, 16 remitted patients with BD, and 40 control subjects are included in the study. Distinct association patterns between affect recognition and neurocognitive functions are demonstrated for patients with BD and control subjects, implicating alternations in emotion associated neurocognitive processing. Compared to control subjects, manic patients but not remitted subjects perform significantly worse in the recognition of negative emotions as a whole and specifically anger, after adjusting for differences in general intellectual ability and basic neurocognitive functions. Affect recognition deficit may be a relatively independent impairment in BD rather than consequences arising from deficits in other basic neurocognition. The impairments of manic patients in the recognition of negative emotions, specifically anger, may further our understanding of core clinical psychopathology of BD and have implications in treating bipolar patients across distinct mood phases.
Huang, Ru-Yu; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Huang, Wan-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin
Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, which is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the association between lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A retrospective cohort study was designed using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients using lithium comprised the index drug group and patients using anticonvulsants only comprised the control group. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of cancer. Compared with anticonvulsant-only exposure, lithium exposure was associated with significantly lower cancer risk (HR = 0.735, 95% CI 0.554-0.974). The hazard ratios for the first, second and third tertiles of the cumulative defined daily dose were 0.762 (95% CI 0.516-1.125), 0.919 (95% CI 0.640-1.318) and 0.552 (95% CI 0.367-0.831), respectively. Lithium is associated with reduced overall cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship for cancer risk reduction was observed. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Clarkin, J F; Carpenter, D; Hull, J; Wilner, P; Glick, I
The relative benefit of adding a structured psychoeducational intervention to standard medication treatment for married patients with bipolar disorder and their spouses was assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either medication management or medication management plus a marital intervention with their spouses for an 11-month period. Patients' symptoms, functioning, and adherence to their medication regimens were measured at study entry and at 11 months. Significant effects favoring the combined treatments were observed for overall patient functioning but not for symptom levels. The marital intervention was associated with improved medication adherence. Combined psychosocial and medication treatment does not affect patients' symptom levels beyond the effects of medication alone, but it does result in significant incremental gains in overall patient functioning.
Faridhosseini, Farhad; Baniasadi, Mehdi; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Pourgholami, Meysam; Ahrari, Samira; Asgharipour, Negar
Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder with frequent recurrences. Besides pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation could be helpful in reducing symptoms as well as recurrence of this disorder, leading to improvement of patients' quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of a culturally adjusted structured program for training Iranian BD patients. Method: In a 6-month course (spring and summer 2014), 24 BD patients, visiting the outpatient clinic of Ibn-Sina Hospital in Mashhad and experiencing euthymic phase, were allocated in to 2 groups of intervention and control. The intervention group received 8 sessions of psychoeducation in four weeks. Patients in the control group received the usual treatment. The patients were evaluated with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Short Form 36 before the intervention and 4 weeks later, and the results were compared using independent t test. The patients were reexamined after 6 months for recurrence, hospitalization, treatment adherence, and visiting a psychiatrist, and were compared with patients in the control groups. Results: There was a significant difference in the intervention group in improvement in quality of life before and after treatment (p<0.003). In addition, the difference was significant between the 2 groups in the number of recurrence (p<0.001) and hospitalization (p<0.000) in 6 months. Conclusion: In addition to pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation of patients with BD can improve their quality of life and decrease the risk of disorder recurrence.
Miller, Christopher J.; Abraham, Kristen M.; Bajor, Laura A.; Lai, Zongshan; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nord, Kristina M.; Goodrich, David E.; Bauer, Mark S.; Kilbourne, Amy M.
Introduction Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment across a number of domains, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Many patients are treated exclusively in primary care (PC) settings, yet little is known how HRQOL outcomes compare between PC and community mental health (CMH) settings. This study aimed to explore the correlates of HRQOL across treatment settings using baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for adults with bipolar disorder. Methods HRQOL was measured using the SF-12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health scales. Independent sample t-tests were calculated to compare differences in HRQOL between settings. Multivariate regression models then examined the effect of treatment setting on HRQOL, adjusting for covariate demographic factors, mood symptoms (Internal State Scale), hazardous drinking (AUDIT-C), and substance abuse. Results A total of 384 enrolled participants completed baseline surveys. MCS and PCS scores reflected similar impairment in HRQOL across PC and CMH settings (p = .98 and p = .49, respectively). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower MCS scores (B = −.68, p < .001) while arthritis/chronic pain was strongly related to lower PCS scores (B = −5.23, p < .001). Limitations This study lacked a formal diagnostic interview, relied on cross-sectional self-report, and sampled from a small number of sites in two states. Discussion Participants reported similar impairments in both mental and physical HRQOL in PC and CMH treatment settings, emphasizing the need for integrated care for patients with bipolar disorder regardless of where they present for treatment. PMID:22981021
Miller, Christopher J; Abraham, Kristen M; Bajor, Laura A; Lai, Zongshan; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nord, Kristina M; Goodrich, David E; Bauer, Mark S; Kilbourne, Amy M
Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment across a number of domains, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Many patients are treated exclusively in primary care (PC) settings, yet little is known how HRQOL outcomes compare between PC and community mental health (CMH) settings. This study aimed to explore the correlates of HRQOL across treatment settings using baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for adults with bipolar disorder. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) composite scale scores. Independent sample t-tests were calculated to compare differences in HRQOL between settings. Multivariate regression models then examined the effect of treatment setting on HRQOL, adjusting for covariate demographic factors, mood symptoms (Internal State Scale), hazardous drinking (AUDIT-C), and substance abuse. A total of 384 enrolled participants completed baseline surveys. MCS and PCS scores reflected similar impairment in HRQOL across PC and CMH settings (p=0.98 and p=0.49, respectively). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower MCS scores (B=-0.68, p<0.001) while arthritis/chronic pain was strongly related to lower PCS scores (B=-5.23, p<0.001). This study lacked a formal diagnostic interview, relied on cross-sectional self-report, and sampled from a small number of sites in two states. Participants reported similar impairments in both mental and physical HRQOL in PC and CMH treatment settings, emphasizing the need for integrated care for patients with bipolar disorder regardless of where they present for treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zyto, Susan; Jabben, Nienke; Schulte, Peter F J; Regeer, Barbara J; Kupka, Ralph W
Bipolar disorder has been associated with a decrease in cognitive functioning affecting the functional outcome of patients independent of mood states. However, there have only been few attempts to investigate the effects of functional remediation for patients with bipolar disorder. The current study investigates the feasibility and effectiveness of a combined group and individual functional remediation program for bipolar disorder, including both patients and their caregivers. Twelve participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, and their caregivers, were treated with a combined group and individual functional remediation program. The feasibility of the program was evaluated by dropout rates and participants' evaluations of the program. The effectiveness of the program was explored through the assessment of functional outcome at baseline, immediately post-treatment, and follow-up three months later. The results indicate a high degree of satisfaction and a low dropout rate with the current program. Assessment of outcomes suggests improved functioning in the areas of autonomy and occupational functioning, evolving from baseline to follow-up. Due to a small sample size and the lack of a control group the results are preliminary. This relatively brief intervention offers a more tailor-made approach to functional remediation and shows good feasibility, acceptability and improvement of functioning in patients with bipolar I disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Riskind, John H.
This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…
Riskind, John H.
This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…
Kittel-Schneider, S; Wobrock, T; Scherk, H; Schneider-Axmann, T; Trost, S; Zilles, D; Wolf, C; Schmitt, A; Malchow, B; Hasan, A; Backens, M; Reith, W; Falkai, P; Gruber, O; Reif, A
The diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) gene, first identified in a genome-wide association study, is one of the few replicated risk genes of bipolar affective disorder (BD). Following initial positive studies, it not only was found to be associated with BD but also implicated in the etiology of other psychiatric disorders featuring affective symptoms, rendering DGKH a cross-disorder risk gene. However, the (patho-)physiological role of the encoded enzyme is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated primarily the influence of a risk haplotype on amygdala volume in patients suffering from schizophrenia or BD as well as healthy controls and four single nucleotide polymorphisms conveying risk. There was a significant association of the DGKH risk haplotype with increased amygdala volume in BD, but not in schizophrenia or healthy controls. These findings add to the notion of a role of DGKH in the pathogenesis of BD.
Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such
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Grünerbl, Agnes; Muaremi, Amir; Osmani, Venet; Bahle, Gernot; Ohler, Stefan; Tröster, Gerhard; Mayora, Oscar; Haring, Christian; Lukowicz, Paul
Today's health care is difficult to imagine without the possibility to objectively measure various physiological parameters related to patients' symptoms (from temperature through blood pressure to complex tomographic procedures). Psychiatric care remains a notable exception that heavily relies on patient interviews and self-assessment. This is due to the fact that mental illnesses manifest themselves mainly in the way patients behave throughout their daily life and, until recently there were no "behavior measurement devices." This is now changing with the progress in wearable activity recognition and sensor enabled smartphones. In this paper, we introduce a system, which, based on smartphone-sensing is able to recognize depressive and manic states and detect state changes of patients suffering from bipolar disorder. Drawing upon a real-life dataset of ten patients, recorded over a time period of 12 weeks (in total over 800 days of data tracing 17 state changes) by four different sensing modalities, we could extract features corresponding to all disease-relevant aspects in behavior. Using these features, we gain recognition accuracies of 76% by fusing all sensor modalities and state change detection precision and recall of over 97%. This paper furthermore outlines the applicability of this system in the physician-patient relations in order to facilitate the life and treatment of bipolar patients.
Wysokiński, Adam; Strzelecki, Dominik; Kłoszewska, Iwona
The aim of this study is to investigate differences in triglycerides (TGA), cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and glucose (FPG) levels in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Results for 2305 Caucasian patients were included in the study (1377 women, 59.7%; mean age 45.6). Mean TGA level was: schizophrenia: 139.9±90.6 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.4±70.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 141.1±81.9 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 147.7±82.8 mg/dL mg/dL, bipolar mania: 120.2±76.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean TC level was: schizophrenia: 188.5±40.4 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 198.8±50.7 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 194.4±48.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 198.9±48.8 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 180.1±43.8 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean HDL level was: schizophrenia: 45.3±13.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 48.1±14.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 45.4±15.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 45.1±15.4 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 46.4±15.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean LDL level was: schizophrenia: 115.4±34.7 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.7±44.1 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 120.9±42.1 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 124.5±43.1 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 109.3±36.9 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean FPG level was: schizophrenia: 95.9±24.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 94.8±22.9 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 97.2±24.4 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 98.3±25.3 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 93.9±21.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were not significant (p=0.08). Odds ratios for glucose and lipids abnormalities, correlations with age, sex distribution in diagnostic groups for normal ranges of glucose and lipids, differences in glucose and lipids levels between the age groups were also calculated. Our results confirm that there is a high prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders (both unipolar and
Women with bipolar disorder often ask their treating clinician for information about family planning, as they are concerned about the impact of their illness on offspring. Three areas that should be included in discussions with patients and their partners are heritability of the disorder, risks during pregnancy, and risks during the postpartum period. The author summarizes information about genetic transmission of bipolar disorder, effects on bipolar patients of stress associated with pregnancy and childrearing, and effects of medication on the fetus and newborn. Discussion of these issues is most relevant for a women patient who is planning a pregnancy, but may also be useful for couples before marriage, for a women patient who finds that she is pregnant, and for men with bipolar disorder who want to become fathers.
Giglio, Larriany Maria Falsin; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Andersen, Mônica Levy; Walz, Julio Cesar; Jakobson, Lourenço; Kapczinski, Flávio
A role for circadian rhythm abnormalities in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested. The present study assessed circadian preference, a subjective preference for activities in the morning or evening related to chronotype. The sample was comprised of 81 outpatients with BD in remission and 79 control subjects. Circadian preference was derived from an interview evaluating biological rhythms and sleep pattern from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients were significantly more likely to have an evening preference than control subjects. Circadian preference was also associated with sleep latency. The association of evening preference and longer sleep latency may be related to the frequent clinical observation of a sleep/wake cycle reversal in bipolar disorder.
Abé, Christoph; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology. Methods We used MRI to measure cortical volume, thickness and area in patients with BDI and BDII as well as in healthy controls. The large study cohort enabled us to adjust for important confounding factors. Results We included 81 patients with BDI, 59 with BDII and 85 controls in our analyses. Cortical volume, thickness and surface area abnormalities were present in frontal, temporal and medial occipital regions in patients with BD. Lithium and antiepileptic drug use had an effect on the observed differences in medial occipital regions. Patients with the subtypes BDI and BDII displayed common cortical abnormalities, such as lower volume, thickness and surface area than healthy controls in frontal brain regions but differed in temporal and medial prefrontal regions, where only those with BDI had abnormally low cortical volume and thickness. Limitations The group differences can be explained by progressive changes, but also by premorbid conditions. They could also have been influenced by unknown factors, such as social, environmental or genetic factors. Conclusion Our findings suggest diagnosis-related neurobiological differences between the BD subtypes, which could explain distinct symptoms and
Peitl, Marija Vucić; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Grahovac, Tanja; Pavlović, Eudard
Risperidone, as all atypical antipsychotics, can cause hyperprolactinemia which can in turn lead to galactorrhea. Mood stabilizers, one of which is valproic acid and its derivate "Depakine Chrono", are rarely linked with symptomatic hyperprolactinemia and do not alter prolactin concentrations. This case is based around a patient suffering from a bipolar disorder that has been psychiatrically treated in an outpatient clinic during four years. Bipolar disorder treatment was started with carbamazepine, but later it was discontinued due to adverse events and extreme increase of liver transaminases. Treatment was continued with introduction of lithium, but the patient stated that she could not tolerate it. Subsequently, her endocrinologist advised for lithium discontinuation due to very severe osteoporosis. At the beginning of 2009, lithium was discontinued and Depakine Chrono was introduced. Due to patient's psychotic decompensation it was necessary to introduce risperidone into treatment and soon afterwards her psychotic symptoms settled. After several months of treatment her mood lowered, she began to feel sedated, psychomotorically retarded and that lead to dose lowering of Depakine Chrono and risperidone, at which point galactorrhea as a serious adverse event occurred. Occurrence of galactorrhea at lower risperidone doses in this case might be partially explained by recent studies that showed that lower doses of risperidone can also improve psychic state, but could also cause adverse events. Although galactorrhea, as a direct consequence of hyperprolactinemia caused by risperidone has mainly been researched with higher doses of this atypical antipsychotic, we have to keep in mind that lower doses could also cause serious adverse events.
Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Cuénoud, Sandrine; Stauffer-Corminboeuf, Marie-Joëlle; Aillon, Nancy; Perroud, Nader; Aubry, Jean-Michel
Psychoeducation is a key element in the management of patients with bipolar disorders. The present study explored the perception of patients and family members with respect to group psychoeducation for relatives. Patients (n = 20) and relatives (n = 26) were assessed with questionnaires about perceived benefits and quality of life (median 4 years after participation). A large majority (>80%) of relatives acknowledged benefits with respect to easier detection of the early warning signs of relapse, improved quality of life, feeling more involved, and engaging in higher quality caregiving activities. Patients were less positive in general, but agreed that the program had helped them deal with crises, increased their feeling of being understood by relatives, and promoted positive changes in the family (>60%). Perceived positive changes in the family were associated with higher quality of life for relatives and patients. The present study highlights the importance of communication enhancement in group psychoeducation for relatives.
Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla
Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.
Calkin, Cynthia V; Ruzickova, Martina; Uher, Rudolf; Hajek, Tomas; Slaney, Claire M; Garnham, Julie S; O'Donovan, M Claire; Alda, Martin
Little is known about the impact of insulin resistance on bipolar disorder. To examine the relationships between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and clinical course and treatment outcomes in bipolar disorder. We measured fasting glucose and insulin in 121 adults with bipolar disorder. We diagnosed type 2 diabetes and determined insulin resistance. The National Institute of Mental Health Life Chart was used to record the course of bipolar disorder and the Alda scale to establish response to prophylactic lithium treatment. Patients with bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance had three times higher odds of a chronic course of bipolar disorder compared with euglycaemic patients (50% and 48.7% respectively v. 27.3%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.07, P = 0.007), three times higher odds of rapid cycling (38.5% and 39.5% respectively v. 18.2%, OR = 3.13, P = 0.012) and were more likely to be refractory to lithium treatment (36.8% and 36.7% respectively v. 3.2%, OR = 8.40, P<0.0001). All associations remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic exposure and body mass index in sensitivity analyses. Comorbid insulin resistance may be an important factor in resistance to treatment in bipolar disorder. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Ehrlich, André; Schubert, Florian; Pehrs, Corinna; Gallinat, Jürgen
The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) mostly remains unclear. However, some findings argue for a dysfunction in glutamatergic neurotransmission in BD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T was used to determine glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the hippocampus (HC) of euthymic outpatients with BP-I disorder and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with BD, glutamate concentrations were significantly increased in the ACC and decreased in the HC compared with concentrations in controls. Significant group differences were also measured for N-acetyl aspartate and choline; no differences were found for other metabolites examined. An inverse correlation was observed for glutamate concentrations in the ACC and number of episodes. The findings of the study add to the concept of abnormalities in glutamatergic regulation in the ACC and HC in patients with BD.
PENG, Daihui; JIANG, Kaida
Summary Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients. PMID:26549961
Manning, J Sloan
There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality.
Nestsiarovich, Anastasiya; Hurwitz, Nathaniel G; Nelson, Stuart J; Crisanti, Annette S; Kerner, Berit; Kuntz, Matt J; Smith, Alicia N; Volesky, Emma; Schroeter, Quentin L; DeShaw, Jason L; Young, S Stanley; Obenchain, Robert L; Krall, Ronald L; Jordan, Kimmie; Fawcett, Jan; Tohen, Mauricio; Perkins, Douglas J; Lambert, Christophe G
As part of a series of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded large-scale retrospective observational studies on bipolar disorder (BD) treatments and outcomes, we sought the input of patients with BD and their family members to develop research questions. We aimed to identify systemic root causes of patient-reported challenges with BD management in order to guide subsequent studies and initiatives. Three focus groups were conducted where patients and their family members (total n = 34) formulated questions around the central theme, "What do you wish you had known in advance or over the course of treatment for BD?" In an affinity mapping exercise, participants clustered their questions and ranked the resulting categories by importance. The research team and members of our patient partner advisory council further rated the questions by expected impact on patients. Using a Theory of Constraints systems thinking approach, several causal models of BD management challenges and their potential solution were developed with patients using the focus group data. A total of 369 research questions were mapped to 33 categories revealing 10 broad themes. The top priorities for patient stakeholders involved pharmacotherapy and treatment alternatives. Analysis of causal relationships underlying 47 patient concerns revealed two core conflicts: for patients, whether or not to take pharmacotherapy, and for mental health services, the dilemma of care quality vs quantity. To alleviate the core conflicts identified, BD management requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach including: improved access to mental health services, objective diagnostics, sufficient provider visit time, evidence-based individualized treatment, and psychosocial support. © 2017 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoertnagl, Christine M; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Baumgartner, Susanne; Biedermann, Falko; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Mühlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W; Hofer, Alex
Affect perception has frequently been shown to be impaired in patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD), but it remains unclear whether these impairments exist during symptomatic remission and whether the two disorders differ from each other in this regard. Most previous studies have investigated facial affect recognition, but not the ability to decode mental states from emotional tone of voice, i.e. affective prosody perception (APP). Accordingly, the present study directly compared APP in symptomatically remitted patients with schizophrenia or BD and healthy control subjects and investigated its relationship with residual symptomatology in patients. Patients with schizophrenia and BD showed comparable APP impairments despite being symptomatically remitted. In comparison to healthy control subjects, overall APP deficits were found in BD but not in schizophrenia patients. Both patient groups were particularly impaired in the identification of anger and confounded it with neutral prosody. In addition, schizophrenia patients frequently confused sadness with happiness, anger, or fright. There was an inverse association between the degree of residual positive symptoms and the ability to correctly recognize happiness in schizophrenia patients. Overall, these data indicate that impairments in APP represent an enduring deficit and a trait marker of both schizophrenia and BD and that the level of impairment is comparable between disorders.
Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan
Suicide is a leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. Risk factors and prevention of suicide in this illness are the focus of considerable current research. MEDLINE data base was searched for the key words "bipolar disorder" with "suicide", "lithium" with "suicide", "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder", and "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder" and with "suicide". No language or time constraints were applied. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. It is estimated that 25% to 50% of patients with bipolar disorder will attempt suicide at least once over their lifetime, and that 8% to 19% will complete suicide. Mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are elevated in bipolar disorder. Risk factors for suicide include younger age of onset of the illness, history of past suicidal behavior, family history of suicide acts, comorbid borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders, and hopelessness. The warning signs calling for immediate action include the patients threatening to harm themselves, or looking for ways to kill themselves (seeking access to pills or weapons), or the patient talking or writing about death. Robust evidence supports the effects of lithium treatment in reducing suicidal attempts and completions in bipolar disorder. The evidence for antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsants is weaker. Nevertheless, valproate and other anticonvulsants are frequently prescribed as mood stabilizers. There have been controversial suggestions that this treatment may elevate the risk of suicide, but the data supporting this are not convincing. Psychoeducation can reduce the number of suicide attempts and completions. Suicide in bipolar disorder is a major public health problem. Recent research has expanded our knowledge of risk factors and warning signs. Nevertheless, it appears that the introduction of lithium treatment in the 1970s was the most recent important breakthrough in the prevention
Ifteni, Petru; Teodorescu, Andreea; Moga, Marius Alexandru; Pascu, Alina Mihaela; Miclaus, Roxana Steliana
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with periodic symptom exacerbations, leading to functional impairment, and increased risk of suicide. Although clozapine has never been approved for the treatment of BD, it is occasionally used in severe mania. The aim of the study is to evaluate the risks and benefits of switching clozapine in remitted BD patients. This is an observational, mirror image study of 62 consecutive remitted BD outpatients treated with clozapine. Twenty-five patients were switched to another antipsychotic following a change in a drug reimbursement rule, while 37 continued on clozapine. The mean time in remission was shorter for the switched group (9.2±4 months vs 13±6 months, P=0.018), and the number of patients who relapsed was larger (n=21 vs n=8, P<0.0001). The results suggest that switching from clozapine to another antipsychotic may increase the risk of relapses in remitted patients with BD. PMID:28182153
Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Calati, Raffaella; Linotte, Sylvie; Sentissi, Othman; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Kasper, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; De Ronchi, Diana; Mendlewicz, Julien; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Souery, Daniel
The extent to which a family history of mood disorders and suicide could impact on clinical features of patients suffering from major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) has received relatively little attention so far. The aim of the present work is, therefore, to assess the clinical implications of the presence of at least one first- and/or second-degree relative with a history of MD, BD and suicide in a large sample of patients with MD or BD. One thousand one hundred and fifty-seven subjects with MD and 686 subjects with BD were recruited within the context of two large projects. The impact of a family history of MD, BD, and suicide-considered both separately and together-on clinical and socio-demographic variables was investigated. A family history of MD, BD, and suicide was more common in BD patients than in MD patients. A positive family history of mood disorders and/or suicide as well as a positive family history of MD and BD separately considered, but not a positive history of suicide alone, were significantly associated with a comorbidity with several anxiety disorders and inversely associated with age of onset. The clinical implications as well as the limitations of our findings are discussed.
Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi S; Lee, Jong-Min; Alonso, Isabel; Gusella, James F; Smoller, Jordan W; Sklar, Pamela; MacDonald, Marcy E; Perlis, Roy H
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that are caused by huntingtin gene (HTT) CAG trinucleotide repeat alleles of 36 or more units. A greater than expected prevalence of incompletely penetrant HTT CAG repeat alleles observed among individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder raises the possibility that another mood disorder, bipolar disorder, could likewise be associated with Huntington's disease. We assessed the distribution of HTT CAG repeat alleles in a cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder. HTT CAG allele sizes from 2,229 Caucasian individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were compared to allele sizes in 1,828 control individuals from multiple cohorts. We found that HTT CAG repeat alleles > 35 units were observed in only one of 4,458 chromosomes from individuals with bipolar disorder, compared to three of 3,656 chromosomes from control subjects. These findings do not support an association between bipolar disorder and Huntington's disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009.
Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Schaffer, Ayal; Parikh, Sagar V; Beaulieu, Serge; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L Trevor; Young, Allan H; Alda, Martin; Milev, Roumen; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R; Berk, Michael; Ha, Kyooseob; Kapczinski, Flávio
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update. This second update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications. The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain mostly unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotics continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Tamoxifen is now suggested as a third-line augmentation option. The combination of olanzapine and carbamazepine is not recommended. For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. New data support the use of adjunctive modafinil as a second-line option, but also indicate that aripiprazole should not be used as monotherapy for bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, and olanzapine continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. New data support the use of quetiapine monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the prevention of manic and depressive events, aripiprazole monotherapy for the prevention of manic events, and risperidone long-acting injection monotherapy and adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive ziprasidone for the prevention of mood events. Bipolar II disorder is frequently overlooked in treatment guidelines, but has an important clinical impact on patients' lives. This update provides an expanded look at bipolar II disorder.
... 7 Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 8 Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 9 Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (5 links) Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance: Finding the Right Treatment ...
Bezerra, Severino; Galvão-de-Almeida, Amanda; Studart, Paula; Martins, Davi F; Caribé, André C; Schwingel, Paulo A; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela
To evaluate the association between personality disorders (PDs) and suicide attempts (SAs) in euthymic patients with type I bipolar disorder (BD). One-hundred twenty patients with type I BD, with and without history of SA, were evaluated during euthymia. The assessment included a clinical and sociodemographic questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders. Logistic regression was employed to determine associations between history of SA and patient characteristics. History of SA was significantly associated with comorbid axis I disorder, rapid cycling, high impulsivity (attentional, motor, non-planning, and total), having any PD, and cluster B and C PDs. Only cluster B PDs, high attentional impulsivity, and lack of paid occupation remained significant after multivariate analysis. Cluster B PDs were significantly associated with SA in patients with type I BD. High attentional impulsivity and lack of gainful employment were also associated with SA, which suggests that some cluster B clinical and social characteristics may exacerbate suicidal behavior in this population. This finding offers alternatives for new therapeutic interventions.
Salvini, Rogerio; da Silva Dias, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Dutra, Inês
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic and disabling disease that usually appears around 20 to 30 years old. Patients who suffer with BD may struggle for years to achieve a correct diagnosis, and only 50% of them generally receive adequate treatment. In this work we apply a machine learning technique called Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) in order to model relapse and no-relapse patients in a first attempt in this area to improve diagnosis and optimize psychiatrists' time spent with patients. We use ILP because it is well suited for our multi-relational dataset and because a human can easily interpret the logical rules produced. Our classifiers can predict relapse cases with 92% Recall and no-relapse cases with 73% Recall. The rules and variable theories generated by ILP reproduce some findings from the scientific literature. The generated multi-relational models can be directly interpreted by clinicians and researchers, and also open space to research biological mechanisms and interventions.
Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena
To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ruggero, Camilo J.; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane
Recent reports suggest bipolar disorder is not only under-diagnosed but may at times be over-diagnosed. Little is known about factors that increase the odds of such mistakes. The present work explores whether symptoms of borderline personality disorder increase the odds of a bipolar misdiagnosis. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 610) presenting for treatment were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SIDP-IV), as well as a questionnaire asking if they had ever been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by a mental health care professional. Eighty-two patients who reported having been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who did not have it according to the SCID were compared to 528 patients who had never been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder had significantly greater odds of a previous bipolar misdiagnosis, but no specific borderline criteria was unique in predicting this outcome. Patients with borderline personality disorder, regardless of how they meet criteria, may be at increased risk of being misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder. PMID:19889426
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Rentero, David
Given its prevalence and impact on public health, the comorbidity of bipolar and substance use disorders is one of the most relevant of dual diagnoses. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance abuse centres in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from mental health and substance abuse centres. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate axis I and II disorders. Of these patients, 174 had a lifetime bipolar disorder, 83 had bipolar disorder type I and 91 had type II. Most patients had dual pathology. Of the 208 participants from the mental health centres, 21 had bipolar disorder and 13 (61.9%) were considered dually-diagnosed patients, while 33.2% of non-bipolar patients had a dual diagnoses (p = 0.03). Of the 629 participants from the substance abuse centres, 153 patients (24.3%) had a bipolar diagnosis. Bipolar dual patients had higher rates of alcohol and cocaine dependence than non-bipolar patients. Moreover, age at onset of alcohol use was earlier in bipolar duallydiagnosed patients than in other alcoholics. Bipolar dually-diagnosed patients had higher personality and anxiety disorder comorbidities and greater suicide risk. Thus, alcohol and cocaine are the drugs most associated with bipolar disorder. Given the nature of the study, the type of relationship between these disorders cannot be determined.
Bilderbeck, Amy C; Atkinson, Lauren Z; McMahon, Hannah C; Voysey, Merryn; Simon, Judit; Price, Jonathan; Rendell, Jennifer; Hinds, Chris; Geddes, John R; Holmes, Emily; Miklowitz, David J; Goodwin, Guy M
Psychoeducation is an effective adjunct to medications in bipolar disorder (BD). Brief psychoeducational approaches have been shown to improve early identification of relapse. However, the optimal method of delivery of psychoeducation remains uncertain. Here, our objective was to compare a short therapist-facilitated vs. self-directed psychoeducational intervention for BD. BD outpatients who were receiving medication-based treatment were randomly assigned to 5 psychoeducation sessions administered by a therapist (Facilitated Integrated Mood Management; FIMM; n=60), or self-administered psychoeducation (Manualized Integrated Mood Management; MIMM; n=61). Follow-up was based on patients' weekly responses to an electronic mood monitoring programme over 12 months. Over follow-up, there were no group differences in weekly self-rated depression symptoms or relapse/readmission rates. However, knowledge of BD (assessed with the Oxford Bipolar Knowledge questionnaire (OBQ)) was greater in the FIMM than the MIMM group at 3 months. Greater illness knowledge at 3 months was related to a higher proportion of weeks well over 12 months. Features of the trial may have reduced the sensitivity to our psychoeducation approach, including that BD participants had been previously engaged in self-monitoring. Improved OBQ score, while accelerated by a short course of therapist-administered psychoeducation (FIMM), was seen after both treatments. It was associated with better outcome assessed as weeks well. When developing and testing a new psychosocial intervention, studies should consider proximal outcomes (e.g., acquired knowledge) and their short-term impact on illness course in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perez, Jesus; Faedda, Gianni L.; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio
Objective Since initial episode-type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode-types. Method We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type-I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first-lifetime Manic vs. Other (mixed, depressive, or nonaffective) major psychotic-episodes. Results We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3±10.7 years prior to first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with Other (n=113) more than Manic (n=150) first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes ranked by Odds Ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable-mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding Manic more than Other first-psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I. Conclusion Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major-episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in Manic versus Other first-psychotic-episodes. PMID:23837831
Iakimova, Galina; Moriano, Christian; Farruggio, Lisa; Jover, Frédéric
Bipolar patients show social cognitive disorders. The objective of this study is to review facial expression recognition (FER) disorders in bipolar patients (BP) and explore clinical heterogeneity factors that could affect them in the euthymic phase: socio-demographic level, clinical and changing characteristics of the disorder, history of suicide attempt, and abuse. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar patients and 29 control subjects completed a computer task of explicit facial expression recognition and were clinically evaluated. Compared with control subjects, BP patients show: a decrease in fear, anger, and disgust recognition; an extended reaction time for disgust, surprise and neutrality recognition; confusion between fear and surprise, anger and disgust, disgust and sadness, sadness and neutrality. In BP patients, age negatively affects anger and neutrality recognition, as opposed to education level which positively affects recognizing these emotions. The history of patient abuse negatively affects surprise and disgust recognition, and the number of suicide attempts negatively affects disgust and anger recognition. Cognitive heterogeneity in euthymic phase BP patients is affected by several factors inherent to bipolar disorder complexity that should be considered in social cognition study. © The Author(s) 2016.
Moriano, Christian; Farruggio, Lisa; Jover, Frédéric
Objective: Bipolar patients show social cognitive disorders. The objective of this study is to review facial expression recognition (FER) disorders in bipolar patients (BP) and explore clinical heterogeneity factors that could affect them in the euthymic phase: socio-demographic level, clinical and changing characteristics of the disorder, history of suicide attempt, and abuse. Method: Thirty-four euthymic bipolar patients and 29 control subjects completed a computer task of explicit facial expression recognition and were clinically evaluated. Results: Compared with control subjects, BP patients show: a decrease in fear, anger, and disgust recognition; an extended reaction time for disgust, surprise and neutrality recognition; confusion between fear and surprise, anger and disgust, disgust and sadness, sadness and neutrality. In BP patients, age negatively affects anger and neutrality recognition, as opposed to education level which positively affects recognizing these emotions. The history of patient abuse negatively affects surprise and disgust recognition, and the number of suicide attempts negatively affects disgust and anger recognition. Conclusions: Cognitive heterogeneity in euthymic phase BP patients is affected by several factors inherent to bipolar disorder complexity that should be considered in social cognition study. PMID:27310226
Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael
To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.
Rydén, E; Thase, M E; Stråht, D; Aberg-Wistedt, A; Bejerot, S; Landén, M
The occurrence of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might have an impact of the course of the bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 159) underwent a comprehensive evaluation with respect to affective symptoms. Independent psychiatrists assessed childhood and current ADHD, and an interview with a parent was undertaken. The prevalence of adult ADHD was 16%. An additional 12% met the criteria for childhood ADHD without meeting criteria for adult ADHD. Both these groups had significantly earlier onset of their first affective episode, more frequent affective episodes (except manic episodes), and more interpersonal violence than the bipolar patients without a history of ADHD. The fact that bipolar patients with a history of childhood ADHD have a different clinical outcome than the pure bipolar group, regardless of whether the ADHD symptoms remained in adulthood or not, suggests that it represent a distinct early-onset phenotype of bipolar disorder.
Kučukalić, Abdulah; Bravo-Mehmedbašić, Alma; Kulenović, Alma Džubur
Epidemiological studies indicate that only 20% of patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder are diagnosed on time while in 35% of patients diagnosis is 10 years late. Unipolar depression represents the most frequent misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BAD in subjects diagnosed with Major Depressive Episode with or without co-morbid disorders. The study was a part of a large international, multi-center, non-interventional study that was conducted in 14 countries between May and November 2008. Sample in Bosnia and Herzegovina included 200 adult subjects with MDE according to the DSM IV diagnostic criteria who consented to take part in the study, who did not exhibit symptoms of acute somatic condition at the time, and who were capable of filling the HCL-32 checklist. The following assessment instruments were used: CRF (Case Report Form) that includes general psychiatric assessment, GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) and HCL-32 (Hypomania Symptom Checklist). Bipolar Affective Disorder was diagnosed in 67.84% of the study subjects, and MDE in 32.16%. At least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder was present in 77.78% of subjects with BAD and in 22.22% of subjects with MDE. Anxiety disorders co-morbidity was present in 61.9% of subjects with BAD and in 38.10% of subjects with MDE. Our results confirm previous research about underdiagnosing of BAD. This has unforeseen consequences on the course and prognosis of the disorder significantly affecting quality of life of the patients.
Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark
Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990-2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark
Objective: Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Method: Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990–2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. Results: The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. PMID:25796051
Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Morgan, Theresa A; Dalrymple, Kristy
Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are associated with elevated rates of attempted suicide; however, no studies have examined whether there is an independent, additive risk for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with both disorders. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 3,465 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semistructured interviews. Compared to the bipolar patients without borderline personality disorder, the patients diagnosed with both bipolar and borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have made a prior suicide attempt. The patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder were nonsignificantly more likely than the borderline patients without bipolar disorder to have made a prior suicide attempt. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were each associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts. The co-occurrence of these disorders conferred an additive risk, although the influence of borderline personality disorder was greater than that of bipolar disorder.
Prata, D P; Mechelli, A; Picchioni, M; Fu, C H Y; Kane, F; Kalidindi, S; McDonald, C; Kravariti, E; Toulopoulou, T; Bramon, E; Walshe, M; Murray, R; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K
The Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene has been implicated in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by linkage and genetic association studies. Altered prefrontal cortical function is a pathophysiological feature of both disorders, and we have recently shown that variation in DISC1 modulates prefrontal activation in healthy volunteers. Our goal was to examine the influence of the DISC1 polymorphism Cys704Ser on prefrontal function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. From 2004 to 2008, patients with schizophrenia (N = 44), patients with bipolar disorder (N = 35) and healthy volunteers (N = 53) were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a verbal fluency task. The effect of Cys704Ser on cortical activation was compared between groups as Cys704 carriers vs. Ser704 homozygotes. In contrast to the significant effect on prefrontal activation we had previously found in healthy subjects, no significant effect of Cys704Ser was detected in this or any other region in either the schizophrenia or bipolar groups. When controls were compared with patients with schizophrenia, there was a diagnosis by genotype interaction in the left middle/superior frontal gyrus [family-wise error (FWE) P = 0.002]. In this region, Ser704/ser704 controls activated more than Cys704 carriers, and there was a trend in the opposite direction in schizophrenia patients. In contrast to its effect in healthy subjects, variation in DISC1 Cys704Ser704 genotype was not associated with altered prefrontal activation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. The absence of an effect in patients may reflect interactions of the effects of DISC1 genotype with the effects of other genes associated with these disorders, and/or with the effects of the disorders on brain function.
Lackner, N; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Reininghaus, B; Kapfhammer, H P; Reininghaus, E
In recent years, intense controversies have evolved about the existence and exact diagnostic criteria of pediatric bipolar affective disorder. The present study aims to discuss pediatric bipolar affective disorder based on the current literature focussing on the diagnostic prospects. Based on a case study, a process of bipolar disorder developed in childhood is depicted exemplarily. Because of the high comorbidity and overlapping symptoms of paediatric bipolar affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders, the major impact of the differential diagnosis has to be stressed. An early diagnosis and the treatment possibilities are discussed.
Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Reczyński, Witold; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Misztak, Paulina; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Nowak, Gabriel
Few scientific reports indicate changes in the concentration of magnesium in the blood of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). So far very little studies concerning these issues have been conducted. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the serum magnesium level in patients with bipolar disorder (in different phases of the disease) in comparison to healthy volunteers. The study included 129 patients (58 subjects in depressive episode, 23 in manic episode and 48 patients in remission) with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or II. The control group consisted of 50 healthy people. Magnesium concentration was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Patients with a current depressive or manic/hypomanic episode had statistically significantly elevated serum magnesium levels compared to healthy volunteers. Moreover, a positive correlation between the duration of the manic/hypomanic episode and the relapse frequency in the last year was observed. The concentration of magnesium in patients in remission was unchanged in relation to the control group. Presented findings suggest a role of serum magnesium level as a potential state marker, reflecting the pathophysiological changes associated with acute episodes of bipolar disorder.
Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J; Scott, John; Swartz, Holly A; Cook, David; Novick, Danielle M; Frank, Ellen
This study evaluated the frequency and clinical significance of abnormal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine Index (FTI) in patients with bipolar I disorder treated primarily with lithium. We evaluated the medical records of 143 participants in the Pittsburgh study of Maintenance Therapies in Bipolar Disorder who did not have a thyroid abnormality at entry. Thirty-six percent of the 143 patients developed abnormal TSH and/or FTI values. Thirty-eight percent of the 135 patients who received lithium developed abnormal TSH and/or FTI, spent significantly longer time in the acute treatment phase (t = -3.6, df = 133, p = .0004), and had significantly higher mean Hamilton Scale for Depression scores over the course of the maintenance phase (t = -2.3, df = 71.6, p = .03). Time on lithium and development of abnormal TSH and/or FTI were positively correlated (r = .25, p = .004). Thyroid dysfunction can be frequent in patients exposed to lithium treatment for bipolar I disorder; it also appears to be correlated with a slower response to acute treatment, and may be related to poorer quality of long-term remission. A prospective study is needed to confirm our findings and determine whether more aggressive thyroid replacement can optimize thyroid function to facilitate clinical recovery. Supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Grants MH 029618 (Drs. Frank and Fagiolini) and MH 030915 (Drs. Kupfer and Fagiolini), and the Bosin Memorial Fund of The Pittsburgh Foundation (Drs. Fagiolini, Kupfer, Cook, Scott, Novick and Frank). Dr. Fagiolini is on the advisory board and a consultant to Pfizer Inc, and Bristol Myers Squibb, and is on the speaker bureau of Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly Italy, Pfizer Inc, and Shire. Dr. Frank is on the advisory board of Pfizer Inc. and Eli Lilly & Company, and is a consultant to Pfizer Italia and Servier Amerique. Dr. Kupfer is on the advisory board of Pfizer, Inc., Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Solvay
Besnier, Nathalie; Richard, Floriane; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Kaladjian, Arthur; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Reduced inhibition has been demonstrated in both schizophrenic and bipolar patients through the findings of increased interference on the Stroop Colour-Word Task (SCWT) and increased emotional interference on specific versions of the Emotional Stroop Task (EST). Despite previous findings of enhanced interference in unaffected relatives of schizophrenic and bipolar patients, it remains unclear whether interference might be a candidate endophenotype to both disorders. Moreover, data regarding emotional interference in unaffected relatives are critically lacking. In the present study, we aimed to compare unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SZ-rel, N = 30) and bipolar disorder (BD-rel, N= 30) with normal controls (N = 60) when performing the SCWT and an EST designed with neutral, depressive, paranoid and manic words. SZ-rel exhibited greater interference effect on both the SCWT and the EST as compared to either BD-rel or normal controls. BD-rel, and by contrast to SZ-rel and controls, showed increased emotional interference effect on the EST that was specifically associated to the disease-related words. The findings support the hypothesis of different markers of vulnerability to schizophrenic and bipolar disorders; impairment in cognitive inhibition could characterize high-risk individuals for schizophrenia whereas an emotional bias towards mood-related information could be a trait marker of bipolar disease.
Ostacher, Michael J; Tandon, Rajiv; Suppes, Trisha
This report describes the 2014 update of the Florida Best Practice Psychotherapeutic Medication Guidelines for Adults With Bipolar Disorder, intended to provide frontline clinicians with a simple, evidence-based approach to treatments for 3 phases of bipolar disorder: acute depression, acute mania, and maintenance. The consensus meeting included representatives from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, pharmacists, health care policy experts, mental health clinicians, and experts in bipolar disorder. The effort was funded by the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. The available published and nonpublished data from trials in the treatment of bipolar I disorder were reviewed. Evidence for efficacy and harm from replicated randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, or non-replicated randomized clinical trials was included. No recommendations were made with evidence from other sources. Decisions regarding the structure of the guidelines were made during a stakeholder meeting in Tampa, Florida, on September 20 and 21, 2013. Better proven and safer/more efficacious treatments were to be utilized before using those with less evidence and/or greater risk. Safety and risk of harm were balanced against potential benefit. Lower-quality evidence was recommended only if higher-level treatments were found to be ineffective or not tolerated, because of patient preference, or because of past treatment success. While respecting patient and clinician choice, the guidelines are structured to encourage evidence-based, safe prescribing first. This iteration of the Florida guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder is a practical, simple, patient-focused guide to treatment for acute mania and acute bipolar depression and maintenance treatment that considers safety and harm in the hierarchy of treatment choices. While using strict evidence-based criteria for inclusion in recommendations, it eliminates expert opinion as a level of
Himmighoffen, Holger; Budischewski, Kai; Härtling, Fabian; Hell, Daniel; Böker, Heinz
The self-concept and the partner relationships of patients with bipolar affective disorder in remission were investigated with the Giessen-Test (GT, Beckmann et al. ) comparing the bipolar patients with unipolar depressive patients, a control group of orthopedic patients and the standard sample of the Giessen-Test. The new dimensions "self-esteem" and "near-to-object" were developed by means of the Giessen-Test items. Self-esteem was significantly lower in bipolar patients in remission than in the controls. The bipolar patients also described themselves as "more distant to others" than the controls. Bipolar and unipolar-depressive patients had a similar self-concept and view of their partner relationships. The results underline the importance of the regulation of self-esteem and the interpersonal dimension in the long-term course of bipolar affective disorder. Therapeutic implications are discussed.
Demirel, Husrev; Yesilbas, Dilek; Ozver, Ismail; Yuksek, Erhan; Sahin, Feyzi; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Emul, Murat
It is well known that patients with bipolar disorder are more prone to violence and have more criminal behaviors than general population. A strong relationship between criminal behavior and inability to empathize and imperceptions to other person's feelings and facial expressions increases the risk of delinquent behaviors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the deficits of facial emotion recognition ability in euthymic bipolar patients who committed an offense and compare with non-delinquent euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Fifty-five euthymic patients with delinquent behaviors and 54 non-delinquent euthymic bipolar patients as a control group were included in the study. Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition Test, sociodemographic data, Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were applied to both groups. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in the meaning of average age, gender, level of education, mean age onset of disease and suicide attempt (p>0.05). The three types of most committed delinquent behaviors in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder were as follows: injury (30.8%), threat or insult (20%) and homicide (12.7%). The best accurate percentage of identified facial emotion was "happy" (>99%, for both) while the worst misidentified facial emotion was "fear" in both groups (<50%, for both). The total accuracy rate of recognition toward facial emotions was significantly impaired in patients with delinquent behaviors than non-delinquent ones (p<0.05). The accuracy rate of recognizing the fear expressions was significantly worse in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, it tended to be worse toward angry facial expressions in criminal euthymic bipolar patients. The response times toward happy, fear, disgusted and angry expressions had been significantly longer in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). This study is the first
Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Yaghoubidoust, Mohammadhossein; Lin, Chung-Ying; Fridlund, Bengt; Michalak, Erin E; Murray, Greg; Pakpour, Amir H
To assess the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Persian Brief Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD) in Iranian patients with bipolar disorder (BD). After translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brief QoL.BD, we administered the questionnaire to 184 patients diagnosed with BD. To determine factor structure, we performed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. To investigate the reliability, we assessed internal consistency, reproducibility and agreement. Construct validity was assessed by calculating correlations between the Brief QoL.BD and the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). We also investigated gender differences in interpretations of QoL.BD items. The results obtained from reliability analysis confirmed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 and 0.89 for two assessments) and reproducibility and agreement (the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74 and 0.94). Validity analyses showed that the items loaded on a single-factor structure. The inter-item correlations varied from 0.31 to 0.68. Significantly lower scores on the Brief QoL.BD were observed in people diagnosed with BD I compared to BD II. Significant correlations were observed between the Brief QoL.BD and SF-36 summary measures, HAMD, YMRS, Q-LES-Q-SF and PANAS subscales. Items in the Brief QoL.BD were interpreted similarly by men and women. The Brief Persian QoL.BD is a psychometrically sound measure with acceptable validity and reliability and provides a rapid assessment tool for measuring QoL in patients with BD.
Andreazza, Ana C; Wang, Jun-Feng; Salmasi, Faraz; Shao, Li; Young, Lionel T
Previously, we found decreased mitochondrial complex I subunits levels and increased protein oxidation and nitration in postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) from patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). The objectives of this study were to replicate our findings in an independent sample of subjects with BD, and to examine more specifically oxidative and nitrosative damage to mitochondrial and synaptosomal proteins and lipid peroxidation in myelin. We isolated mitochondria, synaptosomes, and myelin using a percoll gradient from postmortem PFC from patients with BD, SCZ, and healthy controls. Levels of mitochondrial complex I and III proteins, protein oxidation (carbonylation), and nitration (3-nitrotyrosine) were assessed using immunobloting analysis. Lipid peroxidation [lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), 8-isoprostane (8-Iso), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)] were measured using colorimetric or ELISA assays. We found decreased complex I subunits levels in BD subjects compared with control (CTL), but no difference in complex III subunits. Carbonylation was increased in synaptosomes from BD group while 3-nitrotyrosine was increased in mitochondria from BD and SCZ groups. 8-Iso was found increased in the BD group while 4-HNE was increased in both SCZ and BD when compared with controls with no differences in LPH. Our results suggest that in BD mitochondrial proteins are more susceptible to potentially reversible nitrosative damage while more longstanding oxidative damage occurs to synaptic proteins. Oxidative stress has been shown to be higher in the brain of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Here, we demonstrated increased levels of protein oxidation in synaptosomes from postmortem prefrontal cortex from patients from BD group, while 3-nitrotyrosine was increased in mitochondria from BD and schizophrenia (SCZ) groups. Moreover, lipid peroxidation was found increased in the BD when compared with controls; suggesting that in BD mitochondrial proteins are more
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W
Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments.
Kunz, Mauricio; Ceresér, Keila Maria; Goi, Pedro Domingues; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antonio L; Fernandes, Brisa Simões; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo Silva; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Gama, Clarissa Severino
Previous reports suggest that cytokines act as potential mediators of the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems, and that a proinflammatory state may be associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim is to compare cytokine levels in both disorders. Twenty euthymic bipolar disorder patients, 53 chronic stabilized schizophrenia patients and 80 healthy controls were recruited. Subjects were all non-smokers and non-obese. Cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were examined by sandwich ELISA. IL-6 levels were increased in schizophrenia patients when compared to controls (p < 0.0001) and euthymic bipolar disorder patients (p < 0.0001). IL-6 levels were no different in controls compared to euthymic bipolar disorder patients (p = 0.357). IL-10 was lower in controls compared to schizophrenia patients (p = 0.001) or to bipolar disorder patients (p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in TNF-α serum levels among the groups (p = 0.284). Gender-based classification did not significantly alter these findings, and no correlation was found between the antipsychotic dose administered and cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These findings evidence a chronic immune activation in schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder seems to present an episode-related inflammatory syndrome. Increased anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia suggests different patterns of inflammatory balance between these two disorders. Results further support the need to investigate cytokines as possible biomarkers of disease activity or treatment response.
Deckersbach, Thilo; Hölzel, Britta K.; Eisner, Lori R.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Lazar, Sara; Nierenberg, Andrew A.
Introduction Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and/or mania along with inter-episodic mood symptoms that interfere with psychosocial functioning. Despite periods of symptomatic recovery, many individuals with bipolar disorder continue to experience substantial residual mood symptoms that often lead to the recurrence of mood episodes. Aims The present study explored whether a new mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for bipolar disorder would increase mindfulness, reduce residual mood symptoms, and increase emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Following a baseline clinical assessment, 12 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were treated with 12 group sessions of MBCT. Results At the end of treatment, as well as at the 3-months follow-up, participants showed increased mindfulness, lower residual depressive mood symptoms, less attentional difficulties, and increased emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that treating residual mood symptoms with MBCT may be another avenue to improving mood, emotion regulation, well-being and functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:22070469
Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi; Murakoshi, Akiko; Komada, Yoko; Otsuka, Ayano; Futenma, Kunihiro; Inoue, Takeshi
Recent studies have suggested that there are certain pathophysiological relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, apparently no studies have clarified the prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) in patients with BD. This study was set out to investigate the prevalence of CRSWD and associated factors in patients with BD. One hundred four euthymic BD outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of BD, and family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide. Severity of BD was assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. CRSWD was diagnosed by clinical interview, together with sleep logs, according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition (ICSD-3). Thirty-five subjects (32.4%) met the criteria for CRSWD. The age at the time of investigation and that at the onset of BD were both lower in the CRSWD group than in the non-CRSWD group. The rates of family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide in the CRSWD group were higher than those in the non-CRSWD group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of CRSWD was significantly associated with younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide. The prevalence of CRSWD could be quite high in BD patients. Younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide were associated with presence of CRSWD in BD patients.
Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi; Murakoshi, Akiko; Komada, Yoko; Otsuka, Ayano; Futenma, Kunihiro; Inoue, Takeshi
Recent studies have suggested that there are certain pathophysiological relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, apparently no studies have clarified the prevalence of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) in patients with BD. This study was set out to investigate the prevalence of CRSWD and associated factors in patients with BD. One hundred four euthymic BD outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of BD, and family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide. Severity of BD was assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. CRSWD was diagnosed by clinical interview, together with sleep logs, according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition (ICSD-3). Thirty-five subjects (32.4%) met the criteria for CRSWD. The age at the time of investigation and that at the onset of BD were both lower in the CRSWD group than in the non-CRSWD group. The rates of family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide in the CRSWD group were higher than those in the non-CRSWD group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of CRSWD was significantly associated with younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide. The prevalence of CRSWD could be quite high in BD patients. Younger onset age of BD and family history of suicide were associated with presence of CRSWD in BD patients. PMID:27442503
Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Sharma, Sunil; Avasthi, Ajit
The goal of treatment in mental illness has evolved from a symptom-based approach to a personal recovery-based approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors of personal recovery among patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 185 patients with bipolar disorder, currently in remission, were evaluated on Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS), Brief Religious coping scale (RCOPE), Duke University Religiosity Index (DUREL), Religiousness Measures Scale, Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS), Young Mania rating scale (YMRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The mean age of the sample was 40.5 (standard deviation (SD), 11.26) years. Majority of the participants were male, married, working, Hindu by religion and belonged to extended/joint families of urban background. In the regression analysis, RAS scores were predicted significantly by discrimination experience, stereotype endorsement and alienation domains of ISMIS, level of functioning as assessed by GAF, residual depressive symptoms as assessed by HDRS and occupational status. The level of variance explained for total RAS score and various RAS domains ranged from 36.2% to 46.9%. This study suggests that personal recovery among patients with bipolar disorder is affected by stigma, level of functioning, residual depressive symptoms and employment status of patients with bipolar disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Inadera, Hidekuni
Previous studies with postmortem brain tissues showed abnormalities in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the orbitofrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders. However, in the hippocampus, we were not able to find any significant differences in PUFAs except for small differences in n-6 PUFAs. In the present study we investigated levels of PUFAs in the amygdala of postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD) compared with those of unaffected controls. Amygdala samples from patients with schizophrenia (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 15), or MDD (n = 15), and controls matched for age, sex, and five other confounding factors (n = 15) were analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. In contrast to previous studies of the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus, we were unable to find any significant differences in major PUFAs. The relative compositions of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major n-3 PUFA, were 10.0 ± 1.1%, 10.0 ± 1.3%, 9.3 ± 1.3%, and 9.7 ± 1.1%, respectively, in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and MDD and unaffected controls (not significantly different). The corresponding relative compositions of arachidonic acid (AA), the major n-6 PUFA, were 9.0 ± 0.8%, 9.2 ± 0.5%, 9.4 ± 0.7%, and 9.4 ± 0.7%, respectively (not significantly different). Significant differences were found in some of the other fatty acids. In particular, we found a 6.5% increase in palmitic acid and 6.2% decrease in oleic acid in patients with MDD compared to controls. With regard to schizophrenia, there was an 8.0% decrease in docosatetraenoic acid compared to controls. In conclusion, the changes in DHA and/or AA seen in orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus were not observed in amygdala. These changes may be specific to particular brain regions.
Brieger, Peter; Blöink, Raffaela; Röttig, Stephan; Marneros, Andreas
Little is known concerning the frequency of disability payments due to depressive and bipolar affective disorders in Germany. 177 consecutive psychiatric in-patients were assessed with standardized interviews concerning diagnosis (SCID-I, DSM-IV) and illness history. To compare unipolar depressive and bipolar affective patients, a survival analysis was calculated. 116 patients suffered from unipolar depression, 61 from bipolar affective disorder. Highly significantly, patients with bipolar affective disorders were granted disability payments more frequently and at an earlier age. Half of the bipolar affective patients received disability payments by the age of 46 years, half of the unipolar depressive patients by the age of 58 years. In this sample, bipolar affective patients received disability payments frequently and at an early age, which stresses that the prognosis of bipolar affective disorders is not as good as has been assumed for a long time. Early disability payments may lead to poverty and may obstruct access to social rehabilitation.
Strakowski, Stephen M; Fleck, David E; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Shear, Paula K; Kotwal, Renu; Arndt, Stephan
To determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of bipolar disorder, thereby representing potential state markers and endophenotypes. Impulse control of 108 bipolar I manic or mixed patients was measured on three tasks designed to study response inhibition, ability to delay gratification, and attention; namely, a stop signal task, a delayed reward task, and a continuous performance task, respectively. Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) scores were also obtained. Patients were then followed for up to one year and reassessed with the same measures if they developed depression or euthymia. Healthy comparison subjects were also assessed with the same instruments on two occasions to assess measurement stability. At baseline, bipolar subjects demonstrated significant deficits on all three tasks as compared to healthy subjects, consistent with more impulsive responding in the bipolar manic/mixed group. In general, performance on the three behavioral tasks normalized upon switching to depression or developing euthymia. In contrast, BIS-11 scores were elevated during mania and remained elevated as bipolar subjects developed depression or achieved euthymia. Bipolar I disorder patients demonstrate deficits on laboratory tests of various aspects of impulsivity when manic, as compared to healthy subjects, that largely normalize with recovery and switching into depression. However, elevated BIS-11 scores persist across phases of illness. These findings suggest that impulsivity has both affective-state dependent and trait components in bipolar disorder.
Strakowski, Stephen M.; Fleck, David E.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Shear, Paula K.; Kotwal, Renu; Arndt, Stephan
Objective To determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of bipolar disorder, thereby representing potential state markers and endophenotypes. Methods Impulse control of 108 bipolar I manic or mixed patients was measured on three tasks designed to study response inhibition, ability to delay gratification, and attention; namely a stop signal task, a delayed reward task, and a continuous performance task, respectively. Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) scores were also obtained. Patients were then followed for up to one year and re-assessed with the same measures if they developed depression or euthymia. Healthy comparison subjects were also assessed with the same instruments on two occasions to assess measurement stability. Results At baseline, bipolar subjects demonstrated significant deficits on all three tasks as compared to healthy subjects, consistent with more impulsive responding in the bipolar manic/mixed group. In general, performance on the three behavioral tasks normalized upon switching to depression or developing euthymia. In contrast, BIS-11 scores were elevated during mania and remained elevated as bipolar subjects developed depression or achieved euthymia. Conclusions Bipolar I disorder patients demonstrate deficits on laboratory tests of various aspects of impulsivity when manic, as compared to healthy subjects, that largely normalize with recovery and switching into depression. However, elevated BIS scores persist across phases of illness. These findings suggest that impulsivity has both affective-state dependent and trait components in bipolar disorder. PMID:20565435
Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Jørgensen, Carsten René; Craig, Tom K J; Straarup, Krista Nielsen; Licht, Rasmus W
Low self-esteem has been found to be a risk factor for depression in major depressive disorder (MDD). In contrast, the role of self-esteem in bipolar disorder (BD) is still uncertain. In order to examine the characteristics of self-esteem in BD, we synthesized studies comparing self-esteem in BD patients with self-esteem in MDD patients and in normal controls. Database searches and identification of studies were conducted by two of the authors independently. Remission of BD and MDD was a major selection criterion. The results were generated through meta-analyses. Random-effects models of 19 between-group comparisons (N= 1,838) suggested that the self-esteem of remitted BD patients was significantly lower than that of normal controls (Cohen's d= -0.83), while significantly higher than that of remitted MDD patients (Cohen's d= 0.54). Fail-safe numbers and tests for funnel plot asymmetry indicated that the results were robust and unlikely to reflect publication biases. Additional studies indicated that self-esteem may take a fluctuating course during remission of BD. By revealing that BD patients do experience low self-esteem, the findings implicate a need for further understanding the causes and therapeutic impact of such abnormality in BD. © 2010 John Wiley and Sons A/S.
Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Patrikelis, P; Soumani, A; Oulis, P; Sakkas, D; Papadimitriou, G N; Ploumpidis, D
There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SΖ) and bipolar disorder (BD) persist after the subsidence of active symptoms. However, it is unclear whether the cognitive deficits observed in patients with BD are quantitatively or qualitatively similar to those in SΖ patients. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the cognitive functioning of patients with clinically stable SZ and BD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study including a comparison of the Theory of Mind between patients with SZ and BD. General intelligence, attention, speed of processing, working memory, verbal memory and learning, visuospatial ability, executive functions and ToM were assessed in 21 patients with SZ in remission, 23 euthymic BD type I patients, and 27 healthy controls (HC), using WAIS-Vocabulary, Block design, and Digit span, Babcock Story Recall Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Word-Colour Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test, and Faux Pas Recognition Test. The three groups were matched for gender, age and education. The SZ and BD groups were also matched in terms of illness duration and the age of the onset of the illness. To be enrolled in the study patients should have been clinically stable for 3 months, operationalized as no change in total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (<8), and Young Mania Rating Scale (<6). One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni corrections was used for the between groups comparisons. Both BD and SC patients were significantly impaired in general intellectual ability, verbal memory and learning, and executive functions compared to HC. Patients with SZ performed significantly worse than patients with BD on verbal memory tasks, whereas BD group did not have significant lower score than SZ in any task. SZ patients performed worse than HC group on attention, processing speed and immediate memory tests, while BD patients on
Atagün, M.İ.; Şıkoğlu, E.M.; Can, S.S.; Karakaş-Uğurlu, G.; Ulusoy-Kaymak, S.; Çayköylü, A.; Algın, O.; Phillips, M.L.; Moore, C.M.; Öngür, D.
Background Superior temporal cortices include brain regions dedicated to auditory processing and several lines of evidence suggest structural and functional abnormalities in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within this brain region. However, possible glutamatergic dysfunction within this region has not been investigated in adult patients. Methods Thirty patients with schizophrenia (38.67 ± 12.46 years of age), 28 euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (35.32 ± 9.12 years of age), and 30 age-, gender- and education- matched healthy controls were enrolled. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data were acquired using a 3.0T Siemens MAGNETOM TIM Trio MR system and single voxel Point REsolved Spectroscopy Sequence (PRESS) in order to quantify brain metabolites within the left and right Heschl's Gyrus and Planum Temporale of superior temporal cortices. Results There were significant abnormalities in Glutamate (Glu) (F(2,78)=8.52, p<0.0001), n-Acetyl Aspartate (tNAA) (F(2,81)=5.73, p=0.005), Creatine (tCr) (F(2,83)=5.91, p=0.004) and Inositol (Ins) (F(2,82)=8.49, p<0.0001) concentrations in the left superior temporal cortex. In general, metabolite levels were lower for bipolar disorder patients when compared to healthy participants. Moreover, patients with bipolar disorder exhibited significantly lower tCr and Ins concentrations when compared to schizophrenia patients. In addition, we have found significant correlations between the superior temporal cortex metabolites and clinical measures. Conclusion As the left auditory cortices are associated with language and speech, left hemisphere specific abnormalities may have clinical significance. Our findings are suggestive of shared glutamatergic abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:25480359
Chen, Kuan-Jen; Lu, Mong-Liang; Shen, Winston W
Tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic. Psychotic symptoms are relatively rare in reported adverse events. Here, we report a patient who presented with tramadol-related psychotic symptoms. A 59-year-old female had underlying bipolar I disorder and received lithium treatment with stable affective status. 1 month before hospitalisation, she had been taking tramadol HCl/acetaminophen for joint pain. She then developed obvious persecutory delusion. However, her clinical picture did not meet the criteria of any mood episode. After treatment of risperidone in addition to lithium, she was discharged without any psychotic symptom. She remained euthymic without any psychotic symptom on monotherapy of lithium (300 mg) three tablets once daily. Tramadol HCl is commonly prescribed in clinical practice and psychotic symptoms related to it are uncommon. We should be careful about the rare but important adverse events while prescribing tramadol HCl.
Puiatti, Alessandro; Mudda, Steven; Giordano, Silvia; Mayora, Oscar
Bipolar Disorder is a severe form of mental illness. It is characterized by alternated episodes of mania and depression, and it is treated typically with a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Recognizing early warning signs of upcoming phases of mania or depression would be of great help for a personalized medical treatment. Unfortunately, this is a difficult task to be performed for both patient and doctors. In this paper we present the MONARCA wearable system, which is meant for recognizing early warning signs and predict maniac or depressive episodes. The system is a smartphone-centred and minimally invasive wearable sensors network that is being developing in the framework of the MONARCA European project.
Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F
Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the
de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin
Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a
de Abreu, Lena Nabuco; Nery, Fabiano G; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; de Almeida, Karla Matias; Gomes, Bernardo Carramao; Oquendo, Maria A; Lafer, Beny
The association between suicidal behavior and quality of life (QoL) in bipolar disorder (BD) is poorly understood. Worse QoL has been associated with suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in schizophrenic patients, but this relationship has not been investigated in BD. This study tested whether a history of suicide attempts was associated with poor QoL in a well-characterized sample of patients with BD, as has been observed in other psychiatric disorders and in the general population. One hundred eight patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition BD type I (44 with previous suicide attempts, 64 without previous suicide attempts) were studied. Quality of life was assessed using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Short Version. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Patients with BD and previous suicide attempts had significantly lower scores in all the 4 domains of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument-Short Version scale than did patients with BD but no previous suicide attempts (physical domain P = .001; psychological domain P < .0001; social domain P = .001, and environmental domain P = .039). In the euthymic subgroup (n = 70), patients with previous suicide attempts had significantly lower scores only in the psychological and social domains (P = .020 and P = .004). This was a cross-sectional study, and no causal associations can be assumed. Patients with BD and a history of previous suicide attempts seem to have a worse QoL than did patients who never attempted suicide. Poorer QoL might be a marker of poor copying skills and inadequate social support and be a risk factor for suicidal behavior in BD. Alternatively, poorer QoL and suicidal behavior might be different expressions of more severe BD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin
Background Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). Methods To investigate hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder while controlling for Li exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies that subdivided patients based on the presence or absence of current Li treatment. To achieve the best coverage of literature, we categorized studies based on whether all or a majority, or whether no or a minority of patients were treated with Li. Hippocampal volumes were compared by combining standardized differences between means (Cohen d) from individual studies using random-effects models. Results Overall, we analyzed data from 101 patients with bipolar disorder in the Li group, 245 patients in the non-Li group and 456 control participants from 16 studies. Both the left and right hippocampal volumes were significantly larger in the Li group than in controls (Cohen d = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.88; Cohen d = 0.51, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81, respectively) or the non-Li group (Cohen d = 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.31; Cohen d = 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.45, respectively), which had smaller left and right hippocampal volumes than the control group (Cohen d = −0.36, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.17; Cohen d = −0.38, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.13, respectively). There was no evidence of publication bias. Limitations Missing information about the illness burden or lifetime exposure to Li and polypharmacy in some studies may have contributed to statistical heterogeneity in some analyses. Conclusion When exposure to Li was minimized, patients with bipolar disorder showed smaller hippocampal volumes than controls or Li-treated patients. Our findings provide indirect support for the negative effects of
Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin
Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). To investigate hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder while controlling for Li exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies that subdivided patients based on the presence or absence of current Li treatment. To achieve the best coverage of literature, we categorized studies based on whether all or a majority, or whether no or a minority of patients were treated with Li. Hippocampal volumes were compared by combining standardized differences between means (Cohen d) from individual studies using random-effects models. Overall, we analyzed data from 101 patients with bipolar disorder in the Li group, 245 patients in the non-Li group and 456 control participants from 16 studies. Both the left and right hippocampal volumes were significantly larger in the Li group than in controls (Cohen d = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.88; Cohen d = 0.51, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81, respectively) or the non-Li group (Cohen d = 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.31; Cohen d = 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.45, respectively), which had smaller left and right hippocampal volumes than the control group (Cohen d = -0.36, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; Cohen d = -0.38, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.13, respectively). There was no evidence of publication bias. Missing information about the illness burden or lifetime exposure to Li and polypharmacy in some studies may have contributed to statistical heterogeneity in some analyses. When exposure to Li was minimized, patients with bipolar disorder showed smaller hippocampal volumes than controls or Li-treated patients. Our findings provide indirect support for the negative effects of bipolar disorder on hippocampal volumes and are consistent
Hsu, Yi-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Lee, Chang-Yin; Chong, Lee-Won; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Chia-Hung
Previous studies have reported that patients with bipolar disorders (BDs) exhibit increased physical comorbidity and psychological distress. Studies have shown that schizophrenia and anxiety increase the risk of peptic ulcer diseases (PUDs). Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the association between these 2 diseases and examine the possible risk factors. We used patients diagnosed with BDs from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprising patients without BDs was frequency matched by age, sex, and comorbidities, and the occurrence of PUDs was evaluated in both the cohorts. The BD and non-BD cohort consisted of 21,060 patients with BDs and 84,240 frequency-matched patients without BDs, respectively. The incidence of PUDs (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.59; P < 0.001) was higher among the patients with BDs than the control patients. Cox models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, BDs were an independent risk factor for PUDs. Patients with BDs exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing PUDs. According to our data, we suggest that, following a diagnosis of BD, practitioners could notice the occurrence of PUD and associated prevention. Further prospective clinical studies investigating the relationship between BDs and PUDs are warranted.
Azadforouz, Sanaz; Shabani, Amir; Nohesara, Shabnam; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud
Background Medication treatment compliance among bipolar patients is quite widespread. Objectives Treatment compliance depends on multiple factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predicting factors of noncompliance in patients with bipolar I disorder admitted to an Iranian hospital during a six-month follow up period. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 47 bipolar I disorder subjects who were admitted to the Iran psychiatric hospital and that were chosen using a non-randomized convenient sampling model. The patients were assessed at baseline, and at two and six months after admission. For evaluating the patients, we used the medication possession ratio (MPR), the drug attitude inventory (DIA-10), the young mania rating scale (Y-MRS) and the scale for the assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS). The data were analyzed using a general linear model by SPSS 16 software. Results The repeated measures analysis revealed that medication compliance increased successively (P = 0.045), and age, gender and symptom severity did not alter the pattern. Conclusions There is an increasing pattern in treatment compliance in bipolar I disorder patients, regardless of the known predicting factors for nonadherence. PMID:27803718
Smith, L B; Sapers, B; Reus, V I; Freimer, N B
Attitudes about bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder) and genetic testing were investigated. Three groups of subjects were surveyed including members of a manic depressive support group, medical students, and psychiatry residents. The questionnaire was intended to elicit impressions and attitudes about bipolar disorder (BP) from mental health consumers and health care providers with varying levels of personal and professional familiarity with the disorder. Attitudes towards prenatal testing and pregnancy termination were also assessed. The intention hypothetically to terminate a pregnancy was influenced by the likelihood of developing BP a well as the projected course and severity of illness. Nearly half of the total sample would terminate pregnancy if the fetus were definitely to develop an unspecified form of bipolar disorder. Presumed severity of illness was also found to be a modifying factor in the decision, with a low percentage of subjects electing to terminate for a mild course of bipolar disorder and a majority opting for termination in the case of an extremely severe presentation. Support group members were the least likely to terminate a hypothetical pregnancy in the case of a positive prenatal test and were the most likely to desire childhood testing in the absence of preventive or treatment options. The possible implications of these findings, as well as avenues of future research, are discussed. PMID:8818938
Ritter, Philipp S; Marx, Carolin; Lewtschenko, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Leopold, Karolina; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea
Sleep is highly altered during affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. There is accumulating evidence that sleep is also altered in euthymic states. A deficit in sleep regulation may be a vulnerability factor with aetiological relevance in the development of the disease. This study aims to explore the objective, subjective and lifetime sleep characteristics of patients with manifest bipolar disorder and persons with an elevated risk of developing the disease. Twenty-two patients with bipolar I and II disorder, nine persons with an elevated risk of developing the disorder and 28 healthy controls were evaluated with a structured interview to characterize subjective and lifetime sleeping habits. In addition, participants wore an actimeter for six nights. Patients with bipolar disorder had longer sleep latency and duration compared with healthy controls as determined by actigraphy. The subjective and lifetime sleep characteristics of bipolar patients differed significantly from healthy controls. The results of participants with an elevated risk of developing the disorder had subjective and lifetime characteristics that were largely analogous to those of patients with manifest bipolar disorder. In particular, both groups described recurring insomnia and hypersomnia, sensitivity to shifts in circadian rhythm, difficulties awakening and prolonged sleep latency. This study provides further evidence that sleep and circadian timing are profoundly altered in patients with bipolar disorder. It may also tentatively suggest that sleep may be altered prior to the first manic episode in subjects at high risk.
Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan
According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Mirabel-Sarron, Christine; Giachetti, Raphaël
Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment. A number of psychosocial interventions have been developed to address impairment. The consensus makes mood stabilizer the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, numerous patients are not in complete remission despite a controlled observance. Every patient can follow a psycho educational program. What this paper adds. The review identifies that a range of interventions have demonstrated efficacy in extended periods of euthymia, improved social and occupational functioning and alleviation of subsyndromal symptoms. Adjunctive, short-term psychotherapies have been shown to offer fairly consistent benefits to bipolar disorder patients. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation offer the most robust efficacy in regard to relapse prevention. The most complex situations including comorbidities can be helped by behavioral and cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder. Evaluations emphasize positive impact. The psychosocial interventions reviewed provide mental health nurses with evidence-based approaches to improving mental health care for patients with bipolar disorder. There is a need for mental health nurses to conduct high quality trials of the clinical effectiveness of these interventions.
Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha
Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884
Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M
Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression and affects about 1% of the adult population. The condition can have a major impact on an individual's ability to function and is associated with a long-term risk of suicide. In this paper, we report on the use of self-rated mood data to forecast the next week's depression ratings. The data used in the study have been collected using SMS text messaging and comprises one time series of approximately weekly mood ratings for each patient. We find a wide variation between series: some exhibit a large change in mean over the monitored period and there is a variation in correlation structure. Almost half of the time series are forecast better by unconditional mean than by persistence. Two methods are employed for forecasting: exponential smoothing and Gaussian process regression. Neither approach gives an improvement over a persistence baseline. We conclude that the depression time series from patients with bipolar disorder are very heterogeneous and that this constrains the accuracy of automated mood forecasting across the set of patients. However, the dataset is a valuable resource and work remains to be done that might result in clinically useful information and tools.
Palacio, Juan David; Guzman, Sandra; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; López-Jaramillo, Carlos
Inflammatory changes have been described in different affective episodes, as well as in the euthymic phase of Bipolar I Disease. These changes have been proposed as possible peripheral markers of the disease. For this reason well-designed studies are needed to explore this hypothesis. Quantify and compare the serum levels of interleukins (IL) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in bipolar I patients and healthy subjects, including the comparison between the affective episodes of the disease. Cross-sectional study including 41 bipolar I patients and 11 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1B, IL-RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF were measured during the euthymic, depressive, and manic phases and were compared with the serum levels of the healthy subjects. Manic phase patients had low education and high number of hospitalisations. Depressive phase patients showed high number of depressive episodes throughout life. No statistically significant differences were found in IL and TNF levels between bipolar I patients and healthy controls, or between the bipolar I subgroups (euthymic, manic and depressive states). An increase in the size of the sample is necessary in future studies, in order to enhance the statistical value of the results, and explore the inflammatory hypothesis of the bipolar disease. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B
Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Nenadic, Igor; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Forberg, Anne; Smesny, Stefan; Sauer, Heinrich
Patients with bipolar disorder show cognitive deficits including executive function, which appear to be related to social functioning and outcome. However, subgroups within the spectrum as well as psychopathological features, current mood state/euthymia and disease stage might be confounding factors. We analysed data tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIE), verbal fluency (COWA) and trail making tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) obtained in a selected subgroup of currently bipolar I disorder patients, who were currently euthymic and had a history of psychotic symptoms, and compared them to patients with schizophrenia (in remission) and healthy controls, all matched for age, gender, and handedness. Schizophrenia patients showed more severe cognitive impairment, including digit symbol and arithmetic tests, as well as TMT-B (compared to healthy controls), but bipolar patients had stronger impairment on the letter number sequencing test, an indicator of working memory and processing speed. There were no group effects on most verbal fluency tasks (except impairment of schizophrenia patients on one subscale of category fluency). Within the limitations of the study design, our results suggest that even in subgroups of presumably more severely impaired bipolar patients, some cognitive dimensions might achieve remission, possibly related to considerable state effects at testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alnıak, İzgi; Erkıran, Murat; Mutlu, Elif
To determine the factors involved in violent behavior in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate the relationship between violence and substance use disorder (SUD). A sample of 100 male inpatients diagnosed with BD type I who were experiencing a current mood episode participated in the study. Violent behavior was defined as physical aggression against others. All patients were evaluated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-positive subscale (PANSS-p), Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11), Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Lifetime SUD and current use of substances were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict violent behavior. Current substance use (CSU) rather than lifetime SUD was found to be related to violent behavior in patients with BD, and CSU was associated with a threefold increase in the risk of violence. The rate of lifetime SUD in our sample was 59%, and the rate of CSU was 39%. The most commonly abused substances were cannabis and alcohol, followed by synthetic cannabinoids, in both groups of patients with lifetime SUD and CSU. Individuals abusing any substance were more likely to have a criminal record and history of incarceration than other patients. One of the most significant risk factors for violence was a previous history of violent behavior. The sample was limited to male patients. Data on some participants' recent substance use from standard urine analysis was not obtained. The data on the use of synthetic cannabinoids was obtained from patients and their families owing to the lack of equipment for detecting synthetic cannabinoids using laboratory analysis. CSU appears to be a significant predictive factor in violent behavior in male patients. Further investigation of co-occurrence of violence with CSU and improvement in treatment strategies might reduce or prevent violence in
Bernstein, Ira H; Rush, A John; Suppes, Trisha; Kyotoku, Yakasushi; Warden, Diane
The clinical and self-report versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) have been well studied in patients with major depressive disorder and in one recent study using patients with bipolar disorder. This article examines these measures in a second sample of 141 outpatients with bipolar disorder in different phases of the illness. At baseline, 61 patients were depressed and 30 were euthymic; at exit, 50 were depressed and 52 were euthymic. The remaining patients (at baseline or exit) were in either a manic or mixed phase and were pooled for statistical reasons. Similar results were found for the QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16. Scores were reasonably reliable to the extent that variability within groups permitted. As expected, euthymic patients showed less depressive symptomatology than depressed patients. Sad mood and general interest were the most discriminating symptoms between depressed and euthymic phases. Changes in illness phase (baseline to exit) were associated with substantial changes in scores. The relation of individual depressive symptoms to the overall level of depression was consistent across phases. Both the QIDS-SR16 and QIDS-C16 are suitable measures of depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder.
Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K; Bjerregaard Stage, T; Mørkeberg Nilsson, F; Bjerregaard Stage, K; Valentin, J B; Bech, P; Ernst Nielsen, R
In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM-D subscales included was found. The patients were followed-up through the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, which resulted in inherent limitations such as possible misclassification of outcome. In a sample of middle-aged hospitalized unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, the risk of conversion was associated with the number of previous depressive episodes. Therefore, this study emphasizes that unipolar depressed patients experiencing a relatively high number of recurrences should be followed more closely, or at least be informed about the possible increased risk of conversion. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Cusi, Andrée; Macqueen, Glenda M; McKinnon, Margaret C
Despite evidence of impairments in social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), systematic investigations of empathic responding in this population have not been conducted. The objectives of the current study were to investigate empathic responding in patients with BD in varying states of illness and to determine whether course of illness variables and symptom severity predicted responding. Twenty well-characterized patients with BD and 20 matched healthy control subjects completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR), self-report measures of cognitive and emotional empathy and of psychosocial functioning, respectively. Patients with BD reported significantly reduced levels of cognitive empathy ('Perspective Taking') and higher levels of personal distress in response to others' negative experiences than did controls. Altered affective empathic abilities correlated significantly with reduced psychosocial functioning in family, social and occupational domains and with increased symptom severity. This study provides preliminary evidence of alterations in empathic responding in patients with BD. Alterations in the ability to adopt the perspective of others may contribute to the difficulties in social communication inherent in this patient population. Additional studies, involving larger samples, are required to determine the contribution of social cognitive performance to impaired social functioning in BD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia
To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001) and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030) and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030). Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.
Castaño Ramírez, Oscar Mauricio; Martínez Ramírez, Yeferson André; Marulanda Mejía, Felipe; Díaz Cabezas, Ricardo; Valderrama Sánchez, Lenis Alexandra; Varela Cifuentes, Vilma; Aguirre Acevedo, Daniel Camilo
The Spanish version of the cognitive impairment in psychiatry scale screening scale has been developed as a response to the needs arising in clinical practice during the evaluation of mental illness patients, but the performance is not known in the Colombian population with bipolar disorder I. This paper tries to establish construct validity and stability of the scale in patients with bipolar disorder I in the city of Manizales. Construct validity was estimated by comparing the measurement in two divergent groups, a control group and a group with bipolar disorder I. It was also compared to a Neuropsychological battery measuring the same scale domains. The correlation between each one of the sub-tests of the scale and stability was evaluated through the reliability test-retest in the group with bipolar disorder I. The scale showed discriminatory capacity in cognitive functioning between the control group and the group with bipolar disorder I. The correlation with the neuropsychological battery was estimated by the Spearman test showing results between 0.36 and 0.77, and the correlation between each sub-test of the scale showed correlations between 0.39 and 0.72. Test-retest was measured with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and their values were between 0.77 and 0.91. The Spanish version of screening scale in the cognitive disorder in psychiatry shows acceptable validity and reliability as a measurement tool in clinical psychiatric practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla
Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203
Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin
Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mizuno, Yuya; Hofer, Alex; Suzuki, Takefumi; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Kemmler, Georg; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Mimura, Masaru; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki
The concept of resilience is relevant in understanding the heterogeneous outcomes noted in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, clinical and biological correlates of resilience in these populations have rarely been investigated. We aimed to identify key correlates of subjective resilience in such patients using comprehensive assessments and to explore associations between resilience levels and peripheral biomarkers. 180 subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls (60 per group) were included. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed by means of interview and various psychometric scales. Furthermore, blood and saliva samples were obtained for the assessment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and alpha-amylase levels. Cross-sectional associations with resilience, as assessed by the 25-item Resilience Scale were sought. Resilience Scale total scores were significantly higher in healthy individuals (130.1, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 124.8-135.4) compared to subjects with schizophrenia (109.9, 95% CI: 104.6-115.2, p<0.001) and bipolar disorder (119.0, 95% CI: 113.8-124.3, p=0.012), while the difference between patient groups was non-significant (p=0.055). Self-esteem, spirituality, quality of life, and hopelessness were correlated with resilience in all three groups. In addition, internalized stigma and depression were relevant factors in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group, respectively. Correlations between resilience levels and peripheral biomarkers did not reach significance. Although causal relationships must be confirmed in prospective studies, our results have implications in developing psychological interventions to enhance resilience in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The biological correlates of resilience in these populations warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Pavuluri, Mani N.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.
Objective: Past investigations indicate facial emotion-processing abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) subjects. However, the extent to which these deficits represent state- and trait-related factors is unclear. We investigated facial affect processing in acutely ill and clinically stabilized children with PBD and matched healthy…
Castrogiovanni, Silvia; Soreca, Isabella; Troiani, Daniela; Mauri, Mauro
Binge Eating (BE) is a common eating pattern in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). BE may confer an increased risk for obesity, morbidity, mortality and poorer quality of life. We assessed the presence of BE and its impact on body weight, body image and self-esteem in 50 patients with BD and 50 age- and gender-matched controls. The presence and severity of BE was assessed with the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The Body Image and Self-Esteem Evaluation Scale (B-WISE) was used to assess the psychosocial impact of weight gain. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Nine (18%) patients had a score >27, indicating a likely diagnosis of BE. None of the control subjects had a BES score >17. No association between BES score and the medications was found. Patients had a significantly higher BES score, significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Although the B-Wise score was higher in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant. This study suggests that BE is prevalent in patients with BD. The presence of BE eating is a predictor of higher BMI, indicating that the disruption of eating behavior may be a pathway to weight gain.
Benito, Adolfo; Lahera, Guillermo; Herrera, Sara; Muncharaz, Ramón; Benito, Guillermo; Fernández-Liria, Alberto; Montes, José Manuel
To analyze the recognition, identification, and discrimination of facial emotions in a sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder (BD). Forty-four outpatients with diagnosis of BD and 48 matched control subjects were selected. Both groups were assessed with tests for recognition (Emotion Recognition-40 - ER40), identification (Facial Emotion Identification Test - FEIT), and discrimination (Facial Emotion Discrimination Test - FEDT) of facial emotions, as well as a theory of mind (ToM) verbal test (Hinting Task). Differences between groups were analyzed, controlling the influence of mild depressive and manic symptoms. Patients with BD scored significantly lower than controls on recognition (ER40), identification (FEIT), and discrimination (FEDT) of emotions. Regarding the verbal measure of ToM, a lower score was also observed in patients compared to controls. Patients with mild syndromal depressive symptoms obtained outcomes similar to patients in euthymia. A significant correlation between FEDT scores and global functioning (measured by the Functioning Assessment Short Test, FAST) was found. These results suggest that, even in euthymia, patients with BD experience deficits in recognition, identification, and discrimination of facial emotions, with potential functional implications.
Ono, Yasuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Hino, Shoryoku; Nagasawa, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Takanori; Munesue, Toshio; Minabe, Yoshio
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a complex decision-making task in which monetary wins and losses guide the development of strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic responses of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during performance of the IGT using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants comprised 13 patients and 15 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient. Relative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb) levels in the frontal region were measured using a 46-channel NIRS system. All subjects were evaluated using NIRS during a verbal fluency task (VFT) and the IGT. During performance of the IGT, BD patients showed significantly decreased oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared with normal control subjects. However, during the VFT, patients with BD showed no significant changes in oxy-Hb levels compared with control subjects. Changes in oxy-Hb levels in the bilateral OFC and the PFC during the IGT were negatively correlated with total scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Although the IGT was useful for differentiating patients with BP from control subjects, no significant differences in autonomic activity were observed.
Cardenas, Stephanie A; Kassem, Layla; Brotman, Melissa A; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J
Neurocognitive deficits are present in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and their unaffected (nonbipolar) relatives, but it is not clear which domains are most often impaired and the extent of the impairment resulting from shared genetic factors. In this literature review, we address these issues and identify specific neurocognitive tasks most sensitive to cognitive deficits in patients and unaffected relatives. We conducted a systematic review in Web of Science, PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO databases. Fifty-one articles assessing cognitive functioning in BD patients (23 studies) and unaffected relatives (28 studies) were examined. Patients and, less so, relatives show impairments in attention, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, and verbal fluency. Studies were more likely to find impairment in patients than relatives, suggesting that some neurocognitive deficits may be a result of the illness itself and/or its treatment. However, small sample sizes, differences among relatives studied (e.g., relatedness, diagnostic status, age), and differences in assessment instruments may contribute to inconsistencies in reported neurocognitive performance among relatives. Additional studies addressing these issues are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rapoport, Stanley I; Rao, Jagadeesh S
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent changes of mood, and is associated with cognitive decline. There is evidence of excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, upregulated arachidonic acid (AA) cascade signaling and brain atrophy in BD patients. These observations suggest that BD pathology may be associated with apoptosis as well as with disturbed synaptic function. To test this hypothesis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of the pro-apoptotic (Bax, BAD, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic factors (BDNF and Bcl-2), and of pre- and post-synaptic markers (synaptophysin and drebrin), in postmortem brain from 10 BD patients and 10 age-matched controls. Consistent with the hypothesis, BD brains showed significant increases in protein and mRNA levels of the pro-apoptotic factors and significant decreases of levels of the anti-apoptotic factors and the synaptic markers, synaptophysin and drebrin. These differences may contribute to brain atrophy and progressive cognitive changes in BD. PMID:19945534
Saraf, Gayatri; Paul, Imon; Viswanath, Biju; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Math, Suresh Bada; Reddy, Y C Janardhan
Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered to be a common comorbid condition in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but there is limited literature on the prevalence of BD and its clinical correlates in those with a primary diagnosis of OCD. We studied the prevalence of BD in a sample of consecutively registered outpatients attending a specialty OCD clinic in India over a period of 13 months. One hundred and seventy-one patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD were assessed systematically using structured and semi-structured instruments. The prevalence of lifetime BD in OCD was 4%. The OCD + BD group had an episodic course of OCD and higher rate of lifetime suicide attempts. BD may not be as highly prevalent in OCD as reported in literature. Those with OCD seem to have only a marginally higher risk for developing BD than the general population. A diagnosis of BD seems to have a pathoplastic effect on the course of OCD. Patients with OCD-BD comorbidity have to be specifically assessed for suicide risk.
Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Inadera, Hidekuni
Previous studies of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex have shown abnormalities in levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). We have previously measured PUFA levels in the postmortem hippocampus from patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and control subjects; however, we found no significant differences between the groups except for small changes in n-6 PUFAs. Furthermore, our study of the postmortem amygdala showed no significant differences in major PUFAs in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or MDD in comparison with controls. In the present study, we investigated whether there were any changes in PUFAs in the entorhinal cortexes of patients with schizophrenia (n=15), bipolar disorder (n=15), or MDD (n=15) compared with unaffected controls (n=15) matched for characteristics including age and sex. In contrast to previous studies of the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus, we found no significant differences in major PUFAs. However, we found a 34.3% decrease in docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5n-3) in patients with MDD and an 8.7% decrease in docosatetraenoic acid (22:4n-6) in those with schizophrenia, compared with controls. Changes in PUFAs in patients with these psychiatric disorders may be specific to certain brain regions.
Maina, Giuseppe; Bechon, Elisa; Rigardetto, Sylvia; Salvi, Virginio
Bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with worse physical health. Indeed patients with BPD more frequently suffer from medical conditions such as cardiovascular illness, hypertension, diabetes, hypothyroidism, respiratory disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer, and arthritis. Since some clinical characteristics have been associated with worse course and outcome of BPD, it is possible that they might also bring to an increased medical burden in patients with BPD. The aim of the present report is to assess the prevalence of medical conditions in patients with BPD, and to determine the clinical variables associated with the presence of a medical condition. Charts of patients with BPD I and II were reviewed: socio-demographic and clinical information were collected. Medical conditions were classified by the ICD-10 and grouped according to the Cumulative Illness Rating Scales in: cardiac, vascular, hematopoietic, respiratory, ear/nose/throat, upper and lower gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, neurologic, endocrine/metabolic. The associations between the presence of medical conditions and demographic/clinical variables of BPD were then analyzed. Charts of 309 patients were included in the study. 170 (55%) patients had at least one medical condition. The most common were endocrine/metabolic disease (23%), and vascular disease (21%). Having a medical condition was associated with longer duration of untreated illness and female gender. Patients with BPD have high rates of medical conditions, especially hypertension and metabolic disorders. A longer duration of untreated illness is associated with having a medical condition, probably due to the long-lasting adoption on unhealthy lifestyles not counterbalanced by treatment and psychoeducation. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard
Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications
Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick
Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927
Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick
Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Frank, T. D.
We derive a nonlinear limit cycle model for oscillatory mood variations as observed in patients with cycling bipolar disorder. To this end, we consider two signaling pathways leading to the activation of two enzymes that play a key role for cellular and neural processes. We model pathway cross-talk in terms of an inhibitory impact of the first pathway on the second and an excitatory impact of the second on the first. The model also involves a negative feedback loop (inhibitory self-regulation) for the first pathway and a positive feedback loop (excitatory self-regulation) for the second pathway. We demonstrate that due to the cross-talk the biochemical dynamics is described by an oscillator equation. Under disease-free conditions the oscillatory system exhibits a stable fixed point. The breakdown of the self-inhibition of the first pathway at higher concentration levels is studied by means of a scalar control parameter ξ, where ξ equal to zero refers to intact self-inhibition at all concentration levels. Under certain conditions, stable limit cycle solutions emerge at critical parameter values of ξ larger than zero. These oscillations mimic pathological cycling mood variations that emerge due to a disease-induced bifurcation. Consequently, our modeling analysis supports the notion of bipolar disorder as a dynamical disease. In addition, our study establishes a connection between mechanistic biochemical modeling of bipolar disorder and phenomenological nonlinear oscillator approaches to bipolar disorder suggested in the literature.
Nallet, A; Weber, B; Favre, S; Gex-Fabry, M; Voide, R; Ferrero, F; Zullino, D; Khazaal, Y; Aubry, J M
Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence is frequent and has marked negative consequences on the course of the illness and treatment compliance. The objective of this study was to compare the validity of two short instruments aimed at screening bipolar disorders among patients treated for substance use disorders. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32) were tested with reference to the mood section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID) in 152 patients, recruited in two outpatient clinics providing specialized treatment for alcohol and opiate dependence. According to the SCID, 33 patients (21.7%) had a diagnosis within the bipolar spectrum (two bipolar I, 21 bipolar II and 10 bipolar not otherwise specified). The HCL-32 was more sensitive (90.9% vs. 66.7%) and the MDQ more specific (38.7% vs. 77.3%) for the whole sample. The MDQ displayed higher sensitivity and specificity in patients treated for alcohol than for opiate dependence, whereas the HCL-32 was highly sensitive but poorly specific in both samples. Both instruments had a positive predictive value under 50%. Caution is needed when using the MDQ and HCL-32 in patients treated for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Crowe, Marie; Wilson, Lynere; Inder, Maree
As with other long-term conditions patients with bipolar disorder are rarely totally adherent or non-adherent. Rates of non-adherence have not changed since the first introduction of psychotropic medications in the 1950s despite vast numbers of new compounds being marketed. Non-adherence with medication in bipolar disorder is associated with affective relapse and consequently poor quality of life. The reasons that patients are non-adherent with medication are not well understood by clinicians who often assume it is related to the illness itself. To identify patients' perceptions of medication adherence in bipolar disorder. An integrated review of the literature published between 1999 and 2010. Ovid (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO) and manual searching. An integrative review of the literature was conducted which included: (a) problem formation, (b) literature search and initial screening, (c) gathering data from studies, (d) evaluating study quality, (e) data analysis and integration, (f) data interpretation, and (g) presentation of the findings. Thirteen articles met criteria for inclusion in the review. These articles identified how patients reported their perceptions on medication and were integrated into four categories: illness factors, personal attitudes and beliefs, medication factors and environmental factors. These findings suggest a need to address adherence from the full range of influencing factors (patient, illness, medication and environmental). Clinicians need to utilise a collaborative approach to working together with patients in order to identify the meaning that patients attribute to the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and medication. Understanding patients' perceptions and accepting these may facilitate greater medication adherence and the consequent improved clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tundo, Antonio; Calabrese, Joseph R; Proietti, Luca; de Fillippis, Rocco
The study aimed to compare effectiveness and safety of short-term antidepressant treatment between patients with continuous (CCC) and non-continuous (N-CCC) cycling bipolar disorders. The study sample included 101 patients with bipolar disorder, 22 (21.8%) CCC and 79 (78.2%) N-CCC. Response was defined as a HDRS21 total score <7 at 12 weeks of treatment and remission as a ≥50% reduction of baseline HDRS21 total score sustained for 8 weeks. Compared with N-CCC patients, CCC patients achieved a significantly lower percentage of response (respectively 50% vs. 82.3%, χ²=9.6, p=0.002) and remission (respectively 40.9% vs. 69.6%, χ²=6.11, p=0.013). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that CCC patients were 4.3 times more likely to be non-responders and 3.3 times more likely to be non-remitters than N-CCC patients. AD safety, 1 (5.0%) CCC patient committed a suicide attempt and AD-emerging switch was observed in 2 patients with N-CCC (2.5%) and in 1 with CCC (4.5%). The observational nature of the study, retrospective assessment of course, and unblinded outcomes assessment. Our findings indicate that the presence or absence of a free interval identifies two different forms of bipolar disorders with different response not only to prophylactic treatment, as previously reported, but also to short-term ADs. We submit that clinicians should take into consideration their patients׳ pattern of cycling when prescribing short-term AD treatment. Moreover, subtypes of bipolar disorders might be used as moderators of treatment response in studies assessing the efficacy or the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rolstad, Sindre; Jakobsson, Joel; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael
The purpose of the present study was to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are associated with cognition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, respectively. CSF concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β, and neurofilament light chain protein were analyzed in relation to neuropsychological performance in 82 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 healthy controls. Linear regression models were applied to account for performance in five cognitive domains using the CSF biomarkers. In patients, the CSF biomarkers explained a significant proportion of the variance (15–36%, p=.002 - <.0005) in all cognitive domains independently of age, medication, disease status, and bipolar subtype I or II. However, the CSF biomarkers specifically mirroring Alzheimer-type brain changes, i.e., P-tau and Aβ1-42, did not contribute significantly. In healthy controls, CSF biomarkers did not explain the variance in cognitive performance. Selected CSF biomarkers of neurodegenerative processes accounted for cognitive performance in persons with bipolar disorder, but not for healthy controls. Specifically, the ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38 were consistently associated with altered cognitive performance. PMID:25954806
Zheng, W; Tang, L R; Correll, C U; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Xiang, Y Q; Xiang, Y T
Distant visual impairment in the severely mentally ill is under-researched. This study aimed to assess the frequency and correlates of distant visual impairment in a cohort of Chinese psychiatric patients, including its effect on their quality of life. Adult psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder consecutively admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Beijing, China underwent assessments of psychopathology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report]), quality of life (12-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study [SF-12], 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ25]), adverse effects (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale), and presenting (as opposed to uncorrected) distant visual acuity (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution [LogMAR] chart with patients wearing spectacles, if they owned them). Distant visual impairment was defined as binocular distant visual acuity of a LogMAR score of ≥ 0.5 (< 6/18 Snellen acuity). Among 356 patients who met the study criteria, the frequency of distant visual impairment was 12.6% (15.2% with schizophrenia, 11.9% with bipolar disorder, 8.8% with major depressive disorder). In multiple logistic regression analysis, distant visual impairment was significantly associated with ocular disease only (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-6.7). Controlling for the confounding effect of ocular disease, patients with distant visual impairment had a lower quality of life in the general vision domain of the NEI-VFQ25 (F[2, 353] = 9.5, p = 0.002) compared with those without. No differences in the physical and mental domains of the SF-12 and in other domains of the NEI-VFQ25 were noted in these 2 groups. One-eighth of middle-aged severely mentally ill patients had distant visual impairment. Considering the impact of distant visual impairment on daily functioning
Rocca, Cristiana Castanho de Almeida; Heuvel, Eveline van den; Caetano, Sheila C; Lafer, Beny
Literature review of the controlled studies in the last 18 years in emotion recognition deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographical research of controlled studies with samples larger than 10 participants from 1990 to June 2008 was completed in Medline, Lilacs, PubMed and ISI. Thirty-two papers were evaluated. Euthymic bipolar disorder presented impairment in recognizing disgust and fear. Manic BD showed difficult to recognize fearful and sad faces. Pediatric bipolar disorder patients and children at risk presented impairment in their capacity to recognize emotions in adults and children faces. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing facial emotions than schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder patients present impaired recognition of disgust, fear and sadness that can be partially attributed to mood-state. In mania, they have difficult to recognize fear and disgust. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing emotions than depressive and schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder children present a tendency to misjudge extreme facial expressions as being moderate or mild in intensity. Affective and cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder vary according to the mood states. Follow-up studies re-testing bipolar disorder patients after recovery are needed in order to investigate if these abnormalities reflect a state or trait marker and can be considered an endophenotype. Future studies should aim at standardizing task and designs.
Moon, Eunok; Kim, Do-Hyung; Hwang, Boram
Objective Heart rate variability (HRV) changes as a function of psychiatric illness. This study aimed to evaluate HRV among patients with various psychiatric disorders. Methods The present study recruited patients with schizophrenia (n=35), bipolar disorder (n=41), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=34), or major depressive disorder (n=34) as well as healthy controls (n=27). The time-domain analysis (the standard deviation of all RR intervals [SDNN] and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal sinus intervals [RMSSD]), the frequency-domain analysis (very low frequency, low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], and total power [TP]), and a non-linear complexity measure the approximate entropy were computed. Results SDNN and HF were significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. SDNN, RMSSD, TP, LF, and HF were significantly reduced in bipolar patients compared with healthy controls. HF was significantly reduced in PTSD patients compared with healthy controls. Conclusion Our findings indicate that HRV is not sufficiently powerful to discriminate among various psychiatric illnesses. However, our results suggest that HRV, particularly HF, could be used as a tool for discriminating between psychiatric patients and healthy controls. PMID:24465250
Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX) or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89) between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively) were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs]) and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge. PMID:22856540
Rybakowski, J K; Dudek, D; Pawlowski, T; Lojko, D; Siwek, M; Kiejna, A
To use the hypomania checklist (HCL-32) and the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ), for detecting bipolarity in depressed patients. One thousand and fifty-one patients fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for unipolar major depressive episode, single or recurrent, were studied. Patients were assessed using a structured demographic and clinical data interview, and by the Polish versions of the HCL-32 and MDQ questionnaires. Hypomanic symptoms exceeding cut-off criteria for bipolarity by HCL-32 were found in 37.5% of patients and, by MDQ, in 20% of patients. Patients with HCL-32 (+) or MDQ (+) differed significantly from patients with HCl-32 (-) and MDQ (-) respectively, by being less frequently married, having more family history of depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism and suicide, earlier onset of illness, and more depressive episodes and psychiatric hospitalizations. The percentage of patients resistant to treatment with antidepressant drugs was significantly higher in HCL-32 (+) vs. HCL-32 (-) and in MDQ (+) vs. MDQ (-): 43.9% vs. 30.0%, and 26.4% vs. 12.4%, respectively. The results confirm a substantial percentage of bipolarity in major depressive disorder. Such patients have a number of clinical characteristics pointing on a more severe form of the illness and their depression is more resistant to treatment with antidepressants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bajor, Laura A.; Lai, Zongshan; Goodrich, David E.; Miller, Christopher J.; Penfold, Robert B.; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Bauer, Mark S.
Background Evidence suggests that patients with bipolar disorder have an elevated risk for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to those without a bipolar diagnosis. Although bipolar disorder is associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it is unclear whether comorbid PTSD interacts to affect HRQOL. Method Baseline data from a multi-site study of patients with bipolar disorder were analyzed. Patient surveys ascertained clinical and demographic information, including physical and mental HRQOL based on the SF-12, mood symptoms (PHQ-9, Internal State Scale), and self-reported co-occurring conditions including PTSD. Results Overall (N=384), 43.5% of patients self-reported co-occurring PTSD. Patients with PTSD had lower physical and mental HRQOL scores compared to those without PTSD (mean (SD) for those with and without PTSD, respectively): Mental Component Scale score 30.51 (8.22) and 32.86 (8.35); Physical Component Scale score 35.56 (7.77) and 37.21 (7.20). After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors including mood symptoms, multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD was no longer significantly associated with physical or mental HRQOL; however, depressive symptoms were independently associated with mental HRQOL (Beta −0.63, p<0.01). Conclusion Depressive symptoms may explain the association between PTSD and mental HRQOL. Clinicians working with these patients will want to emphasize treatment of depression as important towards improving HRQOL for this group. PMID:23021820
Sbrana, Alfredo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Rucci, Paola; Gonnelli, Chiara; Massei, Jacopo G; Ravani, Laura; Endicott, Jean; Maser, Jack D; Cassano, Giovanni B
Family history data were collected on first-degree relatives of 78 patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and substance use disorder (SUD), 47 with BD only, and 35 with SUD only. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of patients with BD + SUD (64%) and BD (61%) compared with first-degree relatives of SUD patients (20%). The prevalence of alcohol misuse was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of patients with BD + SUD (23.1%) and SUD alone (28.6%) compared to first-degree relatives of patients with BD (4.3%). Our findings suggest that BD and SUD do not share familial risk factors.
Roux, Paul; Raust, Aurélie; Cannavo, Anne Sophie; Aubin, Valérie; Aouizerate, Bruno; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bellivier, Frank; Belzeaux, Raoul; Bougerol, Thierry; Cussac, Iréna; Courtet, Philippe; Etain, Bruno; Gard, Sébastien; Job, Sophie; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Leboyer, Marion; Olié, Emilie; Henry, Chantal; Passerieux, Christine
Although cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, little is known about cognitive phenotype heterogeneity among patients with BD. We investigated neuropsychological performance in 258 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of expert centers for BD. We used a test battery assessing six domains of cognition. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the cross-sectional data was used to determine the optimal number of subgroups and to assign each patient to a specific cognitive cluster. Subsequently, subjects from each cluster were compared on demographic, clinical functioning, and pharmacological variables. A four-cluster solution was identified. The global cognitive performance was above normal in one cluster and below normal in another. The other two clusters had a near-normal cognitive performance, with above and below average verbal memory, respectively. Among the four clusters, significant differences were observed in estimated intelligence quotient and social functioning, which were lower for the low cognitive performers compared to the high cognitive performers. These results confirm the existence of several distinct cognitive profiles in BD. Identification of these profiles may help to develop profile-specific cognitive remediation programs, which might improve functioning in BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yuksel, C; Du, F; Ravichandran, C; Goldbach, J R; Thida, T; Lin, P; Dora, B; Gelda, J; O'Connor, L; Sehovic, S; Gruber, S; Ongur, D; Cohen, B M
Converging evidence suggests bioenergetic abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD). In the brain, phosphocreatine (PCr) acts a reservoir of high-energy phosphate (HEP) bonds, and creatine kinases (CK) catalyze the transfer of HEP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to PCr and from PCr back to ATP, at times of increased need. This study examined the activity of this mechanism in BD by measuring the levels of HEP molecules during a stimulus paradigm that increased local energy demand. Twenty-three patients diagnosed with BD-I and 22 healthy controls (HC) were included. Levels of phosphorus metabolites were measured at baseline and during visual stimulation in the occipital lobe using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4T. Changes in metabolite levels showed different patterns between the groups. During stimulation, HC had significant reductions in PCr but not in ATP, as expected. In contrast, BD patients had significant reductions in ATP but not in PCr. In addition, PCr/ATP ratio was lower at baseline in patients, and there was a higher change in this measure during stimulation. This pattern suggests a disease-related failure to replenish ATP from PCr through CK enzyme catalysis during tissue activation. Further studies measuring the CK flux in BD are required to confirm and extend this finding.
Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit
Religious and supernatural beliefs influence help seeking and treatment practices in bipolar disorder, but these are rarely explored by clinicians. This study aimed to understand religiousness, magico-religious beliefs, prevalence of religious and supernatural psychopathology and treatment practices among patients with bipolar disorder in euthymic state. A total of 185 patients of bipolar disorder currently in remission were assessed cross-sectionally for their clinical profile, current clinical status on the Hamilton Depression Rating Sscale (HDRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). A semi structured instrument for magico-religious beliefs, aetiological models, treatment seeking and treatment practices was administered. More than a third of patients (37.8%) had psychopathology with either religious or supernatural content or both in their lifetime. Almost half (45.4%) the patients believed in a supernatural/religious aetiology for their illness. Among the specific causes, planetary influences (13.5%) and God's will (30.8%) were the most common supernatural and religious cause, respectively. Almost half (44.3%) of patients had first treatment contact with religious/supernatural treatment providers. More than 90% of patients reported belief in God, yet about 70% reported that their doctors did not ask them sufficient questions to understand their religiosity. Magico-religious beliefs are common in bipolar disorder and a large number of patients attribute these as aetiological factors for their illness. Consequently they tend to seek treatment from traditional practitioners prior to approaching medical practitioners and may continue treatment with them alongside medical management.
Bobo, William V; Shelton, Richard C
Poor adherence to pharmacotherapy during maintenance-phase treatment of bipolar disorder is a common occurrence, exposing patients to a high risk of illness relapses, rehospitalization and other negative outcomes. In view of this, there has been a reawakening of interest in the potential of long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications to improve treatment outcome during bipolar maintenance therapy. Indeed, long-acting injectable medications have practical advantages of assuring delivery of medication at a prescribed dose, and perhaps also making it easier to monitor adherence, at least to the long-acting drug. However, there are important limitations to the long-term use of depot typical neuroleptics in patients with bipolar disorder, including risk of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia, which may exceed that of patients with schizophrenia, and the potential for treatment-emergent exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Long-acting injectable risperidone (RLAI) has recently been approved for maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder. Evidence supporting the use of RLAI for this indication consists of several nonrandomized, open-label studies; one randomized, open-label trial; and two adequately powered randomized, double-blind trials. In general, these studies have shown RLAI to be effective for the prevention of relapse or hospitalization during bipolar maintenance treatment. In the double-blind studies, RLAI was associated with reduced relapse rates, increased time to relapse and greater control of clinical symptoms during maintenance treatment following initial stabilization, compared with oral medication treatment or placebo injection. RLAI appeared to be more effective for preventing manic/mixed episodes than depressive episodes. RLAI showed good tolerability across studies; however, dose-related extrapyramidal effects, sedation, weight gain and prolactin elevation may occur during long-term treatment. Responder
May, J M; Hickey, M; Triantis, I; Palazidou, E; Kyriacou, P A
Lithium medication is the gold standard of treatment in Bipolar Disorder patients, preventing and reducing mood swings and suicidality. However, despite its effectiveness, it is a potentially hazardous drug requiring regular monitoring of blood levels to ensure toxic levels are not reached. This paper describes the first steps towards developing a new portable device that can be used by Bipolar Disorder patients to facilitate the analysis of lithium blood levels at home. Solutions of lithium carbonate have been optically fingerprinted using a high-end spectrophotometer. Preliminary measurements indicate that while the visible to near infrared region of the absorption spectra fall heavily within the water band, measurements in the Ultraviolet region show a strong distinction between different lithium concentrations. The optical spectra of Lithium in the 220 nm to 230 nm region demonstrated the ability to differentiate between concentrations representing those found in patients.
Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. In the past, genetic studies have attempted to identify factors associated with positive treatment response or side effects. Several research groups have shown that familial factors, family history of primary bipolar disorder, and negative family history of schizophrenia in particular, correlate well with pro