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Sample records for bipolar disorder

  1. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  2. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...

  4. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  5. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-09

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear cause for the periods (episodes) of extreme happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Bipolar Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  7. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  8. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  9. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  10. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  11. Bipolar disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate ...

  12. [Prevention of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2013-11-01

    In the past, preventive measures for psychoses have focused mainly on schizophrenic disorders. Bipolar disorders are often diagnosed and treated with a significant delay. The expansion of preventive measures for bipolar disorders aims at minimizing the substantial negative consequences associated with the disease. Some of the shared aspects of prevention in psychoses and bipolar disorders are that the first symptoms commonly appear during adolescence and early adulthood and that there is a symptomatic overlap between the disorders. To improve efforts to seek early help, public information about mental illness, low threshold services as well as cooperation between adult, child and adolescent psychiatry are needed for this target group. One differences is that psychotic symptoms play a minor role in bipolar disorders. Specific biological markers, such as disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythm and clinical characteristics, such as substance use and behavioral problems in childhood and youth supplement (subsyndromal) clinical symptoms in a multifactorial risk model. Besides severity and frequency of symptoms, specific periodic course patterns are crucial. Strategies of early intervention require a careful consideration of risks and benefits. Two aims should be distinguished: the improvement of current symptomatology and the prevention of conversion to bipolar disorder. Currently, studies evaluating risks and benefits of such interventions are first conducted. Expertise and resources for early recognition of psychoses and bipolar disorders should be pooled. Common standards are the basis for advancement and implementation of preventive strategies for bipolar disorders.

  13. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Michael A; Zavala, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions. A number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder.

  14. Bipolar disorder and aggression.

    PubMed

    Látalová, K

    2009-06-01

    In clinical practice, overt aggressive behaviour is frequently observed in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It can be dangerous and complicates patient care. Nevertheless, it has not been adequately studied as a phenomenon that is separate from other symptoms such as agitation. The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical context, and clinical management of aggression in patients with bipolar disorder. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2008 using the combination of key words 'aggression' or 'violence' with 'bipolar disorder'. For the treatment searches, generic names of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics were used in combination with key words 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression'. No language constraint was applied. Articles dealing with children and adolescents were not included. Acutely ill hospitalised bipolar patients have a higher risk for aggression than other inpatients. In a population survey, the prevalence of aggressive behaviour after age 15 years was 0.66% in persons without lifetime psychiatric disorder, but 25.34% in bipolar I disorder. Comorbidity with personality disorders and substance use disorders is frequent, and it elevates the risk of aggression in bipolar patients. Impulsive aggression appears to be the most frequent subtype observed in bipolar patients. Clinical management of aggression combines pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. A major problem with the evidence is that aggression is frequently reported only as one of the items contributing to the total score on a scale or a subscale. This makes it impossible to ascertain specifically aggressive behaviour. Large controlled head-to-head randomised controlled studies comparing treatments for aggressive behaviour in bipolar disorder are not yet available. There is some evidence favouring divalproex, but it is not particularly strong .We do not know if there are any efficacy

  15. [Puzzling bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Forsthoff, A; Born, C; Grunze, H

    2005-05-17

    Despite many advances in making the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, five to twelve years lie between the first affective episode and the introduction of an effective treatment. However, it is estimated that approximately only one-fourth of the patients with bipolar disorder are recognized as such at all. Clinical experience plays an important role in the diagnosis. Manias are often the cause for the first treatment with drugs, but the daily lives of patients with bipolar depression are often clearly more negatively affected. The acute therapy of bipolar depression is more complicated than that of mania and the difficult long-term treatment is always associated with a high suicide risk. A long-term therapy of bipolar disorders is not only meaningful for the prevention of new disease episodes, but also because it has a positive effect on comorbidities.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  17. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex. These problems can damage lives and hurt relationships. Some people with bipolar disorder have trouble keeping ... too much. Sometimes the stress can strain your relationships with other people. Caregivers can miss work or ...

  18. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bipolar Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bipolardisorder.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  19. [Bipolar mood disorders].

    PubMed

    Kupka, R W; Regeer, E J

    2007-10-13

    Bipolar mood disorders affect 2-4% of the population and have a high rate of recurrence. Manic and depressive episodes can be severe, and despite treatment there are often more residual symptoms and functional impairment between episodes than generally assumed. In recent years some advances have been made in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. However, insight into the neurobiological and genetical aspects of bipolar mood disorders is still limited.

  20. Pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Carbray, M Julie A; McGuinness, Teena

    2009-12-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder differs from the adult form of the disorder, marked by longer episodes, rapid cycling, prominent irritability, and high rates of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders. A careful assessment by families of children's symptoms, including their duration and intensity, helps with accurate diagnosis. After the diagnosis is made and careful psychopharmacological intervention is initiated, psychiatric nursing treatment of children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder should involve child-and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies, family support, and psychoeducation.

  1. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are less sensitive in considering the diagnosis of mania in children because of the variations in clinical presentation and because of the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. More often than the elated and expansive mood, irritability and significant aggression may be the presenting symptoms in these cases. One such case report is discussed highlighting the clinical aspects of pediatric bipolar disorder. PMID:21938101

  3. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  4. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa; Scott, Jan; Haque, Sayeed; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jessica; Caesar, Sian; Cooper, Caroline; Forty, Liz; Hyde, Sally; Lyon, Louisa; Greening, Jayne; Sham, Pak; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Jones, Ian; Craddock, Nick

    2005-11-01

    Abnormalities of cognitive style in bipolar disorder are of both clinical and theoretical importance. To compare cognitive style in people with affective disorders and in healthy controls. Self-rated questionnaires were administered to 118 individuals with bipolar I disorder, 265 with unipolar major recurrent depression and 268 healthy controls. Those with affective disorder were also interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and case notes were reviewed. Those with bipolar disorder and those with unipolar depression demonstrated different patterns of cognitive style from controls; negative self-esteem best discriminated between those with affective disorders and controls; measures of cognitive style were substantially affected by current levels of depressive symptomatology; patterns of cognitive style were similar in bipolar and unipolar disorder when current mental state was taken into account. Those with affective disorder significantly differed from controls on measures of cognitive style but there were no differences between unipolar and bipolar disorders when current mental state was taken into account.

  5. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  6. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  7. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 8 Genetic Testing Registry: Major affective disorder 9 Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (5 links) Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance: Finding the Right Treatment ...

  9. [Bipolar disorders and oral health].

    PubMed

    Schulte, P F J; Brand, H S

    2010-10-01

    A bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by recurrent occurrences of manic, depressive or mixed episodes, separated by shorter or longer relatively symptom-free periods. In the Netherlands, the incidence of bipolar disorders is 1.9%. Bipolar disorders are usually treated with a combination of psycho-education, self-management and pharmacotherapy. Both the bipolar disorder and the drugs for treating this disorder have negative effects on oral health. Patients have, among other things, an increased risk of caries, xerostomia, taste abnormalities and bruxism. Extensive instruction in oral hygiene, supported frequently by professional oral health care, is therefore essential. Considering the possible interaction among different kinds of drugs, NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consulting the patient's psychiatrist.

  10. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.

  11. Pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Severino, Giovanni; Squassina, Alessio; Costa, Marta; Pisanu, Claudia; Calza, Stefano; Alda, Martin; Del Zompo, Maria; Manchia, Mirko

    2013-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a lifelong severe psychiatric condition with high morbidity, disability and excess mortality. The longitudinal clinical trajectory of BD is significantly modified by pharmacological treatment(s), both in acute and in long-term stages. However, a large proportion of BD patients have inadequate response to pharmacological treatments. Pharmacogenomic research may lead to the identification of molecular predictors of treatment response. When integrated with clinical information, pharmacogenomic findings may be used in the future to determine the probability of response/nonresponse to treatment on an individual basis. Here we present a selective review of pharmacogenomic findings in BD. In light of the evidence suggesting a genetic effect of lithium reponse in BD, we focused particularly on the pharmacogenomic literature relevant to this trait. The article contributes a detailed overview of the current status of pharmacogenomics in BD and offers a perspective on the challenges that can hinder its transition to personalized healthcare.

  12. Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Velartova, Hana

    2011-03-01

    Provide an overview of how bipolar disorder affects cognitive function in patients. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles indexed by the combinations of MESH term or key word "bipolar disorder" with the following terms: "cognition", "memory", "neuropsychology", "neuropsychological tests", "lithium", "anticonvulsants", "antipsychotics", and "schizophrenia". Constraints limiting time period of publications or their language were not applied. Reference lists of publications identified by these procedures were hand-searched for additional relevant citations. There is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of bipolar disorder, including the remission phase, particularly in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions. But research on the cognitive functions has yielded inconsistent results over recent years. There is a growing need for clarification regarding the magnitude, clinical relevance and confounding variables of cognitive impairment in bipolar patients. The impact of bipolar illness on cognition can be influenced by age of onset, pharmacological treatments, individual response, familial risk factors, and clinical features. In addition to the mood state, cognitive performance in bipolar patients is influenced by seasonality. Previous optimistic assumptions about the prognosis of bipolar disorder were based on the success of the control of mood symptoms by pharmacotherapy. However, it is now clear that the "remitted" euthymic bipolar patients have distinct impairments of executive function, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning.

  13. Bipolar affective disorder and psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Cerna, Monika; Mainerova, Barbora; Sandoval, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder runs a natural course of frequent relapses and recurrences. Despite significant strides in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, most bipolar patients cannot be treated only by drugs. The limitations of using medication alone in symptomatic, relapse prevention, and satisfaction/quality of life terms have long prompted interest in wider forms of management. One of the promising way how to enhance remission seems to be combination of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment", "family therapy", "individual therapy", "group therapy", and "psychoeducation". The search was performed by repeated use of the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. This article is a review with conclusions concerned with psychoeducation in bipolar disorder. Randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, individual, group and family psychoeducation show that these approaches augment stabilizing effect of pharmacotherapy. Patients and their families should be educated about bipolar disorder, triggers, warning signs, mood relapse, suicidal ideation, and the effectiveness of early intervention to reduce complications. Psychosocial approaches are important therapeutic strategies for reducing relapse and rehospitalization in bipolar disorder.

  14. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884

  15. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  16. Seasonal variation in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Partonen, T; Lönnqvist, J

    1996-11-01

    In patients with bipolar disorder, admissions for manic and depressive episodes frequently display a seasonal pattern. We examined this variation and compared the patterns with the seasonal admission rates for schizophrenia. Patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register of in-patient admissions to all psychiatric hospitals during the years 1969-91. They were included in the analysis if the first admission had occurred before 30 years of age. A total of 295 bipolar patients were found, and a sample of 295 schizophrenic patients was randomly selected for comparison. There was no seasonal variation among all hospital admissions for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. However, the first admission for a depressive compared with a manic episode of bipolar disorder occurred significantly more often in the autumn (33% v. 21% respectively). The peak difference occurred during the week after the autumnal equinox in September. Our findings suggest that there is no seasonal variation in bipolar disorder, although in some patients the clinical course might be influenced by the autumn, as far as the likelihood of a first admission for depression is concerned.

  17. Cognitive therapy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Stress-vulnerability models are increasingly viewed as plausible explanations of recurrence in severe affective disorders. This has promoted greater interest in the application of evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive therapy, as an adjunct to medication for patients with bipolar disorder. This paper reviews the results from outcome studies of combined treatment approaches. Preliminary findings indicate that cognitive therapy reduces symptoms, enhances social adjustment and functioning and reduces relapses and hospitalizations in patients with bipolar disorder. However, the lack of published data from large scale randomized controlled trials and the absence of an adequate psychological model of manic relapse means that the role of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders will be the subject of intense debate for some time to come.

  18. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Lam, Raymond W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed bipolar II or bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). MAIN MESSAGE: Characterized by elevated mood cycling with depression, BSDs appear to be much more common than previously thought, affecting up to 30% of primary care patients presenting with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Hypomania, the defining feature of bipolar II disorder, is often not detected. Collateral information, semistructured interviews, and brief screening instruments could improve diagnosis. Antidepressants should be used with caution. The newer mood stabilizers or combinations of mood stabilizers might be the treatments of choice in the future. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, as primary providers of mental health care, should try to recognize and treat BSDs more frequently. These disorders are becoming increasingly common in primary care populations. PMID:12053634

  19. [Bipolar disorders, challenges and innovations].

    PubMed

    Gard, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of patients suffering from bipolar disorders is a public healthcare challenge. While the clinical profile of these disorders remains complex, it has clearly evolved over the last few years. The healthcare provision has consequently expanded, particularly with regard to psychoeducational programmes. In this context, the FondaMental Foundation is an example of collaborative work acting for the benefit of the patient.

  20. [Bipolar disorder in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Monczor, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a frequent disorder in the elderly, with a prevalence of 0.1 a 0.4%; a 10% of bipolar patients have mania onset after 50 years old. It has in ageing a more heterogeneous clinical presentation. The manic episodes are less severe, mixed depression is common, as well as confusion and cognitive impairment. A first manic episode in ageing can be secondary to medical illness. Treatment for bipolar disorder in ageing is similar to treatment for young patients. The differences are due to pharmacocinetic changes because of the age, with the comorbidity and with the etiology, if it is a secondary mania. Lithium can be the first choice for treating mania in patients with antecedent of good response and have tolerance to adverse effects, but because of its toxicity and secondary effects other possibilities may be considered: divalproate, cabamazepine, antipsychotics. There are some little studies that show lamotrigine efficacy in bipolar depression in elderly. We need more specific studies about bipolar disorder treatment in aging.

  1. Anticonvulsant drugs in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grunze, Heinz; Schlösser, Sandra; Amann, Benedikt; Walden, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in successfully treating bipolar disorder, there is increasing awareness of the limitations of traditional treatment regimens such as lithium and neuroleptics. The large family of anticonvulsant drugs, however, appears to be capable of providing new treatment options, not only as medication of second choice in patients refractory to treatment, but often as a treatment standard with high efficacy and low incidence of side effects. Besides established mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs are entering the field with promising initial results in the treatment of bipolar patients. Furthermore, bringing to light the mechanisms of action of anticonvulsants and the similarities between anticonvulsants effective in bipolar disorder may also deepen our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the disorder. PMID:22033602

  2. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...

  3. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional Remediation for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Solé, Brisa; Bonnín, C. Mar; Rosa, Adriane R; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation strategies, adapted from work conducted with traumatic brain injury patients and applied to patients with schizophrenia, also need to be adapted to individuals with bipolar disorders. Early intervention using functional remediation, involves neurocognitive techniques and training, but also psychoeducation on cognition-related issues and problem-solving within an ecological framework. PMID:21687565

  5. Creativity in familial bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Diana I; Chang, Kiki D; Strong, Connie; Ketter, Terence A

    2005-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated relationships between creativity and bipolar disorder (BD) in individuals, and suggested familial transmission of both creativity and BD. However, to date, there have been no studies specifically examining creativity in offspring of bipolar parents and clarifying mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of creativity. We compared creativity in bipolar parents and their offspring with BD and bipolar offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with healthy control adults and their children. 40 adults with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with ADHD, and 18 healthy control parents and their healthy control children completed the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS), an objective measure of creativity. Adults with BD compared to controls scored significantly (120%) higher on the BWAS Dislike subscale, and non-significantly (32%) higher on the BWAS Total scale. Mean BWAS Dislike subscale scores were also significantly higher in offspring with BD (107% higher) and offspring with ADHD (91% higher) than in healthy control children. Compared to healthy control children, offspring with BD had 67% higher and offspring with ADHD had 40% higher BWAS Total scores, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance when adjusted for age. In the bipolar offspring with BD, BWAS Total scores were negatively correlated with duration of illness. The results of this study support an association between BD and creativity and contribute to a better understanding of possible mechanisms of transmission of creativity in families with genetic susceptibility for BD. This is the first study to show that children with and at high risk for BD have higher creativity than healthy control children. The finding in children and in adults was related to an enhanced ability to experience and express dislike of simple and symmetric images. This could reflect increased access to negative affect, which could yield both benefits

  6. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological…

  7. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological…

  8. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-12-29

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  9. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  10. Nicotine dependence and psychosis in Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Methods Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N=610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N=1591), and Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type (N=1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N=10065) using logistic regression. Results Among smokers (N=6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR=2.5; p<0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR=1.3; p=0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR=1.2; p=0.02). Conclusions Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. PMID:26467098

  11. Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-06-01

    Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs.

  12. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  13. Creative treatment of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Tavčar, Rok

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field.

  14. Circadian preference in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Larriany Maria Falsin; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Andersen, Mônica Levy; Walz, Julio Cesar; Jakobson, Lourenço; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-06-01

    A role for circadian rhythm abnormalities in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested. The present study assessed circadian preference, a subjective preference for activities in the morning or evening related to chronotype. The sample was comprised of 81 outpatients with BD in remission and 79 control subjects. Circadian preference was derived from an interview evaluating biological rhythms and sleep pattern from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients were significantly more likely to have an evening preference than control subjects. Circadian preference was also associated with sleep latency. The association of evening preference and longer sleep latency may be related to the frequent clinical observation of a sleep/wake cycle reversal in bipolar disorder.

  15. Bipolar disorder in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, K. I.; Herrmann, N.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential. PMID:10349067

  16. Comorbidity in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gagan; Wilens, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis A growing literature shows the pervasiveness and importance of comorbidity in youth with bipolar disorder (BPD). For instance, up to 90% of youth with BPD have been described to manifest comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple anxiety, substance use, and disruptive behavior disorders are the other most commonly reported comorbidities with BPD. Moreover, important recent data highlights the importance of obsessive compulsive and pervasive developmental illness in the context of BPD. Data suggests that not only special developmental relationships are operant in context to comorbidity, but also that the presence of comorbid disorders with BPD results in a more severe clinical condition. Moreover, the presence of comorbidity has therapeutic implications for the treatment response for both BPD and the associated comorbid disorder. Future longitudinal studies to address the relationship and the impact of comorbid disorders on course and therapeutic response over time are required in youth with BPD. PMID:19264265

  17. Nicotine dependence and psychosis in Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar type.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah M; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald M; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N = 610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N = 1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N = 10065) using logistic regression. Among smokers (N = 6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR = 2.5; P < 0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR = 1.3; P = 0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR = 1.2; P = 0.02). Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds ... healthy people or people with other mental disorders. Learning more about these differences, along with new information ...

  19. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  20. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  1. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  2. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  3. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  4. [Unipolar versus bipolar depression: clues toward predicting bipolarity disorder].

    PubMed

    Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs

  5. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  7. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  8. Bipolar Disorder in Aviation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Bor, Robert; Sajantila, Antti

    2017-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in aviation medicine is to diagnose, as early as possible, pilots with psychiatric disorders that may impair pilot performance and increase the risk of incidents and accidents. This diagnosis applies particularly to bipolar disorder (BD), where return to flying duty is not an option in the majority of cases. BD is a long-term mental disorder presenting remittent depressive, hypomanic, manic, or mixed episodes between low symptomatic or asymptomatic intermediate periods. Onset in most cases is in late teen or early adult years. Suicidal intentions and suicide risk are significantly elevated in individuals with BD compared to the general population. A systematic literature search was performed of BD and aviation accidents and the National Transportation Safety Board database of fatal general aviation accidents was searched. One case report and two database reports of interest from 1994 to 2014 were identified. The findings set a minimum frequency of BD in general aviation fatalities to be approximately 2 out of 8648 (0.023%) in the United States. The reported incidence may underestimate the real number of BD cases for several reasons, including the fact that the medical history of pilots is not always available or is sometimes not the primary interest of a safety investigation. This study suggests that the demarcation of psychiatric disorder related to fitness to fly is an important step in safety.Vuorio A, Laukkala T, Navathe P, Budowle B, Bor R, Sajantila A. Bipolar disorder in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):42-47.

  9. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, R M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating Bipolar Disorder Management in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O’Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care. PMID:23001382

  11. [Psychoeducation in the treatment of bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Sienaert, P; de Fruyt, J

    2008-01-01

    There is a increasing interest in psychosocial treatment strategies for bipolar disorder. An essential ingredient of various psychosocial treatment models is psychoeducation (PE), which can also be used on its own as a psychotherapeutic strategy. To search the literature systematically in order to discover the efficacy of pe for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Medline was searched using mesh-terms 'bipolar disorder', 'psychotherapy' and 'patient education', and the search term 'psychoeducation'. results Thirty-four trials on psychoeducation for bipolar patients were found. The studies showed that pe can widen the patient's knowledge about the disorder and its treatment, and increase compliance and prevent relapse when offered to patients in remission. PE should be part of the standard treatment for patients with bipolar disorder. Further study should reveal in which phase of the disease, for which subgroup of patients and under what circumstances pe can best be offered.

  12. Treatments in child and adolescent bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Consoli, Angèle; Deniau, Emmannuelle; Huynh, Christophe; Purper, Diane; Cohen, David

    2007-04-01

    The existence of bipolar disorder in adolescents is now clearly established. However, whether bipolarity exists in children is more controversial. We reviewed the literature on acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder in youths. The guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents are generally similar to those applied in adult practice. But no evidence-based data support the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics since we only found two placebo-randomised controlled trials testing the efficacy of lithium in the paediatric literature. Therefore, we support the view that prescriptions should be limited to the most typical cases. In fact, the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents appears to be of limited use when a comorbid condition, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, occurs unless aggressive behaviour is the target symptom.

  13. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

  14. Can neuroimaging disentangle bipolar disorder?

    PubMed

    Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forecasting depression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression and affects about 1% of the adult population. The condition can have a major impact on an individual's ability to function and is associated with a long-term risk of suicide. In this paper, we report on the use of self-rated mood data to forecast the next week's depression ratings. The data used in the study have been collected using SMS text messaging and comprises one time series of approximately weekly mood ratings for each patient. We find a wide variation between series: some exhibit a large change in mean over the monitored period and there is a variation in correlation structure. Almost half of the time series are forecast better by unconditional mean than by persistence. Two methods are employed for forecasting: exponential smoothing and Gaussian process regression. Neither approach gives an improvement over a persistence baseline. We conclude that the depression time series from patients with bipolar disorder are very heterogeneous and that this constrains the accuracy of automated mood forecasting across the set of patients. However, the dataset is a valuable resource and work remains to be done that might result in clinically useful information and tools.

  16. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  17. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-06-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum.

  18. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  19. Attentional Bias in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of the relation between information-processing biases and affective traits in bipolar disorder. The present study was designed to investigate whether attentional biases are evident in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder when they are in a positive mood state, and whether biases are related to indices of emotion regulation and to prior history of mood episodes. Ninety adults diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 81 controls with no lifetime mood disorder underwent a positive mood induction and then completed an emotion face dot-probe task; participants in the bipolar disorder group also completed a self-report measure of responses to positive affect. Attentional bias was not related to a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or to symptom severity. Consistent with hypotheses, analyses within the bipolar group indicated that greater dampening of positive affect related to significantly less attention paid to the positively valenced faces. Discussion focuses on the potential role of affective traits in shaping attentional bias in bipolar disorder. PMID:25757517

  20. Insulin resistance and outcome in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Calkin, Cynthia V; Ruzickova, Martina; Uher, Rudolf; Hajek, Tomas; Slaney, Claire M; Garnham, Julie S; O'Donovan, M Claire; Alda, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of insulin resistance on bipolar disorder. To examine the relationships between insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and clinical course and treatment outcomes in bipolar disorder. We measured fasting glucose and insulin in 121 adults with bipolar disorder. We diagnosed type 2 diabetes and determined insulin resistance. The National Institute of Mental Health Life Chart was used to record the course of bipolar disorder and the Alda scale to establish response to prophylactic lithium treatment. Patients with bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance had three times higher odds of a chronic course of bipolar disorder compared with euglycaemic patients (50% and 48.7% respectively v. 27.3%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.07, P = 0.007), three times higher odds of rapid cycling (38.5% and 39.5% respectively v. 18.2%, OR = 3.13, P = 0.012) and were more likely to be refractory to lithium treatment (36.8% and 36.7% respectively v. 3.2%, OR = 8.40, P<0.0001). All associations remained significant after controlling for antipsychotic exposure and body mass index in sensitivity analyses. Comorbid insulin resistance may be an important factor in resistance to treatment in bipolar disorder. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  1. Cognitive styles in individuals with bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan; Pope, Marie

    2003-08-01

    Published studies of emotional processing and cognitive style in bipolar disorders tend to have small sample sizes or use non-clinical samples. Larger clinically representative studies are needed. Self-esteem, dysfunctional attitudes and personality style were compared in unipolar (N=16) and bipolar disorder (N=77); and then investigated in the different phases of bipolar disorder (remitted=26; depressed=38; hypomanic=13). One-year outcome was assessed in 36 bipolar subjects. Unipolar subjects and bipolar subjects differed significantly in their mean levels of negative self-esteem (unipolar=15.5; bipolar=12.7; P<0.05). Bipolar subjects with hypomania reported mean levels of dysfunctional beliefs that were higher than individuals in remission but lower than depressed subjects (remitted=136.7; depressed=153.8; hypomanic=144.8; P<0.05). Hypomanic subjects recorded the highest levels of negative as well as positive self-esteem. In the exploratory analysis of outcome, negative self-esteem (Exp [B] 1.91; 95% CI 1.11 to 3.32; P<0.05) was the most robust predictor of relapse. There are similarities in the cognitive style of individuals with unipolar as compared to bipolar disorders. Cognitive style in hypomania represents a phase between remission and depression rather than the polar opposite of depression. The implications of these findings are considered for psychological and neural network models.

  2. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  3. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  4. Advances in bipolar disorder: selected sessions from the 2011 International Conference on Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, David J; Angst, Jules; Berk, Michael; Dickerson, Faith; Frangou, Sophia; Frank, Ellen; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Harvey, Allison; Laghrissi-Thode, Fouzia; Leboyer, Marion; Ostacher, Michael J; Sibille, Etienne; Strakowski, Stephen M; Suppes, Trisha; Tohen, Mauricio; Yolken, Robert H; Young, L Trevor; Zarate, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the 9(th) International Conference on Bipolar Disorder (ICBD) took place in Pittsburgh, PA, June 9-11, 2011. The conference focused on a number of important issues concerning the diagnosis of bipolar disorders across the life span, advances in neuroscience, treatment strategies for bipolar disorders, early intervention, and medical comorbidity. Several of these topics were discussed in four plenary sessions. This meeting report describes the major points of each of these sessions and included (1) strategies for moving biology forward; (2) bipolar disorder and the forthcoming new DSM-5 nomenclature; (3) management of bipolar disorders-both theory and intervention, with an emphasis on the medical comorbidities; and, (4) a review of several key task force reports commissioned by the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD).

  5. Suicide in bipolar disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. Risk factors and prevention of suicide in this illness are the focus of considerable current research. MEDLINE data base was searched for the key words "bipolar disorder" with "suicide", "lithium" with "suicide", "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder", and "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder" and with "suicide". No language or time constraints were applied. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. It is estimated that 25% to 50% of patients with bipolar disorder will attempt suicide at least once over their lifetime, and that 8% to 19% will complete suicide. Mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are elevated in bipolar disorder. Risk factors for suicide include younger age of onset of the illness, history of past suicidal behavior, family history of suicide acts, comorbid borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders, and hopelessness. The warning signs calling for immediate action include the patients threatening to harm themselves, or looking for ways to kill themselves (seeking access to pills or weapons), or the patient talking or writing about death. Robust evidence supports the effects of lithium treatment in reducing suicidal attempts and completions in bipolar disorder. The evidence for antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsants is weaker. Nevertheless, valproate and other anticonvulsants are frequently prescribed as mood stabilizers. There have been controversial suggestions that this treatment may elevate the risk of suicide, but the data supporting this are not convincing. Psychoeducation can reduce the number of suicide attempts and completions. Suicide in bipolar disorder is a major public health problem. Recent research has expanded our knowledge of risk factors and warning signs. Nevertheless, it appears that the introduction of lithium treatment in the 1970s was the most recent important breakthrough in the prevention

  6. Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 patients with bipolar I disorder, 43 with bipolar II disorder, and 86 randomly selected population-based healthy controls were compared. A number of neuropsychological tests were administered, assessing verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Patients were in a stable phase during testing. Results Patients with bipolar type I and type II were cognitively impaired compared to healthy controls, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two subtypes. The strongest predictor of cognitive impairment within the patient group was current antipsychotic treatment. Conclusions The present study suggests that the type and degree of cognitive dysfunction is similar in bipolar I and II patients. Notably, treatment with antipsychotics - but not a history of psychosis - was associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Given that patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely to be on antipsychotic drugs, this might explain why some previous studies have found that patients with type I bipolar disorder are more cognitively impaired than those with type II. PMID:23758923

  7. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  8. Family planning for women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Packer, S

    1992-05-01

    Women with bipolar disorder often ask their treating clinician for information about family planning, as they are concerned about the impact of their illness on offspring. Three areas that should be included in discussions with patients and their partners are heritability of the disorder, risks during pregnancy, and risks during the postpartum period. The author summarizes information about genetic transmission of bipolar disorder, effects on bipolar patients of stress associated with pregnancy and childrearing, and effects of medication on the fetus and newborn. Discussion of these issues is most relevant for a women patient who is planning a pregnancy, but may also be useful for couples before marriage, for a women patient who finds that she is pregnant, and for men with bipolar disorder who want to become fathers.

  9. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  10. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  12. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    PubMed

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  13. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  14. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder. PMID:22738363

  15. Impulsivity across the course of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Fleck, David E; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Shear, Paula K; Kotwal, Renu; Arndt, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of bipolar disorder, thereby representing potential state markers and endophenotypes. Impulse control of 108 bipolar I manic or mixed patients was measured on three tasks designed to study response inhibition, ability to delay gratification, and attention; namely, a stop signal task, a delayed reward task, and a continuous performance task, respectively. Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) scores were also obtained. Patients were then followed for up to one year and reassessed with the same measures if they developed depression or euthymia. Healthy comparison subjects were also assessed with the same instruments on two occasions to assess measurement stability. At baseline, bipolar subjects demonstrated significant deficits on all three tasks as compared to healthy subjects, consistent with more impulsive responding in the bipolar manic/mixed group. In general, performance on the three behavioral tasks normalized upon switching to depression or developing euthymia. In contrast, BIS-11 scores were elevated during mania and remained elevated as bipolar subjects developed depression or achieved euthymia. Bipolar I disorder patients demonstrate deficits on laboratory tests of various aspects of impulsivity when manic, as compared to healthy subjects, that largely normalize with recovery and switching into depression. However, elevated BIS-11 scores persist across phases of illness. These findings suggest that impulsivity has both affective-state dependent and trait components in bipolar disorder.

  16. Impulsivity across the course of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Strakowski, Stephen M.; Fleck, David E.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Shear, Paula K.; Kotwal, Renu; Arndt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of bipolar disorder, thereby representing potential state markers and endophenotypes. Methods Impulse control of 108 bipolar I manic or mixed patients was measured on three tasks designed to study response inhibition, ability to delay gratification, and attention; namely a stop signal task, a delayed reward task, and a continuous performance task, respectively. Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) scores were also obtained. Patients were then followed for up to one year and re-assessed with the same measures if they developed depression or euthymia. Healthy comparison subjects were also assessed with the same instruments on two occasions to assess measurement stability. Results At baseline, bipolar subjects demonstrated significant deficits on all three tasks as compared to healthy subjects, consistent with more impulsive responding in the bipolar manic/mixed group. In general, performance on the three behavioral tasks normalized upon switching to depression or developing euthymia. In contrast, BIS-11 scores were elevated during mania and remained elevated as bipolar subjects developed depression or achieved euthymia. Conclusions Bipolar I disorder patients demonstrate deficits on laboratory tests of various aspects of impulsivity when manic, as compared to healthy subjects, that largely normalize with recovery and switching into depression. However, elevated BIS scores persist across phases of illness. These findings suggest that impulsivity has both affective-state dependent and trait components in bipolar disorder. PMID:20565435

  17. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  18. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    PENG, Daihui; JIANG, Kaida

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are common in patients with bipolar disorders. This comorbid condition complicates the clinical treatment of the two disorders, so identifying these individuals is important. We discuss the comorbid occurrence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder, introduce possible etiological mechanisms that could result in this common comorbid condition, discuss recent research advances in the area, and propose some clinical principles for managing such patients. PMID:26549961

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder and the Misdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ruggero, Camilo J.; Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest bipolar disorder is not only under-diagnosed but may at times be over-diagnosed. Little is known about factors that increase the odds of such mistakes. The present work explores whether symptoms of borderline personality disorder increase the odds of a bipolar misdiagnosis. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 610) presenting for treatment were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SIDP-IV), as well as a questionnaire asking if they had ever been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by a mental health care professional. Eighty-two patients who reported having been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who did not have it according to the SCID were compared to 528 patients who had never been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder had significantly greater odds of a previous bipolar misdiagnosis, but no specific borderline criteria was unique in predicting this outcome. Patients with borderline personality disorder, regardless of how they meet criteria, may be at increased risk of being misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder. PMID:19889426

  1. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  2. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. [Non pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine; Giachetti, Raphaël

    2012-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment. A number of psychosocial interventions have been developed to address impairment. The consensus makes mood stabilizer the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, numerous patients are not in complete remission despite a controlled observance. Every patient can follow a psycho educational program. What this paper adds. The review identifies that a range of interventions have demonstrated efficacy in extended periods of euthymia, improved social and occupational functioning and alleviation of subsyndromal symptoms. Adjunctive, short-term psychotherapies have been shown to offer fairly consistent benefits to bipolar disorder patients. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation offer the most robust efficacy in regard to relapse prevention. The most complex situations including comorbidities can be helped by behavioral and cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder. Evaluations emphasize positive impact. The psychosocial interventions reviewed provide mental health nurses with evidence-based approaches to improving mental health care for patients with bipolar disorder. There is a need for mental health nurses to conduct high quality trials of the clinical effectiveness of these interventions.

  4. Early maladaptive schemas in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Pharmacogenetics of lithium response in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Alda, M

    1999-01-01

    Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. In the past, genetic studies have attempted to identify factors associated with positive treatment response or side effects. Several research groups have shown that familial factors, family history of primary bipolar disorder, and negative family history of schizophrenia in particular, correlate well with prophylactic lithium response. Conversely, studies of lithium responsive patients and their families can assist genetic research of bipolar disorder. Lithium responders appear to suffer from a form of bipolar disorder that is more genetically based and more homogeneous. In a series of family studies, the author and his colleagues have confirmed the differences in family histories of lithium responders and nonresponders and shown that the mode of inheritance in lithium responders is compatible with a major-gene model. Subsequently, they initiated an international collaborative study to map the gene(s) predisposing to the illness or treatment response, or both, using both linkage and association strategies. To date, a sample of 32 families, 138 unrelated patients and 163 control subjects has been studied. In these studies, they found support for the role of phospholipase C in lithium responsive bipolar disorder. PMID:10212559

  6. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  7. A Review of Bipolar Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leamon, Martin H.; Lim, Russell F.; Kelly, Rosemary H.; Hales, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and management of bipolar disorder. Special attention is paid to factors that complicate treatment, including nonadherence, comorbid disorders, mixed mania, and depression. Methods: A Medline search was conducted from January of 1990 through December of 2005 using key terms of bipolar disorder, diagnosis, and treatment. Papers selected for further review included those published in English in peer-reviewed journals, with preference for articles based on randomized, controlled trials and consensus guidelines. Citations de-emphasized original mania trials as these are generally well known. Results: Bipolar disorder is a major public health problem, with diagnosis often occurring years after onset of the disorder. comorbid conditions are common and difficult to treat. Management includes a lifetime course of medication, usually more than one, and attention to psychosocial issues for patients and their families. Management of mania is well-established. Research is increasing regarding management of depressive, mixed and cycling episodes, as well as combination therapy. Conclusions: Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder to manage, even for psychiatrists, because of its many episodes and comorbid disorders and nonadherence to treatment. PMID:20975827

  8. Bipolar Disorder in Adolescence: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Great Buyck; Taylor, Priscilla; Holt, Jan R.

    2002-01-01

    Due to developmental issues and overlapping symptoms with other disorders, diagnosing bipolar disorder in adolescents is often a confusing and complex process. This article highlights diagnostic criteria, symptoms and behaviors, and the differential diagnosis process. Treatment options are also discussed. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  9. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808

  10. Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Gregor; Wolf, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Stratification of treatments for bipolar disorders based on biomarkers and improved clinical markers are greatly needed to increase the efficacy of currently available treatments and improve the chances of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review provides a theoretical framework to identify biomarkers and summarizes the most promising markers for stratification regarding beneficial and adverse treatment effects. State and stage specifiers, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers will be discussed with respect to their ability to predict the response to specific pharmacological and psychosocial psychotherapies for bipolar disorders. To date, the most reliable markers are derived from psychopathology and history-taking, while no biomarker has been found that reliably predicts individual treatment responses. This review underlines both the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and the need for biological research to identify markers that will allow the targeting of treatment specifically to sub-populations of bipolar patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific treatment and less likely to develop adverse reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  12. Psychotherapy for bipolar disorders - efficacy and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan

    2006-03-01

    This paper explores the development of psychological treatments as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorders. Randomized controlled treatment trials of specific therapy models, such as cognitive therapy, that tackle a spectrum of complex psychological and social problems associated with bipolar disorders are reviewed. A systematic review of the most recent treatment outcome studies suggest that adjunctive psychological therapies reduce overall rates of relapse, but are more effective for depression than for mania. There is no evidence that any particular therapy has a unique mechanism of action or any specific advantages over any other approach. Finally, it is suggested that gaps in the theory and available evidence for effectiveness need to be addressed if we are to enable clinicians to target psychological therapies towards those individuals with bipolar disorder who are most likely to benefit.

  13. [Bipolar disorders in oncology: Characteristics and management].

    PubMed

    Reich, Michel; Kotecki, Nuria

    2017-05-01

    Bipolar disorders belong to the spectrum of mood disorders and represent a serious psychiatric comorbidity. Behaviors adopted by bipolar patients can foster cancer occurrence but also impact its management, especially during acute depressive or manic episode. Oncologists must adapt their protocols in order to obtain the best compliance for treatment and avoid any possible mood destabilization, with the inherent risk of suicidal attempt. Potential interactions between mood-stabilizing agents (lithium, divalproate, atypical antipsychotics, and anticonvulsivants) and oncologic treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, corticotherapy) will be particularly watched. To do so, a closely collaboration with the oncopsychiatrist but also with the referent or liaison psychiatry team is necessary during the patient's oncologic care. Some clinical vignettes will illustrate the modalities of care of bipolar disorders in oncology. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-05-17

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  16. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  17. [Psychology and psychotherapy in bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Kupka, R W; de Been, D

    2006-01-01

    This essay presents recent insights and theories relating to the various psychological mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder and describes a number of the psychotherapies that are based on these mechanisms. Each type of psychotherapy derives from the assumption that bipolar disorder has a neurobiological origin and all the psychotherapies involve long-term pharmacotherapy and comprise many psychoeducational elements. The psychotherapies complement each other and the best and most useful parts of one therapy can be combined with those of others in everyday practice. Patients participating in these psychotherapies can obtain additional support from self help manuals.

  18. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  19. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  20. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  1. Compliance with maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Keck, P E; McElroy, S L; Strakowski, S M; Bourne, M L; West, S A

    1997-01-01

    Studies of compliance with pharmacologic treatment in patients with bipolar disorder have primarily involved outpatients receiving lithium. To date, very little data addresses the rates of noncompliance in patients with bipolar disorder treated with other available mood stabilizers (e.g. divalproex, carbamazepine). One hundred and forty patients initially hospitalized for a bipolar disorder, manic or mixed episode, were evaluated prospectively over 1 year to assess their compliance with pharmacotherapy. Compliance was assessed by a clinician-administered questionnaire, using information from the patient, treaters, and significant others. Seventy-one patients (51%) were partially or totally noncompliant with pharmacologic treatment during the 1-year followup period. Noncompliance was significantly associated with the presence of a comorbid substance use disorder. Denial of need was the most common reason cited for noncompliance. Compliance was associated with being male and Caucasian and with treatment with combined lithium and divalproex or with this combination and an antipsychotic. Noncompliance with pharmacotherapy remains a substantial problem in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder.

  2. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    PubMed

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression.

  3. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD). Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment. PMID:19014623

  4. Discriminating Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vöhringer, Paul A; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Rates of misdiagnosis between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder have been reported to be substantial, and the consequence of such misdiagnosis is likely to be a delay in achieving effective control of symptoms, in some cases spanning many years. Particularly in the midst of a depressive episode, or early in the illness course, it may be challenging to distinguish the 2 mood disorders purely on the basis of cross-sectional features. To date, no useful biological markers have been reliably shown to distinguish between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  5. Staging systems in bipolar disorder: an International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force Report.

    PubMed

    Kapczinski, F; Magalhães, P V S; Balanzá-Martinez, V; Dias, V V; Frangou, S; Gama, C S; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Grande, I; Ha, K; Kauer-Sant'Anna, M; Kunz, M; Kupka, R; Leboyer, M; Lopez-Jaramillo, C; Post, R M; Rybakowski, J K; Scott, J; Strejilevitch, S; Tohen, M; Vazquez, G; Yatham, L; Vieta, E; Berk, M

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the rationale behind staging systems described specifically for bipolar disorders. Current applications, future directions and research gaps in clinical staging models for bipolar disorders are outlined. We reviewed the literature pertaining to bipolar disorders, focusing on the first episode onwards. We systematically searched data on staging models for bipolar disorders and allied studies that could inform the concept of staging. We report on several dimensions that are relevant to staging concepts in bipolar disorder. We consider whether staging offers a refinement to current diagnoses by reviewing clinical studies of treatment and functioning and the potential utility of neurocognitive, neuroimaging and peripheral biomarkers. Most studies to date indicate that globally defined late-stage patients have a worse overall prognosis and poorer response to standard treatment, consistent with patterns for end-stage medical disorders. We believe it is possible at this juncture to speak broadly of 'early'- and 'late'-stage bipolar disorder. Next steps require further collaborative efforts to consider the details of preillness onset and intermediary stages, and how many additional stages are optimal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Screening for bipolar disorder among outpatients with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Nallet, A; Weber, B; Favre, S; Gex-Fabry, M; Voide, R; Ferrero, F; Zullino, D; Khazaal, Y; Aubry, J M

    2013-03-01

    Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence is frequent and has marked negative consequences on the course of the illness and treatment compliance. The objective of this study was to compare the validity of two short instruments aimed at screening bipolar disorders among patients treated for substance use disorders. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32) were tested with reference to the mood section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID) in 152 patients, recruited in two outpatient clinics providing specialized treatment for alcohol and opiate dependence. According to the SCID, 33 patients (21.7%) had a diagnosis within the bipolar spectrum (two bipolar I, 21 bipolar II and 10 bipolar not otherwise specified). The HCL-32 was more sensitive (90.9% vs. 66.7%) and the MDQ more specific (38.7% vs. 77.3%) for the whole sample. The MDQ displayed higher sensitivity and specificity in patients treated for alcohol than for opiate dependence, whereas the HCL-32 was highly sensitive but poorly specific in both samples. Both instruments had a positive predictive value under 50%. Caution is needed when using the MDQ and HCL-32 in patients treated for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Commentary on N. Ghaemi's "Hippocratic Psychopharmacology of Bipolar Disorder" Maintenance Treatment in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tohen, Mauricio; Lin, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic recurring condition that is associated with high mortality and severe functional and psychosocial impairments. Treatment strategies that prolong recovery from a mood episode and delay relapse into a new mood episode are essential for long-term improvements in outcomes. Maintenance treatments for bipolar disorder should be evaluated on the strength of the empirical evidence and with the recognition that some treatments may be more effective in preventing relapse into manic, depressive, or mixed episodes.

  8. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  9. Memory and Learning in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Treland, Julia E.; Snow, Joseph; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Towbin, Kenneth E.; Charney, Dennis S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBPD) would demonstrate impairment relative to diagnosis-free controls of comparable age, gender, and IQ on measures of memory functioning. Method: The authors administered a battery of verbal and visuospatial memory tests to 35 outpatients with PBPD and 20 healthy…

  10. [The nosological evolution of bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Bélteczki, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    The nosological improvement of the bipolar disorder (manic-depression) follow the written history of psychiatry. The symptoms of manic and depressive episodes and mixed states were described in the ancient times. In my summary I accompany the taxonomic improvement, the changing of diagnostic categories and the work of the most important researchers from the beginning to these days.

  11. Predictors of Lithium Response in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Sarah K.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    While lithium is generally regarded as the first-line agent for patients with bipolar disorder, it does not work for everyone, which raises the question: can we predict who will be most likely to respond? In this paper, we review the most compelling clinical, biologic, and genetic predictors of lithium response in bipolar disorder. Among clinical factors, the strongest predictors of good response are fewer hospitalizations preceding treatment, an episodic course characterized by an illness pattern of mania followed by depression, and a later age at onset of bipolar disorder. While several biologic predictors have been studied, the results are preliminary and require replication with studies of larger patient samples over longer observation periods. Neuroimaging is a particularly promising method given that it might concurrently illuminate pathophysiologic underpinnings of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action of lithium, and potential predictors of lithium response. The first genome-wide association study of lithium response was recently completed. No definitive results emerged, perhaps because the study was underpowered. With major new initiatives in progress aiming to identify genes and genetic variations associated with lithium response, there is much reason to be hopeful that clinically useful information might be generated within the next several years. This could ultimately translate into tests that could guide the choice of mood-stabilizing medication for patients. In addition, it might facilitate pharmacologic research aimed at developing newer, more effective medications that might act more quickly and yield fewer side effects. PMID:23251751

  12. Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Katherine A.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in bipolar disorder. Stimulus control and sleep restriction are powerful, clinically useful behavioral interventions for insomnia, typically delivered as part of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Both involve short-term sleep deprivation. The potential for manic or hypomanic symptoms to emerge after sleep deprivation in bipolar disorder raises questions about the appropriateness of these methods for treating insomnia. In a series of patients with bipolar disorder who underwent behavioral treatment for insomnia, the authors found that regularizing bedtimes and rise times was often sufficient to bring about improvements in sleep. Two patients in a total group of 15 patients reported mild increases in hypomanic symptoms the week following instruction on stimulus control. Total sleep time did not change for these individuals. Two of five patients who underwent sleep restriction reported mild hypomania that was unrelated to weekly sleep duration. Sleep restriction and stimulus control appear to be safe and efficacious procedures for treating insomnia in patients with bipolar disorder. Practitioners should encourage regularity in bedtimes and rise times as a first step in treatment, and carefully monitor changes in mood and daytime sleepiness throughout the intervention. PMID:23820830

  13. Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynere; Crowe, Marie; Scott, Anne; Lacey, Cameron

    2017-03-16

    Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based. It identifies that the text produces three key subject positions for people with bipolar disorder. To practice self-management, a person must: (i) accept and recognize the authority of psychiatry to know them; (ii) come to see that they can moderate themselves; and (iii) see themselves as able to undertake a reflexive process of self-examination and change. These findings highlight the circular and discursive quality to the construct of insight that is central to how psychoeducation is practiced. Using Foucault's construct of pastoral power, it also draws attention to the asymmetrical nature of power relations between the clinician and the person with bipolar disorder. An effect of the use of medical discourse in psychoeducation is to limit its ability to work with ambivalence and contradiction. A critical approach to psychotherapy and education offers an alternate paradigm on which to basis psychoeducation practices.

  14. Epidemiology and management of anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard

    2009-11-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in bipolar disorder, either in manic or depressive episodes, although these symptoms do not always meet criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. In addition to anxiety symptoms, bipolar disorder frequently presents with co-morbid axis I conditions, with anxiety disorders being the most common co-morbidity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between bipolar disorder and anxiety. Available data on the efficacy of treatments for bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety disorders are also reviewed. Existing guidelines do recognize that co-morbid anxiety has a negative impact on the course and outcome of bipolar disorder; however, there have been very few double-blind, controlled trials examining the treatment response of patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring anxiety disorders. There is some positive evidence for quetiapine, olanzapine in combination with fluoxetine or lithium, and lamotrigine with lithium, and negative evidence for risperidone. Other therapies used for bipolar disorder, including several mood stabilizers, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, have been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms, but specific data for their effects in patients with anxiety symptoms co-morbid with bipolar disorder are not available. The co-occurrence of anxiety and bipolar disorder has implications for diagnosis, clinical outcome, treatment and prognosis. Careful screening for co-morbid anxiety symptoms and disorders is warranted when diagnosing and treating patients with bipolar disorder.

  15. Dissecting bipolar disorder complexity through epigenomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, B; Dwivedi, Y

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies of gene regulation mechanisms have emerged in neuroscience. Epigenetic modifications, described as heritable but reversible changes, include DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. The pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, may be ascribed to a complex gene–environment interaction (G × E) model, linking the genome, environmental factors and epigenetic marks. Both the high complexity and the high heritability of bipolar disorder make it a compelling candidate for neurobiological analyses beyond DNA sequencing. Questions that are being raised in this review are the precise phenotype of the disorder in question, and also the trait versus state debate and how these concepts are being implemented in a variety of study designs. PMID:27480490

  16. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled

  17. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Dame, C; Casper, P

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder affects all age categories, included children and adolescents (in this case, prepubertal and early adolescent or PEA-BP). Its diagnosis at this age is difficult for two reasons: first, clinical symptoms are different from these encountered by adults and second, an important psychiatric comorbidity is often observed (especially with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD). This review presents the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis, the familial antecedents, the comorbidity and the treatment of the PEA-BP.

  18. Activation in Bipolar Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan; Murray, Greg; Henry, Chantal; Morken, Gunnar; Scott, Elizabeth; Angst, Jules; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-02-01

    Increased activity and energy alongside mood change are identified in the DSM-5 as cardinal symptoms of mania and hypomania. A wide range of existing research suggests that this revision may be valid, but systematic integration of the evidence has not been reported. The term activation is understood as emerging from underlying physiological change and having objective (observable motor activity) and related subjective (energy) levels. To systematically review studies of the clinical phenomenon of activation in bipolar disorder, to determine whether activation is statistically abnormal in bipolar disorder and demonstrably distinct from mood, and to identify any significant between- and within-individual differences in the dynamics of activation. This systematic review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PubMed databases from January 1, 1970, until September 30, 2016, identified 56 of a possible 3284 citations for (1) data-driven analyses of the dimensions and factor structure of mania and bipolar depression and (2) longitudinal studies reporting real-time objective monitoring or momentary assessment of daytime activity in individuals with bipolar disorder compared with other clinical or healthy control samples. Hand search of reference lists, specialty journals, websites, published conference proceedings, and dissertation abstracts and contact with other researchers ensured inclusion of gray literature and additional analyses as well as raw data if appropriate. Quality assessment was perfomed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool. A total of 56 studies met eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review including 29 analyses of the factor structure of bipolar disorder, 3 of activity data from experimental sampling or ecological momentary assessment, and 20 actigraphy and 4 laboratory-based studies. Synthesizing findings across the studies revealed that the most robust finding was that mean levels of activity are lower during euthymia

  19. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour.

  20. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  1. Novel glutamatergic agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ibrahim, Lobna; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are common, chronic, recurrent mental illnesses that affect the lives and functioning of millions of individuals worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of these disorders. Here, we review data supporting the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders as well as the efficacy of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutics. PMID:21971560

  2. Treatment costs related to bipolar disorder and comorbid conditions among Medicaid patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jeff J; Keck, Paul E; Li, Hong; Patel, Nick C

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed costs among patients with bipolar disorder for treatment related to bipolar disorder and to comorbid conditions. Risk factors associated with costs were also assessed. Data (January 1998 to December 2002) were from a seven-state Medicaid managed care claims database for 13,471 patients who had received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, most of whom received medications. Each medical claims cost was adjusted by the medical component of the Consumer Price Index as the dollar value in 2002. In a Poisson regression analysis, treatment costs per enrollment month were regressed on patient's age, gender, medications, and clinical comorbidities. Bipolar disorder treatment accounted for 30% of costs and comorbid disorders for 70%. Key cost components were inpatient care (35%), outpatient care (16%), prescriptions (13%), and physician encounters (11%). Patients with bipolar disorder received a variety of medications: lithium, 13%; anticonvulsants, 35%; second-generation antipsychotics, 24%; first-generation antipsychotics, 22%; and antidepressants, 42%. Compared with the costs for patients receiving antidepressants alone or no medication, the high costs for bipolar disorder treatment and overall treatment were associated with use of second-generation antipsychotics (rate ratio [RR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-1.86 and RR=1.26, CI=1.18-1.34, respectively) and use of anticonvulsants (RR=1.37, CI=1.26-1.48 and RR=1.06, CI=1.00-1.12). Higher costs were significantly associated with key comorbidities, such as drug abuse (RR=1.58, CI=1.47-1.70), cerebral-vascular disease (RR=1.72, CI=1.51-1.94), ischemic heart disease (RR=1.47, CI=1.30-1.66), and hypertension (RR=1.44, CI=1.33-1.56). Cost-containment efforts may need to manage or prevent key comorbidities among patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use and treatment outcomes and hospital services.

  3. Customization in Prescribing for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Horgan, Constance M.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Frank, Richard G.; Lee, Sue

    2011-01-01

    For many disorders, patient heterogeneity requires physicians to customize their treatment to each patient’s needs. We test for the existence of customization in physicians’ prescribing for bipolar disorder, using data from a naturalistic clinical effectiveness trial of bipolar disorder treatment (STEP-BD), which did not constrain physician prescribing. Multinomial logit is used to model the physician’s choice among five combinations of drug classes. We find that our observed measure of the patient’s clinical status played only a limited role in the choice among drug class combinations, even for conditions such as mania that are expected to affect class choice. However, treatment of a patient with given characteristics differed widely depending on which physician was seen. The explanatory power of the model was low. There was variation within each physician’s prescribing, but the results do not suggest a high degree of customization in physicians’ prescribing, based on our measure of clinical status. PMID:21506194

  4. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    MedlinePlus

    Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...

  5. Unblending Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders.

    PubMed

    di Giacomo, Ester; Aspesi, Flora; Fotiadou, Maria; Arntz, Arnoud; Aguglia, Eugenio; Barone, Lavinia; Bellino, Silvio; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Lazzari, Marina; Lorettu, Liliana; Pinna, Federica; Sicaro, Aldo; Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-03-07

    Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV). All the tests statistically discriminated the disorders (p < 0.0001). Overlapping symptoms resulted significantly different (impulsivity = 5.32 in BPD vs 1.55 in BP, p < 0.0001; emotional instability = 7.11 in BPD vs 0.55 in BP, p < 0.0001) and the range of their scores gives the opportunity for an even more precise discrimination. Distinctive traits (e.g. irritability or sexual arousal) are also discussed in order to try to qualify the core of these disorders to a higher degree. Comorbidity proves to be extremely small (3.6%). However, Borderline patients with manic features offer a privileged point of view for a deeper analysis. This allows for the possibility of a more precise examination of the nature and load of each symptom. Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders can be distinguished with high precision using common and time-sparing tests. The importance of discriminating these clinical features may benefit from this evidence.

  6. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Mainerova, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. PMID:27445475

  7. Bipolar disorder and substance use disorders. Madrid study on the prevalence of dual disorders/pathology.

    PubMed

    Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesías, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Rentero, David

    2016-03-02

    Given its prevalence and impact on public health, the comorbidity of bipolar and substance use disorders is one of the most relevant of dual diagnoses. The objective was to evaluate the characteristics of patients from community mental health and substance abuse centres in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from mental health and substance abuse centres. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate axis I and II disorders. Of these patients, 174 had a lifetime bipolar disorder, 83 had bipolar disorder type I and 91 had type II. Most patients had dual pathology. Of the 208 participants from the mental health centres, 21 had bipolar disorder and 13 (61.9%) were considered dually-diagnosed patients, while 33.2% of non-bipolar patients had a dual diagnoses (p = 0.03). Of the 629 participants from the substance abuse centres, 153 patients (24.3%) had a bipolar diagnosis. Bipolar dual patients had higher rates of alcohol and cocaine dependence than non-bipolar patients. Moreover, age at onset of alcohol use was earlier in bipolar duallydiagnosed patients than in other alcoholics. Bipolar dually-diagnosed patients had higher personality and anxiety disorder comorbidities and greater suicide risk. Thus, alcohol and cocaine are the drugs most associated with bipolar disorder. Given the nature of the study, the type of relationship between these disorders cannot be determined.

  8. Risk of Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, Anne; Ditterline, Jeffrey; Forkner, Peter; Moore, Hadley; Swezey, Allison; Snyder, Lindsey; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. Method:…

  9. [Bipolar disorder and manic-depressive disorder on the Internet].

    PubMed

    Seyringer, Michaela-Elena; Schrank, Beate; Berger, Peter; Katschnig, Heinz; Amering, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    The internet is an important source of information and exchange for patients and can exert considerable influence on their health-related behaviours and decisions. This makes the quality of information on the internet an important factor. The present study analyzes the quality of German-language internet information on "bipolar disorder" and "manic-depressive disorder". Two separate searches were conducted with the terms "bipolar disorder" and "manic-depressive disorder", using the Google search engine set to produce only German hits. The quality of the first hundred resulting sites was assessed according to a range of criteria considering form and content. Comprehensive information on the nature of the illness (such as symptoms and diagnosis) was provided more frequently by sites resulting from the search term "manic-depressive disorder". The term "bipolar disorder" produced more results offering information on evidence-based therapeutic strategies. It is necessary to improve the available internet information on the term "bipolar disorder", and to establish the term as firmly as its predecessor, the term "manic-depressive disorder".

  10. Risk of Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Biederman, Joseph; Kwon, Anne; Ditterline, Jeffrey; Forkner, Peter; Moore, Hadley; Swezey, Allison; Snyder, Lindsey; Henin, Aude; Wozniak, Janet; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. Method:…

  11. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype.

  13. The Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous condition with myriad clinical manifestations and many comorbidities leading to severe disabilities in the biopsychosocial realm. The objective of this review article was to underline recent advances in knowledge regarding the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. A further aim was to draw attention to new therapeutic targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder. To accomplish these goals, an electronic search was undertaken of the PubMed database in August 2015 of literature published during the last 10 years on the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. A wide-ranging evaluation of the existing work was done with search terms such as "mood disorders and biology," "bipolar disorder and HPA axis," "bipolar disorder and cytokines," "mood disorders and circadian rhythm," "bipolar disorder and oxidative stress," etc. This endeavor showed that bipolar disorder is a diverse condition sharing neurobiological mechanisms with major depressive disorder and psychotic spectrum disorders. There is convincing evidence of crosstalk between different biological systems that act in a deleterious manner causing expression of the disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Inflammatory mediators act in concert with oxidative stress to dysregulate hormonal, metabolic, and circadian homeostasis in precipitating and perpetuating the illness. Stress, whether biologically or psychologically mediated, is responsible for the initiation and progression of the diathesis. Bipolar spectrum disorders have a strong genetic component; severe life stresses acting through various paths cause the illness phenotype. PMID:26865997

  14. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  17. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    PubMed

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cariprazine for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Scarff, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although atypical antipsychotics reduce positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as well as manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder, they are associated with varying degrees of metabolic adverse effects. This necessitates continued development of efficacious yet metabolically favorable treatments. Cariprazine was recently approved to treat adult patients with schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes. It was well-tolerated and adverse reactions included akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, nausea, or constipation. Cariprazine is taken once daily without regard to food. The dose should be adjusted in patients who receive CYP450 inhibitors, and it should not be given to patients with severe hepatic or renal disease. This article reviews mechanisms of action, efficacy, tolerability (including adverse effects), dosing, and contraindications of cariprazine.

  19. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  20. Cariprazine for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although atypical antipsychotics reduce positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia as well as manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder, they are associated with varying degrees of metabolic adverse effects. This necessitates continued development of efficacious yet metabolically favorable treatments. Cariprazine was recently approved to treat adult patients with schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes. It was well-tolerated and adverse reactions included akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, nausea, or constipation. Cariprazine is taken once daily without regard to food. The dose should be adjusted in patients who receive CYP450 inhibitors, and it should not be given to patients with severe hepatic or renal disease. This article reviews mechanisms of action, efficacy, tolerability (including adverse effects), dosing, and contraindications of cariprazine. PMID:27975000

  1. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  2. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  3. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  4. Psychoeducation: improving outcomes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Colom, Francesc; Lam, Dominic

    2005-08-01

    A relevant paradigm shift in the treatment of bipolar disorder started a few years ago; crucial findings on the usefulness of psychological interventions clearly support switching from an exclusively pharmacological therapeutic approach to a combined yet hierarchical model in which pharmacotherapy plays a central role, but psychological interventions may help cover the gap that exists between theoretical efficacy and "real world" effectiveness. Hereby we review the efficacy of several adjunctive psychotherapies in the maintenance treatment of bipolar patients. A systematic review of the literature on the issue was performed, using MEDLINE and CURRENT CONTENTS databases. "Bipolar", "Psychotherapy", "Psychoeducation", "Cognitive-behavioral" and "Relapse prevention" were entered as keywords. Psychological treatments specifically designed for relapse prevention in bipolar affective disorder are useful tools in conjunction with mood stabilizers. Most of the psychotherapy studies recently published report positive results on maintenance as an add-on treatment, and efficacy on the treatment of depressive episodes. Interestingly, several groups from all over the world reported similar positive results and reached very similar conclusions; almost every intervention tested contains important psychoeducative elements including both compliance enhancement and early identification of prodromal signs - stressing the importance of life-style regularity - and exploring patients' health beliefs and illness-awareness. The usefulness of psychotherapy for improving treatment adherence and clinical outcome of bipolar patients is nowadays unquestionable, and future treatment guidelines should promote its regular use amongst clinicians. As clinicians, it is our major duty, to offer the best treatment available to our patients and this includes both evidence-based psychoeducation programs and newer pharmacological agents.

  5. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    PubMed

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-07-15

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  6. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Brittany L.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  7. Long-term prophylaxis in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew J; Goodwin, Guy M

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major cause of disability, and the prevention of relapse is a key management goal. Pharmacological interventions, effectively delivered through enhanced clinical care, are central to long-term management. This article summarises the available evidence for a range of pharmacological options, and provides guidance on common issues in clinical management in line with current practice guidelines. The use of medications for long-term prophylaxis should be considered in all patients meeting criteria for bipolar I disorder. Increasing high-quality evidence from randomised trials informs management decisions relating to both novel agents, such as lamotrigine and olanzapine, and longer-established therapies, such as lithium and valproate, in monotherapy. Medications taken long-term in bipolar disorder differ in the extent to which they protect against manic and depressive relapse. Consequently, the emerging challenge is to understand how combination treatments can enhance efficacy and effectiveness based on data from controlled trials rather than random polypharmacy. Clinical care can be enhanced with effective education about the illness, and the use of strategies to improve treatment adherence and the recognition and management of stressors or prodromal symptoms. Where available, a range of specific psychological interventions can be effective as an adjunct to medication. When discontinuation of prophylaxis is necessary, gradual tapering of dose over weeks or months is recommended.

  8. Bipolar disorder: evidence for a major locus.

    PubMed

    Spence, M A; Flodman, P L; Sadovnick, A D; Bailey-Wilson, J E; Ameli, H; Remick, R A

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: i) dominant, ii) recessive, iii) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, iv) environmental, and v) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis "affected" for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. (Arch Gen Psychiatry 44: 441-447, 1987) and Blangero and Elston (Genet Epidemiol 6:221-227, 1989).

  9. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. [Disability payments due to unipolar depressive and bipolar affective disorders].

    PubMed

    Brieger, Peter; Blöink, Raffaela; Röttig, Stephan; Marneros, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    Little is known concerning the frequency of disability payments due to depressive and bipolar affective disorders in Germany. 177 consecutive psychiatric in-patients were assessed with standardized interviews concerning diagnosis (SCID-I, DSM-IV) and illness history. To compare unipolar depressive and bipolar affective patients, a survival analysis was calculated. 116 patients suffered from unipolar depression, 61 from bipolar affective disorder. Highly significantly, patients with bipolar affective disorders were granted disability payments more frequently and at an earlier age. Half of the bipolar affective patients received disability payments by the age of 46 years, half of the unipolar depressive patients by the age of 58 years. In this sample, bipolar affective patients received disability payments frequently and at an early age, which stresses that the prognosis of bipolar affective disorders is not as good as has been assumed for a long time. Early disability payments may lead to poverty and may obstruct access to social rehabilitation.

  11. Neurobiology of bipolar disorder - lessons from migraine disorders.

    PubMed

    Holland, Janathon; Agius, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder is at present largely empirical, in the lack of a definitive understanding of the biological basis of the condition. Many theories have been proposed regarding the underlying neurobiology. These have included aetiologies relating to altered neurotrophic factor expression, mitochondrial endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction with related calcium changes, and loss of inhibitory interneurons. Here an attempt is made to integrate such current understanding, in part by considering the changes observed in migraine - a condition which has a number of similarities with bipolar disorder.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment.

  13. Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, recurrent mental illness characterized by extreme episodes of depressed and manic mood, interspersed with less severe but highly variable mood fluctuations. Here, we develop a novel mathematical approach for exploring the dynamics of bipolar disorder. We investigate how the dynamics of subjective experience of mood in bipolar disorder can be understood using a relaxation oscillator (RO) framework and test the model against mood time-series fluctuations from a set of individuals with bipolar disorder. We show that variable mood fluctuations in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder can be driven by the coupled effects of deterministic dynamics (captured by ROs) and noise. Using a statistical likelihood-based approach, we show that, in general, mood dynamics are described by two independent ROs with differing levels of endogenous variability among individuals. We suggest that this sort of nonlinear approach to bipolar disorder has neurobiological, cognitive and clinical implications for understanding this mental illness through a mechacognitive framework. PMID:26577592

  14. Longitudinal Course of Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William H.; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Boyken, Lara; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Context The phenomenology of bipolar I disorder affects treatment and prognosis. Objective To describe the duration of bipolar I mood episodes and factors associated with recovery from these episodes. Design Subjects with Research Diagnostic Criteria bipolar I disorder were prospectively followed up for as long as 25 years. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive mood episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including a mixed-effects grouped-time survival model. Setting Five US academic medical centers. Participants Two hundred nineteen subjects with bipolar I disorder. Main Outcome Measures Level of psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation every 6 months for the first 5 years of follow-up and annually thereafter. Results The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks. More than 75% of the subjects recovered from their mood episodes within 1 year of onset. The probability of recovery was significantly less for an episode with severe onset (psychosis or severe psychosocial impairment in week 1 of the episode) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.746; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.578–0.963; P=.02) and for subjects with greater cumulative morbidity (total number of years spent ill with any mood episode) (HR=0.917; 95% CI, 0.886–0.948; P<.001). Compared with the probability of recovery from a major depressive episode, there was a significantly greater probability of recovery from an episode of mania (HR=1.713; 95% CI, 1.373–2.137; P<.001), hypomania (HR=4.502; 95% CI, 3.466–5.849; P<.001), or minor depression (HR = 2.027; 95% CI, 1.622–2.534; P<.001) and, conversely, a significantly reduced probability of recovery from a cycling episode (switching from one pole to the other without an intervening period of recovery) (HR=0.438; 95% CI, 0.351–0.548; P<.001). Conclusions The median duration of bipolar I mood episodes was 13 weeks, and the probability of recovery was significantly

  15. Cognitive vulnerability to bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable illness, with a positive family history robustly predictive of its onset. It follows that studying biological children of parents with bipolar disorder may provide information about developmental pathways to the disorder. Moreover, such studies may serve as a useful test of theories that attribute a causal role in the development of mood disorders to psychological processes. Psychological style (including self-esteem, coping style with depression, domain-specific risk-taking, sensation-seeking, sensitivity to reward and punishment, and hypomanic personality and cognition) was assessed in 30 offspring of bipolar parents and 30 children of well parents. Parents of both child groups completed identical assessments. Although expected differences between parents with bipolar disorder and well parents were detected (such as low self-esteem, increased rumination, high sensitivity to reward and punishment), offspring of bipolar parents were, as a group, not significantly different from well offspring, apart from a modest trend towards lower adaptive coping. When divided into affected and non-affected subgroups, both groups of index children showed lower novelty-seeking. Only affected index children showed lower self-esteem, increased rumination, sensitivity to punishment, and hypomanic cognitions. Notably, these processes were associated with symptoms of depression. Psychological abnormalities in index offspring were associated with having met diagnostic criteria for psychiatric illnesses and the presence of mood symptoms, rather than preceding them. Implications of the present findings for our understanding of the development of bipolar disorder, as well as for informing early interventions, are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: distinct illnesses or a continuum?

    PubMed

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar disorder continues to present complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Originally considered 2 separate diseases (mania and depression), bipolar disorder is now recognized to be a single disorder characterized by different subtypes and degrees of severity. Despite the availability of official guidelines, such as the DSM-IV and ICD-10, diagnosis is still problematic. Traditionally, bipolar disorder has been considered a clinical entity distinct from schizophrenia, although that assumption is being increasingly challenged. Proponents of a bipolar continuum theory support the concept of an expanded psychiatric continuum ranging from unipolar to bipolar disorders all the way to schizophrenia. This notion is supported by various independent findings. Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia demonstrate a high degree of genetic transmissibility. Some data reported in family and twin studies suggest hereditary overlap between the 2 disorders. Gene mapping for both diseases is in its early stages, but certain susceptibility markers appear to be located on the same chromosomes. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia also demonstrate some similarities in neurotransmitter dysfunction. As further indirect evidence of a possible association, many newer atypical antipsychotic agents approved for the treatment of schizophrenia are also proving useful for bipolar disorder. Ongoing research should aid in the understanding of bipolar disorder and foster the development of more effective treatment.

  17. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Morgan, Theresa A; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2014-06-01

    Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder are associated with elevated rates of attempted suicide; however, no studies have examined whether there is an independent, additive risk for suicide attempts in patients diagnosed with both disorders. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, 3,465 psychiatric outpatients were interviewed with semistructured interviews. Compared to the bipolar patients without borderline personality disorder, the patients diagnosed with both bipolar and borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have made a prior suicide attempt. The patients with borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder were nonsignificantly more likely than the borderline patients without bipolar disorder to have made a prior suicide attempt. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were each associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts. The co-occurrence of these disorders conferred an additive risk, although the influence of borderline personality disorder was greater than that of bipolar disorder.

  18. Simplifying profiles of comorbidity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Lori R; Johnson, Sheri L; Youngstrom, Eric A; Pearlstein, Jennifer G

    2017-10-01

    Comorbid psychiatric symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) predict poorer course of illness and treatment outcome. The sheer number of comorbid symptoms has thwarted developing treatments to address these comorbid concerns. The goal of this study was to develop a more parsimonious approach to understanding clusters of comorbid symptoms within BD. Data were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 43,093 participants using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Analyses were conducted on lifetime symptom counts for the most common 14 comorbid disorders among the 1411 persons who met lifetime criteria for bipolar I disorder. An exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation as well as confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor solution of Externalizing, Anxiety, and Mood syndromes, with a higher order Internalizing factor comprised of the Mood and Anxiety factors. Further research is needed in a clinical sample. Comorbid symptoms in BD tend to cohere into Internalizing and Externalizing disorders, which could simplify research and treatment on comorbidity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Review: bipolar disorder and poetic genius.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed

    2011-09-01

    "We of the craft (poets) are all crazy," remarked the 18th century British romanticist Lord Byron (George Gordon) about himself and his fellow poets. Implied in this statement is the notion that there exists a special kind of relationship between poets and being "crazy". A relationship between psychopathology and the artistic temperament is one of the oldest and most persistent of cultural notions; it is also one of the most contentious and controversial. The purpose of this exposition is to investigate if a correlation between bipolar disorder and poetic genius really does exist. A literature search was conducted along with a review of Professor Jamison's treatise Touched with Fire: Manic Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament. A detailed case study of Lord Byron was also performed in order to gain a qualitative insight into the psyche of a notorious poet who was alleged to suffer from bipolar disorder. Recent research employing systematic and biographical methodology has given strong support to a much higher rate of mood disorders in artistic populations than could be expected from chance alone. A British study spearheaded by Professor Jamison on living writers and artists revealed many overlapping mood, cognitive, and behavioral changes between hypomania and intense creative states. In the case of Lord Byron, the clinical hallmark of manic-depressive illness is its recurrent, episodic nature, which Byron had in an almost textbook manner. Byron also had a family history remarkable for its suicide in itself more likely to be associated with bipolar disorder than with any other condition. Not all writers and artists suffer from major mood disorders. Likewise, most people who have a major mood disorder are not writers or artists. It seems counterintuitive that melancholy could be associated with artistic inspiration and productivity; the milder manic states would seem, at first thought, to be more obviously linked. In the case of Lord Byron, his temperament

  20. Heritability of bipolar spectrum disorders. Unity or heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Jack; Torgersen, Svenn; Røysamb, Espen; Lygren, Sissel; Skre, Ingunn; Onstad, Sidsel; Oien, Per Anders

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the three disorders in the bipolar spectrum, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder and Cyclothymia, are various expressions of an underlying genetic commonality. A sample consisting of same-sexed mono (MZ)- and dizygotic (DZ) twins were identified using hospital and outpatient registers (N=303). DSM-III-R criteria were assessed by personal interviews. Cross tabulations were used to compare concordance rates for different definitions of the bipolar spectrum. Correlations in liability and estimation of the heritability (h) with biometrical model fitting were performed. Concordance rates were higher among MZ- than DZ pairs for all the single diagnoses and main combinations of diagnoses. Cross-concordance between different diagnoses was observed. The heritability of Bipolar I was .73, of Bipolar I+II .77 and of Bipolar I+II+Cyclothymia .71. Probands were not sampled from the general population. Most often the same person interviewed both twins in a pair. The statistical power was restricted in some sub-analyses. The 'Bipolar Spectrum' category consisting of Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder and Cyclothymia constitute one entity with high heritability without detectable shared family environmental effects. Future genetic and clinical work might consider that all variants of the bipolar spectrum are an expression of one underlying genetic liability.

  1. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  2. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  3. Facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Cristiana Castanho de Almeida; Heuvel, Eveline van den; Caetano, Sheila C; Lafer, Beny

    2009-06-01

    Literature review of the controlled studies in the last 18 years in emotion recognition deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographical research of controlled studies with samples larger than 10 participants from 1990 to June 2008 was completed in Medline, Lilacs, PubMed and ISI. Thirty-two papers were evaluated. Euthymic bipolar disorder presented impairment in recognizing disgust and fear. Manic BD showed difficult to recognize fearful and sad faces. Pediatric bipolar disorder patients and children at risk presented impairment in their capacity to recognize emotions in adults and children faces. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing facial emotions than schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder patients present impaired recognition of disgust, fear and sadness that can be partially attributed to mood-state. In mania, they have difficult to recognize fear and disgust. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing emotions than depressive and schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder children present a tendency to misjudge extreme facial expressions as being moderate or mild in intensity. Affective and cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder vary according to the mood states. Follow-up studies re-testing bipolar disorder patients after recovery are needed in order to investigate if these abnormalities reflect a state or trait marker and can be considered an endophenotype. Future studies should aim at standardizing task and designs.

  4. The relationship between postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaudron, Linda H; Pies, Ronald W

    2003-11-01

    The evidence for a spectrum of bipolar disorders is mounting. Of particular interest and importance is the evolution and recurrence of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period and its relationship to postpartum psychosis. Understanding whether such a phenomenological link exists has diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment implications. A comprehensive review of (1) the literature regarding the relationships between postpartum psychosis and bipolar affective disorder, (2) the data regarding prophylactic treatment and acute management of postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder in the puerperium, and (3) critical areas for future research. MEDLINE and PubMed (1966-2002) databases were searched for English-language articles using the keywords postpartum/puerperal depression, puerperal/postpartum psychosis, bipolar disorder, lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and breastfeeding. Evidence from studies of women with a history of bipolar disorder, longitudinal studies of women with puerperal episodes of psychosis, and family studies support a link between postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder. Understanding the relationship between postpartum psychosis and bipolar disorder has implications for perinatal and long-term treatment. Prophylactic treatment of women with bipolar disorder and/or a history of postpartum psychosis may be indicated. Epidemiological, genetic, and pharmacologic research must be completed to understand, prevent, and adequately treat postpartum psychosis.

  5. [Bipolar disorder and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania].

    PubMed

    Solimano, Alberto; Manfredi, Clelia

    2006-01-01

    The categorical diagnostic model of bipolar disorders (DSM IV) has brought about increasing questioning, since its use gains troubles related not only to clinical experience, but to epidemiological studies as well. Regarding this, other models have emerged, such as the bipolar spectrum by Akiskal that covers the classic bipolar disorder on one side to unipolar disorder on the other, including soft bipolar disorders as well. The authors start from this notion of bipolar spectrum to set out the relationship between bipolar disease and psychoanalytical concepts of depression and mania. They develop Freud's basic theories and those of the British School that constitute a strong and coherent theoretical structure. Psychoanalysis proposes a unitary psychopathological model that manifests itself as depression or maniac reaction as secondary defense, to account for both the clinical expression and the psychodynamic comprehension of mood disorders.

  6. Circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Ligia; Sprouse, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    When circadian rhythms - the daily oscillations of various physiological and behavioral events that are controlled by a central timekeeping mechanism - become desynchronized with the prevailing light:dark cycle, a maladaptative response can result. Animal data based primarily on genetic manipulations and clinical data from biomarker and gene expression studies support the notion that circadian abnormalities underlie certain psychiatric disorders. In particular, bipolar disorder has an interesting link to rhythm-related disease biology; other mood disturbances, such as major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder and the agitation and aggression accompanying severe dementia (sundowning), are also linked to changes in circadian rhythm function. Possibilities for pharmacological intervention derive most readily from the molecular oscillator, the cellular machinery that drives daily rhythms.

  7. Bipolar Disorder and the TCI: Higher Self-Transcendence in Bipolar Disorder Compared to Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Harley, James A.; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Frampton, Christopher M. A.; Joyce, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. One personality theory which demonstrates strong heritability is Cloninger's psychobiological model measured using the temperament and character inventory (TCI). 277 individuals who completed the TCI questionnaire as part of the South Island Bipolar Study were also interviewed to assess for lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Four groups were compared, bipolar disorder (BP), type 1 and 2, MDD (major depressive disorder), and nonaffected relatives of a proband with BP. With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA) was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST) than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP. PMID:21789279

  8. Genetic susceptibility for bipolar disorder and response to antidepressants in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tansey, Katherine E; Guipponi, Michel; Domenici, Enrico; Lewis, Glyn; Malafosse, Alain; O'Donovan, Michael; Wendland, Jens R; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of response to antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD) makes individual treatment outcomes currently unpredictable. It has been suggested that resistance to antidepressant treatment might be due to undiagnosed bipolar disorder or bipolar spectrum features. Here, we investigate the relationship between genetic susceptibility for bipolar disorder and response to treatment with antidepressants in MDD. Polygenic scores indexing risk for bipolar disorder were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Disorder whole genome association study. Linear regressions tested the effect of polygenic risk scores for bipolar disorder on proportional reduction in depression severity in two large samples of individuals with MDD, treated with antidepressants, NEWMEDS (n=1,791) and STAR*D (n=1,107). There was no significant association between polygenic scores for bipolar disorder and response to treatment with antidepressants. Our data indicate that molecular measure of genetic susceptibility to bipolar disorder does not aid in understanding non-response to antidepressants.

  9. Complementary medicines in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bogarapu, S; Bishop, J R; Krueger, C D; Pavuluri, M N

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number and availability of various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has resulted in an exponentially growing utilization of these products for everything from minor aches and pains to the treatment of mental illness. Difficulties in treating mental illnesses in children, averseness to having children take psychiatric medications, and stigma all drive patients and their families to research alternative treatments. As a result, there has been an increased utilization of CAM in psychiatry, particularly for hard to treat conditions like pediatric BD. It is important for the health care providers to be aware of the alternative treatments by some of their patients. A review of studies investigating the utility of complementary and alternative medicines in bipolar patients was conducted and selected studies were included. Omega-3 fatty acids and lecithin/ choline have preliminary data indicating potential utility in the CAM treatment for bipolar disorder while S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and inositol have some data supporting their efficacy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. Some data for CAM suggest they may be useful adjunctive treatments but only little data are available to support their use as stand-alone therapy. Thus, the conventional medicines remain the first choice in pediatric bipolar management. Healthcare providers need to routinely inquire about the utilization of these treatments by their patients and become familiar with the risks and benefits involved with their use in children.

  10. The underlying neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    MANJI, HUSSEINI K; QUIROZ, JORGE A; PAYNE, JENNIFER L; SINGH, JASKARAN; LOPES, BARBARA P; VIEGAS, JENILEE S; ZARATE, CARLOS A

    2003-01-01

    Clinical studies over the past decades have attempted to uncover the biological factors mediating the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) utilizing a variety of biochemical and neuroendocrine strategies. Indeed, assessments of cerebrospinal fluid chemistry, neuroendocrine responses to pharmacological challenge, and neuroreceptor and transporter binding have demonstrated a number of abnormalities in the amine neurotransmitter systems in this disorder. However, recent studies have also implicated critical signal transduction pathways as being integral to the pathophysiology and treatment of BD, in addition to a growing body of data suggesting that impairments of neuroplasticity and cellular resilience may also underlie the pathophysiology of the disorder. It is thus noteworthy that mood stabilizers and antidepressants indirectly regulate a number of factors involved in cell survival pathways - including MAP kinases, CREB, BDNF and bcl-2 protein - and may thus bring about some of their delayed long-term beneficial effects via underappreciated neurotrophic effects. PMID:16946919

  11. The Psychopathology and Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we review research on the diagnosis, course, etiology, and pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). BD is a highly recurrent and severe illness, with high rates of suicidality and functional impairment. The disorder is heritable and appears to share susceptibility genes with schizophrenia. It is characterized by dysregulation in the dopamine and serotonin systems and by pathology in the brain systems involved in regulating emotion. Psychosocial stressors, notably life events and familial expressed emotion, significantly influence the course of the illness in the context of these vulnerabilities. Findings of randomized clinical trials indicate that psychosocial interventions enhance long-term outcomes when added to pharmacotherapy. Much remains to be clarified about the interactive contributions of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors to the course of the disorder, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects. PMID:17716069

  12. Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Sabet, Julia A; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Melinder, Carren; Brummer, Robert J; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations. A total of 213,693 men born between 1952 and 1956, who participated in compulsory military conscription assessments in late adolescence were followed up to 2009, excluding men with any psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. Cox regression estimated risk of bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety in adulthood associated with body mass index, asthma, allergy, muscular strength stress resilience and cognitive function in adolescence. BMI, asthma and allergy were not associated with bipolar disorder. Higher grip strength, cognitive function and stress resilience were associated with a reduced risk of bipolar disorder and the other disease outcomes. The sample consisted only of men; even though the characteristics in adolescence pre-dated disease onset, they may have been the consequence of prodromal disease. Associations with body mass index and asthma found by previous studies may be consequences of bipolar disorder or its treatment rather than risk factors. Inverse associations with all the outcome diagnoses for stress resilience, muscular strength and cognitive function may reflect general risks for these psychiatric disorders or intermediary factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Ahmed; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Zhang, Tao; Potash, James B.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Solomon, David A.; Coryell, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Analyses of seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder in retrospective studies examining admission data have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a prospective cohort with long-term follow-up: The Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The CDS included participants from five academic centers with a prospective diagnosis of bipolar I or II disorder. The sample was limited to those who were followed for at least 10 years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Time series analyses and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used assess seasonal patterns of manic and depressive symptoms. Results A total of 314 individuals were analyzed [bipolar I disorder: (n = 202) and bipolar II disorder: (n = 112)] with both disorders exhibiting the lowest depressive symptoms in summer and highest around the winter solstice, though the winter peak in symptoms was statistically significant only with bipolar I disorder. Variation of manic symptoms was more pronounced in bipolar II disorder, with a significant peak in hypomanic symptomatology in the months surrounding the fall equinox. Conclusions Significant seasonal variation exists in bipolar disorder with manic/hypomanic symptoms peaking around the fall equinox and depressive symptoms peaking in months surrounding the winter solstice in bipolar I disorder. PMID:23621686

  14. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder sub-types.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2013-04-30

    Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Bipolar Disorder Center for Pennsylvanians Study

    PubMed Central

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Frank, Ellen; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Cheng, Yu; Curet, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Gildengers, Ariel G; Goldstein, Tina; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Houck, Patricia R; Stofko, Mary G; Thase, Michael E; Thompson, Wesley K; Turkin, Scott R; Kupfer, David J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We developed models of Specialized Care for Bipolar Disorder (SCBD) and a psychosocial treatment [Enhanced Clinical Intervention (ECI)] that is delivered in combination with SCBD. We investigated whether SCBD and ECI + SCBD are able to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for young and elderly individuals, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder. Method Subjects were 463 individuals with bipolar disorder, type I, II, or not otherwise specified, or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, randomly assigned to SCBD or ECI + SCBD and followed longitudinally for a period of one to three years at four clinical sites. Results Both treatment groups significantly improved over time, with no significant differences based on age, race, or place of residence, except for significantly greater improvement among elderly versus adult subjects. Improvement in quality of life was greater in the ECI + SCBD group. Of the 299 participants who were symptomatic at study entry, 213 achieved recovery within 24 months, during which 86 of the 213 subjects developed a new episode. No significant difference was found for race, place of residence, or age between the participants who experienced a recurrence and those who did not. However, the adolescent patients were less likely than the adult and elderly patients to experience a recurrence. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of SCBD and the additional benefit of ECI independent of age, race, or place of residence. It also demonstrated that new mood episodes are frequent in individuals with bipolar disorder who achieve recovery and are likely to occur in spite of specialized, guideline-based treatments. PMID:19500091

  16. Unrecognised bipolar disorder in primary care patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel J; Griffiths, Emily; Kelly, Mark; Hood, Kerry; Craddock, Nick; Simpson, Sharon A

    2011-07-01

    Bipolar disorder is complex and can be difficult to diagnose. It is often misdiagnosed as recurrent major depressive disorder. We had three main aims. To estimate the proportion of primary care patients with a working diagnosis of unipolar depression who satisfy DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. To test two screening instruments for bipolar disorder (the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS)) within a primary care sample. To assess whether individuals with major depressive disorder with subthreshold manic symptoms differ from those individuals with major depressive disorder but with no or little history of manic symptoms in terms of clinical course, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Two-phase screening study in primary care. Three estimates of the prevalence of undiagnosed bipolar disorder were obtained: 21.6%, 9.6% and 3.3%. The HCL-32 and BSDS questionnaires had quite low positive predictive values (50.0 and 30.1% respectively). Participants with major depressive disorder and with a history of subthreshold manic symptoms differed from those participants with no or little history of manic symptoms on several clinical features and on measures of both psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Between 3.3 and 21.6% of primary care patients with unipolar depression may have an undiagnosed bipolar disorder. The HCL-32 and BSDS screening questionnaires may be more useful for detecting broader definitions of bipolar disorder than DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder. Subdiagnostic features of bipolar disorder are relatively common in primary care patients with unipolar depression and are associated with a more morbid course of illness. Future classifications of recurrent depression should include dimensional measures of bipolar symptoms.

  17. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  18. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed PMID:21224912

  19. Pharmacological Management of Bipolar Disorder in a Youth with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelBello, Melissa P.; Correll, Christoph U.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Carlson, Harold E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, four clinicians respond to the following case vignette: A 12-year-old girl with insulin-dependent diabetes presents for treatment of her newly diagnosed bipolar disorder. How would you address the bipolar disorder pharmacologically, and how would the presence of diabetes affect your selection of medication and clinical management?

  20. Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Fristad, Mary; Birmaher, Boris; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; Hellander, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder desperately need current treatment guidelines. These guidelines were developed by expert consensus and a review of the extant literature about the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders. The four sections of these guidelines include diagnosis, comorbidity, acute…

  1. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  2. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  3. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  4. Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowatch, Robert A.; Fristad, Mary; Birmaher, Boris; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Findling, Robert L.; Hellander, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians who treat children and adolescents with bipolar disorder desperately need current treatment guidelines. These guidelines were developed by expert consensus and a review of the extant literature about the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders. The four sections of these guidelines include diagnosis, comorbidity, acute…

  5. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  6. Commentary: Treatment Guidelines for Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Once considered rare in children, pediatric bipolar disorder is now widely diagnosed in the United States. The illness has become a cultural phenomenon, adorning the cover of Time magazine and headlining national news broadcasts. Kowatch and colleagues, in compiling consensus recommendations for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, have…

  7. Bipolar disorder and addictions: the elephant in the room.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Kalk, Nicola J; Young, Allan H

    2017-09-01

    Addictions are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder and greatly affect clinical outcomes. In this editorial, we review the evidence that addictions are a key challenge in bipolar disorder, examine putative neurobiological mechanisms, and reflect on the limited clinical trial evidence base with suggestions for treatment strategies and further developments. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  8. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadafumi

    2006-12-01

    Altered energy metabolism and accumulated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in the brain, associated mtDNA polymorphisms/mutations or nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, effects of mood stabilizers on mitochondria and comorbidity of mood disorders with mitochondrial disorders, together suggest the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the calcium signaling abnormality found in bipolar disorder. We recently produced mice accumulating neuron-specific mtDNA deletions. Bipolar disorder-like behavioral phenotypes of these mice supported this hypothesis. Thus, development of new mood stabilizers acting on mitochondrial function might be warranted.

  9. Identifying antecedent and illness course variables differentiating bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; McCraw, Stacey; Futeran, Shulamit; Hong, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Clinical differentiation of bipolar conditions (and especially bipolar II disorder) from unipolar conditions is not always straightforward. We sought to identify illness antecedents and correlates that may assist their differentiation and complement clinical symptoms. We undertook detailed comparative analyses of comprehensive data obtained from patients diagnosed with a bipolar or unipolar mood disorder. The sample comprised 138 bipolar (45 bipolar I and 93 bipolar II) and 214 unipolar participants. Univariate analyses identified numerous differentiating variables, while multivariate analyses generated a refined variable list to determine discriminatory capacity. Controlling for all other factors, those with a bipolar (I or II) condition were more likely than the unipolar sub-set to report a family history of bipolar disorder, experiencing bullying at school, to make a suicide/self-harm attempt, and be less likely to be clinically judged as having 'problematic' personality traits. Factors differentiating bipolar II from unipolar sub-sets included the aforementioned variables, as well as higher rates of lifetime heavy drinking and female gender, and briefer depressive episodes in the bipolar II group. Bipolar I and II sub-sets differentiated solely by higher rates of hospitalization in the former group. Some study variables (e.g., hospitalization) may merely reflect DSM-IV diagnostic criteria or consequences rather than illness antecedents or correlates. Other self-reported variables (e.g., bullying) are subject to memory biases, and may reflect higher-order variables (e.g., early problematic personality traits). Study findings provide assistance to determining non-symptom features that may improve discrimination of the bipolar disorders from themselves and from unipolar conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    PubMed

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Early- versus late-onset bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features and the outcome between patients with early- and late-onset bipolar II disorder. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Outpatient private practice. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with bipolar II disorder presenting for treatment of a major depressive episode. OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of illness, severity of depression, recurrences, psychosis, chronicity, atypical features and comorbidity. RESULTS: Patients with early-onset (before 20, 25 or 30 years of age) bipolar II disorder had a significantly longer duration of illness and more recurrences compared with patients with late-onset (after 20, 25 or 30 years of age) bipolar II disorder. All other variables were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of worse outcome (severity of depression, psychosis, chronicity, comorbidity) were not significantly different between patients with early- and late-onset bipolar II disorder. PMID:10721685

  12. Genome-wide searches for bipolar disorder genes.

    PubMed

    Alsabban, Shaza; Rivera, Margarita; McGuffin, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Whole-genome linkage and association studies of bipolar disorder are beginning to provide some compelling evidence for the involvement of several chromosomal regions and susceptibility genes in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Developments in genotyping technology and efforts to combine data from different studies have helped in identifying chromosomes 6q16-q25, 13q, and 16p12 as probable susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder and confirmed CACNA1C and ANK3 as susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder. However, a lack of replication is still apparent in the literature. New studies focusing on copy number variants as well as new analytical approaches utilizing pathway analysis offer a new direction in the study of the genetics of bipolar disorder.

  13. Activation of suicidal ideation with adjunctive rufinamide in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kenneth R; Struck, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are effective psychotropics, especially for bipolar disorder, which leads to their use off-label in treatment-refractory cases. A recent publication suggests that rufinamide may be beneficial adjunctively for bipolar disorder with comorbid psychopathology. This report addresses two negative cases with significant psychiatric adverse effects: increased depression, agitation, and activation of suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adjunctive rufinamide may lead to increased suicidal ideation in patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Secondary to the course of severe bipolar disorder, rufinamide cannot be specifically implicated; however, clinicians should be aware of this potential significant adverse effect and monitor high-risk patients. Further studies are required to address rufinamide treatment efficacy and severity of adverse effects in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of diagnostic guidelines for juvenile bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Catherine; Hanstock, Tanya; Jairam, Rajeev; Hazell, Philip; Walter, Garry; Malhi, Gin S

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to compare currently available diagnostic guidelines for juvenile bipolar disorder with respect to utility in research and clinical practice. A systematic search of psychiatric, medical and psychological databases was conducted using the terms 'juvenile bipolar disorder', 'paediatric bipolar disorder' and 'guidelines'. Three main sets of guidelines issued by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (UK), The National Institute of Mental Health (USA) and Child Psychiatric Workshop (USA) were found. There were key differences in the recommendations made by each regarding the diagnosis and symptomatic presentation of juvenile bipolar disorder. Although the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder is gaining increased recognition, its definition remains controversial. It is recommended that clinicians and researchers need to develop diagnostic guidelines that have clinical salience and can be used for future research by incorporating key features of those that are currently available.

  15. Olfactory and gustatory functions in bipolar disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kazour, Francois; Richa, Sami; Desmidt, Thomas; Lemaire, Mathieu; Atanasova, Boriana; El Hage, Wissam

    2017-05-12

    Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunctions in smell identification as potential markers for bipolar disorders. Moreover, olfactory acuity was associated with psychosocial and cognitive performances. For taste, only few studies used standardized tests to evaluate gustation. These studies showed that patients with Bipolar disorders had more gustatory dysfunction compared to controls, and to non-bipolar depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A linkage study of bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Remick, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    We are currently surveying the genome with polymorphic DNA markers in search of loci linked to bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) in three populations: 20 families (175 subjects) from the general North American population from San Diego (UCSD) and Vancouver (UBC); 3 Icelandic families (55 subjects); and an Old Order Amish pedigree 110 (118 subjects). Over 50 markers on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 11, 17, 18, 20 and 21 have been examined. All markers have been tested in the Amish and Icelandic families, and a portion of them in the UCSD/UBC families, which we have only recently begun genotyping. The following candidate genes have been examined: {beta}-TSH, dopamine transporter (HDAT), {beta}2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), glucocorticoid type II receptor (GRL), D2 dopamine receptor, serotonin transporter (HSERT), and G{alpha}s G protein subunit (GNAS1). Linkage analysis was conducted using an autosomal dominant model with age-dependent reduced penetrance. Subjects with bipolar, schizoaffective, or recurrent major depressive disorders were considered affected. No significant evidence for linkage was obtained. Mildly positive lods ranging between 1.1 and 1.6 were obtained for three loci: D11S29, HDAT, and GRL.

  17. Current issues: women and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Marangell, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    While the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) is typically complex, the treatment of women with bipolar disorder is even more challenging because clinicians must also individualize treatment based on the potential for pregnancy, drug interactions with oral contraceptives, and an increased risk of endocrine diseases that can either impact the course of illness or become manifest with some treatments. Women with BD should be checked for hypothyroidism, and if prescribed antidepressants, carefully watched for rapid cycling or a mood switch to mania, hypomania, or a mixed state. Several medications interact with oral contraceptives or increase the risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome. Consideration of possible pregnancy is essential, and should be planned in advance whenever possible. Rates of recurrence have been shown to be equal in pregnant and nonpregnant women with BD. Risks of medication to the fetus at various points of development must be balanced against the risks of not treating, which is also detrimental to both fetus and mother. The postpartum period is a time of especially high risk; as many as 40% to 67% of women with BD report experiencing a postpartum mania or depression. The decision to breastfeed must also take into account the adverse impact of sleep deprivation in triggering mood episodes. In order to best address these issues, clinicians must be familiar with the data and collaborate with the patient to assess risks and benefits for the individual women and her family. PMID:18689292

  18. Treatment of mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; McIntyre, Roger S

    2016-09-13

    Mood episodes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-defined mixed features are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD), affecting ~40% of patients during the course of illness. Mixed states are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, greater treatment resistance, higher rates of comorbidity, more frequent mood episodes, and increased rates of suicide. The objectives of the current review are to identify, summarize, and synthesize studies assessing the efficacy of treatments specifically for BD I and II mood episodes (ie, including manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes) with DSM-5-defined mixed features. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 6 post-hoc analyses were identified, all of which assessed the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the acute treatment of BD mood episodes with mixed features. Results from these studies provide preliminary support for SGAs as efficacious treatments for both mania with mixed features and bipolar depression with mixed features. However, there are inadequate data to definitively support or refute the clinical use of specific agents. Conventional mood stabilizing agents (eg, lithium and divalproex) have yet to have been adequately studied in DSM-5-defined mixed features. Further study is required to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of treatments specifically for BD mood episodes with mixed features.

  19. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Sibilski, Piotr; Lepczyńska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been given to determine risk factors for suicide among adults with bipolar disorder. Such studies concerning children and youths, which would also take into account the specificity of the developmental age, are still too few. The ability to identify risk factors for children and youths with mood disorders, as well as the possibility to monitor them, is an essential element in preventing suicidal behaviours. Previous studies have clearly indicated that in the group of patients with an early onset of the bipolar disorder the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and intentions were significantly increased. Identifying the risk of suicide is hindered further by the complexity of the phenomenon, which is a compound interaction of various factors: biological, environmental, sociological, psychological and clinical. This is especially true with young adults suffering from mental illness and presenting a number of other psychopathological symptoms. The following paper introduces and reviews the results of current studies, which analysed the risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum or already diagnosed with bipolar disorder. For this purpose we conducted the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  20. [Artistic creativity and bipolar mood disorder].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2004-08-15

    Several studies and theories propose a connection between psychopathology and artistic creativity i.e. madness and genius characters share common roots. Employing scientific research data, the objective of this review is to elucidate the frequency of psychopathological alterations among writers and artists and to analyse the possible influence of bipolar mood disorder spectrum on the artistic creativity. Reviewing studies a) on retrospective investigations, based on biographies of famous persons with high creative achievements, b) on psychiatric examinations of living writers and artists, c) on individual examples of geniuses in the light of their mental status and work output correlations, and d) on creative traits and skills of diagnosed psychiatric patient populations. Beyond the practical experiences and impressions being held for ages from ancient times, the scientific observations and surveys indicate that psychopathological symptoms, especially those belonging to the bipolar mood disorder (bipolar I and II), major depression and cyclothymia categories occur more frequently among writers, poets, visual artists and composers, compared to the rates in the general population. Self-reports of writers and artists describe symptoms in their intensively creative periods which are reminiscent and characteristic of hypomanic states. Further, cognitive styles of hypomania (e.g. overinclusive thinking, richness of associations) and originality-prone creativity share many common as indicated by several authors. Among the eminent artists showing most probably manic-depressive or cyclothymic symptoms were: E. Dickinson, E. Hemingway, N. Gogol, A. Strindberg, V. Woolf, Lord Byron (G. Gordon), J. W. Goethe, V. van Gogh, F. Goya, G. Donizetti, G. F. Händel, O. Klemperer, G. Mahler, R. Schumann, and H. Wolf. Based on biographies and other studies, brief descriptions are given in the present article on the personality character of Gogol; Strindberg, Van Gogh, H

  1. Changes in mood stabilizer prescription patterns in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Karanti, Alina; Kardell, Mathias; Lundberg, Ulrika; Landén, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    Lithium is a first line treatment option in bipolar disorder, but several alternative treatments have been introduced in recent years, such as antiepileptic and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Little is known about how this has changed the prescription patterns. We investigated possible changes in the use of mood stabilizers and antidepressants in Sweden during 2007-2013. Data was collected from Swedish registers: the National Quality Assurance Register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR), the Prescribed Drug Register, and the Patient Register. Logistic regression models with drug use as outcomes were used to adjust for confounding factors such as sex, age, year of registration, and subtypes of bipolar disorder. In both bipolar subtypes, lithium use decreased steadily during the study period, while the use of lamotrigine and quetiapine increased. The use of valproate decreased in bipolar II disorder and the use of olanzapine decreased among women. The use of antidepressant remained principally unchanged but increased somewhat in bipolar I disorder. We only report data from 2007 as the coverage of BipoläR prior to 2007 was too low to allow for reliable analyses. Significant changes in the prescription of drugs in the treatment of bipolar disorder have occurred in recent years in Sweden. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these changes alter the outcome in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. AN UNTARGETED METABOLOMICS ANALYSIS OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC USE IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Kyle J.; Evans, Simon J.; Wiese, Kristen M.; Ellingrod, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Second generation antipsychotic (SGA) use in bipolar disorder is common and has proven effective in short-term trials. There continues to be a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying many of their positive and negative effects in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to describe the metabolite profiles of bipolar subjects treated with SGAs by comparing to metabolite profiles of bipolar subjects treated with lithium, and schizophrenia subjects treated with SGAs. Methods Cross-sectional, fasting untargeted serum metabolomic profiling was conducted in 82 subjects diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (n=30 on SGAs and n=32 on lithium) or schizophrenia (n=20). Metabolomic profiles of bipolar subjects treated with SGAs were compared to bipolar subjects treated with lithium and schizophrenia subjects treated with SGAs using multivariate methods. Results Partial lease square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) plots showed separation between bipolar subjects treated with SGAs, bipolar subjects treated with lithium, or schizophrenia subjects treated with SGAs. Top influential metabolite features were associated with several pathways including that of polyunsaturated fatty acids, pyruvate, glucose and branched chain amino acids. Conclusions The findings from this study require further validation in pre and post treated bipolar and schizophrenia subjects, but suggest that the pharmacometabolome may be diagnosis specific. PMID:26314700

  3. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Risk for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carmiol, Nasdia; Peralta, Juan M; Almasy, Laura; Contreras, Javier; Pacheco, Adriana; Escamilla, Michael A; Knowles, Emma E; Raventós, Henriette; Glahn, David C

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a high rate of comorbidity, more than 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder also receive a diagnosis of AUD in their lifetimes. Although both disorders are heritable, it is unclear if the same genetic factors mediate risk for bipolar disorder and AUD. We examined 733 Costa Rican individuals from 61 bipolar pedigrees. Based on a best-estimate process, 32% of the sample met criteria for bipolar disorder, 17% had a lifetime AUD diagnosis, 32% met criteria for lifetime nicotine dependence, and 21% had an anxiety disorder. AUD, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders were relatively more common among individuals with bipolar disorder than in their non-bipolar relatives. All illnesses were shown to be heritable and bipolar disorder was genetically correlated with AUD, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. The genetic correlation between bipolar and AUD remained when controlling for anxiety, suggesting that unique genetic factors influence risk for comorbid bipolar and AUD independent of anxiety. Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic effects on bipolar disorder and AUD risk. Demonstrating that common genetic factors influence these independent diagnostic constructs could help to refine our diagnostic nosology. PMID:24321773

  4. Shared genetic factors influence risk for bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carmiol, N; Peralta, J M; Almasy, L; Contreras, J; Pacheco, A; Escamilla, M A; Knowles, E E M; Raventós, H; Glahn, D C

    2014-06-01

    Bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a high rate of comorbidity, more than 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder also receive a diagnosis of AUD in their lifetimes. Although both disorders are heritable, it is unclear if the same genetic factors mediate risk for bipolar disorder and AUD. We examined 733 Costa Rican individuals from 61 bipolar pedigrees. Based on a best estimate process, 32% of the sample met criteria for bipolar disorder, 17% had a lifetime AUD diagnosis, 32% met criteria for lifetime nicotine dependence, and 21% had an anxiety disorder. AUD, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders were relatively more common among individuals with bipolar disorder than in their non-bipolar relatives. All illnesses were shown to be heritable and bipolar disorder was genetically correlated with AUD, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. The genetic correlation between bipolar and AUD remained when controlling for anxiety, suggesting that unique genetic factors influence the risk for comorbid bipolar and AUD independent of anxiety. Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic effects on bipolar disorder and AUD risk. Demonstrating that common genetic factors influence these independent diagnostic constructs could help to refine our diagnostic nosology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Bipolar disorder and criminal offending: a data linkage study.

    PubMed

    Daff, Elizabeth; Thomas, Stuart D M

    2014-12-01

    The current study explored criminal offending among people diagnosed with bipolar disorder with and without comorbid substance use and compared this with a community sample with no history of bipolar disorder. A case-linkage design was used to compare patterns of officially recorded criminal offending between 1,076 people with bipolar disorder drawn from a state-wide psychiatric case register with a community comparison group. Those with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely than community members to be charged with, convicted of, and be found guilty of, violent, non-violent and intermediate level criminal offences. Those with a comorbid substance use disorder were two times more likely than those without a substance use disorder to offend; both groups had a significantly higher chance of offending than the community sample. Females with bipolar disorder were significantly more likely to have been convicted of violent offences, irrespective of substance use. Significant interactions were found between bipolar disorder and substance use for males and females with respect to violent offending and for males with respect to non-violent offending. There is a statistically significant association between bipolar disorder and the likelihood of having a criminal history. Co-occurring substance use differentially impacts on the likelihood of criminal offending for males and females.

  6. Prevalence of current anxiety disorders in people with bipolar disorder during euthymia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, B; Perlis, R H; Mantere, O; Sellgren, C M; Isometsä, E; Mitchell, P B; Alda, M; Uher, R

    2017-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in people with bipolar disorder, but it is not clear how many have anxiety disorders even at times when they are free of major mood episodes. We aimed to establish what proportion of euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder meet diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis of prevalence rates of current DSM-III- and DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified) in euthymic adults with bipolar disorder in studies published by 31 December 2015. Across 10 samples with 2120 individuals with bipolar disorder, 34.7% met diagnostic criteria for one or more anxiety disorders during euthymia [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.9-45.5%]. Direct comparison of 189 euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder and 17 109 population controls across three studies showed a 4.6-fold increase (risk ratio 4.60, 95% CI 2.37-8.92, p < 0.001) in prevalence of anxiety disorders in those with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that anxiety disorders are common in people with bipolar disorder even when their mood is adequately controlled. Euthymic people with bipolar disorder should be routinely assessed for anxiety disorders and anxiety-focused treatment should be initiated if indicated.

  7. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  8. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  9. Long-term morbidity in bipolar-I, bipolar-II, and unipolar major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Forte, Alberto; Baldessarini, Ross J; Tondo, Leonardo; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Long-term symptomatic status in persons with major depressive and bipolar disorders treated clinically is not well established, although mood disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide. To pool data on long-term morbidity, by type and as a proportion of time-at-risk, based on published studies and previously unreported data. We carried out systematic, computerized literature searches for information on percentage of time in specific morbid states in persons treated clinically and diagnosed with recurrent major depressive or bipolar I or II disorders, and incorporated new data from one of our centers. We analyzed data from 25 samples involving 2479 unipolar depressive and 3936 bipolar disorder subjects (total N=6415) treated clinically for 9.4 years. Proportions of time ill were surprisingly and similarly high across diagnoses: unipolar depressive (46.0%), bipolar I (43.7%), and bipolar II (43.2%) disorders, and morbidity was predominantly depressive: unipolar (100%), bipolar-II (81.2%), bipolar-I (69.6%). Percent-time-ill did not differ between UP and BD subjects, but declined significantly with longer exposure times. The findings indicate that depressive components of all major affective disorders accounted for 86% of the 43-46% of time in affective morbidity that occurred despite availability of effective treatments. These results encourage redoubled efforts to improve treatments for depression and adherence to their long-term use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychodynamics of hypersexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Adelson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    It has recently become evident that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents. The criteria for making the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) are in the process of being proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V). In adults, a criterion for bipolar disorder is excessive involvement in pleasurable activities including hypersexuality. Recently, some clinicians and researchers have suggested that hypersexuality be included as a criterion for JBD as well. Although abnormal sexuality has been reported to be present in some youth thought to have JBD, the reason for this association is not yet clear. Hypersexuality may be primary and intrinsic to bipolar disorder in youth, secondary and associated with it as the result of psychosocial influences or psychodynamic factors, or due to general aggression and disruptive behavior. Not only have developmental psychosocial factors that may influence sexuality in children and adolescence not been fully investigated, but psychodynamic influences have been omitted from modern etiological constructs as well. This report discusses the importance of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexual experience and activity of bipolar children. It is proposed that a developmental, psychodynamically informed model is helpful in understanding sexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. It is also suggested that assessment of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexuality of bipolar children is necessary in order to adequately assess whether hypersexuality should be a criterion of bipolar disorder in youth.

  11. [Bipolar disorder and DSM-5: still far from the disease].

    PubMed

    Martino, Diego J; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder is highly disabling, data from different regions of the world agree on the finding that there is a prolonged diagnostic delay in affected people. Among the main factors that could explain this phenomenon are contemporary conceptualizations of bipolar disorder and diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV. Moreover, in recent years it has been cautioned about the risk of overdiagnosis of this disorder. In this context, the new edition of the DSM is presented. The modifications included in the DSM-5 regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder are described in this paper. Likewise, the practical implications of these changes are discussed.

  12. Biologic basis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kloos, Angelica; Weller, Elizabeth B; Weller, Ronald A

    2008-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious and difficult-to-treat condition in any age group. In childhood and adolescence, diagnosis and treatment present specific challenges, as the disorder often manifests in atypical presentations, such as marked irritability and frequent alterations of mood states not typically seen in adults. The lack of double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in pediatric populations also leads to many difficult pharmacologic challenges. In this paper, we review available studies in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurocognitive functioning, and genetics to further explore the underlying neurobiologic mechanisms of child and adolescent bipolar disorder. Future investigation should elicit distinct mechanisms for diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder from a neurobiologic perspective.

  13. Interacting Mechanisms of Impulsivity in Bipolar Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) overlap in clinical characteristics and behavioral consequences. Impulsivity is prominent in both, but there is little information on how specific mechanisms of impulsivity differentiate, bridge, or underlie the disorders. Methods Subjects, all males, were controls (n=46), bipolar disorder without cluster B personality disorder (n=21), ASPD without bipolar disorder (n=50), and bipolar disorder with ASPD (n=16). Impulsivity measures were the Immediate Memory Task (IMT), a continuous performance test of response inhibition measuring ability to evaluate a stimulus before responding, and the Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP), a choice between smaller-sooner and larger-later reward. Data were analyzed using general linear models analysis. Results Subjects with bipolar disorder had fewer IMT correct detections and slower reaction times than controls. Reaction times were faster with combined diagnoses than in bipolar disorder alone. TCIP responding in either diagnosis alone resembled controls, but was more impulsive in combined disorders. These differences persisted after correction for age and education, which had significant independent effects. In combined ASPD and bipolar disorder, increased reaction speed, impulsive response bias, and reward-delay impulsivity occurred independent of substance-use disorder history. Conclusions Impulsivity was increased in the combined disorders over either disorder alone. Results were consistent with at least partially distinct mechanisms of impulsivity in ASPD and bipolar disorder. Compensatory mechanisms for impulsivity in uncomplicated ASPD or bipolar disorder appear to be compromised or lost when the disorders are combined. PMID:21719028

  14. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    ,600 in 2003. At the same time, antidepressant sales have sextupled, from\\14.5 billion in 1998 to\\87 billion in 2006, according to statistics from GlaxoSmithKline. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its focus from depression to bipolar disorder. Historically, Japanese psychiatrists have been familiar with Emil Kraepelin's "manic depressive insanity" (1899), whose definition was much narrower than that of its contemporary counterpart, bipolar disorder. Thus far, perhaps due partly to the reference in Kraepelin's definition of "manic depressive" disorder, Japanese psychiatrists have rather conservatively prescribed mood stabilizers for persons with frequent mood swings. Japanese psychiatrists can learn a great deal from their experience with the aggressive marketing of antidepressants. In the case of depression, over-medication arguably did more harm than good. The same risk exists with bipolar disorder. Disease mongering may occur whenever the interests of a pharmaceutical company exceed the expected benefits from the proposed pharmacotherapy on those affected by the putative bipolar disorder. In cases that are not severe enough for aggressive medication, psychiatrists should propose natural alternatives, such as an alteration of lifestyle and psychotherapy.

  15. [Alpha-thalassemias and bipolar disorders: a genetic link?].

    PubMed

    Damsa, C; Borras, L; Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Andreoli, A

    2005-01-01

    After a previous paper discussing the possible association between beta-thalassemias and bipolar disorder, this article considers a possible association between alpha-thalassemia and the bipolar disorder. We report the case of a 36 year old woman with bipolar disorder and alpha-thalassemia. The patient, native of Reunion Island, has a family history of bipolar disorder (both parents, one brother, and a paternal uncle). The severity of the bipolar disorder type I in her family, is illustrated by the suicides of both parents, one brother and the paternal uncle, in intervals of only a few years. After a Medline review (1980-2004) we found only two studies suggesting a possible relationship between bipolar disorders and alpha-thalassemias, but without clinical case report information. Some genetic studies described the existence of possible genetic susceptibility for bipolar disorder on the short arm of chromosome 16, close to the gene involved in certain alpha-thalassemias, on the region 16p13.3. An interesting finding is that the sequencing of 258 kb of the chromosome region 16p13.3 not only allowed the identification of genes involved in the alpha-thalassemia and in the vulnerability to bipolar disorders, but also the identification of genes implicated in tuberous sclerosis, in polycystic kidney disease, in cataract with microophtalmia, and in vulnerability genetic factors for ATR-16 syndrome, asthma, epilepsy, certain forms of autism and mental retardation. Numerous clinical descriptions and some familial studies on linkage suggested a possible relationship between tuberous sclerosis, polycystic kidney disease, cataract with microophtalmia, ATR-16 syndrome, asthma, epilepsy, certain forms of autism, mental retardation and bipolar disorder, given the closeness of these vulnerability genes on the short arm of the chromosome 16. A vulnerability gene of alcohol dependence was also identified on this same chromosome region (16p13.3), by a study concerning 105 families

  16. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: cross-national community study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Kessler, Ronald C; Jin, Robert; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura; Karam, Elie G; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Merikangas, Kathleen; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Popovici, Daniela Georgeta; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Wells, J Elisabeth; Zarkov, Zahari; Petukhova, Maria

    2010-03-01

    The epidemiology of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in the community is largely unknown. To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in a large cross-national community sample. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 3.0) was used to examine the prevalence, severity, comorbidity, impairment, suicidality, sociodemographics, childhood adversity and treatment of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar disorder in ten countries (n = 54 257). The 12-month prevalence of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was 0.3%. Roughly a third and two-fifths of participants with lifetime and 12-month bipolar disorder respectively met criteria for rapid cycling. Compared with the non-rapid-cycling, rapid-cycling bipolar disorder was associated with younger age at onset, higher persistence, more severe depressive symptoms, greater impairment from depressive symptoms, more out-of-role days from mania/hypomania, more anxiety disorders and an increased likelihood of using health services. Associations regarding childhood, family and other sociodemographic correlates were less clear cut. The community epidemiological profile of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder confirms most but not all current clinically based knowledge about the illness.

  17. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Yu, Haifeng; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identify diagnostic risk factors of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (“high-risk offspring”). Method High-risk offspring aged 6-18 years (n=391) and demographically-matched offspring (n=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean interval 2.5 years; mean duration 6.8 years). Results High-risk offspring, as compared to community offspring, had significantly higher rates of subthreshold (hypo)manic (13.3% vs. 1.2%, p<.0001), manic/hypomanic (9.2% vs. 0.8%, p=.0003) and major depressive episodes (32.0% vs. 14.9%, p<.0001). They also had higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity (30.7% vs. 18.2%, p=.01), disruptive behavior (27.4% vs. 15.3%, p=.03), anxiety (39.9% vs. 21.8%, p=.0002), and substance use disorders (20.0% vs. 10.1%, p=.008), but not unipolar major depressive disorder (major depression with no bipolarity; 18.9% vs. 13.7%; p=.10). Multivariate Cox regressions in the high-risk offspring showed that subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 2.29, p=.03), major depressive episodes (Hazard Ratio 1.99, p=.05), and disruptive behavior disorders (Hazard Ratio 2.12, p=.03) were associated with subsequent mania/hypomania. Only subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 7.57, p<.0001) were associated when analyses were restricted to prospective data. Conclusions Subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes were a diagnostic risk factor for the development of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, and should be a target for clinical assessment and future treatment research. Major depressive episodes and disruptive behavior disorders are also indications for close clinical monitoring of emergent bipolarity in high-risk offspring. PMID:25734353

  19. Factitious disorder comorbid with bipolar I disorder. A case report.

    PubMed

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Simonetti, Alessio; Caloro, Matteo; Roma, Paolo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Sani, Gabriele; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2012-06-10

    We describe a case of factitious disorder with physical and psychological symptoms comorbid with bipolar I disorder in a 37-year-old woman. Since the onset of bipolar disorder, which occurred at the age of 31, she increasingly complained of physical symptoms, compulsively seeking medical and surgical interventions. She has been hospitalised several times and her Munchausen-type factitious disorder recently appeared to be developing into Munchausen by proxy, involving her 11-year-old daughter. The patient adhered poorly to stabilising and antipsychotic drug treatment and did not improve through the years. We here analyse her mood phases, which were always associated with changes in the quality of factitious symptoms, according to whether the disorder was in its depressive phase (somatic complaints and suicidal ideation prevail), or in its manic or mixed phase (medical intervention-seeking and manipulation of clinicians to obtain surgical interventions). We also briefly discuss some important forensic issues to consider in similar cases, mainly stemming from the psychotic aspects of these two co-occurring disorders. Clinicians should be aware of some patients' ability to produce signs and symptoms of physical and/or psychological illness and consult psychiatrists before giving consent to invasive diagnostic procedures or surgery.

  20. Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Management of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Maina, Giuseppe; Forgione, Rocco N; Goracci, Arianna; Cuomo, Alessandro; Young, Allan H

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 40% of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed episodes, defined as a manic state with depressive features, or manic symptoms in a patient with bipolar depression. Compared with bipolar patients without mixed features, patients with bipolar mixed states generally have more severe symptomatology, more lifetime episodes of illness, worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of comorbidities, and thus present a significant clinical challenge. Most clinical trials have investigated second-generation neuroleptic monotherapy, monotherapy with anticonvulsants or lithium, combination therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuroleptic drugs are often used alone or in combination with anticonvulsants or lithium for preventive treatment, and ECT is an effective treatment for mixed manic episodes in situations where medication fails or cannot be used. Common antidepressants have been shown to worsen mania symptoms during mixed episodes without necessarily improving depressive symptoms; thus, they are not recommended during mixed episodes. A greater understanding of pathophysiological processes in bipolar disorder is now required to provide a more accurate diagnosis and new personalised treatment approaches. Targeted, specific treatments developed through a greater understanding of bipolar disorder pathophysiology, capable of affecting the underlying disease processes, could well prove to be more effective, faster acting, and better tolerated than existing therapies, therefore providing better outcomes for individuals affected by bipolar disorder. Until such time as targeted agents are available, second-generation neuroleptics are emerging as the treatment of choice in the management of mixed states in bipolar disorder.

  1. Carbamazepine in Bipolar Disorder With Pain: Reviewing Treatment Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Austin; O’Connell, Christopher R.; Nallapula, Kishan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if any monotherapy drug treatment has robust efficacy to treat comorbid bipolar disorder and chronic pain. Data Sources: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) treatment guidelines for bipolar mood disorder and the 2012 Cochrane database for pain disorders. Study Selection: We relied on the treatment guides to determine if the drugs that are APA guideline–supported to treat bipolar disorder have supporting data from the Cochrane database for chronic pain. Data Synthesis: No single drug was mentioned by either guideline to treat this comorbidity. However, carbamazepine was the only drug that has guideline-supported robust efficacy in the management of each condition separately. Conclusions: Carbamazepine was found to have strong preclinical data for the treatment of comorbid bipolar mood disorder and chronic pain disorders. While requiring more studies in this population, we propose that this treatment modality may benefit patients. PMID:25667814

  2. Biological hypotheses and biomarkers of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Sigitova, Ekaterina; Fišar, Zdeněk; Hroudová, Jana; Cikánková, Tereza; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The most common mood disorders are major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders (BD). The pathophysiology of BD is complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood. Creation of new hypotheses in the field gives impetus for studies and for finding new biomarkers for BD. Conversely, new biomarkers facilitate not only diagnosis of a disorder and monitoring of biological effects of treatment, but also formulation of new hypotheses about the causes and pathophysiology of the BD. BD is characterized by multiple associations between disturbed brain development, neuroplasticity, and chronobiology, caused by: genetic and environmental factors; defects in apoptotic, immune-inflammatory, neurotransmitter, neurotrophin, and calcium-signaling pathways; oxidative and nitrosative stress; cellular bioenergetics; and membrane or vesicular transport. Current biological hypotheses of BD are summarized, including related pathophysiological processes and key biomarkers, which have been associated with changes in genetics, systems of neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factors, neuroinflammation, autoimmunity, cytokines, stress axis activity, chronobiology, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Here we also discuss the therapeutic hypotheses and mechanisms of the switch between depressive and manic state. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. MRI exploration of pineal volume in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Samuel; Etain, Bruno; Vederine, François-Eric; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Hamdani, Nora; Daban, Claire; Delavest, Marine; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Leboyer, Marion; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Houenou, Josselin

    2011-12-01

    Circadian rhythm instability and abnormalities of melatonin secretion are considered as trait markers of bipolar disorder. Melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland. We investigated pineal volume in patients with bipolar disorder, and expected to observe smaller than normal pineal glands in cases of bipolar disorder. The primary outcome was the total pineal volume measured for each pineal gland with T1 MRI sequence. Twenty patients with bipolar I and II disorder and twenty controls were recruited. Pineal glands with large cysts (type 3) were excluded. After exclusion of individuals with type 3 cysts, 32 subjects were analyzed for total pineal volume (16 patients with bipolar disorder and 16 controls). Total pineal volume did not differ significantly between patients (total pineal volume=115+/-54.3mm(3)) and controls (total pineal volume=110+/-40.5mm(3)). Contrary to our hypothesis, no difference in total pineal volume between patients with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects was observed. These results indicate that the putative dysfunction of the pineal gland in bipolar disorder could be not directly related to an abnormal volume of the pineal gland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving treatment adherence in bipolar disorder through psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard

    2005-01-01

    The chronicity and cyclical nature of bipolar disorder combined with the irrationality typical during bipolar mood episodes often encourage pharmacologic treatment nonadherence, which heightens the severity of the illness. Although clinicians acknowledge treatment nonadherence to be a major issue among bipolar patients, assessing nonadherence is difficult, and improving treatment adherence is a complicated and delicate matter. Treatment adherence can be improved among patients with bipolar disorder through psychoeducation about the nature of their disorder and the vital importance of treatment adherence. Founded on a biopsychosocial, medical model of mental disorders, psychoeducation empowers the patient by providing a practical and theoretical approach to understanding and dealing with the symptoms and consequences of bipolar disorder. Psychoeducation identifies bipolar disorder as a biological abnormality that requires regular pharmacologic treatment and teaches patients to cope with symptoms and maintain regularity in daily social and occupational functioning. Psychoeducated patients show improvements in treatment adherence and in other clinical outcomes, including reduced number of mood episodes and hospitalizations and increased time between episodes. As an adjunct to pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is a promising management component that increases treatment adherence and quality of life for patients.

  5. An exploration of testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wooderson, Sarah C.; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone influences well-being, mood and cognition and may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Aim To examine testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Method We examined baseline total testosterone levels and current depression scores in male and female patients with bipolar disorder and mild to moderate depression and healthy controls. Results A significant interaction between diagnosis and gender was observed (F(2,97)=9.791, P=0.002). Testosterone levels were significantly lower for male patients with bipolar disorder compared with male controls (P=0.001). Women with bipolar disorder had significantly higher testosterone levels than female controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Disturbances in testosterone levels may represent an important neurobiological abnormality in bipolar disorder and may differ by gender. If these findings are confirmed, the use of gender appropriate treatment strategies for the normalisation of testosterone levels in bipolar disorder depression should be further explored. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703738

  6. Bipolar disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Tomas; McIntyre, Roger; Alda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) negatively affects brain structure and function. Meta-analytical data show that relative to age and sex matched non-psychiatric controls, patients with bipolar disorders have double the risk of T2DM. We review the evidence for association between T2DM and adverse clinical and brain imaging changes in bipolar disorders and summarize studies investigating effects of diabetes treatment on psychiatric and brain outcomes. Participants with bipolar disorders and T2DM or insulin resistance demonstrate greater morbidity, chronicity and disability, and lower treatment response to Li. Bipolar disorders complicated by insulin resistance/T2DM are associated with smaller hippocampal and cortical gray matter volumes and lower prefrontal N-acetyl aspartate (neuronal marker). Treatment of T2DM yields preservation of brain gray matter and insulin sensitizers, such as pioglitazone, improve symptoms of depression in unipolar or bipolar disorders. T2DM or insulin resistance frequently cooccur with bipolar disorders and are associated with negative psychiatric clinical outcomes and compromised brain health. This is clinically concerning, as patients with bipolar disorders have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and yet often receive suboptimal medical care. At the same time treatment of T2DM and insulin resistance has positive effects on psychiatric and brain outcomes. These findings create a rich agenda for future research, which could enhance psychiatric pharmacopeia and directly impact patient care.

  7. Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emily A; Geddes, John R; Colom, Francesc; Goodwin, Guy M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitions in the form of mental images have a more powerful impact on emotion than their verbal counterparts. This review synthesizes the cognitive science of imagery and emotion with transdiagnostic clinical research, yielding novel predictions for the basis of emotional volatility in bipolar disorder. Anxiety is extremely common in patients with bipolar disorder and is associated with increased dysfunction and suicidality, yet it is poorly understood and rarely treated. Mental imagery is a neglected aspect of bipolar anxiety although in anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and social phobia focusing on imagery has been crucial for the development of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In this review we present a cognitive model of imagery and emotion applied to bipolar disorder. Within this model mental imagery amplifies emotion, drawing on Clark's cyclical panic model [(1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461-470]. We (1) emphasise imagery's amplification of anxiety (cycle one); (2) suggest that imagery amplifies the defining (hypo-) mania of bipolar disorder (cycle two), whereby the overly positive misinterpretation of triggers leads to mood elevation (escalated by imagery), increasing associated beliefs, goals, and action likelihood (all strengthened by imagery). Imagery suggests a unifying explanation for key unexplained features of bipolar disorder: ubiquitous anxiety, mood instability and creativity. Introducing imagery has novel implications for bipolar treatment innovation--an area where CBT improvements are much-needed.

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the risk for bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-10-01

    The hypomanic personality style is a risk factor for bipolar spectrum disorders and shares many cognitive and affective features with the bipolar spectrum. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in association with the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum risk. A sample of 966 participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Hypomanic Personality Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Participants deemed at risk of developing a bipolar disorder (N=107) were compared to low-risk controls (N=681). The Entitlement/Grandiosity and Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline positively predicted the risk of developing a bipolar disorder, while Emotional Inhibition negatively predicted risk. High-risk participants demonstrated higher mean scores on all EMSs except Emotional Inhibition. These three EMSs, combined with Vulnerability to Harm or Illness, significantly predicted group membership. A bipolar spectrum EMS profile was identified, consisting of Entitlement/Grandiosity, Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline and the absence of Emotional Inhibition. These EMSs are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. This study supports the application of schema theory to the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum. Future research should explore the possible interaction between EMSs, life events and affective symptoms and the applicability of schema therapy to the bipolar spectrum. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and axis II personality disorders: prevalence and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    George, Elizabeth L; Miklowitz, David J; Richards, Jeffrey A; Simoneau, Teresa L; Taylor, Dawn O

    2003-04-01

    Many studies have examined the prevalence and predictive validity of axis II personality disorders among unipolar depressed patients, but few have examined these issues among bipolar patients. The few studies that do exist suggest that axis II pathology complicates the diagnosis and course of bipolar disorder. This study examined the prevalence of axis II disorder in bipolar patients who were clinically remitted. We assessed the co-occurrence of personality disorder among 52 remitted DSM-III-R bipolar patients using a structured diagnostic interview, the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE). Axis II disorders can be rated reliably among bipolar patients who are in remission. Co-diagnosis of personality disorder occurred in 28.8% of patients. Cluster B (dramatic, emotionally erratic) and cluster C (fearful, avoidant) personality disorders were more common than cluster A (odd, eccentric) disorders. Bipolar patients with personality disorders differed from bipolar patients without personality disorders in the severity of their residual mood symptoms, even during remission. When structured assessment of personality disorder is performed during a clinical remission, less than one in three bipolar patients meets full syndromal criteria for an axis II disorder. Examining rates of comorbid personality disorder in broad-based community samples of bipolar spectrum patients would further clarify the linkage between these sets of disorders.

  10. Circadian Rhythm Dysregulation in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Ng, Tommy H; Titone, Madison K; Boland, Elaine M

    2017-04-01

    We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. Relative circadian phase delay (e.g., later melatonin peak, evening chronotype) is associated with BSD, particularly in the depressive phase. More consistent evidence supports irregularity of social rhythms, sleep/wake and activity patterns, and disruptions of social rhythms by life events, as stable trait markers of BSD and potential vulnerabilities for BSD onset. Growing research supports an integrative reward/circadian model. Both endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock pacemaking function and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms by physical and social cues are involved in BSDs. Circadian dysregulation may provide vulnerability to BSD onset.

  11. Correlates of depression in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Paul J.; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Geddes, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = –0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson–Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling. PMID:24352942

  12. Diagnostic issues in childhood bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Horst, Robert

    2009-03-01

    The field of psychiatry has largely discounted the existence of bipolar disorder (BD) in children and viewed adolescent-onset BD as uncommon until recently. Evidence demonstrating that a significant number of adults with BD report symptom onset before age 19 has led to an explosion in the recognition of childhood BD over the past decade. Because children and adolescents, including preschoolers, are being diagnosed with BD in rapidly increasing numbers, the criteria for mania are being adjusted in children and adolescents to accommodate various presentations of emotional dysregulation into the paradigm of BD. Still, it has yet to be seen whether these presentations will develop in adulthood into what we have traditionally considered to be BD. This blurring of the diagnostic lines has led to significant controversy in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. This article introduces current thinking about this controversial diagnosis through two case examples.

  13. Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: Igniting a Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Moezpoor, Michelle; Murray, Greg; Hole, Rachelle; Barnes, Steven J; Michalak, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been related to heightened creativity, yet core questions remain unaddressed about this association. We used qualitative methods to investigate how highly creative individuals with BD understand the role of symptoms and treatment in their creativity, and possible mechanisms underpinning this link. Twenty-two individuals self-identified as highly creative and living with BD took part in focus groups and completed quantitative measures of symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and creativity. Using thematic analysis, five themes emerged: the pros and cons of mania for creativity, benefits of altered thinking, the relationship between creativity and medication, creativity as central to one's identity, and creativity's importance in stigma reduction and treatment. Despite reliance on a small sample who self-identified as having BD, findings shed light on previously mixed results regarding the influence of mania and treatment and suggest new directions for the study of mechanisms driving the creative advantage in BD.

  14. Correlates of depression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Goodwin, Guy M; Geddes, John R

    2014-02-07

    We analyse time series from 100 patients with bipolar disorder for correlates of depression symptoms. As the sampling interval is non-uniform, we quantify the extent of missing and irregular data using new measures of compliance and continuity. We find that uniformity of response is negatively correlated with the standard deviation of sleep ratings (ρ = -0.26, p = 0.01). To investigate the correlation structure of the time series themselves, we apply the Edelson-Krolik method for correlation estimation. We examine the correlation between depression symptoms for a subset of patients and find that self-reported measures of sleep and appetite/weight show a lower average correlation than other symptoms. Using surrogate time series as a reference dataset, we find no evidence that depression is correlated between patients, though we note a possible loss of information from sparse sampling.

  15. Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason J.; West, Amy E.; Heil, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To review the diagnosis and the pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods A comprehensive literature review of studies discussing the diagnosis and treatment of PBD was conducted. Results A context for understanding controversies and difficulties in the diagnosis of PBD is provided. An evidence-based assessment protocol for PBD is reviewed. The evidence for the following three categories of pharmacologic interventions are reviewed: Lithium, antiepileptics, and second generation antipsychotics. Algorithms for medication decisions are briefly reviewed. Existing psychosocial treatments and the evidence for those treatments are also reviewed. Conclusion Despite recent developments in understanding the phenomenology of PBD and in identifying pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions, critical gaps remain. PMID:21822352

  16. Bipolar disorder: medication adherence and life contentment.

    PubMed

    Darling, Carol Anderson; Olmstead, Spencer B; Lund, Victoria E; Fairclough, Jaime F

    2008-06-01

    Using family stress theory, we examined the influence of family and health stress, level of coping, and internal health locus of control upon the life contentment of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BPD) who were either adherent or nonadherent to their medication regimens. A survey-interview design was used with a sample of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD; 50 participants were adherent to their medication and 50 were considered nonadherent. The results indicated that the adherent group had fewer health problems and more resources for coping with stress, possessed a stronger belief that their own behaviors controlled their health status, and had higher life contentment compared to nonadherent participants. For the participants in this study, internal health locus of control had the greatest total effect on life contentment followed by family coping. Implications included the need to comprehensively assess each individual regarding the multiple factors in one's life that influence an effective treatment regimen.

  17. Selfish brain and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cha, Danielle S; Asevedo, Elson; McIntyre, Roger S; Brietzke, Elisa

    2013-06-03

    Bipolar disorder is associated with increases in mortality rates due to metabolic complications when compared to the general population. The "selfish brain" theory postulates that the CNS modulates energy metabolism in the periphery in order to prioritize its own demand and offers an heurist value framework to understand how and why metabolic abnormalities develop in the course of BD. Mood episodes, especially those of manic polarity are neurotoxic, because of the acute release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate, oxidative species, inflammatory cytokines and the deprivation of neuroprotective factors, such as neurotrophins. The cell loss and malfunctioning require from the brain an extra effort to repair itself, which will demand energetic supplies. Application of "selfish brain" theory in BD can potentially offer new insights about how to prevent and treat metabolic complications in BD.

  18. Validation of a diagnostic screening blood test for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Douglas B; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Thiruvengadam, Alagu P

    2012-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is difficult to diagnose, and probably is both overdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis has deleterious consequences for the prognosis of the disorder. In a previous study (n = 134), measurement of blood cellular membrane potential (expressed as membrane potential ratio [MPR™]) diagnosed bipolar illness with a sensitivity of .78 and a specificity of .88. The current study was performed as a validation of the initial study. We recruited consecutive outpatients with DSM-IV-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (BD I) and those without bipolar illness (n = 153) and measured their MPR™. BD I patients were relatively hyperpolarized, with an MPR™ of .601 (± standard deviation .0179), compared with non-bipolar patients (MPR™ .675 ± .0174). The sensitivity and specificity for BD I are .93 and .90, respectively. Before clinical application, future studies must utilize consensus diagnosis as the "gold standard" diagnosis and examine the effect of mood-stabilizing drugs on MPR™.

  19. Personality patterns and outcome in depressive and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Heerlein, A; Richter, P; Gonzalez, M; Santander, J

    1998-01-01

    Personality traits and disorders have a strong influence on the course and outcome of depressive and bipolar disorders. Studies of the influence of personality disorders (PD) and some PD clusters on outcome of mood disorders are controversial and suggest that more specific assessment of underlying traits or dimensions is needed. Utilizing the Munich Personality test (MP-T) scales of von Zerssen, this study tries to identify specific personality traits that may influence the outcome and clinical course of unipolar endogenous depression and bipolar disorder. Six unipolar depressives and 6 bipolar patients, according to DSM III-R and ICD 10 criteria, were assessed with the MP-T self- and family-reporting scales. Three years later, their outcome scores were correlated with the corresponding premorbid personality profile. Preliminary results show that introversion has a negative effect on outcome of unipolar melancholic depression, while extraversion, esoteric tendencies and rigidity have a positive influence. Neuroticism has a negative influence on outcome of bipolar disorder, but not on unipolar endogenous depression. Data from the literature suggest that neuroticism, hostility and social dysfunction seem to have a negative prognostic value only for nonendogenous depressives and bipolar disorder, thus supporting the notion that the diagnostic distinction between bipolar disorder, endogenous and nonendogenous depression is relevant to prognostic discussions. These observations help to understand the differences between depressive syndromes and their relationship to prognosis, but also to comprehend the role of personality in clinical and theoretical research of mood disorders.

  20. Treatment options for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Findling, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children and adolescents. Although psychosocial interventions are important for these young patients, treatment guidelines presently focus on pharmacologic therapy in the acute treatment of pediatric bipolar I disorder. Placebo-controlled studies have been conducted with lithium, anticonvulsants, and atypical antipsychotics, but more research is needed, especially in areas other than acute manic and mixed episodes. Additional studies are needed to determine the safest and most effective agents for treating children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

  1. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  2. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  5. [Pathogenesis of bipolar disorders: genetic vulnerability and environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Leboyer, Marion; Henry, Chantal

    2005-03-15

    It is now well-established that there is a genetic vulnerability for developing bipolar disorders. For instance, the rate of bipolar disorders in first degree relatives of bipolar probands (19%) is higher than in the general population (1%); monozygote twins have higher concordance rates for bipolar diseases (67%) than dizygote (19%); finally affective disorders are more frequent in biological parents than in adoptive parents in adopted bipolar patients. However, currently genes predisposing for the disease are not known, in part because bipolar disorders are very heterogeneous. New research strategies should be developed based on more homogeneous groups of patients defined by the presence of "candidate symptoms" or by the evidence of endophenotypes in healthy relatives. However, it is clear now that there is an interaction between the genetic vulnerability and environmental factors in the aetiology and course of the disorder. Environmental factors have been neglected for a long time because bipolar disorder was considered an endogenous disease. Thus, very recently, studies have shown that early trauma could contribute to the occurrence or the severity of the disease. During a lifetime, many environmental components (stressful life events, changes in daily schedules, drug abuse, some medications) could also trigger the onset of the pathology or the occurrence of new episodes. It is very important to recognize these factors in order to develop preventive strategies for limiting their impact.

  6. [Bipolar disorder: inter-episode symptoms].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J-M

    2012-12-01

    The importance of inter-episode symptoms in bipolar disorder can be traced back to the middle of the 19th century, at a time when the two fathers of the concept in France, Falret and Baillarger were opposed on the issue as to whether the presence of free intervals between the episodes had to be part or not of the disease's definition. Modern studies have reported rates between 50 and 68% for those symptoms which refer to subsyndromal manifestations present between affective episodes but that do not meet the required criteria for episodes definition. These manifestations comprise residual symptoms, prodromes, axis I comorbid psychiatric disorders, side effects of treatment, temperamental features, and comorbidity with personality disorders. Inter- episodes symptoms represent a risk factor for the occurrence of relapses and recurrences and are usually associated with impairments in functioning in almost all domains of psychosocial and family life. As they are easy to miss, it is important in clinical practice, to draw the attention of clinicians, patients and relatives to the role they have in the course of the illness. As far as their management, it may be crucial to achieve a full remission of the episodes, using adequate dosages of psychotropic drugs. Residual symptoms, prodromes as well as other inter-episode symptoms may respond to strategies based on cognitive-behaviour therapy, and/or psychoeducation.

  7. Ventral anterior cingulate connectivity distinguished nonpsychotic bipolar illness from psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Anticevic, Alan; Savic, Aleksandar; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar illness is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a brain region thought to regulate emotional behavior. Although recent data-driven functional connectivity studies provide evidence consistent with this possibility, the role of vACC in bipolar illness and its pattern of whole brain connectivity remain unknown. Furthermore, no study has established whether vACC exhibits differential whole brain connectivity in bipolar patients with and without co-occurring psychosis and whether this pattern resembles that found in schizophrenia. We conducted a human resting-state functional connectivity investigation focused on the vACC seed in 73 remitted bipolar I disorder patients (33 with psychosis history), 56 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects, and 73 demographically matched patients with chronic schizophrenia. Psychosis history within the bipolar disorder group corresponded with significant between-group connectivity alterations along the dorsal medial prefrontal surface when using the vACC seed. Patients with psychosis history showed reduced connectivity (Cohen's d = -0.69), whereas those without psychosis history showed increased vACC coupling (Cohen's d = 0.8) relative to controls. The vACC connectivity observed in chronic schizophrenia patients was not significantly different from that seen in bipolar patients with psychosis history but was significantly reduced compared with that in bipolar patients without psychosis history. These robust findings reveal complex vACC connectivity alterations in bipolar illness, which suggest differences depending on co-occurrence of lifetime psychosis. The similarities in vACC connectivity patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder patients may suggest the existence of common mechanisms underlying psychotic symptoms in the two disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland

  8. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Ann K; Roh, Youkyung S; Ravichandran, Caitlin T; Baker, Justin T; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M

    2017-07-01

    The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed reduced cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in somatomotor A, ventral attention, salience, and frontoparietal control A and B networks relative to healthy control participants. These findings were not significantly correlated with current symptoms. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed evidence of cerebro-cerebellar dysconnectivity in selective networks. These disease-related changes were substantial and not explained by medication exposure or substance use. Therefore, they may be mechanistically relevant to the underlying susceptibility to mood dysregulation and psychosis. Cerebellar mechanisms deserve further exploration in psychiatric conditions, and this study's findings may have value in guiding future studies on pathophysiology and treatment of mood and psychotic disorders, in particular.

  9. Theory of mind deficits in bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Natalie; Dunbar, Robin I M; Bentall, Richard P

    2003-02-01

    Bipolar affective disorder patients often show cognitive deficits that are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. Theory of mind (the ability to understand others' mental states) is compromised in currently ill schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to establish whether similar deficits are found in bipolar patients. We measured theory of mind ability in 20 bipolar-manic patients, 15 bipolar-depressed patients, 13 bipolar patients in remission and 15 normal controls. The task, which controlled for memory and comprehension, had previously been used in a study of schizophrenia patients. Impaired performance on theory of mind was found for both bipolar-depressed and bipolar-manic patients, even when memory was controlled for. No impairment was observed in the remitted patients. The manic patients scored lower than the remitted patients on a brief measure of intelligence; no other group differences in IQ were significant. Theory of mind deficits are found in currently symptomatic bipolar patients. These findings add to growing evidence that common mechanisms may contribute to bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia.

  10. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  11. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  12. Self-stigmatization in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Sedlackova, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Prejudicial beliefs, emotions, and behaviours cause discrimination against people labeled as mentally ill. This stigmatization is sometimes internalized by the patients, leading to self-stigmatization. Specific features and impacts of stigmatization and self-stigmatization in patients with bipolar illness are the subjects of this review. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "stigma", "self-stigma" psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment". Key articles listed in reference lists were searched. Considerable recent evidence indicates that bipolar patients and their families are stigmatized, and that this stigmatization affects their quality of life as well as social functioning. The severity of stigmatization in bipolar disorder is greater than that in people with depression. There is also evidence of self-stigmatization which further decreases the quality of life. Stigmatization and self-stigmatization were shown to be one of the barriers that delay or prevent effective treatment, and thus exert adverse effects on the outcomes of bipolar disorder. Stigma affects the experience of illness as well as social functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. The impact of stigma on the lives and treatment outcomes of patients with bipolar disorder mandates intensive effort of mental health research and policy to address this problem. Much has been done against the stigmatization of the mentally ill. But the fight against stigma remains a fundamental objective of health programs for mental health.

  13. [Depressive onset episode of bipolar disorder: clinical and prognostic considerations].

    PubMed

    Besnier, N; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Adida, M; Maurel, M; Azorin, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Both retrospective and high-risk individuals prospective studies show that a high percentage of patients experience one or more depressive episodes previous the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Depressive onset bipolar disorders begin earlier than the ones with a manic onset, have a higher duration, a chronic course with frequent recurrences, a depressive dominant polarity, a higher lifetime rate of suicidal behaviour, less psychotic symptoms and more rapid cycling. A relation between frequent rapid cycling and previous prescription of antidepressants was suggested but not rigorously demonstrated. Thus, a high percentage of patients presenting a first depressive episode will later develop bipolar disorder. Several risk factors of bipolarity have been identified and might be detected during each depressive episode by using standardised evaluations and family interviews, if necessary. Among them, an early age at first episode, frequent recurrences, a family history of bipolar disorder, atypical features and hypomanic symptoms are particularly associated with the subsequent development of a bipolar disorder. The impact of a high risk of bipolarity on drug prescription is unclear ; however, one can strongly recommend to intensifying clinical monitoring and to proposing adjunctive psychoeducation.

  14. Bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder and schizophrenia: epidemiologic, clinical and prognostic differences.

    PubMed

    Benabarre, A; Vieta, E; Colom, F; Martínez-Arán, A; Reinares, M; Gastó, C

    2001-04-01

    The validity and nosologic status of schizoaffective disorder is still a controversial issue. This study was conducted to analyze the demographic, clinical and prognostic variables that determine the validity of the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder bipolar type. We analyzed and compared 138 outpatients: 67 with type I bipolar disorder, 34 with schizoaffective disorder bipolar type and 37 with schizophrenia. They were all diagnosed following research diagnostic criteria and assessed according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Schizoaffective unipolar patients were excluded. The results reaffirmed that, from the standpoints of demographics, clinical features and prognosis, schizoaffective disorders bipolar type can be classified as a phenotypic form at an intermediate point between bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia. These results emphasize the importance of longitudinal follow-up in the diagnosis and assessment of psychotic syndromes. Although cross-sectional symptoms were closer to the schizophrenia spectrum, the course of the illness resembled more that of bipolar patients, resulting in an intermediate outcome.

  15. Toward a complex system understanding of bipolar disorder: A chaotic model of abnormal circadian activity rhythms in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hadaeghi, Fatemeh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Sajad; Murray, Greg

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive neural model to explain the underlying mechanisms of disturbed circadian function in bipolar disorder, mathematical modeling is a helpful tool. Here, circadian activity as a response to exogenous daily cycles is proposed to be the product of interactions between neuronal networks in cortical (cognitive processing) and subcortical (pacemaker) areas of the brain. To investigate the dynamical aspects of the link between disturbed circadian activity rhythms and abnormalities of neurotransmitter functioning in frontal areas of the brain, we developed a novel mathematical model of a chaotic system which represents fluctuations in circadian activity in bipolar disorder as changes in the model's parameters. A novel map-based chaotic system was developed to capture disturbances in circadian activity across the two extreme mood states of bipolar disorder. The model uses chaos theory to characterize interplay between neurotransmitter functions and rhythm generation; it aims to illuminate key activity phenomenology in bipolar disorder, including prolonged sleep intervals, decreased total activity and attenuated amplitude of the diurnal activity rhythm. To test our new cortical-circadian mathematical model of bipolar disorder, we utilized previously collected locomotor activity data recorded from normal subjects and bipolar patients by wrist-worn actigraphs. All control parameters in the proposed model have an important role in replicating the different aspects of circadian activity rhythm generation in the brain. The model can successfully replicate deviations in sleep/wake time intervals corresponding to manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder, in which one of the excitatory or inhibitory pathways is abnormally dominant. Although neuroimaging research has strongly implicated a reciprocal interaction between cortical and subcortical regions as pathogenic in bipolar disorder, this is the first model to mathematically represent this

  16. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    PubMed

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  17. Positive aspects of mental illness: a review in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Juan Francisco; Thommi, Sairah; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2011-02-01

    There is growing interest to understand the role of positive psychological features on the outcomes of medical illnesses. Unfortunately this topic is less studied in relation to mental health, and almost completely neglected in relation to one of the most common severe psychiatric illnesses, bipolar disorder. Certain specific psychological characteristics, that are generally viewed as valuable and beneficial morally or socially, may grow out of the experience of having this affective disorder. We describe the sources, research and impact of these positive psychological traits in the lives of persons with bipolar disorder based on the few published literature available to date. These include, but are not limited to: spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. After an extensive search in the literature, we found 81 articles that involve descriptions of positive psychological characteristics of bipolar disorder. We found evidence for enhancement of the five above positive psychological traits in persons with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is associated with the positive psychological traits of spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. Clinical and research attention to preserving and enhancing these traits may improve outcomes in bipolar disorder. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954

  19. Family psychoeducation: an adjunctive intervention for children with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fristad, Mary A; Gavazzi, Stephen M; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    Childhood onset bipolar disorder is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, yet effective treatment strategies have remained underdeveloped and understudied. While some headway is being made vis-a-vis pharmacologic treatments, empirical efforts have not focused on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for childhood bipolar disorder. In this review, we discuss psychoeducation, delivered via workshops, multifamily psychoeducation groups, or individual-family psychoeducation, as an adjunct to the ongoing pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and school-based interventions for children with bipolar disorder. We review the theoretical rationale for psychoeducation, including expressed emotion and caregiver concordance; summarize findings in the adult literature; and then describe our development and testing of psychoeducational interventions for mood-impaired children. Data from three pilot studies are reviewed, and progress on two studies currently underway is presented. We conclude with current limitations of psychoeducation and recommendations for future study to develop psychoeducation as an empirically supported adjunctive intervention for children with bipolar disorder.

  20. Social cognition and clinical insight in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Ueland, Torill; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2013-06-01

    The association between clinical insight and social cognition assessed with an emotion perception task was investigated in schizophrenia (n = 29) and bipolar I disorder (n = 19). Persons with schizophrenia had reduced auditory emotion perception compared with individuals with bipolar I disorder, but levels of visual emotion perception and clinical insight were comparable. In the schizophrenia group, clinical insight was moderately associated with auditory and visual emotion perception (r = 0.36-0.44) and negative symptoms (r = -0.33). Better insight was associated with better social cognition and fewer negative symptoms. In the bipolar I disorder group, clinical insight showed small associations with social cognition (largest r = -0.28) and moderate to large associations with positive, negative, manic, and depressive symptoms. Poorer insight was associated with higher symptom load. Social cognition seems to be of importance for clinical insight in schizophrenia, whereas symptoms are important in bipolar I disorder.

  1. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Antipsychotic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Holder, Sarah D; Edmunds, Alaina L; Morgan, Sherri

    2017-04-01

    Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare but serious adverse effect of antipsychotic drugs that causes mental status changes, hyperthermia, and generalized rigidity. Timely diagnosis is essential due to a high risk of related morbidities if the syndrome remains untreated. Some adverse effects of antipsychotics can be identified and managed so that patients can continue beneficial therapy while minimizing the physiologic consequences. Patients taking antipsychotic drugs should be monitored regularly for adverse effects. Antipsychotics are also associated with potential drug interactions, the most lethal being prolongation of the QT interval, which can lead to fatal arrhythmias. Antipsychotic drugs can be used in special populations, such as pregnant women, children, and elderly patients, per recommendation from a mental health subspecialist. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  2. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608

  3. Bipolar disorder: Neurochemistry and drug mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Belmaker, R H; Agam, Galila

    2005-04-01

    Extract: The alternating states of mania, depression and mood moderation (euthymia) are so distinct that biological research in psychiatry was attracted to the study of bipolar disorders very early on. Moreover, the discovery of lithium as a simple metal ion that had a strong mood-stabilizing effect suggested that a simple biological pathophysiology might be easily discovered in manic-depressive illness and that this might lead the way to major biological discoveries in other mental disorders and human behavior in general. Overall this story has been heroic and exciting but it has left us in 2005 still without any biological diagnostic test or clear pathophysiological abnormality in manic-depressive illness. Early studies looked for urinary or spinal fluid abnormalities of metabolites of the major monoamine neurotransmitters (chemicals that contain an amino group attached to a carbon backbone in the nervous system, which carry signals between neurons), noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Often, early findings were not replicated, or if replicated they turned out to be secondary to the hyperactivity that occurs in mania or the hypoactivity and weight loss observed in depression.

  4. Binge eating behaviours in bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Hortense; Tebeka, Sarah; Girod, Chloé; Lloret-Linares, Célia; Meheust, Julie; Scott, Jan; Guillaume, Sébastien; Courtet, Philippe; Bellivier, Frank; Delavest, Marine

    2017-08-30

    Recent research, especially from the USA, suggests that comorbid binge eating (BE) behaviour and BE disorder are frequent in individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Although basic clinical associations between BD and BE have been investigated, less is known about psychological or temperamental dimensions and qualitative aspects of eating habits. In a French cohort of patients with BD, we investigated the prevalence of BE behaviour and any associations with illness characteristics, anxiety, impulsivity, emotional regulation and eating habits. 145 outpatients with BD (I and II) were assessed for the presence of BE behaviour using the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Characteristics identified in univariate analyses as differentiating BD cases with and without BE behaviour were then included in a backward stepwise logistic regression (BSLR) model. In this sample, 18.6% of BD patients met criteria for BE behaviour. Multivariate analysis (BSLR) indicated that shorter duration of BD, and higher levels of anxiety and emotional reactivity were observed in BD with compared to BD without BE behaviour. Relatively small sample referred to specialist BD clinics and cross-sectional evaluation meant that it was not possible to differentiate between state and trait levels of impulsivity, emotional instability and disinhibition. These dimensions may also overlap with mood symptoms. BE behaviour is common in females and males with BD. Emotional dysregulation and anxiety may represent important shared vulnerability factors for worse outcome of BD and increased likelihood of BE behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. State dependent cortico-amygdala circuit dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Brady, Roscoe O; Masters, Grace A; Mathew, Ian T; Margolis, Allison; Cohen, Bruce M; Öngür, Dost; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2016-09-01

    Existing models of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder posit disruption in neural circuits of emotion regulation and reward processing. However, few fMRI studies have compared regional brain activity and connectivity in different mood states in bipolar disorder to determine if manic symptomatology is reflected in specific circuit abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that bipolar mania is associated with altered connectivity between cortical regions thought to regulate subcortical structures such as the amygdala and striatum. 28 subjects with bipolar disorder in a manic state, 24 different bipolar subjects in a euthymic state, and 23 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent resting state fMRI scans. Several cortical and sub-cortical structures implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder were selected for study. We conducted a whole-brain analysis of functional connectivity of these regions. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and dorsal frontal cortical structures that are normally anti-correlated in emotion regulation tasks. Both groups of bipolar subjects were prescribed medications. The study was not longitudinal in design. Compared to bipolar subjects in a euthymic state, subjects in the manic state demonstrate disrupted functional connectivity between brain regions involved in the regulation of emotion and the amygdala. This disruption of activity in neural circuits involved in emotion may underlie the emotional dysregulation inherent to a bipolar manic episode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurocognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder identified in multiplex multigenerational families.

    PubMed

    Glahn, David C; Almasy, Laura; Barguil, Marcela; Hare, Elizabeth; Peralta, Juan Manuel; Kent, Jack W; Dassori, Albana; Contreras, Javier; Pacheco, Adriana; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Nicolini, Humberto; Raventós, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    Although genetic influences on bipolar disorder are well established, localization of genes that predispose to the illness has proven difficult. Given that genes predisposing to bipolar disorder may be transmitted without expression of the categorical clinical phenotype, a strategy for identifying risk genes is to identify and map quantitative intermediate phenotypes or endophenotypes. To adjudicate neurocognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. All participants underwent diagnostic interviews and comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations. Neurocognitive measures found to be heritable were entered into analyses designed to determine which test results are impaired in affected individuals, are sensitive to the genetic liability for the illness, and are genetically correlated with affection status. Central valley of Costa Rica; Mexico City, Mexico; and San Antonio, Texas. Seven hundred nine Latino individuals participated in the study. Of these, 660 were members of extended pedigrees with at least 2 siblings diagnosed as having bipolar disorder (n = 230). The remaining subjects were community control subjects drawn from each site who did not have a personal or family history of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Neurocognitive test performance. Two of the 22 neurocognitive variables were not significantly heritable and were excluded from subsequent analyses. Patients with bipolar disorder were impaired on 6 cognitive measures compared with nonrelated healthy controls. Nonbipolar first-degree relatives were impaired on 5 of these, and the following 3 tests were genetically correlated with affection status: Digit Symbol Coding Task, Object Delayed Response Task, and immediate facial memory. This large-scale extended pedigree study of cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder identifies measures of processing speed, working memory, and declarative (facial) memory as candidate endophenotypes for bipolar disorder.

  7. Lithium treatment and cancer incidence in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, Lina; Westman, Jeanette; Hällgren, Jonas; Ösby, Urban; Backlund, Lena

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether there is an increased risk of cancer associated with lithium treatment in patients with bipolar disorder compared to the general population. A nationwide Swedish register study of incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of total cancer and site-specific cancer in the 50-84-year age range was carried out in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 5,442) with and without lithium treatment from July 2005 to December 2009 compared to the general population using linked information from The Swedish Cancer Register, The National Patient Register, and The Drug Prescription Register. The overall cancer risk was not increased in patients with bipolar disorder. There was no difference in risk of unspecified cancer, neither in patients with lithium treatment compared to the general population [IRR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.23] nor in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment compared to the general population (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89-1.19). The cancer risk was significantly increased in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment in the digestive organs (IRR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12-1.93), in the respiratory system and intrathoracic organs (IRR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.66), and in the endocrine glands and related structures (IRR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.24-5.47), but in patients with bipolar disorder with lithium treatment, there was no significantly increased cancer risk compared to the general population. Bipolar disorder was not associated with increased cancer incidence and neither was lithium treatment in these patients. Specifically, there was an increased risk of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and endocrine cancer in patients with bipolar disorder without lithium treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Corpus callosum changes in euthymic bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Adrian J; Ali, Heba E; Nesbitt, David; Moore, P Brian; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol

    2014-02-01

    Changes in corpus callosum area and thickness have been reported in bipolar disorder. Imaging and limited neuropathological data suggest possible abnormalities in myelination and/or glial function. To compare corpus callosum area, thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal intensity in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. A total of 48 patients with euthymic bipolar disorder and 46 healthy controls underwent MRI analysis of callosal midsagittal area, callosal thickness and T1 signal intensity. The bipolar group had smaller overall and subregional callosal areas and correspondingly reduced callosal width than the control group. Age correlated negatively with callosal area in the control group but not in the bipolar group. Signal intensity was higher in women than in men in both groups. Signal intensity was reduced in women, but not in men, in the bipolar group. Observed differences probably relate to diagnosis rather than mood state and bipolar disorder appears to result in morphometric change that overrides changes seen in normal ageing. Intensity changes are consistent with possible altered myelination or glial function. A gender-dependent factor appears to operate and to interact with diagnosis.

  9. Broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: benefits vs. risks

    PubMed Central

    STRAKOWSKI, STEPHEN M.; FLECK, DAVID E.; MAJ, MARIO

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether bipolar and related disorders that share common signs and symptoms, but are currently defined as distinct clinical entities in DSM-IV and ICD-10, may be better characterized as falling within a more broadly defined “bipolar spectrum”. With a spectrum view in mind, the possibility of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder has been proposed. This paper discusses some of the rationale for an expanded diagnostic scheme from both clinical and research perspectives in light of potential drawbacks. The ultimate goal of broadening the diagnosis of bipolar disorder is to help identify a common etiopathogenesis for these conditions to better guide treatment. To help achieve this goal, bipolar researchers have increasingly expanded their patient populations to identify objective biological or endophenotypic markers that transcend phenomenological observation. Although this approach has and will likely continue to produce beneficial results, the upcoming DSM-IV and ICD-10 revisions will place increasing scrutiny on psychiatry’s diagnostic classification systems and pressure to re-evaluate our conceptions of bipolar disorder. However, until research findings can provide consistent and converging evidence as to the validity of a broader diagnostic conception, clinical expansion to a dimensional bipolar spectrum should be considered with caution. PMID:21991268

  10. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  11. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ya-Mei; Chang, Ching-Jui; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Li, Cheng-Ta; Tu, Peichi; Chang, Shang-Wen; Shen, Winston W; Su, Tung-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN) - the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts' experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  12. The importance of anxiety states in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Goes, Fernando S

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety symptoms and syndromes are common in bipolar disorders, occurring in over half of all subjects with bipolar disorder type I. Despite methodological and diagnostic inconsistencies, most studies have shown a robust association between the presence of a broadly defined comorbid anxiety disorder and important indices of clinical morbidity in bipolar disorder, including a greater number of depressive episodes, worse treatment outcomes, and elevated risk of attempting suicide. Anxiety symptoms and/or syndromes often precede the onset of bipolar disorder and may represent a clinical phenotype of increased risk in subjects with prodromal symptoms. Although the causal relationship between anxiety and bipolar disorders remains unresolved, the multifactorial nature of most psychiatric phenotypes suggests that even with progress towards more biologically valid phenotypes, the "phenomenon" of comorbidity is likely to remain a clinical reality. Treatment studies of bipolar patients with comorbid anxiety have begun to provide preliminary evidence for the role of specific pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments, but these need to be confirmed in more definitive trials. Hence, there is an immediate need for further research to help guide assessment and help identify appropriate treatments for comorbid conditions.

  13. Tryptophan breakdown and cognition in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Martina; Dalkner, Nina; Fellendorf, Frederike T; Birner, Armin; Bengesser, Susanne A; Queissner, Robert; Kainzbauer, Nora; Pilz, René; Herzog-Eberhard, Simone; Hamm, Carlo; Hörmanseder, Christa; Maget, Alexander; Rauch, Philipp; Mangge, Harald; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Schütze, Gregor; Moll, Natalie; Schwarz, Markus J; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S; Reininghaus, Eva Z

    2017-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits across all subdomains including verbal memory, attention and executive functioning. Cognitive deficits are observed both during episodes of mania or depression, as well as during the euthymic phase. It has been proposed that chronic immune-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system results in alterations in neural structures that subserve cognitive function. Kynurenine is an intermediate in the inflammatory cascade and can be peripherally measured to proxy inflammatory activity. Herein, we sought to determine whether serum levels of kynurenine and/or its metabolites were associated with cognitive function in BD. In this investigation 68 euthymic individuals with BD according to DSM-IV completed a cognitive test battery to asses premorbid intelligence (Multiple Choice Word Test; MWT-B), verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT), attention (d2 Test of Attention; d2 test, Trail Making Test-A; TMT-A, Stroop word reading/Stroop color naming) and executive functioning (TMT-B, Stroop interference). In addition, fasting blood samples were taken and serum levels of kynurenine and its metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic acid were analyzed. Subsequently ratios were formed from individual parameters. Patient data were compared with those of a mentally healthy control group (n=93). In male participants with BD only we found a significant negative correlation between the 3-hydroxykynurenine to kynurenic acid ratio and performance on the CVLT. Additionally, the kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine ratio was associated with performance on a sub-score of the CVLT. Those associations were neither present in female individuals with BD nor in the control group. Our findings suggest that a shift towards the hydroxykynurenine arm of the kynurenine pathway may be associated with poorer memory performance due to its effects on neuronal functioning and neurogenesis in

  14. Bipolar disorders in the Arab world: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kronfol, Ziad; Zakaria Khalil, Mostafa; Kumar, Pankaj; Suhre, Karsten; Karam, Elie; McInnis, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    Bipolar disorders are common psychiatric disorders that affect 1-5% of the population worldwide. Major advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of the disorders have recently occurred. The majority of published reports, however, originate from the Western hemisphere, mostly Europe and the United States. There is a shortage of data from the Arab world on bipolar disorders. In an era of globalization and rapid communication, it is not clear to what extent research findings pertaining to one part of the world are by necessity applicable to other parts. Psychiatric disorders are known to be affected by the culture in which they occur, and knowledge of variations in illness presentation in different ethnic groups is also increasing. However, knowledge of variations affecting Arab populations remains quite limited. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on bipolar affective disorders in the Arab world, pointing to major gaps in knowledge and future opportunities to fill these gaps.

  15. Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2007-11-01

    Relatively few systematic data exist on the clinical impact of bipolar comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and no studies have investigated the influence of such a comorbidity on the prevalence and pattern of Axis II comorbidity. The aim of the present study was to explore the comorbidity of personality disorders in a group of patients with OCD and comorbid bipolar disorder (BD). The sample consisted of 204 subjects with a principal diagnosis of OCD (DSM-IV) and a Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score>or=16 recruited from all patients consecutively referred to the Anxiety and Mood Disorders Unit, Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin over a period of 5 years (January 1998-December 2002). Diagnostic evaluation and Axis I comorbidities were collected by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Personality status was assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). Socio-demographic and clinical features (including Axis II comorbidities) were compared between OCD patients with and without a lifetime comorbidity of BD. A total of 21 patients with OCD (10.3%) met DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime BD diagnosis: 4 (2.0%) with BD type I and 17 (8.3%) with BD type II. Those without a BD diagnosis showed significantly higher rates of male gender, sexual and hoarding obsessions, repeating compulsions and lifetime comorbid substance use disorders, when compared with patients with BD/OCD. With regard to personality disorders, those with BD/OCD showed higher prevalence rates of Cluster A (42.9% versus 21.3%; p=0.027) and Cluster B (57.1% versus 29.0%; p=0.009) personality disorders. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were more frequent in BD/OCD. Our results point towards clinically relevant effects of comorbid BD on the personality profiles of OCD patients, with higher rates of narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders in BD/OCD patients.

  16. Bipolar disorder in general practice: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Piterman, Leon; Jones, Kay M; Castle, David J

    2010-08-16

    General practitioners are involved in the continuing care and shared care of patients with chronic mental illness, including bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists are particularly reliant on GPs to monitor and treat comorbidities as well as the psychiatric condition itself. Management of chronic mental illness is compromised by a number of factors, including problems with diagnosis, physical comorbidity, erratic attendance and poor compliance with treatment. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder is often delayed, and differential diagnoses to be considered include unipolar depression, anxiety disorder, drug and alcohol dependence, personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and general medical and central nervous system diseases. New Medicare items have been introduced under the Better Access to Mental Health Care initiative. However, uptake for patients with chronic psychiatric illness, including bipolar disorder, is low. Patients with bipolar disorder may be prone to a range of comorbid psychological, social and physical problems, and GPs need to be vigilant to detect and manage comorbidity and social problems as part of the overall plan. This includes assistance with certification for sickness and unemployment benefits. GPs may become involved during crises affecting patients and this may pose significant problems for GPs who need to provide ongoing care following patient discharge from hospital. Despite these difficulties, opportunities exist for GPs to play a vital and ongoing role in the management of patients with bipolar disorder.

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Erroneously Diagnosed and Treated as Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…

  19. Interactions between bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder in trait impulsivity and severity of illness.

    PubMed

    Swann, A C; Lijffijt, M; Lane, S D; Steinberg, J L; Moeller, F G

    2010-06-01

    We investigated trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with respect to severity and course of illness. Subjects included 78 controls, 34 ASPD, 61 bipolar disorder without Axis II disorder, and 24 bipolar disorder with ASPD, by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (SCID-I and -II). Data were analyzed using general linear model and probit analysis. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) scores were higher in ASPD (effect sizes 0.5-0.8) or bipolar disorder (effect size 1.45) than in controls. Subjects with both had more suicide attempts and previous episodes than bipolar disorder alone, and more substance-use disorders and suicide attempts than ASPD alone. BIS-11 scores were not related to severity of crimes. Impulsivity was higher in bipolar disorder with or without ASPD than in ASPD alone, and higher in ASPD than in controls. Adverse effects of bipolar disorder in ASPD, but not of ASPD in bipolar disorder, were accounted for by increased impulsivity.

  20. Interactions between bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder in trait impulsivity and severity of illness

    PubMed Central

    Swann, A. C.; Lijffijt, M.; Lane, S. D.; Steinberg, J. L.; Moeller, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with respect to severity and course of illness. Method Subjects included 78 controls, 34 ASPD, 61 bipolar disorder without Axis II disorder, and 24 bipolar disorder with ASPD, by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (SCID-I and -II). Data were analyzed using general linear model and probit analysis. Results Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) scores were higher in ASPD (effect sizes 0.5–0.8) or bipolar disorder (effect size 1.45) than in controls. Subjects with both had more suicide attempts and previous episodes than bipolar disorder alone, and more substance-use disorders and suicide attempts than ASPD alone. BIS-11 scores were not related to severity of crimes. Conclusion Impulsivity was higher in bipolar disorder with or without ASPD than in ASPD alone, and higher in ASPD than in controls. Adverse effects of bipolar disorder in ASPD, but not of ASPD in bipolar disorder, were accounted for by increased impulsivity. PMID:20064125

  1. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    PubMed Central

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  2. Corpus callosum volumes in bipolar disorders and suicidal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Gifuni, Anthony J; Olié, Emilie; Ding, Yang; Cyprien, Fabienne; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafé, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2017-04-30

    Reduced size of the corpus callosum (CC) has been associated with bipolar disorders and suicidality. Here, we aimed at investigating the relative independence of these associations in a large sample of patients. Two samples of males and females totaling 209 euthymic participants were recruited, including 72 patients with a major depressive disorder, 64 with bipolar disorders and 73 healthy controls. Among patients, 61 had a lifetime history of suicide attempt and 75 had none. Structural scans were acquired with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging. Surface-based morphometry (Freesurfer) analysis was used to compute the volumes of the CC. In the whole sample, there was a significant reduction in the volume of mid-anterior, central, and mid-posterior (all p<0.008) CC in bipolar patients independently from suicidality, with medium effect sizes between unipolar and bipolar patients (Cohen's d between 0.46 and 0.62). In contrast, suicide attempters did not differ from non-attempters. This significant association between CC volumes and bipolar disorders was mainly found in the male sample, while a trend was found in the female sample. Within each patient group, medication had no major effect. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence linking corpus callosum alterations and bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A model of the mitochondrial basis of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Walder, Ken; McGee, Sean L; Dean, Olivia M; Tye, Susannah J; Maes, Michael; Berk, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Bipolar disorder phenomenologically is a biphasic disorder of energy availability; increased in mania and decreased in depression. In consort, there is accumulating evidence indicating increased mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in bipolar mania which contrasts with decreased mitochondrial function in patients in the euthymic or depressive phase of the illness. Consequently, the central thesis of this paper is that bipolar disorder is due to a phasic dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenergetics. The elements responsible for this dysregulation may thus represent critical treatment targets for mood disorders, and are the subject of this paper. There are many potential mediators of mitochondrial function which collectively are implicated in bipolar disorder. Levels of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and intracellular calcium ions are all higher in bipolar mania than in the euthymic and depressive phases of the illness. Increased levels of calcium ions can partly account for increased oxidative phosphorylation via well documented pathways such as the modulation of the F1-FO elements of ATP synthase. Likewise, increased levels of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to the upregulation of AMPK, SIRT-1, SIRT-3 and NAD(+) which directly stimulate oxidative phosphorylation. Uric acid and melatonin are also differentially elevated in bipolar mania and both molecules stimulate the production of ATP. The pro-apoptotic, neurotoxic and mitotoxic effects of elevated glutamate, dopamine and GSK-3 in bipolar mania may be counterbalanced by higher basal levels and activity of p53, Bcl-2, PI3K and Akt in an environment of elevated uric acid and decreased BDNF. Details of these pathways are discussed as an explanatory model for the existence of increased ATP generation in mania. We also offer a model explaining the biphasic nature of mitochondrial respiration in bipolar disorder and the transition between mania and depression based on

  4. Revisiting the wandering womb: Oxytocin in endometriosis and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, Natalie L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2017-09-19

    Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis. First, we provide relevant background on endometriosis and bipolar disorder, and then we examine evidence for comorbidity between these conditions. We next: (1) review oxytocin's associations with personality traits, especially extraversion and openness, and how they overlap with bipolar spectrum traits; (2) describe evidence for higher oxytocinergic activity in both endometriosis and bipolar disorder; (3) examine altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functioning in both conditions; (4) describe data showing that medications that treat one condition can improve symptoms of the other; (5) discuss fitness-related impacts of endometriosis and bipolar disorder; and (6) review a pair of conditions, polycystic ovary syndrome and autism, that show evidence of involving reduced oxytocinergic activity, in direct contrast to endometriosis and bipolar disorder. Considered together, the bipolar spectrum and endometriosis appear to involve dysregulated high extremes of normally adaptive pleiotropy in the female oxytocin system, whereby elevated levels of oxytocinergic activity coordinate outgoing sociality with heightened fertility, apparently characterizing, overall, a faster life history. These findings should prompt a re-examination of how mind-body interactions, and the pleiotropic endocrine systems that underlie them, contribute to health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomarkers in bipolar disorder: a positional paper from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Biomarkers Task Force.

    PubMed

    Frey, Benicio N; Andreazza, Ana C; Houenou, Josselin; Jamain, Stéphane; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Frye, Mark A; Leboyer, Marion; Berk, Michael; Malhi, Gin S; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Taylor, Valerie H; Dodd, Seetal; Frangou, Sophia; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fernandes, Brisa S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Flavio; Young, L Trevor

    2013-04-01

    Although the etiology of bipolar disorder remains uncertain, multiple studies examining neuroimaging, peripheral markers and genetics have provided important insights into the pathophysiologic processes underlying bipolar disorder. Neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated loss of gray matter, as well as altered activation of subcortical, anterior temporal and ventral prefrontal regions in response to emotional stimuli in bipolar disorder. Genetics studies have identified several potential candidate genes associated with increased risk for developing bipolar disorder that involve circadian rhythm, neuronal development and calcium metabolism. Notably, several groups have found decreased levels of neurotrophic factors and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Together these findings provide the background for the identification of potential biomarkers for vulnerability, disease expression and to help understand the course of illness and treatment response. In other areas of medicine, validated biomarkers now inform clinical decision-making. Although the findings reviewed herein hold promise, further research involving large collaborative studies is needed to validate these potential biomarkers prior to employing them for clinical purposes. Therefore, in this positional paper from the ISBD-BIONET (biomarkers network from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders), we will discuss our view of biomarkers for these three areas: neuroimaging, peripheral measurements and genetics; and conclude the paper with our position for the next steps in the search for biomarkers for bipolar disorder.

  6. Valuing happiness is associated with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Although people who experience happiness tend to have better psychological health, people who value happiness to an extreme tend to have worse psychological health, including more depression. We propose that the extreme valuing of happiness may be a general risk factor for mood disturbances, both depressive and manic. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the extreme valuing of happiness and risk for, diagnosis of, and illness course for bipolar disorder (BD). Supporting our hypothesis, the extreme valuing of happiness was associated with a measure of increased risk for developing BD (Studies 1 and 2), increased likelihood of past diagnosis of BD (Studies 2 and 3), and worse prospective illness course in BD (Study 3), even when controlling for current mood symptoms (Studies 1-3). These findings indicate that the extreme valuing of happiness is associated with and even predicts BD. Taken together with previous evidence, these findings suggest that the extreme valuing of happiness is a general risk factor for mood disturbances. More broadly, what emotions people strive to feel may play a critical role in psychological health.

  7. Valuing happiness is associated with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Gruber, June

    2015-01-01

    While people who experience happiness tend to have better psychological health, people who value happiness to an extreme tend to have worse psychological health, including more depression. We propose that the extreme valuing of happiness may be a general risk factor for mood disturbances, both depressive and manic. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the extreme valuing of happiness and risk for, diagnosis of, and illness course for Bipolar Disorder (BD). Supporting our hypothesis, the extreme valuing of happiness was associated with a measure of increased risk for developing BD (Studies 1–2), increased likelihood of past diagnosis of BD (Studies 2–3), and worse prospective illness course in BD (Study 3), even when controlling for current mood symptoms (Studies 1–3). These findings indicate that the extreme valuing of happiness is associated with and even predicts BD. Taken together with previous evidence, these findings suggest that the extreme valuing of happiness is a general risk factor for mood disturbances. More broadly, what emotions people strive to feel may play a critical role in psychological health. PMID:25603134

  8. Treating bipolar disorder. Evidence-based guidelines for family medicine.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Mancini, Deborah A.; Lin, Peter; Jordan, John

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based summary of medications commonly used for bipolar disorders and a practical approach to managing bipolar disorders in the office. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles from 1990 to 2003 were selected from MEDLINE using the key words "bipolar disorder," "antiepileptics," "antipsychotics," "antidepressants," and "mood stabilizers." Good-quality evidence for many of these treatments comes from randomized trials. Lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and some novel antipsychotics all have level I evidence for treating various aspects of the disorder. MAIN MESSAGE: Treatment of bipolar disorder involves three therapeutic domains: acute mania, acute depression, and maintenance. Lithium has been a mainstay of treatment for some time, but antiepileptic drugs like divalproex, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine, along with novel antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine, alone or in combination, are increasingly being used successfully to treat acute mania and to maintain mood stability. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder is more common in family practice than previously believed. Drug treatments for this complex disorder have evolved rapidly over the past decade, radically changing its management. Treatment now tends to be very successful. PMID:15318676

  9. Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

  10. Adolescent with tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shim, Se-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue.

  11. Bipolar and related disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, Alexander; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Bipolar disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with profound negative impact on affected patients. Even if their symptomatology has long been recognized, diagnostic criteria have changed over time and diagnosis often remains difficult. The Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), issued in May 2013, comprises several changes regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorders compared to the previous edition. Diagnostic categories and criteria for bipolar disorders show some concordance with the internationally also widely used Tenth Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). However, there are also major differences that are worth highlighting. The aim of the following text is to depict and discuss those.

  12. Psychoeducation in bipolar patients with comorbid personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, María; Goikolea, José Manuel; Benabarre, Antonio; Comes, Mercè

    2004-08-01

    The co-occurrence of personality and bipolar disorders is quite common. Bipolar patients with personality disorders have been described as having poorer outcome than 'pure' bipolar patients. However, from a combined-approach point of view, a little has been done to improve the course of these patients. Psychoeducation has shown its efficacy in the prevention of relapses in the bipolar population but, to date, no data is available on its efficacy in the management of bipolar patients with personality disorders. The present study shows a subanalysis from a single-blind randomized prospective clinical trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in bipolar I patients. Bipolar patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for any personality disorder were randomized to either psychoeducational treatment or a non-structured intervention. There were 22 patients in the control group and 15 in the psychoeducation group. All patients received naturalistic pharmacological treatment as well. The follow-up phase comprised 2 years where all patients continued receiving naturalistic treatment without psychological intervention and were assessed monthly for several outcome measures. At the end of the follow-up phase (2 years), a 100% of control group patients fulfilled criteria for recurrence versus a 67% in the psychoeducation group (p < 0.005). Patients included in the psychoeducation group had a higher time-to-relapse and a significantly lower mean number of total, manic and depressive relapses. No significant differences regarding the number of patients who required hospitalization were found but the mean duration of days spent in the hospitalization room was significantly higher for the patients included in the control group. Psychoeducation may be a useful intervention for bipolar patients with comorbid personality disorders. Further studies should address the efficacy of specifically tailored interventions for this common type of patients.

  13. [Actigraphy in Bipolar Disorder and First Degree Relatives].

    PubMed

    Andrade Carrillo, Rommel; Gómez Cano, Sujey; Palacio Ortiz, Juan David; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a disabling disease that involves a significant economic costs to the health system, making it is essential to investigate possible early predictors such as changes in sleep-wake cycle in high-risk populations. To review the available literature on alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder and their first degree relatives. A literature search was performed in the data bases, Access Medicine, ClinicalKey, EMBASE, JAMA, Lilacs, OVID, Oxford Journals, ScienceDirect, SciELO, APA y PsycNET. Articles in both English and Spanish were reviewed, without limits by study type. Actigraphy is a non-invasive, useful method for assessing sleep-wake cycle disturbances in the active phases of bipolar disorder, and during euthymia periods. Actigraphy showed good sensitivity to predict true sleep, but low specificity, compared with polysomnography. Although studies in bipolar offspring and relatives are scarce, they show sleep changes similar to bipolar patients. Actigraphy may be a good screening tool of sleep/wake cycle in patients with bipolar disorders, because it is economic, non-invasive and sensitive. Longitudinal studies are required to evaluate its potential use as a risk marker. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond genetics: childhood affective trauma in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Etain, Bruno; Henry, Chantal; Bellivier, Frank; Mathieu, Flavie; Leboyer, Marion

    2008-12-01

    Despite the demonstrated high heritability of bipolar disorder, few susceptibility genes have been identified and linkage and/or association studies have produced conflicting results. This search for susceptibility genes is hampered by several methodological limitations, and environmental risk factors for the disease (requiring incorporation into analyses) remain misunderstood. Among them, childhood trauma is probably the most promising environmental factor for further investigation. The objectives are to review the arguments in favor of an association between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder and to discuss the interpretations of such an observation. We computed a literature search using PubMed to identify relevant publications concerning childhood trauma and bipolar disorder. We also present some personal data in this field. Growing evidence suggests that incidences of childhood trauma are frequent and severe in bipolar disorder, probably affect the clinical expression of the disease in terms of suicidal behavior and age at onset, and also have an insidious influence on the affective functioning of patients between episodes. The relationships between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder suggest several interpretations, mainly a causal link, a neurodevelopmental consequence, or the intergenerational transmission of traumatic experiences. The neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma on a maturing brain remain unclear, although such stressors may alter the organization of brain development, leading to inadequate affective regulation. Childhood trauma is associated with bipolar disorder and its clinical expression and may interact with genetic susceptibility factors. Although not completely understood, the relationships between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder require further attention. Several suggestions for further exploration of this environmental factor and of its interaction with susceptibility genes are proposed.

  15. Purpose and effectiveness of psychoeducation in patients with bipolar disorder in a bipolar clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Stafford, N; Colom, F

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews psychological therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder, in particular psychoeducation, and how the inclusion of four fundamental principles - patient/therapist communication, flow of information, patient involvement and a trusting relationship - can improve patient outcomes. The content of this article is based on the proceedings of a 1-day standalone symposium in November 2011 exploring how to establish a bipolar clinic within the context of existing services in the UK's National Health Service. Certain psychological interventions have emerged as beneficial add-on treatments to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder and are associated with greater stabilisation of symptoms, fewer relapses and longer time to relapse. Psychoeducation is a simple approach to support prevention of future episodes by delivering behavioural training to improve illness insight, early symptom identification and development of coping strategies. Empowering patients to actively participate in their treatment provides independence, counteracts the current disconnect of therapist and patient, and increases awareness and understanding of the challenges of living with and treating bipolar disorder. Psychoeducation enables patients to understand bipolar disorder, get actively involved in therapy planning, and be aware of methods for episode prevention, therefore effectively contributing to improved treatment outcomes and patient quality of life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Cariprazine for the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Lillian Jan; El-Mallakh, Peggy L; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2017-07-01

    To review the data regarding a new antipsychotic, cariprazine. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3, D2 partial agonist, with greater affinity to D3. It has been examined for schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. It has demonstrated efficacy in schizophrenia and mania, and has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. However, it has a more inconsistent effect in depression, both unipolar and bipolar. Adverse effects include extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, and gastrointestinal distress. Cariprazine will be a promising addition in the treatment of patients with acute mania and schizophrenia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional imaging of emotional memory in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Heather C; McKirdy, James; Romaniuk, Liana; Sussmann, Jessika; Johnstone, Eve C; Wan, Hong I; McIntosh, Andrew M; Lawrie, Stephen M; Hall, Jeremy

    2009-12-01

    Although in current diagnostic criteria there exists a distinction between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, many patients manifest features of both disorders, and it is unclear which aspects, if any, confer diagnostic specificity. In the present study, we investigate whether there are differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We also investigate associations between activation levels and symptom severity across the disorders. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted on 14 healthy controls, 14 patients with bipolar disorder, and 15 patients with schizophrenia undergoing an emotional memory paradigm. All groups demonstrated the expected pattern of behavioural responses during encoding and retrieval, and there were no significant group differences in performance. Robust MTL activation was seen in all three groups during viewing of emotional scenes, which correlated significantly with recognition memory for emotional stimuli. The bipolar group demonstrated relatively greater increases in activation for emotional versus neutral scenes in the left hippocampus than both controls and patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant positive correlation between mania scores and activation in the anterior cingulate, and a significant negative correlation between depression scores and activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results provide evidence that there are distinct patterns of activation in the MTL during an emotional memory task in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. They also demonstrate that different mood states are associated with different neurobiological responses to emotion across the patient groups.

  18. Predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Treuer, T; Tohen, M

    2010-10-01

    Despite of advances in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, bipolar disorder often entails multiple relapses and impaired psychological functioning. The extent to which modern treatments have influenced the natural course of a mental disorder is uncertain. Prediction of the course and outcome of bipolar disorders continues to be challenging, despite the multiple research efforts worldwide. Due to a lack of laboratory diagnostic tests and biomarkers, psychiatric interview and examination provide the basis for outcome prediction. While considered to have more favorable prognosis than schizophrenia, it is not uncommon for bipolar disorder to include persisting alterations of psychosocial functioning. Although long-term symptomatic remission does not guarantee functional recovery, it may have a favorable impact on long-term overall prognosis. The high degree of treatment resistance in patients with bipolar disorder highlights the need to develop better identification of outcome predictors, prognosis and treatment intervention, designed to reverse or prevent this illness burden. This review summarizes the main factors involved in predicting the course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: recent progress.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C; Kowatch, Robert A; DelBello, Melissa P

    2010-07-01

    Child and adolescent bipolar disorder (BPD) is a serious psychiatric disorder that often causes significant impairment in functioning. Pharmacological intervention is the cornerstone of treatment for bipolar youth, although psychotherapeutic interventions may be beneficial as adjunctive treatment. Medications used for the treatment of BPD in adults are still commonly used for bipolar children and adolescents. With the recent US FDA indication of risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine and olanzapine for the treatment of bipolar youth, the atypical antipsychotics are rapidly becoming a first-line treatment option. However, these agents are associated with adverse effects such as increased appetite, weight gain and type II diabetes mellitus. Although several evidence-based medications are now available for the treatment of BPD in younger populations, additional studies to evaluate the short- and long-term efficacy and potential for adverse events of these and other medications are needed.

  1. Update on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on cariprazine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rona Jeannie; Findlay, Lillian Jan; El-Mallakh, Peggy L; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. Efficacy has been demonstrated in schizophrenia and mania. It is unclear if cariprazine is effective in depression associated with unipolar or bipolar illness. Adverse consequences include extrapyramidal symptoms including akathisia, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved cariprazine. This review will provide clinicians with basic information regarding the research program of cariprazine.

  2. Update on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on cariprazine

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rona Jeannie; Findlay, Lillian Jan; El-Mallakh, Peggy L; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. Efficacy has been demonstrated in schizophrenia and mania. It is unclear if cariprazine is effective in depression associated with unipolar or bipolar illness. Adverse consequences include extrapyramidal symptoms including akathisia, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved cariprazine. This review will provide clinicians with basic information regarding the research program of cariprazine. PMID:27524901

  3. Interacting mechanisms of impulsivity in bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2011-11-01

    Bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) overlap in clinical characteristics and behavioral consequences. Impulsivity is prominent in both, but there is little information on how specific mechanisms of impulsivity differentiate, bridge, or underlie the disorders. Subjects, all males, were controls (n = 46), bipolar disorder without cluster B personality disorder (n = 21), ASPD without bipolar disorder (n = 50), and bipolar disorder with ASPD (n = 16). Impulsivity measures were the Immediate Memory Task (IMT), a continuous performance test of response inhibition measuring ability to evaluate a stimulus before responding, and the Two-Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP), a choice between smaller-sooner and larger-later reward. Data were analyzed using general linear models analysis. Subjects with bipolar disorder had fewer IMT correct detections and slower reaction times than controls. Reaction times were faster with combined diagnoses than in bipolar disorder alone. TCIP responding in either diagnosis alone resembled controls, but was more impulsive in combined disorders. These differences persisted after correction for age and education, which had significant independent effects. In combined ASPD and bipolar disorder, increased reaction speed, impulsive response bias, and reward-delay impulsivity occurred independent of substance-use disorder history. Impulsivity was increased in the combined disorders over either disorder alone. Results were consistent with at least partially distinct mechanisms of impulsivity in ASPD and bipolar disorder. Compensatory mechanisms for impulsivity in uncomplicated ASPD or bipolar disorder appear to be compromised or lost when the disorders are combined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with bipolar disorder: a clinical replication.

    PubMed

    Pini, Stefano; Maser, Jack D; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Muti, Matteo; Gesi, Camilla; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated frequency, clinical correlates and onset temporal relationship of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Subjects were 189 patients whose diagnoses were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version. Twenty-four patients (12.7%) met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime SAD; of these, 19 (10.1% of entire sample) had SAD within the last month. Significantly more bipolar patients with comorbid SAD also had substance use disorders compared to those without. On the HSCL-90, levels of interpersonal sensitivity, obsessiveness, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation were significantly higher in bipolar patients with SAD than in those without. Bipolar patients with comorbid SAD recalled separation anxiety problems (school refusal) more frequently during childhood than those without. Lifetime SAD comorbidity was associated with an earlier age at onset of syndromal bipolar disorder. Pre-existing OCD tended to delay the onset of bipolarity. Social anxiety disorder comorbidity is not rare among patients with bipolar disorder and is likely to affect age of onset and phenomenology of bipolar disorder. These findings may influence treatment planning and the possibility of discovering a pathophysiological relationship between SAD and bipolarity.

  5. Exome Sequencing of Familial Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goes, Fernando S.; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Parla, Jennifer S.; Kramer, Melissa; Ghiban, Elena; Mavruk, Senem; Chen, Yun-Ching; Monson, Eric T.; Willour, Virginia L.; Karchin, Rachel; Flickinger, Matthew; Locke, Adam E.; Levy, Shawn E.; Scott, Laura J.; Boehnke, Michael; Stahl, Eli; Moran, Jennifer L.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Purcell, Shaun M.; Sklar, Pamela; Zandi, Peter P.; McCombie, W. Richard; Potash, James B.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD), likely result from the influence of both common and rare susceptibility alleles. While common variation has been widely studied, rare variant discovery has only recently become feasible with next-generation sequencing. OBJECTIVE To utilize a combined family-based and case-control approach to exome sequencing in BD using multiplex families as an initial discovery strategy, followed by association testing in a large case-control meta-analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed exome sequencing of 36 affected members with BD from 8 multiplex families and tested rare, segregating variants in 3 independent case-control samples consisting of 3541 BD cases and 4774 controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used penalized logistic regression and 1-sided gene-burden analyses to test for association of rare, segregating damaging variants with BD. Permutation-based analyses were performed to test for overall enrichment with previously identified gene sets. RESULTS We found 84 rare (frequency <1%), segregating variants that were bioinformatically predicted to be damaging. These variants were found in 82 genes that were enriched for gene sets previously identified in de novo studies of autism (19 observed vs. 10.9 expected, P = .0066) and schizophrenia (11 observed vs. 5.1 expected, P = .0062) and for targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) pathway (10 observed vs. 4.4 expected, P = .0076). The case-control meta-analyses yielded 19 genes that were nominally associated with BD based either on individual variants or a gene-burden approach. Although no gene was individually significant after correction for multiple testing, this group of genes continued to show evidence for significant enrichment of de novo autism genes (6 observed vs 2.6 expected, P = .028). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our results are consistent with the presence of prominent locus and allelic heterogeneity in BD and suggest

  6. Exome Sequencing of Familial Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Goes, Fernando S; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Parla, Jennifer S; Kramer, Melissa; Ghiban, Elena; Mavruk, Senem; Chen, Yun-Ching; Monson, Eric T; Willour, Virginia L; Karchin, Rachel; Flickinger, Matthew; Locke, Adam E; Levy, Shawn E; Scott, Laura J; Boehnke, Michael; Stahl, Eli; Moran, Jennifer L; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael; Purcell, Shaun M; Sklar, Pamela; Zandi, Peter P; McCombie, W Richard; Potash, James B

    2016-06-01

    Complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD), likely result from the influence of both common and rare susceptibility alleles. While common variation has been widely studied, rare variant discovery has only recently become feasible with next-generation sequencing. To utilize a combined family-based and case-control approach to exome sequencing in BD using multiplex families as an initial discovery strategy, followed by association testing in a large case-control meta-analysis. We performed exome sequencing of 36 affected members with BD from 8 multiplex families and tested rare, segregating variants in 3 independent case-control samples consisting of 3541 BD cases and 4774 controls. We used penalized logistic regression and 1-sided gene-burden analyses to test for association of rare, segregating damaging variants with BD. Permutation-based analyses were performed to test for overall enrichment with previously identified gene sets. We found 84 rare (frequency <1%), segregating variants that were bioinformatically predicted to be damaging. These variants were found in 82 genes that were enriched for gene sets previously identified in de novo studies of autism (19 observed vs. 10.9 expected, P = .0066) and schizophrenia (11 observed vs. 5.1 expected, P = .0062) and for targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) pathway (10 observed vs. 4.4 expected, P = .0076). The case-control meta-analyses yielded 19 genes that were nominally associated with BD based either on individual variants or a gene-burden approach. Although no gene was individually significant after correction for multiple testing, this group of genes continued to show evidence for significant enrichment of de novo autism genes (6 observed vs 2.6 expected, P = .028). Our results are consistent with the presence of prominent locus and allelic heterogeneity in BD and suggest that very large samples will be required to definitively identify individual rare variants or genes

  7. Thwarted interpersonal needs and suicide ideation: Comparing psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nathanael J; Mitchell, Sean M; Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-12-30

    Psychiatric inpatients are at heightened risk for suicide, and evidence suggests that psychiatric inpatients with bipolar mood disorders may be at greater risk for suicide ideation compared to those with non-bipolar mood disorders. There is a paucity of research directly comparing risk factors for suicide ideation in bipolar versus non-bipolar mood disorders in an inpatient sample. The current study sought to clarify the association between two constructs from the interpersonal theory of suicide (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in leading to suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders. Participants were (N=90) psychiatric inpatients with a bipolar (n = 20) or non-bipolar mood disorder (n=70; per their medical charts). Perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, was significantly associated with suicide ideation after adjusting for other covariates. This suggests perceived burdensomeness may play a key role in suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with any mood disorder and highlights the importance of assessment and intervention of perceived burdensomeness in this population. Contrary to our hypothesis, mood disorder group (i.e., bipolar versus non-bipolar) did not moderate the relations between perceived burdensomeness/thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Use of Stimulants in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Perugi, Giulio; Vannucchi, Giulia; Bedani, Fulvio; Favaretto, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Several international guidelines indicate stimulants, including methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines and derivatives, modafinil, and armodafinil among the second-third-line choices for bipolar depression. Efficacy of stimulants has been also reported for the management of residual depressive symptoms such as fatigue and sleepiness and for the management of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in children and adult bipolar patients with comorbid ADHD. Few case reports show positive results with MPH in the treatment of resistant mania. Finally, MPH might be an option in some bipolar forms observed in psychiatric presentations of frontotemporal dementia and traumatic brain injury. In spite of these preliminary observations, the use of stimulants in bipolar patients is still controversial. Potential of misuse and abuse and mood destabilization with induction of (hypo)manic switches, mixed states, and rapid cycling are the concerns most frequently reported. Our aims are to summarize available literature on this topic and discuss practical management implications.

  9. Bifurcation analysis of parametrically excited bipolar disorder model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nana, Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Bipolar II disorder is characterized by alternating hypomanic and major depressive episode. We model the periodic mood variations of a bipolar II patient with a negatively damped harmonic oscillator. The medications administrated to the patient are modeled via a forcing function that is capable of stabilizing the mood variations and of varying their amplitude. We analyze analytically, using perturbation method, the amplitude and stability of limit cycles and check this analysis with numerical simulations.

  10. Association between childhood dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adulthood clinical severity of bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values < 10(-5)). About 23% of bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.

  11. Hypersexuality and couple relationships in bipolar disorder: A review.

    PubMed

    Kopeykina, Irina; Kim, Hae-Joon; Khatun, Tasnia; Boland, Jennifer; Haeri, Sophia; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor I

    2016-05-01

    Although change in sexual behavior is recognized as an integral part of bipolar disorder, most of the relevant literature on sexual issues in patients with this illness concerns medication side effects and does not differentiate bipolar disorder from other serious mental disorders. Surprisingly, little has been published on mania-induced hypersexuality and the effects of mood cycling on couple relationships. In this review, we examine the extant literature on both of these subjects and propose a framework for future research. A search of PsycINFO and PubMed was conducted using keywords pertaining to bipolar disorder, hypersexuality and couple relationships. A total of 27 articles were selected for review. Despite lack of uniformity in diagnosis of bipolar disorder and no formal definition of hypersexuality, the literature points to an increased incidence of risky sexual behaviors in bipolar patients during manic episodes compared to patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Further, it appears that bipolar patients are more similar to healthy controls than to other psychiatric patients when it comes to establishing and maintaining couple relationships. Nonetheless, the studies that examined sexuality in couples with one bipolar partner found decreased levels of sexual satisfaction associated with the diagnosis, varying levels of sexual interest across polarities, increased incidence of sexual dysfunction during depressive episodes, and disparate levels of satisfaction in general between patients and their partners. Due to changes in diagnostic criteria over time, there is a lack of uniformity in the definition of bipolar disorder across studies. Hypersexuality is not systematically defined and therefore the construct was not consistent across studies. Some of the older articles date back more than 30 years, making them subject to the biases of sexual and gender norms that have since become outdated. Finally, the heterogeneity of the samples, which include patients

  12. Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder: Mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadafumi

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is one of two major psychotic disorders together with schizophrenia and causes severe psychosocial disturbance. Lack of adequate animal models hampers development of new mood stabilizers. We proposed a mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis and have been studying the neurobiology of bipolar disorder based on this hypothesis. We showed that deletions of mitochondrial DNA (ΔmtDNA) play a pathophysiological role at least in some patients with bipolar disorder possibly by affecting intracellular calcium regulation. Mutant polymerase γ transgenic mice that accumulate ΔmtDNA in the brain showed recurrent spontaneous depression-like episodes which were prevented by a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor and worsened by lithium withdrawal. The animal model would be useful to develop new mood stabilizers. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The miRNome of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Fries, Gabriel R; Carvalho, Andre F; Quevedo, Joao

    2017-09-23

    Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a key role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), among which microRNAs (miRNAs) may be of particular significance according to recent studies. We aimed to summarize miRNA studies in BD to identify consistent findings, limitations, and future directions of this emerging field. We performed a comprehensive search on PUBMED and Medline for studies investigating an association between BD and miRNAs. The included studies report miRNA alterations in postmortem brain tissues and in the periphery, cell culture and preclinical findings, genetic associations, and the effects of medications. Several studies report changes in miRNA expression levels in postmortem brain and in the periphery of patients, although most of the results so far have not been replicated and are not concordant between different populations. Genetic studies also suggest that miRNA genes are located within susceptibility loci of BD, and also a putative role of miRNAs in modulating genes previously shown to confer risk of BD. We did not perform a systematic review of the literature, and miRNAs represent only one facet of the plethora of epigenetic mechanisms that might be involved in BD's pathophysiology. miRNA findings in BD significantly vary between studies, but are consistent to suggest a key role for these molecules in BD's pathophysiology and treatment, particularly miR-34a and miR-137. Accordingly, miRNA might represent important biomarkers of illness to be used in the clinical settings, and potentially also for the development of novel therapeutics for BD in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, D P; Westlye, L T; van Erp, T G M; Rasmussen, J; Leonardo, C D; Faskowitz, J; Haukvik, U K; Hartberg, C B; Doan, N T; Agartz, I; Dale, A M; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Trost, S; Liberg, B; Abé, C; Ekman, C J; Ingvar, M; Landén, M; Fears, S C; Freimer, N B; Bearden, C E; Sprooten, E; Glahn, D C; Pearlson, G D; Emsell, L; Kenney, J; Scanlon, C; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Almeida, J; Versace, A; Caseras, X; Lawrence, N S; Phillips, M L; Dima, D; Delvecchio, G; Frangou, S; Satterthwaite, T D; Wolf, D; Houenou, J; Henry, C; Malt, U F; Bøen, E; Elvsåshagen, T; Young, A H; Lloyd, A J; Goodwin, G M; Mackay, C E; Bourne, C; Bilderbeck, A; Abramovic, L; Boks, M P; van Haren, N E M; Ophoff, R A; Kahn, R S; Bauer, M; Pfennig, A; Alda, M; Hajek, T; Mwangi, B; Soares, J C; Nickson, T; Dimitrova, R; Sussmann, J E; Hagenaars, S; Whalley, H C; McIntosh, A M; Thompson, P M; Andreassen, O A

    2016-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case–control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=−0.232; P=3.50 × 10−7) and thalamus (d=−0.148; P=4.27 × 10−3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=−0.260; P=3.93 × 10−5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. PMID:26857596

  15. Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hibar, D P; Westlye, L T; van Erp, T G M; Rasmussen, J; Leonardo, C D; Faskowitz, J; Haukvik, U K; Hartberg, C B; Doan, N T; Agartz, I; Dale, A M; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Trost, S; Liberg, B; Abé, C; Ekman, C J; Ingvar, M; Landén, M; Fears, S C; Freimer, N B; Bearden, C E; Sprooten, E; Glahn, D C; Pearlson, G D; Emsell, L; Kenney, J; Scanlon, C; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Almeida, J; Versace, A; Caseras, X; Lawrence, N S; Phillips, M L; Dima, D; Delvecchio, G; Frangou, S; Satterthwaite, T D; Wolf, D; Houenou, J; Henry, C; Malt, U F; Bøen, E; Elvsåshagen, T; Young, A H; Lloyd, A J; Goodwin, G M; Mackay, C E; Bourne, C; Bilderbeck, A; Abramovic, L; Boks, M P; van Haren, N E M; Ophoff, R A; Kahn, R S; Bauer, M; Pfennig, A; Alda, M; Hajek, T; Mwangi, B; Soares, J C; Nickson, T; Dimitrova, R; Sussmann, J E; Hagenaars, S; Whalley, H C; McIntosh, A M; Thompson, P M; Andreassen, O A

    2016-12-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10(-7)) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10(-3)) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10(-5)) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons.

  16. Bipolar disorder and the pseudoautosomal region: An association study

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian, A.; Todd, R.D.

    1994-03-15

    From family, adoption, and twin studies it is clear that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (McGuffin and Katz: The Biology of Depression, Gaskell, London, 1986). Recently Yoneda et al. reported an association between an allele (A4) of a VNTR marker (DXYS20) for the pseudoautosomal region and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. In order to test for this association in a Caucasian population, we have typed a sample of 52 subjects with bipolar disorder and 61 normal controls. The bipolar subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained sample of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of DXYS20 between the two groups. In particular, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the A4 allele in normal controls and bipolar patients (0.377 vs. 0.317, respectively). The prevalence of the A4 allele in bipolar patients and normal controls was 0.567 and 0.622, respectively. We were not able to replicate the results of the 1992 Yoneda et al. study. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Comorbid bipolar affective disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder in childhood: a case study and brief review.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amlan K; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, who developed mania after exposure to escitalopram. We suggest that in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder cases, antidepressants be used with caution, especially in cases with a positive family history of bipolar affective disorder.

  18. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2015-09-01

    The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. This was a register-based cohort study. All first-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased significantly from 54.5 years in 1995 to 42.4 years in 2012 (p<0.001). The mean time from first affective diagnosis to diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 7.9 years (SD 9.1). The SMR was 1.7 (95%-CI 1.2-2.1). Causes of death were mainly natural; 9% died from suicide. Only patients in psychiatric care were included. The outpatient registry opened in 1995. Patients treated solely in outpatient units are not recorded previously. Systematic studies validating all the clinical diagnoses of the registry do not exist. The incidence of bipolar disorder has increased in the last 10 years. The SMR was significantly increased. Half of the patients were known to have another affective disorder. This should be considered in future decisions regarding the healthcare organization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kazhungil, Firoz; Mohandas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most common comorbidities in bipolar disorder (BD). Clinicians often get perplexed in making treatment decisions when encountering comorbid OCD and BD as treatment of OCD by pharmacotherapy may induce or exacerbate mood instability and psychotherapeutic approaches for OCD may not be feasible in acute manic or depressive state of BD. In this study, we reviewed literature, whether existing guideline-based treatments of BD may be effective in OCD and whether newer agents will be of use for treating this comorbidity. We could find that treatment of such comorbid disorder is largely understudied. Adjuvant topiramate or olanzapine- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/clomipramine combination along with mood stabilizer is found to be effective for treating OCD in BD. Use of other conventional pharmacological agents and psychotherapy for treating comorbid OCD in BD lacks evidence and is limited to case reports. Our review also highlights the need for further studies regarding the treatment strategies in this highly prevalent comorbid disorder. PMID:28066002

  20. Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kazhungil, Firoz; Mohandas, E

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most common comorbidities in bipolar disorder (BD). Clinicians often get perplexed in making treatment decisions when encountering comorbid OCD and BD as treatment of OCD by pharmacotherapy may induce or exacerbate mood instability and psychotherapeutic approaches for OCD may not be feasible in acute manic or depressive state of BD. In this study, we reviewed literature, whether existing guideline-based treatments of BD may be effective in OCD and whether newer agents will be of use for treating this comorbidity. We could find that treatment of such comorbid disorder is largely understudied. Adjuvant topiramate or olanzapine- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/clomipramine combination along with mood stabilizer is found to be effective for treating OCD in BD. Use of other conventional pharmacological agents and psychotherapy for treating comorbid OCD in BD lacks evidence and is limited to case reports. Our review also highlights the need for further studies regarding the treatment strategies in this highly prevalent comorbid disorder.

  1. Trait impulsivity as an endophenotype for bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Lauren E; Bearden, Carrie E; Barrett, Jennifer; Brumbaugh, Margaret S; Pittman, Brian; Frangou, Sophia; Glahn, David C

    2012-08-01

    Impulsivity, conceptualized as impairment in planning and poor attentional and inhibitory control, is a key feature of bipolar disorder. Familial risk for bipolar disorder is known to affect inhibitory control but its impact on the attentional and planning dimensions of impulsivity is still unclear. We administered the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 (BIS-11) to 54 euthymic individuals with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, 57 of their clinically unaffected siblings, and 49 healthy comparison subjects. Groups were compared on the attentional (rapid shifts in attention/impatience with complexity), motor (acting impetuously), and non-planning (absence of weighing upon long-term consequences of actions) subscales of the BIS-11, and on total BIS-11 score. To investigate functional implications of trait impulsivity, total BIS-11 score was examined in relation to current psychosocial functioning and criminal history. Individuals with bipolar I disorder had elevated scores compared to healthy comparison subjects on BIS-11 total score and all three subscales (p < 0.0001). Unaffected siblings had elevated BIS-11 total score (p = 0.0037), motor (p = 0.0027), and non-planning (p = 0.0379) subscales in comparison to unrelated healthy controls. Total BIS-11 score was negatively associated with global assessment of functioning (GAF) score (β = -0.32, p < 0.0001).  Our results suggest that impulsivity is sensitive to familial liability for the illness, making it a potential endophenotype for bipolar disorder. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  2. Treatment research in bipolar disorder: issues and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Baldessarini, Ross J

    2002-01-01

    Bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder is one of the most common of the severe mental illnesses. Officially recognised forms comprise type I (with mania), type II (with hypomania), cyclothymia and a rapid-cycling subtype. International lifetime prevalence estimates are 1 to 5% of the general population, and bipolar disorder accounts disproportionately for idiopathic psychoses. Psychiatric and substance-abuse comorbidities are common complications, and mortality rates are increased as a result of high suicidal risks, accidents, complications of substance abuse and increased fatality of stress-sensitive medical illnesses. Complex and labile symptomatic presentations, a tendency for patients to deny illness and reject treatment, and diagnostic heterogeneity severely complicate the design, conduct and interpretation of experimental treatment trials in bipolar disorder. Progress in the short-term treatment of mania with certain antiepileptic drugs and atypical antipsychotic agents has advanced greatly in recent years; however, long-term treatment trials other than with lithium remain rare, as are studies of type II disorder, bipolar depression and mixed states, and there is limited information on treatment effectiveness against comorbidity, dysfunction and mortality. There is a growing realisation that bipolar disorder represents a major, largely unmet, international public health challenge and that innovative methods for carrying out reliable and generalisable long-term pharmacological treatment trials, alone and in combination with cost-effective psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions, are urgently required.

  3. Correlates of real world executive dysfunction in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Peters, Amy T; Peckham, Andrew D; Stange, Jonathan P; Sylvia, Louisa G; Hansen, Natasha S; Salcedo, Stephanie; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Dougherty, Darin D; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2014-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by impairments in cognitive functioning, both during acute mood episodes and periods of euthymia, which interfere with functioning. Cognitive functioning is typically assessed using laboratory-based tests, which may not capture how cognitive dysfunction is experienced in real-life settings. Little is known about the specific illness characteristics of bipolar disorder that contribute to cognitive dysfunction in everyday life. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (n = 68) in a depressed or euthymic state. Everyday executive functioning was evaluated using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Rating Scale (FrSBe). Participants completed clinician rated measures of mood state (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale), prior illness course and co-morbidities (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), as well as self-report measures of psychotropic medication use and medical co-morbidity. Individuals in this study reported significant impairment in every domain of executive functioning. These deficits were associated with a multitude of illness factors, some directly impacted by mood symptoms and others shaped by illness chronicity, psychiatric comorbidity, medical co-morbidity, and medication use. Executive functioning problems observed in everyday functioning in bipolar disorder are not entirely mood-state dependent. Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction should be considered an important adjunctive treatment for many individuals with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lithium and cognition in those with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Amelia; Parker, Gordon

    2017-03-01

    Although a percentage of patients report cognitive side-effects when taking lithium, it can be difficult to determine from the literature whether any cognitive changes reflect lithium itself, the lithium serum level, residual mood symptoms, the underlying nature of bipolar disorder, or biological alterations such as hypothyroidism. This review was carried out to synthesize and evaluate relevant literature examining any cognitive impact of lithium in those with bipolar disorder. The effect of lithium in those with bipolar disorder was examined across the cognitive domains of attention, psychomotor speed, processing speed, working memory, intellectual functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning by reviewing the published empirical literature. Any impact of hypothyroidism and lithium toxicity was also examined. The literature supports the conclusion that lithium has a distinct impact on psychomotor speed in participants with bipolar disorder. In contrast, there appears to be no impact on attention. Any impact of lithium on memory in patients with bipolar disorder is unclear as the literature is contradictory and any such effect may be overshadowed by the greater impact of residual mood symptoms. The impact on processing speed, intellectual abilities, and executive functioning also remains unclear. Several clinical management strategies are recommended.

  5. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder, using longitudinal measures of family cohesion, adaptability and conflict. Parent and adolescent-reported symptom and family functioning data were collected from 58 families of adolescents with bipolar disorder (mean age =14.48 + 1.60; 33 female, 25 male) who participated in a 2-year randomized trial of family-focused treatment for adolescents (FFT-A). Cohesion and adaptability scores did not significantly change over the course of the study. Parent-reported conflict prior to psychosocial treatment moderated the treatment responses of families, such that high-conflict families participating in FFT-A demonstrated greater reductions in conflict over time than low-conflict families. Moreover, adolescent mania symptoms improved more rapidly in low-conflict than in high-conflict families. For all respondents, cohesion, adaptability, and conflict were longitudinally correlated with adolescents’ depression scores. Finally, decreases in parent-reported conflict also predicted decreases in adolescents’ manic symptoms over the 2-year study. Findings suggest that family cohesion, adaptability, and conflict may be useful predictors of the course of adolescent mood symptoms. Family conflict may be an important target for family intervention in early-onset bipolar disorder. PMID:23046785

  6. A brief review of exercise, bipolar disorder, and mechanistic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Daniel; Turner, Alyna; Lauder, Sue; Gigler, Margaret E.; Berk, Lesley; Singh, Ajeet B.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael; Sylvia, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology. PMID:25788889

  7. T2 relaxation time abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ongür, Dost; Prescot, Andrew P; Jensen, J Eric; Rouse, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Bruce M; Renshaw, Perry F; Olson, David P

    2010-01-01

    There are substantial abnormalities in the number, density, and size of cortical neurons and glial cells in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Because molecule-microenvironment interactions modulate metabolite signals characteristics, these cellular abnormalities may impact transverse (T2) relaxation times. We measured T2 relaxation times for three intracellular metabolites (N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate, creatine+phosphocreatine, and choline-containing compounds) in the anterior cingulate cortex and parieto-occipital cortex from 20 healthy subjects, 15 patients with bipolar disorder, and 15 patients with schizophrenia at 4 T. Spectra used in T2 quantification were collected from 8-cc voxels with varying echo times (30 to 500 ms, in 10-ms steps). Both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia groups had numerically shorter T2 relaxation times than the healthy subjects group in both regions; these differences reached statistical significance for creatine+phosphocreatine and choline-containing compounds in bipolar disorder and for choline-containing compounds in schizophrenia. Metabolite T2 relaxation time shortening is consistent with reduced cell volumes and altered macromolecule structures, and with prolonged water T2 relaxation times reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. These findings suggest that metabolite concentrations reported in magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of psychiatric conditions may be confounded by T2 relaxation and highlight the importance of measuring and correcting for this variable.

  8. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients) is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED). The Bipolar Spectrum (BS) remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis. PMID:21489298

  9. Children with Bipolar Disorder: What Parents and Teachers Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoofnagle, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Describes bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, examining how it is treated; what parents can do (e.g., have the child evaluated, network with other parents, and request a meeting with school staff to determine necessary accommodations); and what teachers can do (e.g., be patient, learn about the disorder, educate fellow staff members,…

  10. The Role of Family Functioning in Bipolar Disorder in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Findling, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated the association between family functioning and conflict and their links with mood disorder in parents and with children's risk for bipolar disorder. Participants were 272 families with a child between the ages of 5-17 years. Parents' history of psychiatric diagnoses and children's current diagnoses were obtained via semi-structured…

  11. The Role of Family Functioning in Bipolar Disorder in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Findling, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated the association between family functioning and conflict and their links with mood disorder in parents and with children's risk for bipolar disorder. Participants were 272 families with a child between the ages of 5-17 years. Parents' history of psychiatric diagnoses and children's current diagnoses were obtained via semi-structured…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-09-01

    Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European-American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04]. Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8% to 1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five-feature model did not support this association. Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, the results were at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts were challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts. The methodological approach

  14. Rapid cycling in bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, André F; Dimellis, Dimos; Gonda, Xenia; Vieta, Eduard; Mclntyre, Roger S; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2014-06-01

    THE long-term course of bipolar disorder is typified by recurring mood episodes of opposite polarity as well as mixed states. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder refers to the presence of at least 4 mood episodes in the previous 12 months that meet the criteria for manic, hypomanic, or major depressive episode. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data regarding prevalence, clinical correlates, and familial/genetic aspects related to rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. we searched the MEDLINE database through September 7, 2013 for articles regarding rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. Searches were performed using the keywords rapid cycling or rapid-cycling. The search strategy was augmented through the inspection of reference lists of relevant review articles. Eligible articles included original studies in English on rapid-cycling bipolar patients according to the criteria defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This study followed the recommendations of the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The initial search returned 2,715 articles; 2,594 were excluded for several reasons (not aligned with objectives, pertaining to bipolar disorder but not focusing on rapid cycling, case reports, and case series). The final review included 119 articles. Two investigators (K.N.F. and D.D.) independently reviewed articles for eligibility. Final decisions regarding eligibility were made by consensus following the full-text review. The literature suggests that rapid cycling affects a significant proportion of bipolar patients and is related to a longer course of illness, an earlier age at onset, and more illegal drug and alcohol abuse and increased suicidality. Year prevalence of rapid cycling among all bipolar patients ranges between 5%-33.3%, while lifetime prevalence ranges between 25.8%-43%.The etiology remains unclear, although a causal or triggering role for the use of antidepressants and

  15. [Psychoeducation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.

  16. Treating nonspecific anxiety and anxiety disorders in patients with bipolar disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2011-01-01

    To review the evidence for treating anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. A literature search from 1950 to week 1 of August 2009 was conducted via OVID and the National Institutes of Health's clinical trials online databases. Search terms included anxiety, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and treatment. Reference lists of identified articles were also searched. Fourteen treatment studies that included patients with bipolar disorder with either a syndrome-defined anxiety disorder or nonspecific anxiety were selected. Sample size, bipolar disorder subtype, comorbid anxiety disorders, baseline anxiety, treatment interventions, and outcome measurements were extracted. The majority of studies focus on treating anxiety disorders and nonspecific anxiety occurring during bipolar mood episodes. Studies of syndrome-defined anxiety disorders reveal that risperidone monotherapy did not separate from placebo and that olanzapine was superior to lamotrigine when used to augment lithium treatment. A study using open-label divalproex sodium and an uncontrolled study of group cognitive-behavioral therapy both suggest some benefit from these treatments in patients with bipolar disorder with panic disorder. Studies of nonspecific anxiety reveal some benefit for divalproex, quetiapine, olanzapine, and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Weaker evidence supports the use of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, and observational studies suggest potential efficacy for gabapentin and valproate. Nonspecific anxiety symptoms occurring during a mood episode improve with treatment of the mood disturbance, though divalproex may be the mood stabilizer of choice for anxious patients with bipolar disorder. Given their reduced risk for manic induction and episode cycling, psychotherapy, benzodiazepines, and certain atypical antipsychotics

  17. Lithium and suicide prevention in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Benard, V; Vaiva, G; Masson, M; Geoffroy, P A

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and recurrent psychiatric disorder. The severity of prognosis in BD is mainly linked to the high rate of suicide in this population. Indeed, patients with BD commit suicide 20 to 30 times more frequently than the general population, and half of the BD population with an early age of onset have a history of suicide attempt. International therapeutic guidelines recommend lithium (Li) as the first-line treatment in BD for its prophylactic action on depressive or manic episodes. In addition, Li is the only mood stabilizer that has demonstrated efficacy in suicide prevention. This effect of Li is unfortunately often unknown to psychiatrists. Thus, this review aims to highlight evidence about the preventive action of Li on suicide in BD populations. We conducted a literature search between April 1968 and August 2014 in PubMed database using the following terms: "lithium" AND "suicide" OR "suicidality" OR "suicide attempt". As confirmed by a recent meta-analysis, many studies show that Li has a significant effect on the reduction of suicide attempts and deaths by suicide in comparison to antidepressants or other mood-stabilisers in BD populations. Studies have demonstrated that long-term treatment with Li reduces suicide attempts by about 10% and deaths by suicide by about 20%. The combination of Li and an antidepressant could reduce suicidal behaviours by reducing suicidal ideation prior to depressive symptoms. It appears crucial for Li efficacy in suicide prevention to maintain the Li blood concentrations in the efficient therapeutic zone and to instate long-term Li treatment. The "impulsive-aggressive" endophenotype is associated with suicide in BD. The specific action of Li on the 5-HT serotoninergic system could explain the specific anti-suicidal effects of Li via the modulation of impulsiveness and aggressiveness. Furthermore, genetic variants of the glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β (GSK3α and β; proteins inhibited by Li) seem to

  18. Pediatric bipolar disorder: validity, phenomenology, and recommendations for diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A; Birmaher, Boris; Findling, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find, review, and critically evaluate evidence pertaining to the phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder and its validity as a diagnosis. Methods The present qualitative review summarizes and synthesizes available evidence about the phenomenology of bipolar disorder (BD) in youths, including description of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of symptoms, clarification about rates of cycling and mixed states, and discussion about chronic versus episodic presentations of mood dysregulation. The validity of the diagnosis of BD in youths is also evaluated based on traditional criteria including associated demographic characteristics, family environmental features, genetic bases, longitudinal studies of youths at risk of developing BD as well as youths already manifesting symptoms on the bipolar spectrum, treatment studies and pharmacologic dissection, neurobiological findings (including morphological and functional data), and other related laboratory findings. Additional sections review impairment and quality of life, personality and temperamental correlates, the clinical utility of a bipolar diagnosis in youths, and the dimensional versus categorical distinction as it applies to mood disorder in youths. Results A schema for diagnosis of BD in youths is developed, including a review of different operational definitions of `bipolar not otherwise specified.' Principal areas of disagreement appear to include the relative role of elated versus irritable mood in assessment, and also the limits of the extent of the bipolar spectrum – when do definitions become so broad that they are no longer describing `bipolar' cases? Conclusions In spite of these areas of disagreement, considerable evidence has amassed supporting the validity of the bipolar diagnosis in children and adolescents. PMID:18199237

  19. Diagnostic guidelines for bipolar disorder: a summary of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force Report.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, S Nassir; Bauer, Michael; Cassidy, Frederick; Malhi, Gin S; Mitchell, Philip; Phelps, James; Vieta, Eduard; Youngstrom, Eric

    2008-02-01

    The Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) presents in this document and this special issue a summary of the current nosological status of bipolar illness, a discussion of possible revisions to current DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions, an examination of the relevant literature, explication of areas of consensus and dissensus, and proposed definitions that might guide clinicians in the most valid approach to diagnosis of these conditions given the current state of our knowledge.

  20. "Being Bipolar": A Qualitative Analysis of the Experience of Bipolar Disorder as Described in Internet Blogs.

    PubMed

    Mandla, Anika; Billings, Jo; Moncrieff, Joanna

    2017-09-05

    In the light of debates about the nature of bipolar disorder (BD), the current article presents a thematic analysis of Internet "blogs" by self-identified bipolar sufferers. Extreme and frequent fluctuation of mood was considered the principal feature of BD, along with a broad range of other problems. BD was often invoked as an explanation for life difficulties or lack of achievement, and was mostly regarded as a brain disease. Most bloggers emphasized the importance of drug treatment, along with the self-management techniques. The blogs present a "bipolar identity," which is much broader than traditional definitions, are based on a medicalized model of the disorder, and are connected to the moral function of enabling people to externalize unwanted aspects of the self.

  1. Pre-attentive information processing and impulsivity in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Acas, Michelle D; Cox, Blake; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-12-01

    Early responses to stimuli can be measured by sensory evoked potentials (EP) using repeated identical stimuli, S1 and S2. Response to S1 may represent efficient stimulus detection, while suppression of response to S2 may represent inhibition. Early responses to stimuli may be related to impulsivity. We compared EP reflecting stimulus detection and inhibition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, and investigated relationships to impulsivity. Subjects were 48 healthy controls without family histories of mood disorder and 48 with bipolar disorder. EP were measured as latencies and amplitudes for auditory P50 (pre-attentional), N100 (initial direction of attention) and P200 (initial conscious awareness), using a paired-click paradigm, with identical stimuli 0.5 s apart. Impulsivity was measured by questionnaire and by laboratory tests for inability to suppress responses to stimuli or to delay response for a reward. Analyses used general linear models. S1 amplitudes for P50, N100, and P200, and gating of N100 and P200, were lower in bipolar disorder than in controls. P50 S1 amplitude correlated with accurate laboratory-task responding, and S2 amplitude correlated with impulsive task performance and fast reaction times, in bipolar disorder. N100 and P200 EP did not correlate with impulsivity. These findings were independent of symptoms, treatment, or substance-use history. EPs were not related to questionnaire-measured or reward-based impulsivity. Bipolar I disorder is characterized by reduced pre-attentional and early attentional stimulus registration relative to controls. Within bipolar disorder, rapid-response impulsivity correlates with impaired pre-attentional response suppression. These results imply specific relationships between ERP-measured response inhibition and rapid-response impulsivity.

  2. Multianalyte markers of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Schroeder, Jennifer; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Bahn, Sabine; Yolken, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have identified altered molecular profiles in blood samples from individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder using multianalyte immunoassay platforms but there has been little comparison of the two groups in the same investigation. A total of 337 participants including 146 with schizophrenia, 79 with bipolar disorder, and 112 non-psychiatric controls had a blood sample drawn from which 166 analytes were measured. The initial dataset was split; classification models were developed in a training dataset and their performance evaluated in a test dataset. Principal component analysis was used to generate factor scores that were then compared between the groups. In a training set, a total of 7 independent factors were generated using 29 markers that were both normally distributed and significantly associated with diagnosis. Many of these analytes are components of the immune system and involved in the inflammatory response to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Two of the seven principal component scores discriminated between individuals with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder; additional factors distinguished individuals with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from control individuals, while two factors were not significantly different between any of the diagnostic groups. In a test dataset, the schizophrenia vs. control Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis shows an overall accuracy of 77% for schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder, 84% for schizophrenia vs. controls, and 72% for bipolar disorder vs. An increased understanding of the role of altered pathways in serious psychiatric disorders may lead to novel methods for disease diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Aas, Monica; Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Bellivier, Frank; Melle, Ingrid; Etain, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar disorders, in addition to a more severe clinical presentation over time (primarily an earlier age at onset and an increased risk of suicide attempt and substance misuse). Childhood trauma leads to alterations of affect regulation, impulse control, and cognitive functioning that might decrease the ability to cope with later stressors. Childhood trauma interacts with several genes belonging to several different biological pathways [Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, serotonergic transmission, neuroplasticity, immunity, calcium signaling, and circadian rhythms] to decrease the age at the onset of the disorder or increase the risk of suicide. Epigenetic factors may also be involved in the neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma in bipolar disorder. Biological sequelae such as chronic inflammation, sleep disturbance, or telomere shortening are potential mediators of the negative effects of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders, in particular with regard to physical health. The main clinical implication is to systematically assess childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders, or at least in those with a severe or instable course. The challenge for the next years will be to fill the gap between clinical and fundamental research and routine practice, since recommendations for managing this specific population are lacking. In particular, little is known on which psychotherapies should be provided or which targets therapists should focus

  4. Insight Across the Different Mood States of Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Silveira, Luciana Angélica Silva; Nunes, Ana Letícia Santos; Novis, Fernanda Demôro; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Cheniaux, Elie

    2015-09-01

    In bipolar disorder, levels of insight vary as a function of the mood state and appear to influence pharmacology compliance, quality of life, the presence of suicidal ideations, and aggressive behavior. To establish a comparison among different mood states in bipolar with regard to level of insight. Forty-eight patients were evaluated in different affective states (i.e., euthymia, mania, depression, and mixed state). Identifying information, sociodemographic data, and clinical records were recorded. The following scales were applied: Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms subscale, and Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar disorder. Insight was evaluated using items 11 and 17 of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. Insight in bipolar disorder was found to be more compromised during manic phases and mixed episodes than during periods of depression or euthymia. The factors associated with lower levels of insight were the following: shorter illness duration, older age, and greater severity in mania; the female gender and older age in depression; and shorter illness duration and more severe depressive symptoms in mixed episodes. In the same individual, levels of insight vary as a function of the affective state over the course of bipolar disorder and appear to be influenced by several clinical variables.

  5. Neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome in bipolar disorder with psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Satoshi; Sakayori, Takeshi; Omori, Ataru; Fukuta, Hajime; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ishizaka, Kousuke; Saijo, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Neuroleptics can induce not only physical adverse effects but also mental effects that produce deficit status in thought, affect, cognition, and behavior. This condition is known as neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS), which includes apathy, lack of initiative, anhedonia, indifference, blunted affect, and reduced insight into disease. Although this old concept now appears almost forgotten, neuroleptics, whether typical or atypical, can make depression or bipolar disorder resemble other more refractory conditions, readily leading to mistaken diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. The authors describe three cases of NIDS superimposed on depressive phase in bipolar disorder with psychosis, where the attending psychiatrist’s failure to recognize NIDS prevented patients from receiving effective treatment and achieving remission. All cases achieved remission after reduction of neuroleptics and intensive therapy, including electroconvulsive therapy, for bipolar depression. The concept of NIDS was originally introduced for schizophrenia, and it has rarely been highlighted in other diseases. In recent years, however, atypical antipsychotics are being more often administered to patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatrists, therefore, should also remember and exercise caution regarding NIDS in the pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder with and without psychosis. The authors believe that the concept of NIDS needs to be reappraised in current psychiatry. PMID:26893564

  6. Validity and reliability of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular neurobiological clues to the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder, with a high heritability and unknown pathogenesis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified the first loci, implicating genes such as CACNA1C and ANK3. The genes highlight several pathways, notably calcium signalling, as being of importance. Molecular studies suggest that the risk variants impact on gene regulation and expression. Preliminary studies using reprogrammed patient-derived cells report alterations in the transcriptome and in cellular adhesion and differentiation. Mouse models show that genes involved in circadian biology, acting via dopaminergic effects, reproduce aspects of the bipolar phenotype. These findings together represent significant advances in identification of the genetic and molecular basis of bipolar disorder, yet we are still far from an integrated, evidence-based understanding of its aetiopathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [Acute delirium in decompensated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Faget-Agius, Catherine; Lançon, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Acute delirium is common in decompensated schizophrenia and bipolar disor- der: more 50% in two years after the first episode of schizophrenia and 90% of patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Early signs precede in more 50% of cases the delirious exacerbation of 6 months. These non-specific signs are a change in the mood, an increase of anxiety, sleep and food disorders and suicidal ideation. After this prodromal phase, a persecutory delusion and hallucinations are often present in decompensated schizophrenia. In decompensated bipolar disorder, the delusional syndrome is congruent with the mood. The care should be the earliest possible. The treatment by antipsychotic or mood stabilizer must be increased or re-introduced and maintained during a long time in order to prevent a relapse. In parallel, a psychosocial care must be instituted.

  9. Molecular neurobiological clues to the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder, with a high heritability and unknown pathogenesis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified the first loci, implicating genes such as CACNA1C and ANK3. The genes highlight several pathways, notably calcium signalling, as being of importance. Molecular studies suggest that the risk variants impact on gene regulation and expression. Preliminary studies using reprogrammed patient-derived cells report alterations in the transcriptome and in cellular adhesion and differentiation. Mouse models show that genes involved in circadian biology, acting via dopaminergic effects, reproduce aspects of the bipolar phenotype. These findings together represent significant advances in identification of the genetic and molecular basis of bipolar disorder, yet we are still far from an integrated, evidence-based understanding of its aetiopathogenesis. PMID:26210959

  10. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saito-Tanji, Yuka; Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami; Ono, Hisae

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs.

  11. Treatment of Functional Impairment in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, functional impairment has received little attention in bipolar disorder, despite the fact that many patients experience significant impairments in daily life. In the last decade, research has changed its focus from clinical remission to functional recovery in bipolar patients as a priority. A literature review of this topic will allow us provide an overview of the relevance of functional impairment as well as the potential factors that can predict or contribute to low functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment approaches should consider not only euthymia as a goal but also cognitive and functional improvement of patients with such a complex disorder. Functional remediation and psychoeducation among psychological interventions may help to enhance functioning. The combination of cognitive enhancers and cognitive/functional remediation programs may help in improving cognitive and functional impairments. Early interventions are essential to prevent cognitive deficits and disability.

  12. The Increasing Frequency of Mania and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yutzy, Sean H.; Woofter, Chad R.; Abbott, Christopher C.; Melhem, Imad M.; Parish, Brooke S.

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of mania has not changed during the last century even with the development of new diagnostic criteria sets. More specifically, from the mid-1970s to 2000, the rate of mania (variably labeled major affective disorder–bipolar disorder and bipolar I disorder) was consistently identified in US and international studies as ranging from 0.4% to 1.6%. By the late 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence reported by some researchers for bipolar disorders (I and II and others) was in the 5% to 7% and higher ranges. The purpose of this paper was to review explanations for this change and the potentially negative impacts on the field. PMID:22551790

  13. The management of catatonia in bipolar disorder with stimulants.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Waheed K; Rastegarpour, Ali; Bajwa, Omar A; Babbitt, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports.

  14. The Management of Catatonia in Bipolar Disorder with Stimulants

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Waheed K.; Rastegarpour, Ali; Bajwa, Omar A.; Babbitt, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports. PMID:25789191

  15. Choosing how to feel: emotion regulation choice in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hay, Aleena C; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion regulation difficulties, even during remission, but are able to effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We hypothesized that this puzzling discrepancy might be due to their maladaptive emotion regulation choices. To test this hypothesis, we used a previously validated paradigm (Sheppes, Scheibe, Suri, & Gross, 2011; Sheppes et al., 2014), and asked remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 26) to view standardized positive and negative images of high and low intensity, and choose reappraisal or distraction to decrease their emotion intensity. Replicating and extending prior results, participants across both groups showed a pattern of choosing distraction more for high versus low intensity positive and negative images, but no between-groups differences were evident. These results suggest that emotion regulation choice patterns may be robust across samples, and add to growing evidence that several basic emotion regulation elements may remain intact in bipolar disorder.

  16. Effectiveness of Simple Individual Psychoeducation for Bipolar II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Emi; Taketani, Reiko; Yamamoto, Ami

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have proven the effectiveness of psychoeducation in bipolar II disorder patients; however, simpler psychoeducation is needed in daily medical practice. Therefore, we devised a simple individual psychoeducation program, which involved 20-minute sessions spent reading a textbook aloud in the waiting time before examination. Here, we report a successful case of simple individual psychoeducation with a patient with bipolar II disorder, a 64-year-old woman who had misconceptions surrounding her mood due to 24 years of treatment for depression. Her perception of mood state, particularly mixed state, was dramatically changed, and her quality of life was improved after the simple individual psychoeducation. This case suggests that the simple individual psychoeducation could be effective for bipolar II disorder by improving understanding of the disease and by meeting different individual needs. PMID:27559486

  17. What Is Bipolar Disorder? A Guide to Hope and Recovery for African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy thing to do. When You Have an Addiction Many people with bipolar disorder abuse alcohol and ... pain. If you have bipolar disorder and an addiction, you will need to get treated for both. ...

  18. Conversion (dissociative) symptoms as a presenting feature in early onset bipolar disorder: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Guha, Prathama; Sinha, Mausumi; Majumdar, Debabrata; Sengupta, Payel

    2009-01-01

    We present three cases of early onset bipolar disorder where dissociative (conversion) symptoms preceded the onset of mania. This case series underscores the significance of dissociative/conversion symptoms as an early atypical presentation in juvenile bipolar disorder. PMID:21687018

  19. Bipolar mood disorder, creativity and schizotypy: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Rybakowski, Janusz K; Klonowska, Paulina

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to make an experimental assessment of the elements of creativity and the features of schizotypy in patients with bipolar disorder, compared with healthy control subjects and to investigate the effect of an acute affective episode (depressed or manic) and the features of schizotypy on the measurements of creativity. Forty patients with bipolar disorder, and 48 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. For the assessment of creativity the Revised Art Scale and the 'inventiveness' part of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Test (BIS) were used. The Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences was applied for estimation of schizotypy. The bipolar patients did not differ on the RAS scale from the control subjects but obtained significantly higher scores on the BIS-total as well as on the verbal part of the test. Their scores on the BIS scale during depression were significantly lower than in remission. The bipolar patients obtained significantly higher scores on all dimensions of schizotypy compared with the controls. These results confirm previous data showing higher scores on some creativity scales in bipolar patients compared with healthy subjects. They also corroborate a relationship between the features of schizotypy and creativity scores in bipolar patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cortical folding in patients with bipolar disorder or unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Jani; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Ringuenet, Damien; Wessa, Michèle; Houenou, Josselin; Gallarda, Thierry; Bellivier, Frank; Galinowski, André; Bruguière, Pascale; Pinabel, François; Leboyer, Marion; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Duchesnay, Edouard; Artiges, Eric; Mangin, Jean-François; Cachia, Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Analysis of cortical folding may provide insight into neurodevelopment deviations, which, in turn, can predispose to depression that responds particularly poorly to medications. We hypothesized that patients with treatment-resistant depression would exhibit measurable alterations in cortical folding. We computed hemispheric global sulcal indices (g-SIs) in T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained from 76 patients and 70 healthy controls. We separately searched for anatomic deviations in patients with bipolar disorder (16 patients with treatment-resistant depression, 25 with euthymia) and unipolar depression (35 patients with treatment-resistant depression). Compared with healthy controls, both groups of patients with treatment-resistant depression exhibited reduced g-SIs: in the right hemisphere among patients with bipolar disorder and in both hemispheres among those with unipolar depression. Patients with euthymic bipolar disorder did not differ significantly from depressed patients or healthy controls. Among patients with bipolar disorder who were taking lithium, we found positive correlations between current lithium dose and g-SIs in both hemispheres. We cannot estimate the extent to which the observed g-SI reductions are linked to treatment resistance and to what extent they are state-dependent. Furthermore, we cannot disentangle the impact of medications from that of the affective disorder. Finally, there is interindividual variation and overlap of g-SIs among patients and healthy controls that need to be considered when interpreting our results. Reduced global cortical folding surface appears to be characteristic of patients with treatment-resistant depression, either unipolar or bipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, treatment with lithium may modify cortical folding surface.

  1. Valproate use in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean Michel; Findling, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to provide an update on valproate use in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder by summarising currently available clinical trials results. Guidelines for the treatment of type I bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with or without psychotic features, recommend valproate, alone or in combination with an atypical antipsychotic, as a first-line treatment option; however, most randomised and open-label studies investigating valproate in paediatric populations have only evaluated a small number of participants. Therefore, the data from these studies need to be interpreted cautiously. A further complicating issue is the controversy surrounding the definition and diagnosis of bipolar disorders in this age group. Data suggest that valproate may be particularly useful for patients whose symptoms have not been responsive to lithium, or as part of combination therapy. Evidence from randomised controlled trials show that valproate monotherapy is associated with a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) response rate (percentage of patients with a reduction in YMRS score from baseline to endpoint of >/=50%) of 53%, while combination therapy with valproate plus quetiapine is associated with a YMRS response rate of 87%; however, placebo response rates were high, emphasising the need for caution when interpreting data from open-label trials. At present, data supporting the efficacy and safety of mood stabilisers for the treatment of bipolar disorders in children and adolescents are limited; therefore, well designed, randomised controlled clinical studies are needed to identify and confirm the potential roles of valproate in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders, particularly in those with psychiatric co-morbidities. Furthermore, clinical studies are required to clarify the efficacy and tolerability profile of valproate in comparison with other agents used in paediatric and adolescent bipolar disorder.

  2. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a difficult diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Jardri, Renaud; Etain, Bruno; Thomas, Pierre; Rolland, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental condition with neurodevelopmental features that clinically results in pathological fluctuations of mood. Whereas it was classically or traditionally considered as an adult-onset disorder, recent findings suggest that BD may occur very early in the life course, thus, determining what is now called Juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD). One of the reasons for which JBD has been so difficult to identify is that JBD primary symptoms vary much from the typical adulthood BD clinical expression. Euphoric mood is rare in JBD, while irritability mood, aggressive temper, mixed manic state onset, rapid cycling, anger outbursts and chronic course of symptoms are much more frequent. This specific clinical presentation makes JBD difficult to differentiate from other diagnoses related to pathological externalizing behaviours, including conduct disorder, oppositional provocative disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in relatives of people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Henrik; Rydén, Eleonore; Boman, Marcus; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael

    2013-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that combined bipolar disorder and ADHD is aetiologically distinct from the pure disorders. To clarify whether ADHD shares genetic and environmental factors with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. By linking longitudinal Swedish national registers, we identified 61 187 persons with ADHD (the proband group) and their first- and second-degree relatives, and matched them with a control group of people without ADHD and their corresponding relatives. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the relatives of the two groups. First-degree relatives of the ADHD proband group were at increased risk of both bipolar disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.84-2.54 for parents, offspring and full siblings) and schizophrenia (OR = 1.71-2.22 for parents, offspring and full siblings). The risks of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia among second-degree relatives were substantially lower than among full siblings. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of ADHD and bipolar disorder as well as ADHD and schizophrenia is due to shared genetic factors, rather than representing completely aetiologically distinct subsyndromes.

  4. The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis.

    PubMed

    Craddock, N; O'Donovan, M C; Owen, M J

    2005-03-01

    Much work has been done to identify susceptibility genes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Several well established linkages have emerged in schizophrenia. Strongly supported regions are 6p24-22, 1q21-22, and 13q32-34, while other promising regions include 8p21-22, 6q16-25, 22q11-12, 5q21-q33, 10p15-p11, and 1q42. Genomic regions of interest in bipolar disorder include 6q16-q22, 12q23-q24, and regions of 9p22-p21, 10q21-q22, 14q24-q32, 13q32-q34, 22q11-q22, and chromosome 18. Recently, specific genes or loci have been implicated in both disorders and, crucially, replicated. Current evidence supports NRG1, DTNBP1, DISC1, DAOA(G72), DAO, and RGS4 as schizophrenia susceptibility loci. For bipolar disorder the strongest evidence supports DAOA(G72) and BDNF. Increasing evidence suggests an overlap in genetic susceptibility across the traditional classification systems that dichotomised psychotic disorders into schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, most notably with association findings at DAOA(G72), DISC1, and NRG1. Future identification of psychosis susceptibility genes will have a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology and will lead to changes in classification and the clinical practice of psychiatry.

  5. [Psychopharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder in Latin American].

    PubMed

    Heeren, Oscar; Sánchez De Carmona, Manuel; Vásquez, Gustavo; Córdoba, Rodrigo; Forero, Jorge; Madrid, Luis; Lara, Diogo; Medina, Rafael; Meza, Luis

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the treatment preferences among Latin-American psychiatrists for their bipolar disorder patients and if these preferences reflect the current guidelines. We designed a survey comprised of fourteen questions. All the questions were aimed at the treatment of bipolar I patients only. We distributed the survey by hand or e-mail to psychiatrists in eight different countries: Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Perú and Venezuela. Between May 2008 and June 2009, we were able to gather 1143 surveys. As the initial choice of treatment for a bipolar patient who debuts with mania, 61.3% choose a combination of an atypical antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Lithium Carbonate (50%) was the first choice for a mood stabilizer in a manic episode. Olanzapine (55.4%) was the initial antipsychotic of choice for the treatment of acute mania. For the treatment of acute bipolar depression, 27% choose Lamotrigineas their first choice. Most of the psychiatrists (74.8%) prescribe antidepressants for the treatment of bipolar depression. For maintenance treatment of bipolar depression most psychiatrists first choice would be Lamotrigine (50.3%). Most of the psychiatrists (89.1%) prescribed two or more psychotropic drugs for the maintenance treatment of their bipolar patients. There were some similarities with the studies previously done in the US. It seems that for the most part the Latin-American psychiatrists don't strictly follow the literature guidelines that are published, but rather adapt the treatment to the specific case. More longitudinal studies of prescribing patterns in bipolar disorder are needed to corroborate these findings. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert A; Steinberg, Stacy; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel M; Johannesson, Magnus; Galesloot, Tessel E; Hottenga, Jouke J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Ullén, Fredrik; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; van Rooij, Frank J A; Walters, G Bragi; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Ingason, Andres; Helgason, Agnar; Kong, Augustine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Koellinger, Philipp; Boomsma, Dorret I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots.

  7. Genetics of Bipolar Disorder: Recent Update and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Goes, Fernando S

    2016-03-01

    Although genetic studies of Bipolar Disorder have been pursued for decades, it has only been in the last several years that clearly replicated findings have emerged. These findings, typically of modest effects, point to a polygenic genetic architecture consisting of multiple common and rare susceptibility variants. While larger genome-wide association studies are ongoing, the advent of whole exome and genome sequencing should lead to the identification of rare, and potentially more penetrant, variants. Progress along both fronts will provide novel insights into the biology of Bipolar Disorder and help usher in a new era of personalized medicine and improved treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of testosterone therapy on bipolar disorder with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kazuhiro; Jono, Tadashi; Nishi, Yoshitomo; Ushijima, Hirokage; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is widely associated with cognitive impairment and language problems. KS patients may also exhibit psychiatric symptoms. We present the case of an 18-year-old man with KS who experienced rapidly repeating relapses of manic episodes. He was unresponsive to the usual pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorders such as mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics. Mood was eventually improved with testosterone therapy in addition to pharmacotherapy, with no relapse of manic episodes for 3 years after discharge. Testosterone therapy may prevent relapsing manic episodes of bipolar disorder in patients with KS.

  9. [Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions and endophenotypes in bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Correard, N; Elissalde, S N; Azorin, J-M; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R

    2012-12-01

    Diseases with complex determinism, bipolar disorders, involve at the same time environmental and genetic factors of vulnerability. The characterization of these vulnerabilities would allow a better knowledge of their etiology and envisage the development of therapeutics, more specialized, even preventive. The research in genetic psychiatry allowed to highlight endophenotype candidates associated to bipolar disorders. They are endogenous clinical or biological features, biologically more elementary than phenotypes and more directly bound to the physiological consequences of genes and their polymorphisms. Targeting some of them with specific psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions could reduce the consequences of their expression and so have an action on the course of the disease and also preventive.

  10. The ecology of bipolar disorder: the importance of sleep.

    PubMed

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Shattell, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Although much of the emphasis in treating Bipolar Disorder patients is on pharmacotherapy, sleep loss is an important trigger for mania and plays an important role in the condition. The purpose of this paper is to fully explore the chronobiological, environmental, social, and genetic factors that contribute to the sleep disruption that is characteristic of mania and bipolar disorder. This review is important because sleep, chronobiology, and genetics are under-emphasized content areas in nursing education. As a result, many practicing nurses are unaware of the importance of sleep for mental health or what to teach patients to improve both the quality of their sleep and the management of their condition.

  11. Synchronization of chaotic and nonchaotic oscillators: Application to bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nono Dueyou Buckjohn, C.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.; Kofane, T. C.

    2010-08-01

    In this Letter, we use a synchronization scheme on two bipolar disorder models consisting of a strong nonlinear system with multiplicative excitation and a nonlinear oscillator without parametric harmonic forcing. The stability condition following our control function is analytically demonstrated using the Lyapunov theory and Routh-Hurwitz criteria, we then have the condition for the existence of a feedback gain matrix. A convenient demonstration of the accuracy of the method is complemented by the numerical simulations from which we illustrate the synchronized dynamics between the two non-identical bipolar disorder patients.

  12. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  13. [Bipolar disorder and criminality: a comparative study by gender].

    PubMed

    Bram, N; Rafrafi, R; Ben Romdhane, I; Ridha, R

    2013-12-01

    Unlike schizophrenia, the impact of gender on the criminality of patients with bipolar disorder has received little attention. To estimate the sex ratio in relation to acts committed by forensic bipolar patients and evaluate the impact of gender on the characteristics of this crime. A comparative study by gender, conducted at the psychiatric hospital Razi has included all patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized between 1990 and 2010 after being relaxed for mental illness, owing to the Tunisian penal code. The total number of patients was 36 and the sex ratio of 3.5.A suicide history was four times more common in women. Alcohol abuse was found only in men. Relapses were more frequent in women (3.06 I year against 1.14 I year, p = 0.02). Rapid cycling and comorbid anxiety were noted only in female patients. Filicide and prostitution were committed exclusively by women, economic crimes and sexual assaults were the preserve of men. The male offenses were more impulsive and unpremeditated (p = 0.04). Although sex ratio is in favor of men, women's representation in the violence induced by bipolar disorder is significant, resulting, particularly during depressive phases, by serious and deadly acts. Preventive measures of acting out in bipolar patients must be supported and especially adapted to the genre

  14. Rapid computerized assessment of neurocognitive deficits in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Young, Allan H

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a computerized neuropsychological battery for identifying neurocognitive deficits in adults with bipolar disorder. Participants were 47 outpatients with bipolar disorder who were individually matched on age, education, sex, and ethnicity to 47 control subjects from the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs normative database. CNS Vital Signs is comprised of seven common neuropsychological measures, and it generates 15 primary scores that are used to calculate five domain scores (Memory, Psychomotor Speed, Reaction Time, Cognitive Flexibility, and Complex Attention). There was a significant multivariate effect and statistically significantly worse scores for those in the bipolar group on all five domain scores (medium to large effect sizes). When using two or more scores below the fifth percentile as a cutoff for neurocognitive impairment, 42.6% of the bipolar sample and only 6.4% of the control sample scored in this range. A subset of outpatients with bipolar disorder has frank neurocognitive impairments identifiable with this 30-40-minute computerized assessment battery.

  15. Genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsoe, J.R.; Morison, M.; Mroczkowski-Parker, Z.; Bergesch, P.; Rapaport, M.H.; Mirow, A.L.

    1996-04-09

    The serotonin transporter (HTT) is an important candidate gene for the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder. It is the site of action of many antidepressants, and plays a key role in the regulation of serotonin neurotransmission. Many studies of affectively ill patients have found abnormalities in serotonin metabolism, and dysregulation of the transporter itself. The human serotonin transporter has been recently cloned and mapped to chromosome 17. We have identified a PstI RFLP at the HTT locus, and here report our examination of this polymorphism for possible linkage to bipolar disorder. Eighteen families were examined from three populations: the Old Order Amish, Iceland, and the general North American population. In addition to HTT, three other microsatellite markers were examined, which span an interval known to contain HTT. Linkage analyses were conducted under both dominant and recessive models, as well as both narrow (bipolar only) and broad (bipolar + recurrent unipolar) diagnostic models. Linkage could be excluded to HTT under all models examined. Linkage to the interval spanned by the microsatellites was similarly excluded under the dominant models. In two individual families, maximum lod scores of 1.02 and 0.84 were obtained at D17S798 and HTT, respectively. However, these data overall do not support the presence of a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder near the serotonin transporter. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    PubMed

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide.

    PubMed

    Hales, Susie A; Deeprose, Catherine; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all the psychiatric disorders. In unipolar depression, individuals report vivid, affect-laden images of suicide or the aftermath of death (flashforwards to suicide) during suicidal ideation but this phenomenon has not been explored in bipolar disorder. Therefore the authors investigated and compared imagery and verbal thoughts related to past suicidality in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 20) and unipolar depression (n = 20). The study used a quasi-experimental comparative design. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm diagnoses. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through questionnaire measures (e.g., mood and trait imagery use). Individual interviews assessed suicidal cognitions in the form of (i) mental images and (ii) verbal thoughts. All participants reported imagining flashforwards to suicide. Both groups reported greater preoccupation with these suicide-related images than with verbal thoughts about suicide. However, compared to the unipolar group, the bipolar group were significantly more preoccupied with flashforward imagery, rated this imagery as more compelling, and were more than twice as likely to report that the images made them want to take action to complete suicide. In addition, the bipolar group reported a greater trait propensity to use mental imagery in general. Suicidal ideation needs to be better characterized, and mental imagery of suicide has been a neglected but potentially critical feature of suicidal ideation, particularly in bipolar disorder. Our findings suggest that flashforward imagery warrants further investigation for formal universal clinical assessment procedures. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  18. Family Intervention with a Case of Bipolar I Disorder with Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahu, Kamlesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness. Inherited treatment of bipolar disorder has been focused on pharmacological treatments. Though, psychosocial variables appear to be important antecedents of bipolar disorder, poor drug compliance, expressed emotion or faulty communication and life events play a vital role in relapse. Conflict is commonly…

  19. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Strengths, Challenges, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Ackerson, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe form of mental illness with a primary disruption in mood. With fluctuating phases of mania and depression, bipolar disorder can have a serious impact on all activities of daily living, including parenting. Ten mothers with bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their strengths, challenges, and service needs in…

  20. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the literature on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The parameter focuses primarily on bipolar 1 disorder because that is the type most often studied in juveniles. The presentation of bipolar disorder in youth, especially children, is often considered atypical compared…

  1. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Strengths, Challenges, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi; Ackerson, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe form of mental illness with a primary disruption in mood. With fluctuating phases of mania and depression, bipolar disorder can have a serious impact on all activities of daily living, including parenting. Ten mothers with bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their strengths, challenges, and service needs in…

  2. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This practice parameter reviews the literature on the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. The parameter focuses primarily on bipolar 1 disorder because that is the type most often studied in juveniles. The presentation of bipolar disorder in youth, especially children, is often considered atypical compared…

  3. Toward the Definition of a Bipolar Prodrome: Dimensional Predictors of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in At-Risk Youths.

    PubMed

    Hafeman, Danella M; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The authors sought to assess dimensional symptomatic predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in youths at familial risk of bipolar disorder ("at-risk" youths). Offspring 6-18 years old of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (N=359) and community comparison offspring (N=220) were recruited. At baseline, 8.4% of the offspring of bipolar parents had a bipolar spectrum disorder. Over 8 years, 14.7% of offspring for whom follow-up data were available (44/299) developed a new-onset bipolar spectrum disorder (15 with bipolar I or II disorder). Measures collected at baseline and follow-up were reduced using factor analyses, and factors (both at baseline and at the visit prior to conversion or last contact) were assessed as predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders. Relative to comparison offspring, at-risk and bipolar offspring had higher baseline levels of anxiety/depression, inattention/disinhibition, externalizing, subsyndromal manic, and affective lability symptoms. The strongest predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders were baseline anxiety/depression, baseline and proximal affective lability, and proximal subsyndromal manic symptoms (p<0.05). While affective lability and anxiety/depression were elevated throughout follow-up in those who later developed a bipolar spectrum disorder, manic symptoms increased up to the point of conversion. A path analysis supported the hypothesis that affective lability at baseline predicts a new-onset bipolar spectrum disorder in part through increased manic symptoms at the visit prior to conversion; earlier parental age at mood disorder onset was also significantly associated with an increased risk of conversion. While youths without anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania (and with a parent with older age at mood disorder onset) had a 2% predicted chance of conversion to a bipolar spectrum disorder, those with all risk factors had a 49% predicted chance of conversion. Dimensional measures of

  4. Stability of symptoms across major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Perlis, Roy H; Ostacher, Michael J; Uher, Rudolf; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Casamassima, Francesco; Kansky, Christine; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Sachs, Gary S

    2009-12-01

    Some studies suggest that depressive subtypes, defined by groups of symptoms, have predictive or diagnostic utility. These studies make the implicit assumption of stability of symptoms across episodes in mood disorders, which has rarely been investigated. We examined prospective data from a cohort of 3,750 individuals with bipolar I or II disorder participating in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder study, selecting a subset of individuals who experienced two depressive episodes during up to two years of follow-up. Across-episode association of individual depressive or hypomanic/mixed symptoms was examined using the weighted kappa measure of agreement as well as logistic regression. A total of 583 subjects experienced two prospectively observed depressive episodes, with 149 of those subjects experiencing a third. Greatest evidence of stability was observed for neurovegetative features, suicidality, and guilt/rumination. Loss of interest and fatigue were not consistent across episodes. Structural equation modeling suggested that the dimensional structure of symptoms was not invariant across episodes. While the overall dimensional structure of depressive symptoms lacks temporal stability, individual symptoms including suicidality, mood, psychomotor, and neurovegetative symptoms are stable across major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and should be considered in future investigations of course and pathophysiology in bipolar disorder.

  5. Stability of symptoms across major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perlis, Roy H; Ostacher, Michael J; Uher, Rudolf; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Casamassima, Francesco; Kansky, Christine; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Sachs, Gary S

    2012-01-01

    Objective Some studies suggest that depressive subtypes, defined by groups of symptoms, have predictive or diagnostic utility. These studies make the implicit assumption of stability of symptoms across episodes in mood disorders, which has rarely been investigated. Methods We examined prospective data from a cohort of 3,750 individuals with bipolar I or II disorder participating in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder study, selecting a subset of individuals who experienced two depressive episodes during up to two years of follow-up. Across-episode association of individual depressive or hypomanic/mixed symptoms was examined using the weighted kappa measure of agreement as well as logistic regression. Results A total of 583 subjects experienced two prospectively observed depressive episodes, with 149 of those subjects experiencing a third. Greatest evidence of stability was observed for neurovegetative features, suicidality, and guilt/rumination. Loss of interest and fatigue were not consistent across episodes. Structural equation modeling suggested that the dimensional structure of symptoms was not invariant across episodes. Conclusion While the overall dimensional structure of depressive symptoms lacks temporal stability, individual symptoms including suicidality, mood, psychomotor, and neurovegetative symptoms are stable across major depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and should be considered in future investigations of course and pathophysiology in bipolar disorder. PMID:19922555

  6. Humor appreciation in remitted patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis P; Kosmidis, Mary H; Tonia, Thomy; Garyfallos, George; Focas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of remitted patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 19 patients (8 men) with bipolar disorder I, currently remitted, and 22 (9 men) healthy controls, matched on age, education, and gender, on a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons, the Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT). Residual manic symptoms were evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and residual depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients with bipolar disorder performed worse than the healthy group on the PHAT, but this difference was not statistically significant. Performance on the PHAT did not significantly correlate with age of onset and duration of illness, or with residual manic or depressive symptoms measured by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons, in bipolar disorder does not seem to be deficient at least during remission, suggesting that this high-order cognitive function may not be considered a trait deficit of the disorder.

  7. Medication Effects in Neuroimaging Studies of Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Mary L.; Travis, Michael J.; Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies are promising components for a new diagnostic framework for bipolar disorder, but a major issue is the potential confound of psychotropic medication upon experimental measures. Withdrawing all individuals from medication and examining only unmedicated individuals may be clinically unfeasible, and examining only unmedicated individuals may render findings less generalizable. Method The authors review structural and functional neuroimaging studies of medicated and unmedicated patients with bipolar disorder to discern the possible confounding effect of medication. Results Findings from studies identified on MEDLINE that included medicated individuals with bipolar disorder indicated either no significant effect or ameliorative effects of psychotropic medications on abnormal structural and functional neuroimaging measures relevant to pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disorder. Different strategies for assessing medication effects are compared. Conclusions Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder ideally should recruit both unmedicated and medicated individuals. Individuals who are unable to tolerate medication withdrawal likely have more severe illness and are especially informative for research examining biomarkers of illness and treatment response. PMID:18245175

  8. Bipolar disorders: symptoms and treatment in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apps, Jennifer; Winkler, Jennifer; Jandrisevits, Matthew D

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are being diagnosed with increasing frequency in children and adolescents, resulting in a need for nurses in a wide variety of settings to be aware of symptom presentation and treatment options. Symptoms can be conceptualized in a developmental context based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV TR) criteria. Symptoms of mania can be distinguished from other disorders, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, even when these disorders co-occur. Treatment options can include single or combination psychopharmacologic therapy, using a variety of mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotic agents and subsequent treatment of residual ADHD symptoms. Additionally, therapeutic interventions for the child and family are important. While additional research is needed, appropriate treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders can lead to significant improvements in functioning and development.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  11. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  12. [Argentine consensus on the treatment of bipolar disorders].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Strejilevich, Sergio; García Bonetto, Gerardo; Cetkovich-Bakmas, Marcelo; Zaratiegui, Rodolfo; Lagomarsino, Alejandro; Goldchluk, Aníbal; Kalina, Eduardo; Herbst, Luis; Gutiérrez, Benigno

    2005-01-01

    The consensus guidelines of argentine experts in the treatment of bipolar disorders are the result of three days of work of the 10 main local experts under the organization of the Argentine Association of Biological Psychiatry (AAPB). It was adopted a mixed criterion for its preparation: all the recent data of the evidence medicine based published until now were discussed and were balanced with the knowledge acquired from clinical experience of the local experts on the bipolar field. It presents general recommendations and suggested therapeutic sequences for the phase of maintenance, the manic/hypomanic or mixed episode and the depressive episode. These have been divided according to the classification in type I and II; with or without rapid cycling. Since the group of experts identified the delay and miss-diagnoses like the most important barrier for a suitable treatment enclosed a series of recommendations for differential diagnosis of bipolar disorders.

  13. Different characteristics associated with suicide attempts among bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Kathryn C; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Holtzman, Jessica N; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-05-01

    Suicide attempts are common in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and consistently associated with female gender and certain unfavorable BD illness characteristics. Findings vary, however, regarding effects of BD illness subtype and yet other illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates. We explored the effects of demographics and BD illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates in patients stratified by BD illness subtype (i.e., with bipolar I disorder (BDI) versus bipolar II disorder (BDII)). Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Rates of prior suicide attempt were compared in patients with and without diverse demographic and BD illness characteristics stratified by BD subtype. Among 494 BD outpatients (mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years; 58.3% female; 48.6% BDI, 51.4% BDII), overall prior suicide attempt rates in were similar in BDI versus BDII patients, but approximately twice as high in BDI (but not BDII) patients with compared to without lifetime eating disorder, and in BDII (but not BDI) patients with compared to without childhood BD onset. In contrast, current threshold-level suicidal ideation and lifetime alcohol use disorder robustly but less asymmetrically increased prior suicide attempt risk across BD subtypes. American tertiary bipolar disorder clinic referral sample, cross-sectional design. Further studies are needed to assess the extent to which varying clinical characteristics of samples of patients with BDI and BDII could yield varying prior suicide attempt rates in patients with BDI versus BDII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bipolar disorder and co-occurring cannabis use disorders: characteristics, co-morbidities and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ran, Shaul; Le Foll, Bernard; McKenzie, Kwame; George, Tony P; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-10-30

    This study examines rates of co-morbid mental disorders and indicators of the course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder and cannabis use disorders (CUD). Data were drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC Wave 1, 2001-2002), a nationally representative sample of adults living in the United States. Among individuals with lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder (N=1905) rates of CUD in the past 12 months were 7.2%, compared to 1.2% in the general population. Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables indicated that individuals with bipolar disorder and co-occurring CUD were at increased risk for nicotine dependence (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=3.8), alcohol (AOR=6.6) and drug (AOR=11.9) use disorders, as well as antisocial personality disorder (AOR=2.8) compared to those without CUD. Among individuals with co-occurring CUD, age of onset of bipolar disorder was significantly lower and median number of manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes per year was significantly greater compared to individuals without CUD. Co-occurring CUD is associated with significant co-morbidities and a more severe course of illness among individuals with bipolar disorder. Comprehensive evaluation of patients with bipolar disorder should include a systematic assessment of CUD.

  15. [Management of bipolar 1 disorder in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L; Benarous, X; Milhiet, V; Consoli, A; Cohen, D

    2014-04-01

    Lifetime prevalence of child and adolescent bipolar 1 disorder (BD1) is nearly 0.1 %. Even though it is not a frequent disorder in young people, there is an increased interest for this disorder at this age, because of the poor outcome, the severe functional impairments and the major risk of suicide. Diagnosis is complex in view of the more frequent comorbidities, the variability with an age-dependant clinical presentation, and the overlap in symptom presentation with other psychiatric disorders (e.g. disruptive disorders in prepubertal the child and schizophrenia in the adolescent). The presentation in adolescents is very similar to that in adults and in prepubertal children chronic persistent irritability and rapid mood oscillation are often at the foreground. For a while, such presentations were considered as BD-not otherwise specified (BD-NOS), which can explain the outburst of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in children in the US. Longitudinal studies that look for the outcome of such emotional dysregulations have not revealed an affiliation with bipolar disorder spectrum, but with depressive disorders in adulthood. The diagnosis of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder was proposed in the DSM-5 to identify these children and to prevent confusion with bipolar disorder. The goals of the pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are to control or ameliorate the symptoms, to avoid new episodes or recurrences, to improve psychosocial functioning and well-being, and to prevent suicide. In the US, lithium and four atypical antipsychotics have been approved by the FDA for 10 to 13-year-olds (risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole and quetiapine). In France, only lithium salts (after the age of 16) and aripiprazole (after the age of 13) are recommended. Psychosocial treatments, such as a familial or individual approach are developing. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Profile of moral reasoning in persons with bipolar affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Epa, Roksana; Czyzowska, Natalia; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Gierowski, Józef Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the research presented in this paper was to analyze the relationships between bipolar disorder (BD) and the profile of moral reasoning according to the concept of James Rest. 86 persons took part in the research, including 43 bipolar patients and 43 healthy individuals. To measure the severity of depression and mania symptoms the following scales were used: Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Rating Scale for Mania (YMRS). Profile of moral reasoning was defined on the basis of the results obtained in the Defining Issue Test (DIT) by James Rest. Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between bipolar disorder (and its phases) and the profile of moral reasoning: bipolar patients significantly less often than healthy individuals chose answers indicating the postconventional thinking (p = 0.000) - and more often - answers indicating stage 3 and those belonging to the anti-institutional thinking index (p = 0.000). There was also a relationship shown between the development of moral reasoning and the phase of bipolar disorder: patients in mania less often than persons in euthymia chose answers indicating the final stage of moral thinking (p = 0.050). There were no significant differences between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in mania and between the results of patients with a depressive episode and the results of patients in euthymia. The results suggest that the psychological state of the individual may have an impact on the process of moral reasoning - bipolar disorder may to some extent influence the way of thinking about moral dilemmas. The collected data also seem to emphasize the specificity of the manic phase which is especially worth exploration when conducting further studies.

  17. Aggression, ADHD symptoms, and dysphoria in children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Leonard A; Connor, Daniel F; Toscano, Peter F

    2011-06-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) examine characteristics of aggression in children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder and (2) determine whether the CBCL pediatric bipolar disorder profile differentiated youngsters with bipolar disorder from youngsters with ADHD. Children and adolescents referred to a pediatric psychopharmacology clinic were systematically evaluated for psychopathology using a psychiatrist-administered diagnostic interview, parent- and teacher-report rating scales assessing the child's behavior, and child-completed self-report scales. In this sample, 27 children and adolescents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 249 youngsters were diagnosed with ADHD without co-occurring bipolar disorder. These two groups were compared to determine whether there were significant differences on various measures of psychopathology. Youngsters diagnosed with bipolar disorder were more verbally aggressive and exhibited higher levels of reactive aggression than youngsters with ADHD without co-occurring bipolar disorder. Youngsters with bipolar disorder also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than youngsters with ADHD without bipolar disorder. The CBCL pediatric bipolar disorder profile did not accurately identify youngsters diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The present findings present a picture of manic youngsters as verbally aggressive and argumentative, who respond with anger when frustrated. Youngsters diagnosed with bipolar disorder and ADHD exhibited significant levels of impulsive behavior and attention problems, but youngsters with bipolar disorder also exhibited significant levels of aggressive behavior and dysphoric mood. Finally, the CBCL pediatric bipolar disorder profile did not accurately identify youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Diagnostic Challenges in Identifying Symptoms and Course of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tanvir

    2008-01-01

    Based on available literature, this article reviews the challenges associated with diagnosing pediatric bipolar disorder. The article also reviews and provides discussion on the assessment tools, complex mood cycling, and clinical symptoms of pediatric bipolar disorder. The challenge of differentiating common comorbid disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder from pediatric bipolar disorder is presented and discussed. A discussion of the validity of diagnosis in longitudinal studies is also provided. PMID:19727283

  19. Spanish consensus on physical health of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Julio; Sáiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Manuel Montes, José; Mostaza, José; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Vieta, Eduard

    2008-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder have much higher physical morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. In addition to a higher mortality rate from suicide, these patients also have a higher prevalence of physical disorders. The aim of this consensus, promoted by the Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry in collaboration with the General Practitioners' Societies, was to establish practical recommendations on procedures for detection, prevention and intervention in the somatic diseases that coexist with bipolar disorder in order to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. The Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry designated a scientific committee that selected 32 expert psychiatrists and 10 experts from other medical specialties. Working groups were formed for each specialty for the purpose of adapting the guidelines applied in the general population to patients with bipolar disorder. A systematic review of medical comorbidity and mortality in these patients was carried out and two multidisciplinary consensus meetings were held. The literature review revealed an increased risk of hypertension, obesity, smoking, pulmonary diseases, migraine and HIV infection among patients with bipolar disorder. There was also evidence of higher mortality rates from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and infections, as well as from suicide. The expert group reached a consensus on a series of basic measures to detect medical comorbidity applicable to the monitoring of these patients. The resulting recommendations will be accepted and disseminated by the promoting societies. The recommendations generated by the Spanish Consensus on the Physical Health of Patients with Bipolar disorder include the most important aspects for the improvement of the psychosocial functioning, quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría and Sociedad Española de

  20. [Screening for bipolar disorders: a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Weber-Rouget, B; Aubry, J-M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this article is to review the major instruments proposed for screening for bipolar disorder among clinical or general, adult or paediatric populations. They were developed in order to improve the detection of this illness which, far too often, remains unrecognized. Several of these screening instruments are already translated into several languages and validated. A systematic review of the literature published on this topic up to July 2007 was carried out, using the main electronic data base (Medline). The keywords employed included bipolar disorder, screening, questionnaire, diagnosis and early recognition. The studies reported here examine whether screening instruments perform similarly in various clinical and non-clinical samples. Different forms of the same questionnaire (like self-report or parent report used in paediatric samples) are sometimes compared, usually showing that parent reports supersede the adolescent self-report form. This is namely the case for the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) which is a brief and widely tested tool, available both in adult and adolescent versions. The MDQ exhibits good psychometric properties in relation to sensitivity and specificity in adult psychiatric samples, but these are more limited in the general population. Moreover, it yields better sensitivity for BP type I than for other bipolar subtypes. This is also true for other screening instruments like the hypomania check list (HCL-32). In order to optimize the sensitivity for bipolar II disorders, proposals for changing the MDQ screening algorithm have been tested. Even though it does not replace a thorough clinical interview, the use of screening tools for bipolar disorder is widely advocated. We discuss the need for clinicians to rely upon instruments allowing for a rapid and economically feasible identification of this disorder. Involving family members in the evaluation process may also increase the rate of recognition. More studies are still required

  1. Clinical factors associated with lithium response in bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Sportiche, Sarah; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Gard, Sebastien; Khan, Jean-Pierre; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno; Scott, Jan; Bellivier, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common chronic illness characterized by high levels of morbidity and all-cause mortality. Lithium is one of the gold standard mood stabilizer treatments, but the identification of good, partial and non-responders in clinical settings is inconsistent. We used an established rating scale (the Alda scale) to classify the degree of lithium response (good response, partial response, non-response) in a large, multicentre clinically representative sample of well-characterized cases of bipolar disorders I and II. Next, we examined previously reported clinical predictors of response to determine which factors significantly differentiated between the three response groups. Of 754 cases, 300 received lithium, for at least 6 months, as a treatment for bipolar disorder (40%). Of these cases, 17% were classified as good response, 52% as partial response and 31% as non-response. Lifetime history of mixed episodes ( p = 0.017) and alcohol use disorders ( p = 0.015) both occurred in >20% of partial response and non-response groups but <10% of good response cases. Family history of bipolar disorder I was of borderline statistical significance, being more frequent in the good response group (38%) compared with the non-response group (18%). There was a trend ( p = 0.06) for bipolar disorder II to be associated with non-response. Only three factors previously identified as predictors of lithium response significantly differentiated the response groups identified in our sample. Interestingly, these factors have all been found to co-occur more often than expected by chance, and it can be hypothesized that they may represent a shared underlying factor or dimension. Further prospective studies of predictors and the performance of the Alda scale are recommended.

  2. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  3. Cognitive Flexibility in Phenotypes of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Nelson, Eric E.; McClure, Erin B.; Grimley, Mary E.; Knopf, Lisa; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians and researchers debate whether children with chronic, nonepisodic irritability should receive the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). To address this debate, we evaluated cognitive flexibility, or the ability to adapt to changing contingencies, in three groups of children: narrow-phenotype BD (NP-BD; full-duration manic…

  4. Reduced Amygdalar Gray Matter Volume in Familial Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kiki; Karchemskiy, Asya; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Garrett, Amy; Simeonova, Diana Iorgova; Reiss, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Subcortical limbic structures have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of adult and pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). We sought to study morphometric characteristics of these structures in pediatric subjects with familial BD compared with healthy controls. Method: Twenty children and adolescents with BD I (mean age = 14.6…

  5. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  6. Toward an Evidence-Based Assessment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Kogos Youngstrom, Jen; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines a provisional evidence-based approach to the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Public attention to PBD and the rate of diagnosis have both increased substantially in the past decade. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid harm due to mislabeling or unnecessary medication exposure. Because there are no proven…

  7. Early Onset Bipolar Disorder: Clinical and Research Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Gabrielle A.

    2005-01-01

    This article examined some of the reasons for confusion and controversy surrounding the frequency of diagnosis of bipolar disorder, especially in prepubertal children. Four case vignettes are used to articulate questions surrounding manifestations of euphoria and grandiosity, informant variance, diagnostic implications of medication-induced…

  8. Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert; Fay, Garry; Croghan, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective case series contrasts the phenomenology, clinical outcomes, treatment responses, and clinical characteristics of 26 individuals with bipolar disorder and developmental disabilities, 12 with nonrapid cycling courses and 14 with rapid cycling courses. Similarities and differences are highlighted within these two groups and…

  9. Reduced Amygdalar Gray Matter Volume in Familial Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kiki; Karchemskiy, Asya; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Garrett, Amy; Simeonova, Diana Iorgova; Reiss, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Subcortical limbic structures have been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of adult and pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). We sought to study morphometric characteristics of these structures in pediatric subjects with familial BD compared with healthy controls. Method: Twenty children and adolescents with BD I (mean age = 14.6…

  10. Brain oscillations in bipolar disorder and lithium-induced changes

    PubMed Central

    Atagün, Murat İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) studies in patients with bipolar disorder have revealed lower amplitudes in brain oscillations. The aim of this review is to describe lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder and to discuss potential underlying factors. A literature survey about lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder was performed. Lithium consistently enhances magnitudes of brain oscillations in slow frequencies (delta and theta) in both resting-state EEG studies as well as event-related oscillations studies. Enhancement of magnitudes of beta oscillations is specific to event-related oscillations. Correlation between serum lithium levels and brain oscillations has been reported. Lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations might correspond to lithium-induced alterations in neurotransmitters, signaling cascades, plasticity, brain structure, or biophysical properties of lithium. Therefore, lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations could be promising biomarkers to assess the molecular mechanisms leading to variability in efficacy. Since the variability of lithium response in bipolar disorder is due to the genetic differences in the mechanisms involving lithium, it would be highly promising to assess the lithium-induced EEG changes as biomarkers in genetic studies. PMID:27022264

  11. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  12. Parenting among Mothers with Bipolar Disorder: Children's Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Four children from three families in which the mother had a bipolar disorder were interviewed to understand their perspectives on their mothers' parenting. Children identified strengths in their mother's parenting, such as helping them with homework and moods and providing for their wants. They also identified challenges, such as mothers sleeping…

  13. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.

  14. The Assessment of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Freeman, Andrew J.; Jenkins, Melissa McKeown

    2010-01-01

    The overarching goal of this review is to examine the current best evidence for assessing bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provide a comprehensive, evidence-based approach to diagnosis. Evidence-based assessment strategies are organized around the “3 Ps” of clinical assessment: Predict important criteria or developmental trajectories, Prescribe a change in treatment choice, and inform Process of treating the youth and his/her family. The review characterizes bipolar disorder in youths - specifically addressing bipolar diagnoses and clinical subtypes; then provides an actuarial approach to assessment - using prevalence of disorder, risk factors, and questionnaires; discusses treatment thresholds; and identifies practical measures of process and outcomes. The clinical tools and risk factors selected for inclusion in this review represent the best empirical evidence in the literature. By the end of the review, clinicians will have a framework and set of clinically useful tools with which to effectively make evidence-based decisions regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. PMID:19264268

  15. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  16. Information Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Jane; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Acquaye, Tenah; Howe, Meghan; Chang, Kiki D.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cognitive models of bipolar I disorder (BD) may aid in identification of children who are especially vulnerable to chronic mood dysregulation. Information-processing biases related to memory and attention likely play a role in the development and persistence of BD among adolescents; however, these biases have not been extensively…

  17. Reward Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manpreet K.; Chang, Kiki D.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Cui, Xu; Sherdell, Lindsey; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that commonly begins in adolescence, a developmental period that has been associated with increased reward seeking. Because youth with BD are especially vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors, understanding the neural mechanisms by which dysregulated affect interacts…

  18. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  19. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-09-01

    No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: P<0.0001; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.91; single manic/mixed episode v. bipolar disorder: P<0.0001; HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.67-0.84). Starting lithium treatment early following first psychiatric contact or a single manic/mixed episode is associated with increased probability of lithium response. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  20. Brain oscillations in bipolar disorder and lithium-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Atagün, Murat İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) studies in patients with bipolar disorder have revealed lower amplitudes in brain oscillations. The aim of this review is to describe lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder and to discuss potential underlying factors. A literature survey about lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder was performed. Lithium consistently enhances magnitudes of brain oscillations in slow frequencies (delta and theta) in both resting-state EEG studies as well as event-related oscillations studies. Enhancement of magnitudes of beta oscillations is specific to event-related oscillations. Correlation between serum lithium levels and brain oscillations has been reported. Lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations might correspond to lithium-induced alterations in neurotransmitters, signaling cascades, plasticity, brain structure, or biophysical properties of lithium. Therefore, lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations could be promising biomarkers to assess the molecular mechanisms leading to variability in efficacy. Since the variability of lithium response in bipolar disorder is due to the genetic differences in the mechanisms involving lithium, it would be highly promising to assess the lithium-induced EEG changes as biomarkers in genetic studies.

  1. Information Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Jane; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Acquaye, Tenah; Howe, Meghan; Chang, Kiki D.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cognitive models of bipolar I disorder (BD) may aid in identification of children who are especially vulnerable to chronic mood dysregulation. Information-processing biases related to memory and attention likely play a role in the development and persistence of BD among adolescents; however, these biases have not been extensively…

  2. Reward Processing in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Manpreet K.; Chang, Kiki D.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Cui, Xu; Sherdell, Lindsey; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition that commonly begins in adolescence, a developmental period that has been associated with increased reward seeking. Because youth with BD are especially vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors, understanding the neural mechanisms by which dysregulated affect interacts…

  3. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  4. Bipolar depression as the prelude to schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldwert, M

    1992-12-01

    Contending that the mind of a creative person is often characterized by thin boundaries between the ego and the unconscious, this paper proposes how, on the manic side of bipolar depression, a creative ego may temporarily make great strides in intellectuality and creativity. However, as this process proceeds, a creative ego may lose its boundaries with the unconscious, and a schizoaffective disorder may emerge.

  5. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  6. Cognitive Flexibility in Phenotypes of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Daniel P.; Nelson, Eric E.; McClure, Erin B.; Grimley, Mary E.; Knopf, Lisa; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians and researchers debate whether children with chronic, nonepisodic irritability should receive the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). To address this debate, we evaluated cognitive flexibility, or the ability to adapt to changing contingencies, in three groups of children: narrow-phenotype BD (NP-BD; full-duration manic…

  7. Creativity and bipolar disorder: Touched by fire or burning with questions?☆

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Murray, Greg; Fredrickson, Barbara; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; Bass, Julie Malbrancq; Deckersbach, Thilo; Schooler, Jonathan; Salloum, Ihsan

    2012-01-01

    Substantial literature has linked bipolar disorder with creative accomplishment. Much of the thinking in this area has been inspired by biographical accounts of poets, musicians, and other highly accomplished groups, which frequently document signs of bipolar disorder in these samples. A smaller literature has examined quantitative measures of creativity among people with bipolar disorder or at risk for the disorder. In this paper, we provide a critical review of such evidence. We then consider putative mechanisms related to the link of bipolar disorder with creativity, by drawing on literature outside of bipolar disorder on personality, motivational, and affective predictors of creativity. Because so little research has directly evaluated whether these factors could help explain the elevations of creativity in bipolar disorder, we conclude with an agenda for future research on the theoretically and clinically compelling topic of creativity in bipolar disorder. PMID:22088366

  8. Creativity and bipolar disorder: touched by fire or burning with questions?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Murray, Greg; Fredrickson, Barbara; Youngstrom, Eric A; Hinshaw, Stephen; Bass, Julie Malbrancq; Deckersbach, Thilo; Schooler, Jonathan; Salloum, Ihsan

    2012-02-01

    Substantial literature has linked bipolar disorder with creative accomplishment. Much of the thinking in this area has been inspired by biographical accounts of poets, musicians, and other highly accomplished groups, which frequently document signs of bipolar disorder in these samples. A smaller literature has examined quantitative measures of creativity among people with bipolar disorder or at risk for the disorder. In this paper, we provide a critical review of such evidence. We then consider putative mechanisms related to the link of bipolar disorder with creativity, by drawing on literature outside of bipolar disorder on personality, motivational, and affective predictors of creativity. Because so little research has directly evaluated whether these factors could help explain the elevations of creativity in bipolar disorder, we conclude with an agenda for future research on the theoretically and clinically compelling topic of creativity in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adjunctive gabapentin treatment of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, E; Martinez-Arán, A; Nieto, E; Colom, F; Reinares, M; Benabarre, A; Gastó, C

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of gabapentin administration to bipolar patients who had an incomplete response to other mood stabilizers. Twenty-two RDC bipolar 1 and II patients were assessed by means of the SADS and entered if they gave their consent to participate. All them had suffered from frequent relapses, subsyndromal features (mostly depressive) and incomplete response to other drugs. They all received open-label increasing doses of gabapentin until clinical response. The patients were assessed through the CGI-BP and a specific questionnaire at baseline and at 12 weeks of follow-up. Six out of the 22 patients dropped out for various reasons (four because of relapse, one because of side effects and one more because of poor compliance). Eight of the 16 patients that completed the 12-week follow-up showed at least two stages of improvement in the CGI. Using the last observation-carried forward analysis, the improvement was statistically significant for the depression subscale, and apparently related to social functioning, irritability and anxiety. Only one patient dropped out because of intolerance (mild rash). The mean dose of gabapentin was 1,310 mg/day. Gabapentin may be a useful drug for the add-on treatment of bipolar patients with poor response to other mood stabilizers. Gabapentin may improve depressive residual symptoms such as irritability, social withdrawal or anxiety. These results should be confirmed in randomized clinical trials.

  10. Quality of life and impulsivity in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Sarah E; Johnson, Sheri L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric illness that impairs quality of life (QoL) in numerous life domains even when mood symptoms are not present and is characterized by elevated impulsivity. Many of the comorbid conditions that are associated with diminished QoL in BD also involve impulsivity. The objective of this project was to investigate whether impulsivity might mediate the effects of these comorbid conditions on poor QoL. Methods A total of 76 participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders completed the Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder (QoL-BD) scale, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), and the Positive Urgency Measure (PUM). Participants were also assessed for comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses of anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders. Results Several subscales of the BIS-11 as well as the PUM total score were significantly negatively correlated with overall QoL. PUM total score remained a significant predictor of QoL after controlling for comorbid anxiety, substance use, and impulse control disorders. After controlling for impulsivity, comorbid disorders were no longer significantly related to overall QoL. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that impulsivity, specifically positive urgency, is highly correlated with QoL in BD. Impulsivity was found to mediate the relation between QoL and several comorbidities in BD. Interventions targeting impulsivity might help to improve QoL in BD. PMID:21676133

  11. Characteristics of Bipolar I patients grouped by externalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Shanker; Koller, Daniel L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Xuei, Xiaoling; Niculescu, Alexander B; Nurnberger, John I

    2015-06-01

    Bipolar disorder co-occurs with a number of disorders with externalizing features. The aim of this study is to determine whether Bipolar I (BPI) subjects with comorbid externalizing disorders and a subgroup with externalizing symptoms prior to age 15 have different clinical features than those without externalizing disorders and whether these could be attributed to specific genetic variations. A large cohort (N=2505) of Bipolar I subjects was analyzed. Course of illness parameters were compared between an Externalizing Group, an Early-Onset Subgroup and a Non-Externalizing Group in the Discovery sample (N=1268). Findings were validated using an independent set of 1237 BPI subjects (Validation sample). Genetic analyses were carried out. Subjects in the Externalizing Group (and Early-Onset Subgroup) tended to have a more severe clinical course, even in areas specifically related to mood disorder such as cycling frequency and rapid mood switching. Regression analysis showed that the differences are not completely explainable by substance use. Genetic analyses identified nominally associated SNPs; calcium channel genes were not enriched in the gene variants identified. Validation in independent samples is needed to confirm the genetic findings in the present study. Our findings support the presence of an externalizing disorder subphenotype within BPI with greater severity of mood disorder and possible specific genetic features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychotherapy for Bipolar II Disorder: The Role of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Holly A.; Levenson, Jessica C.; Frank, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Although bipolar II disorder is a highly prevalent, chronic illness that is associated with burdensome psychosocial impairment, relatively little is known about the best ways to treat the disorder. Moreover, psychosocial interventions for the management of bipolar II disorder have been largely unexplored, leaving psychologists with few evidence-based recommendations for best treatment practices. In this article, we provide information about interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), an empirically supported treatment for bipolar I disorder that has preliminary evidence supporting its efficacy in bipolar II disorder. After reviewing the phenomenology of bipolar II disorder and differentiating it from bipolar I disorder, we summarize the extant empirical support for using psychotherapy in the management of bipolar II disorder. We explore what is known about the role of psychotherapy in the management of bipolar II disorder as well as lacunae in the evidence base. Next, we introduce IPSRT and discuss how it has been adapted for use as a treatment for individuals suffering from bipolar II disorder. Specific strategies of the treatment are detailed, and preliminary evidence for the efficacy of IPSRT in bipolar II disorder is described. Finally, we present a case vignette demonstrating the use of IPSRT for an individual with bipolar II disorder. PMID:26612968

  13. [Depression in the course of bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder in the elderly: diagnostic difficulties].

    PubMed

    Sobów, Tomasz; Kisiela, Elzbieta; Luczak, Olga; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    Misdiagnosis of bipolar disorder in depressive patients is a common clinical problem estimated to be evident in up to 40% of patients. Elderly patients might be especially vulnerable to that sort of diagnostic error. To estimate the rate of misdiagnosis in the elderly (60yrs+) hospitalized due to depression and to establish clinical correlates that might improve diagnosis. A retrospective analysis of medical records of all the patients hospitalized in the University based Psychogeriatric Ward and suffering from a depressive episode due to bipolar disorder or recurrent depressive disorder. The rate of misdiagnosis was 54% in bipolar and 9% in recurrent depressive disorder. Bipolar patients were mainly misdiagnosed as having recurrent depression. A severe episode was more common in bipolar subjects (particularly in women) while recurrent depressive subjects tend to suffer from less severe but more protracted episodes. Somatic symptoms of depression were more prevalent among recurrent depressive subjects while psychotic features, particularly delusions, and, to the lesser extent, hallucinations, were more common in patients suffering from bipolar depression. Bipolar depression is very often misdiagnosed in the hospitalized elderly. There are several features that might help the clinician to distinguish it from recurrent depression. Long history of illness, high number of previous episodes, severe episodes and the presence of psychotic symptoms are typical for bipolar elderly while a protracted current episode and the presence of somatic symptoms of depression might indicate the diagnosis of recurrent depression.

  14. Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Assion, Hans-Jörg; Brune, Nils; Schmidt, Nadja; Aubel, Thomas; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Basilowski, Miriam; Juckel, Georg; Frommberger, Ulrich

    2009-12-01

    There is a lack of data about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in European bipolar patients compared to the US-population. This study was conducted to ascertain the rates and types of traumatic events and PTSD in bipolar-I disorder. Euthymic bipolar patients were screened for lifetime diagnosis of PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale and the Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale. A total of 74 patients (m = 30, f = 44) with diagnosis of bipolar-I disorder were assessed. 37 patients (50%) reported no trauma, 22 patients (29.7%) experienced traumatic events without diagnosis of PTSD and 15 patients (20.3%) had comorbid PTSD. Bipolar PTSD patients were at higher risk to be exposed to physical violence, parental disregard, alcohol dependence of parents, sexual assault by a family member or acquaintance. The number of siblings was higher and they had higher scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Bipolar patients are more likely to experience traumatic events and PTSD is a relevant comorbid disorder. PTSD is associated with an increased illness severity of bipolar disorder.

  15. Medical and substance-related comorbidity in bipolar disorder: translational research and treatment opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Mclntyre, Roger S.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Soczynska, Joanna K.; Lourenco, Maria Teresa C.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O.; Konarski, Jakub Z.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that individuals with bipolar disorder are differentially affected by substance-related as well as medical disorders (ie, cardiometabolic disorders, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases). Emerging evidence indicates that some comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes mellitus) in bipolar individuals may be subserved by overlapping neurobiological networks. Disturbances in glucocorticoid/insulin signaling and immunoinflammatory effector systems are points of pathophysiological commonality between bipolar disorder and “stress-sensitive” medical disorders. Subphenotyping bipolar disorder as a function of comorbidity and temporality of onset may provide an opportunity for refining disease pathophysiological models and developing innovative disease-modifying therapies. PMID:18689290

  16. Survival Strategies for Parenting Children with Bipolar Disorder: Innovative Parenting and Counseling Techniques for Helping Children with Bipolar Disorder and the Conditions That May Occur with It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, George T.

    This book provides practical advice on recognizing the symptoms, understanding the medication, and accessing the necessary support at school as well as the managing the day-to-day challenges of parenting a child with bipolar disorder. It draws on case studies to show what bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette…

  17. The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Mattias; Granström, Ola; Omérov, Sead; Jacob, Johanna; Landén, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive cost-of-illness studies in bipolar disorder, in particular studies based on patient-level data. The purpose of this study was to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalisation and patient functioning. Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care during 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47% of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm. This dataset was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual cost per patient was 28,011 in 2008 (n = 1,846). Indirect costs due to sick leave and early retirement represented 75%, inpatient costs 13%, outpatient costs 8%, pharmaceuticals 2% and community care another 2% of the total cost. Total costs were considerably higher during mood episodes (six times higher than in remission), for hospitalised patients (55,500 vs. 22,200) and for patients with low GAF scores. The high cost of bipolar disorder is driven primarily by indirect costs. Costs were strongly associated with mood episodes, hospitalisations and low GAF scores. This suggests that treatment that reduces the risk for relapses and hospitalizations and improve functioning may decrease both the societal cost of bipolar disorder and patient suffering.

  18. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Practical strategies are available for primary care physicians to monitor psychiatric and medical outcomes as well as treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Current depressive symptoms can be assessed with tools like the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire or Beck Depression Inventory. Lifetime presence or absence of manic or hypomanic symptoms can be assessed using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). These measures can be completed quickly by patients prior to appointments. Sensitivity of such ratings, particularly the MDQ, can be increased by having a significant other also rate the patient. Clinicians should also screen mood disorder patients for psychiatric comorbidities that are common in this population such as anxiety and substance use disorders. While patients with bipolar disorder may commonly be nonadherent with prescribed medication regimens, strategies that can help include having frank discussions with the patient, selecting medication collaboratively, adding psychotherapy with a psychoeducation element, monitoring appointment-keeping, using patient self-reports of medication-taking, enlisting the aid of significant others, and measuring plasma drug levels. Medical monitoring is needed to assess the safety and tolerability of psychotropic medications. All of the approved medications for bipolar disorder have at least 1 boxed warning for serious side effects, but are also associated with other common management-limiting side effects such as sedation, tremor, unsteadiness, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, weight gain, and metabolic problems. Routine monitoring is particularly needed for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders, which lead to high rates of medical morbidity and mortality in patients with bipolar disorder. Monitoring protocols such as the one recommended by the American Diabetes Association for patients taking second-generation antipsychotics can be used for regular assessment

  19. Mortality in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clinical and serological predictors.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Origoni, Andrea; Schroeder, Jennifer; Schweinfurth, Lucy A B; Stallings, Cassie; Savage, Christina L G; Katsafanas, Emily; Banis, Maria; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and with bipolar disorder have a reduced life expectancy due largely to death from natural causes. The reasons for this increased mortality have not been completely defined. We prospectively assessed a cohort of persons with schizophrenia and one with bipolar disorder with a clinical evaluation and a blood sample from which immune and infectious disease markers were measured. Mortality was determined with data from the National Death Index following a period of up to 14years. We examined the role of demographic, clinical, and serological factors on mortality in bivariate and multivariate models. A total of 43/710 (6.1%) persons with schizophrenia and 12/406 (3.0%) with bipolar disorder died of natural causes. In the schizophrenia group, mortality was predicted by the following variables in a multivariate model: cigarette smoking (RR=6.93, 95% CI 1.59, 30.1, p=0.0099); autoimmune disorder (RR=8.08, 95% CI 2.50, 26.1, p=0.00047); gastrointestinal disorder (GI) (RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.43, 8.69 p=0.0061); and reduced maternal education (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.72, 0.97), p=0.018. The combination of smoking and an autoimmune disorder yielded an unadjusted relative risk of 18.1 for mortality, and the combination of smoking and a GI disorder an unadjusted relative risk of 9.45, compared with individuals with neither risk factor. In the bipolar disorder group, significant bivariate predictors of mortality included lower cognitive score (RR=0.95, p=.0085) and the presence of type 1 or 2 diabetes (RR=3.90, p=.026). Given the extraordinary high risk of death due to smoking in schizophrenia, smoking cessation remains an urgent priority.

  20. Five-year outcome of bipolar I and II disorders: findings of the Jorvi Bipolar Study.

    PubMed

    Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Suominen, Kirsi; Ketokivi, Mikko; Mantere, Outi; Arvilommi, Petri; Valtonen, Hanna; Leppämäki, Sami; Isometsä, Erkki

    2015-06-01

    The long-term outcome of bipolar disorder (BD) has been extensively investigated. However, previous studies may be biased towards hospitalized patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and generalizability to the current treatment era remains uncertain. In this naturalistic study, we followed a secondary-care cohort of patients with BD. In the Jorvi Bipolar Study, 191 patients with BD-I and bipolar II disorder (BD-II) were followed using a life-chart method. Interviews were conducted at six months, 18 months, and five years. Time to full remission, time to first recurrence, total time ill, their predictors, and BD-I versus BD-II differences were investigated among the 151 patients remaining in follow-up. Nearly all subjects recovered from the index episode, but almost all (90%) had a recurrence, and most had multiple recurrences. The patients spent about one-third of their time in illness episodes and 15% of their time with subthreshold symptoms; half of the time they were euthymic. After controlling for confounders, no difference in time spent in depressive states between patients with BD-I and BD-II persisted. Among patients with a depressive index phase, cluster C personality disorders [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.452, p = 0.040] and higher 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale score (HR = 0.951, p = 0.022) predicted longer time to remission, whereas lifetime psychotic symptoms (HR = 2.162, p = 0.016) predicted shorter time to first recurrence. Among patients with BD, chronicity as uninterrupted persistence of illness was rare, but multiple recurrences were the norm. Patients with BD spent only half of their time euthymic. Patients with BD-I and BD-II may differ little in proneness to depressive states. Severity of depression, cluster C personality disorders, and psychotic symptoms predicted outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Kyooseob; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cho, Hyun Sang; Choi, Jung Eun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo

    2011-06-01

    Semantic cognition is one of the key factors in psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in pattern of semantic memory organization between euthymic patients with bipolar I and II disorders using the category fluency task. Study participants included 23 euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder, 23 matched euthymic subjects with bipolar II disorder and 23 matched control subjects. All participants were assessed for verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling were used to compare the pattern of semantic memory organization among the three groups. Quantitative measures of verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency did not differ between the three groups. A two-cluster structure of semantic memory organization was identified for the three groups. Semantic structure was more disorganized in the bipolar I disorder group compared to the bipolar II disorder. In addition, patients with bipolar II disorder used less elaborate strategies of semantic memory organization than those of controls. Compared to healthy controls, strategies for categorization in semantic memory appear to be less knowledge-based in patients with bipolar disorders. A differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders indicates a higher risk of cognitive abnormalities in patients with bipolar I disorder compared to patients with bipolar II disorder. Exploring qualitative nature of neuropsychological domains may provide an explanatory insight into the characteristic behaviors of patients with bipolar disorders.

  2. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  3. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force.

    PubMed

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A; Bonnin, C M; Bowie, C R; Carvalho, A F; Gallagher, P; Lafer, B; López-Jaramillo, C; Sumiyoshi, T; McIntyre, R S; Schaffer, A; Porter, R J; Torres, I J; Yatham, L N; Young, A H; Kessing, L V; Vieta, E

    2017-09-12

    To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. The task force was launched in September 2016, consisting of 18 international experts from nine countries. A series of methodological issues were identified based on literature review and expert opinion. The issues were discussed and expanded upon in an initial face-to-face meeting, telephone conference call and email exchanges. Based upon these exchanges, recommendations were achieved. Key methodological challenges are: lack of consensus on how to screen for entry into cognitive treatment trials, define cognitive impairment, track efficacy, assess functional implications, and manage mood symptoms and concomitant medication. Task force recommendations are to: (i) enrich trials with objectively measured cognitively impaired patients; (ii) generally select a broad cognitive composite score as the primary outcome and a functional measure as a key secondary outcome; and (iii) include remitted or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy in future trials and increase comparability between studies. © 2017 The Authors Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Telomere length in bipolar disorder and lithium response.

    PubMed

    Squassina, Alessio; Pisanu, Claudia; Corbett, Nathan; Alda, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Telomeres consist of exanucleotide tandem repeats and proteins complexes at the end of chromosome ends. Telomeres shorten at each cell division, and as such telomere length is a marker of cellular age. Accelerated telomere shortening and cell senescence have been associated with a number of chronic medical conditions, including psychiatric disorders, where increased prevalence of age-related disorders and shorter telomere length have been reported. Shorter telomeres in psychiatric patients are thought to be the consequence of allostatic load, consisting in the overactivation of allostatic systems due to chronic exposure to severe medical conditions and failure to adapt to chronic stressful stimuli. Most of the studies on telomere length in psychiatry have focused on major depressive disorder, but recent findings have shown shorter leukocyte telomere length in bipolar disorder patients and suggested that lithium may counteract telomeres shortening. These findings provided new insights into the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and the mechanism of action of lithium. In this review we will present findings from the literature on telomere length in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on lithium. We will also discuss advances and limitations of published work as well as methodological issues and potential confounding factors that should be taken into account when designing research protocols to study telomere length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustained unemployment in psychiatric outpatients with bipolar depression compared to major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2012-12-01

    The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such clinical commentary exists for improved detection of borderline personality disorder in depressed patients. Clinical experience suggests that borderline personality disorder is as disabling as bipolar disorder; however, no studies have directly compared the two disorders. For this reason we undertook the current analysis from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project comparing unemployment and disability rates in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. We compared three non-overlapping groups of depressed patients: (i) 181 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder, (ii) 1068 patients with major depressive disorder without borderline personality disorder, and (iii) 84 patients with bipolar depression without borderline personality disorder. Compared to depressed patients without borderline personality disorder, depressed patients with borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely to have been persistently unemployed. A similar difference was found between patients with bipolar depression and major depressive disorder without borderline personality disorder. No differences were found between patients with bipolar depression and depression with borderline personality disorder. Both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder were associated with impaired occupational functioning and thus carry a significant public health burden. Efforts to improve detection of borderline personality disorder in depressed patients might be as important as the recognition of bipolar disorder. © 2012 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  6. Bipolar II disorder family history using the family history screen: findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Benazzi, Franco

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric family history of bipolar II disorder is understudied. The aims of the current study were to find the psychiatric family history of bipolar II patients using a new structured interview, the Family History Screen by Weissman et al (2000), and to find bipolar disorders family history predicting power for the diagnosis of bipolar II. One hundred sixty-four consecutive unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and 241 consecutive bipolar II major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The Family History Screen was used. Sensitivity and specificity of predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II (bipolar [type I and II] family history, bipolar II family history, atypical depression, depressive mixed state, many MDE recurrences, early onset) were studied. Bipolar II subjects had significantly more bipolar I, more bipolar II (50.7%), more MDE, and more social phobia in first-degree relatives than did unipolar subjects. Bipolar II subjects had many more first-degree relatives with bipolar II than with bipolar I. Among the predictors of the diagnosis of bipolar II, bipolar II family history had the highest specificity (82.8%), while early onset had the highest sensitivity. Discriminant analysis of predictor variables found that bipolar II family history and early onset were highly significant predictors. In conclusion, bipolar II family history was common in bipolar II patients, and it had high specificity for predicting bipolar II. If detected, it could reduce bipolar II misdiagnosis by inducing careful probing for a history of hypomania.

  7. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Carol Horton

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.

  8. A critical update on psychological interventions for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Valentí, Marc; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Scott, Jan; Colom, Francesc

    2009-12-01

    Although pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder, the combination of evidence-based psychological interventions and drug treatment enhances overall effectiveness, mostly by further protecting patients from relapse/recurrence. In recent years, well-designed controlled studies have added weight to evidence favoring specific psychotherapy modalities for bipolar disorders. However, critical issues that may limit the benefits of psychotherapy in day-to-day clinical practice have emerged. In this article, we critically examine the effectiveness of psychosocial approaches to bipolar illness by reviewing the literature, which has been substantially enriched during the past 5 years. Recent studies further support the fact that psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective in bipolar disorder, especially the early stages. Family interventions based on a psychoeducational model are also effective. Intensive psychotherapies may be more effective than short, managed care-based ones. Group psychoeducation seems to have long-lasting effects and to be cost-effective. Future studies should focus on neurobiological markers of response to psychotherapy and tailor interventions to specific subtypes.

  9. Developing an online psychoeducation package for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Emma; Simpson, Sharon; Griffiths, Emily; Hood, Kerry; Craddock, Nick; Smith, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    Medications are known to be effective for bipolar disorder but treatment non-adherence and psychosocial effects can impact adversely on long-term outcome. Psychoeducation may help address some of these issues. This article describes the development of a novel online psychoeducation programme ( www.BeatingBipolar.org ) for patients with bipolar disorder. The programme was developed in three stages--a literature review, development of a draft outline of the programme and focus groups with mental health professionals and service users. Data highlighted the importance of presenting a supportive style of programme, realistic stories and positive role models within the programme and providing a variety of information delivery styles. Desired outcomes of the programme were an increased sense of control over bipolar disorder, reduced stigma and improved understanding for family and carers. The iterative development process using focus groups with service users and mental health professionals provided important insights into users' needs and preferences as well as identifying valued outcomes. Interactive online psychoeducation materials benefit from a systematic design process which is informed by a range of viewpoints.

  10. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis.

  11. Are the bipolar disorders best modelled categorically or dimensionally?

    PubMed

    Parker, G B; Graham, R K; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    2016-08-01

    Considerable debate exists as to whether the bipolar disorders are best classified according to a categorical or dimensional model. This study explored whether there is evidence for a single or multiple subpopulations and the degree to which differing diagnostic criteria correspond to bipolar subpopulations. A mixture analysis was performed on 1081 clinically diagnosed (and a reduced sample of 497 DSM-IV diagnosed) bipolar I and II disorder patients, using scores on hypomanic severity (as measured by the Mood Swings Questionnaire). Mixture analyses were conducted using two differing diagnostic criteria and two DSM markers to ascertain the most differentiating and their associated clinical features. The two subpopulation solution was most supported although the entropy statistic indicated limited separation and there was no distinctive point of rarity. Quantification by the odds ratio statistic indicated that the clinical diagnosis (respecting DSM-IV criteria, but ignoring 'high' duration) was somewhat superior to DSM-IV diagnosis in allocating patients to the putative mixture analysis groups. The most differentiating correlate was the presence or absence of psychotic features. Findings favour the categorical distinction of bipolar I and II disorders and argue for the centrality of the presence or absence of psychotic features to subgroup differentiation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bariatric surgery in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders: Selection factors, postoperative visit attendance, and weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kelli E; Applegate, Katherine; Portenier, Dana; McVay, Megan A

    2017-04-01

    As many as 3% of bariatric surgery candidates are diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. 1) To describe differences between patients with bipolar spectrum disorders who are approved and not approved for surgery by the mental health evaluator and 2) to examine surgical outcomes of patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Academic medical center, United States. A retrospective record review was conducted of consecutive patients who applied for bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2009. Patients diagnosed with bipolar spectrum disorders who were approved for surgery (n = 42) were compared with patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were not approved (n = 31) and to matched control surgical patients without a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n = 29) on a variety of characteristics and surgical outcomes. Of bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder who applied for surgery, 57% were approved by the psychologist and 48% ultimately had surgery. Patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were approved for surgery were less likely to have had a previous psychiatric hospitalization than those who were not approved for surgery. Bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder were less likely to attend follow-up care appointments 2 or more years postsurgery compared to matched patients without bipolar disorder. Among patients with available data, those with a bipolar spectrum disorder and matched patients had similar weight loss at 12 months (n = 21 for bipolar; n = 24 for matched controls) and at 2 or more years (mean = 51 mo; n = 11 for bipolar; n = 20 for matched controls). Patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder have a high rate of delay/denial for bariatric surgery based on the psychosocial evaluation and are less likely to attend medical follow-up care 2 or more years postsurgery. Carefully screened patients with bipolar disorder who engage in long-term follow-up care may benefit from bariatric

  13. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Dam, Henrik; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar disorder were included among whom 29 (18.4%) were between 18 and 25 years and 129 patients were 26 years or older. For both age groups, the point estimate of the hazard ratio of re-hospitalisation was insignificantly decreased for patients treated in the mood disorder clinic versus standard treatment but more so for patients between 18 and 25 years (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.07; p=0.064) than for patients 26 years or older (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.40-1.14, p=0.14). Younger adults treated in the mood disorder clinic used mood stabilisers and antipsychotics more in contrast to those treated in standard care. The differences between the estimates of effects did not reach significance in tests of interactions (p>0.2). The study was based on a post hoc subgroup analysis and due to the small number of patients aged 18-25 years, type II errors cannot be excluded. Although not statistically different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.